Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.
Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus
This is the homepage of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, a joint program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). Users can access current information on volcanic activity in Alaska and the Kamchatka Penninsula, including weekly and daily reports and information releases about significant changes in any particluar volcano. An interactive map also directs users to summaries and activity notifications for selected volcanoes, or through links to webcams and webicorders (recordings of seismic activity). General information on Alaskan volcanoes includes descriptions, images, maps, bibliographies, and eruptive histories. This can be accessed through an interactive map or by clicking on an alphabetic listing of links to individual volcanoes. There is also an online library of references pertinent to Quaternary volcanism in Alaska and an image library.
Virtual Globes are now giving the scientific community a new medium to present data, which is compatible across multiple disciplines. They also provide scientists the ability to display their data in real-time, a critical factor in hazard assessment. The Alaska Volcano Observatory remote sensing group has developed Keyhole Markup Language (KML) tools that are used to display satellite data for
L. Valcic; P. W. Webley; J. E. Bailey; J. Dehn
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.
McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.
The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August
J. N. Adleman; C. E. Cameron; T. A. Neal; J. S. Shipman
During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.
Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, or suspected unrest at 11 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2012. Of the two verified eruptions, one (Cleveland) was clearly magmatic and the other (Kanaga) was most likely a single phreatic explosion. Two other volcanoes had notable seismic swarms that probably were caused by magmatic intrusions (Iliamna and Little Sitkin). For each period of clear volcanic unrest, AVO staff increased monitoring vigilance as needed, reviewed eruptive histories of the volcanoes in question to help evaluate likely outcomes, and shared observations and interpretations with the public. 2012 also was the 100th anniversary of Alaska’s Katmai-Novarupta eruption of 1912, the largest eruption on Earth in the 20th century and one of the most important volcanic eruptions in modern times. AVO marked this occasion with several public events.
Herrick, Julie A.; Neal, Christina A.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; McGimsey, Robert G.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander
During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.
Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander
The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska, the number of calls to Ops, emails to the webmaster, and the amount of data served via the AVO website greatly increased during elevated volcanic activity designated by the USGS aviation color code and volcano alert level. Lessons learned include, Ops staffing requirements during periods of high call volume, the need for ash fall hazard information in multiple languages, and the value of real-time observations of remote Aleutian eruptions made by local mariners. An important theme of public inquiries concerned the amount and potential climate impacts of the significant sulfur dioxide gas and ash plumes emitted by Okmok and Kasatochi, including specific questions on the amount of sulfur dioxide discharged during each eruption. The significant plumes produced at the onset of the Okmok and Kasatochi eruptions also had lengthy national and international aviation impacts and yet-to-be resolved hemispherical or possible global, climactic effects.
Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity (SVA) at 6 volcanic centers in 1995: Mount Martin (Katmai Group), Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Kliuchef/Korovin, and Kanaga. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) on the 1995 eruptions of 2 Russian volcanoes: Bezymianny and Karymsky. This report summarizes volcanic activity in Alaska during 1995 and the AVO response, as well as information on the 2 Kamchatkan eruptions. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a "significant" investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of phone calls throughout the year reporting steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1995 response record.
McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors over 40 historically active volcanoes along the Aleutian Arc. Twenty are seismically monitored and for the rest, the AVO monitoring program relies mainly on pilot reports, observations of local residents and ship crews, and daily analysis of satellite images. In 1997, AVO responded to eruptive activity or suspect volcanic activity at 11 volcanic centers: Wrangell, Sanford, Shrub mud volcano, Iliamna, the Katmai group (Martin, Mageik, Snowy, and Kukak volcanoes), Chiginagak, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Okmok, Cleveland, and Amukta. Of these, AVO has real-time, continuously recording seismic networks at Iliamna, the Katmai group, and Pavlof. The phrase “suspect volcanic activity” (SVA), used to characterize several responses, is an eruption report or report of unusual activity that is subsequently determined to be normal or enhanced fumarolic activity, weather-related phenomena, or a non-volcanic event. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) about the 1997 activity of 5 Russian volcanoes--Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Karymsky, and Alaid (SVA). This report summarizes volcanic activity and SVA in Alaska during 1997 and the AVO response, as well as information on the reported activity at the Russian volcanoes. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a “significant” investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of reports throughout the year of steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1997 response record.
McGimsey, Robert G.; Wallace, Kristi L.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.
McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey
The 2005-6 eruption of Augustine Volcano in the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, greatly increased public desire for volcano hazard information, as this eruption was the most significant in Cook Inlet since 1992. In response to this heightened concern, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) increased ongoing efforts to deliver specific eruption-focused information to communities nearest to the volcano, created a public communications strategy to assist staff with managing requests, and used the recently upgraded AVO Web site as a primary information-delivery path. During the eruption, AVO responded to a minimum of ~1,700 individual requests for information from the media, the public, and other organizations with responsibilities associated with volcanic activity in Alaska; requests were received both as phone calls to the observatory and e-mail stemming from the AVO Web site. Staff also delivered approximately two dozen Augustine-specific presentations and gave nearly three dozen tours of the AVO Anchorage Operations Center in Anchorage. This intensity of public interaction was markedly higher than during noneruptive periods. During the Augustine unrest and eruption, AVO also refined its internal communication procedures, instituted and maintained up-to-date and concise talking points concerning the most recent and relevant volcanic activity and hazards, and created a media management plan to assist staff in working with members of the media. These items aided staff in maintaining a consistent message concerning the eruption, potential hazards, and our response activities. The AVO Web site, with its accompanying database, is the backbone of AVO's external and internal communications. This was the first Cook Inlet volcanic eruption with a public expectation of real-time access to data, updates, and hazards information over the Internet. In March 2005, AVO improved the Web site from individual static pages to a dynamic, database-driven site. This new system provided quick and straightforward access to the latest information for (1) staff within the observatory, (2) emergency managers from State and local governments and organizations, (3) the media, and (4) the public. From mid-December 2005 through April 2006, the AVO Web site served more than 45 million Web pages and about 5.5 terabytes of data.
Adleman, Jennifer N.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Snedigar, Seth F.; Neal, Christina A.; Wallace, Kristi L.
Skoog, R. A.
Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.
Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim
The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....
Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.
Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob
This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. It features news articles, monitoring information, status reports and information releases, and information on the volcanic history of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Users can access monthly updates with alert levels and aviation warning codes and real-time data on ground deformation, earthquakes, and hydrology. There is also a list of online products and publications, and an image gallery
This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Long Valley Volcano Observatory (LVO). It features a variety of information on the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain in Long Valley Caldera, California. Materials include a current conditions page with status reports, updates and information releases. There is also monitoring data on seismic activity, ground deformation, gases and tree kill, and hydrologic studies. Topical studies include a reference on the most recent eruption in the Inyo chain (about 250 years ago), and information on the Long Valley Exploratory Well. There are also links to USGS fact sheets and other references about the caldera.
The Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory website offers a plethora of information about the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics research at Mt. Erebus in Antarctica. The site addresses the evolution of Erebus, lava and gas chemistry, seismology, and much more. Students can discover how Mount Erebus's environment changes by examining two day, 30 day, and 365 day records. The Photo Gallery is packed with incredible images of the landscape, geologic features, and the scientific monitoring. Users can view live footage as well as movies of volcanic eruptions and the inner and outer crater. Because the materials are not particularly technical, users can easily learn about volcanology and, more specifically, about scientists' efforts to better understand Mt. Erebus.
Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at the beginning of each activity. A complete explanation, including the format of the Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations, is available at the beginning of each grade link at http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/GLEHome.html.
Adleman, Jennifer N.
In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.
Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick
Thomas A. Jaggar founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912 and served as its Director until 1940. Shown here in 1925, Jaggar is at work in HVO's first building, which, at the time, was located on the northeast rim of K?lauea Volcano’s summit caldera, near the present-day Volc...
The United States Geological Survey's website for the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has a host of graphics and maps for the professional volcano researcher or the amateur volcanologist. The maps and graphics are divided into four broad categories, and within each of those categories are dozens and dozens of maps and graphics. The categories include "Hazards, Features, Topics, and Types: Maps and Graphics", "Monitoring: Maps and Graphics", and "Volcano or Region: Maps and Graphics". Visitors should check out "Bachelor", which is in the "Volcano or Region" category, as there is an "Interactive Imagemap" of the Cascade Range Volcanoes. Clicking on any of the images of the volcanoes will reveal a beautiful, aerial photo of the volcano, along with a brief description of the history of the volcano. Additionally, there is a "Planning Your Visit" section that gives online and offline resources to look at before going to the actual volcano.
The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (foreground) is located on the caldera rim of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i?the most active volcano in the world. The observatory's location provides an excellent view of summit eruptive activity, which began in 2008....
The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (foreground) is located on the caldera rim of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i?the most active volcano in the world. The observatory's location provides an excellent view of summit eruptive activity, which began in 2008....
Augustine Volcano, the most historically active volcano in Alaska's Cook Inlet region, again showed signs of life in April 2005. Escalating seismic unrest, ground deformation, and gas emissions culminated in an eruption from January 11 to mid-March of 2006, the fifth major eruption in 75 years. The eruption began with a series of 13 short-lived blasts over 20 days that sent pyroclastic flows; snow, rock, and ice avalanches; and lahars down the volcano's snow clad flanks; ash clouds drifted hundreds of kilometers downwind. Punctuated explosive activity gave way to effusion of lava and emplacement of thick block-and-ash flows on the volcano's north flank that continued through mid-February. In mid-March renewed extrusion resulted in the building of a new, higher summit lava dome and two blocky lava flows on the north and northeast flanks of the cone. The eruption resulted in ash fall on many south-central Alaskan communities and disrupted air traffic in the region. Augustine's frequent eruptions and relatively easy access have long drawn volcanologists to study the accumulation, ascent, and eruption of andesitic to dacitic magma. Studies of the most recent activity before 2006, in 1976 and 1986, revealed that the volcano lately produces explosive eruptions that are preceded by months of unrest and injection of new magma into a storage region in the upper several kilometers of the crust. Each of these eruptions then followed a similar progression from explosive to effusive behavior over several months. Petrologic and geophysical observations suggest that these three eruptions were triggered by similar magma mixing events and that the subsequent ascent and eruption of magma was governed by processes that were roughly constant from one eruption to the next. Geologic studies of the island show that in the more distant past parts of Augustine's edifice have failed repeatedly, resulting in debris avalanches that entered the sea and, at least once, in 1883, caused a tsunami that hit surrounding Cook Inlet coastlines. Such edifice failures and resultant local tsunamis should be expected in the future. Recognition of Augustine's frequent activity and hazardous nature led to the installation of a network of telemetered seismometers beginning in 1971, the establishment of a geodetic network in 1988, and the installation of other new instrumentation such as pressure sensors, broadband seismometers, and cameras by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and the selection of Augustine for geodetic instrumentation through the EarthScope/Plate Boundary Observatory program in 2004. In addition, remote sensing techniques, such as airborne thermal imaging and the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER), provided novel and often critical information as the 2006 eruption progressed. The combination of a long-term seismic network and an array of new monitoring techniques has provided a breadth and depth of understanding of Augustine's most recent activity that was not possible in the past. This volume contains 28 chapters reporting on a diverse suite of new scientific observations and investigations that were motivated by the 2006 eruption. Understanding the magmatic processes that drive eruptions, identifying eruptive events, tracking the movement of ash clouds, and communicating the resultant hazards to other government agencies and the public are all critical tasks for AVO, and chapters touch upon all of these topics. One goal in this compilation is to synthesize the diverse information into as complete an understanding of the magmatic and eruptive processes as possible. An equally important goal is to provide a framework for diagnosing periods of unrest and formulating forecasts of eruptions that will certainly take place at Augustine in the future. This latter goal is especially important, as Augustine's frequent eruptive activity suggests that another eruption can be expected within the next several
Power, John A.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.
Mount Spurr is a large volcano located 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska. This dominantly andesitic stratovolcano with summit elevation of 3374 m is the highest volcano of the Aleutian Arc. Two historical eruptions of Spurr volcano have occurred in 1953 and 1992. Moreover, from July 2004 to February 2006 continuous non-eruptive activity was observed. Since 1988 the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) collects information about Alaska seismicity. In this work we present evolution of the seismic structure beneath Spurr volcano obtained from 4D seismic tomography. In total 222605 rays (129387 P and 93218 S rays) coming from 17068 earthquakes and registered by 26 station of AVO seismic network were used for the tomographic inversion. After analysis of the seismic and volcano activity, 5 time periods were chosen. Variations of P and S wave velocity anomalies and Vp/Vs ratio in this 5 time periods were obtained after simultaneous iterative inversion of one combined matrix. Smoothness of the velocity anomalies variation in space and time are controlled by two additional matrix block. Results reveal clear correlation of the seismic structure and volcanic activity. In the first (October 1989 - July 1996) and fourth (January 2004 - January 2007) time periods, characterized by high activity, a prominent vertical channel directly beneath volcano is observed on the vertical sections. This channel is characterized by very high values of Vp/Vs ratio (increased P wave and decreased S wave velocities). During the three other periods with no volcanic activity, when the relaxation of the media took place, seismic structure becomes more homogeneous without strong velocity anomalies. Special attention is paid to estimation of the model resolution in different time periods and analysis of possible artifacts due to different ray coverage in different periods. Therefore a lot synthetic and real data tests were performed.
Jakovlev, Andrey; Koulakov, Ivan; West, Michael
Volcanic eruptions happen in the State of California about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have taken place in California in the past 1,000 years—most recently at Lassen Peak in Lassen Volcanic National Park (1914 to 1917) in the northern part of the State—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The U.S. Geological Survey California Volcano Observatory monitors the State's potentially hazardous volcanoes.
Stovall, Wendy K.; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.
The 2008 eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes were the largest explosive eruptions in Alaska since at least 1992 and produced volcanic ash and gas clouds that entered the stratosphere. The Alaska Volcano Observatory utilized near-real-time satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, MODIS, MTSAT and OMI) to detect and track these clouds. Satellite data complemented the real-time seismic monitoring of these volcanoes
D. J. Schneider; J. Bailey; J. Dehn
2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, VOLCANO OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF MEDIAN. NOTE VOLCANIC STONE CURBING (EDGING) TYPICAL OF MOST PARKING AREAS; TRIANGLING AT END NOT TYPICAL. MAUNA LOA VOLCANO IN BACK. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI
Don Swanson (USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory) shows scientists in the CSAV International class how layers of ash outside of HVO indicate past explosive eruptions of Kilauea. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hawaii Island, Hawaii...
The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program is the continuous series of international volcanological field schools organized in partnership with the Kamchatka State University. Each year more than 40 students and young scientists participate in our annual field trips to Katmai, Alaska and Mutnovsky, Kamchatka.
Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.
The gases emitted from mud volcanoes in the Copper River Basin of Alaska fall into two distinct types which are not mixed during vertical migration. The gases in the eastern volcanoes are nearly pure carbon dioxide, whereas the western ones contain methane and nitrogen and almost no carbon dioxide. Chemical and carbon isotopic compositions suggest the carbon dioxide rich gases
Robert H. Reitsema
It is known that the P and S wave velocity ratios, Vp/Vs, reflect the physical and chemical properties of medium including temperature, density, and rock composition. Temporal variations of Vp/Vs ratios in volcanic regions may allow us to infer the changes in medium and magma properties beneath volcanoes. Redoubt volcano is an active volcano that is located at 175 km southwest from Anchorage. The size of volcano is about 10 km in diameter, and the volume is around 30-35 km2. The volcano has erupted several times since 1902, and most recently in 2009. The eruptions were generally explosive, and produced lava and pyroclastic flows. Seismic events in the volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic swarm zones of Redoubt volcano are well monitored by Alaska Volcanic Observatory (AVO). We investigate the Vp/Vs ratios in the VT seismic swarm zones from observed P and S arrival times. The hypocentral information is collected from the AVO seismic catalogue. Seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratios for earthquakes with epicentral distance less than 10 km are selected for analysis. A total of 6425 P and S travel-time pairs is collected. The Vp/Vs ratios are estimated using a modified Wadati method that is based on the S-P differential travel times versus P travel times. The VT seismic swarm zones are discretized by 0.1°-by-0.1° cells. Tomographic Vp/Vs ratio models are calculated before and after the recent eruption. The average Vp/Vs ratio of the study region is determined to be 1.90, which is significantly higher than that of Poisson solids. Also, systematic temporal changes in Vp/Vs ratios are observed around the volcano before and after the eruption.
Jo, E.; Hong, T.
Pavlof Volcano and Mount Veniaminof on the Alaska Peninsula erupted during the summer of 2013 and were monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) using seismic data, satellite and web camera images, a regional infrasound array and observer reports. An overview of the work of the entire AVO staff is presented here. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano began on May 13 after a brief and subtle period of precursory seismicity. Two volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at depths of 6-8 km on April 24 preceded the onset of the eruption by 3 weeks. Given the low background seismicity at Pavlof, the VTs were likely linked to the ascent of magma. The onset of the eruption was marked by subtle pulsating tremor that coincided with elevated surface temperatures in satellite images. Activity during May and June was characterized by lava fountaining and effusion from a vent near the summit. Seismicity consisted of fluctuating tremor and numerous explosions that were detected on an infrasound array (450 km NE) and as ground-coupled airwaves at local and distant seismic stations (up to 650 km). Emissions of ash and sulfur dioxide were observed in satellite data extending as far as 300 km downwind at altitudes of 5-7 km above sea level. Ash collected in Sand Point (90 km E) were well sorted, 60-150 micron diameter juvenile glass shards, many of which had fluidal forms. Automated objective ash cloud detection and cloud height retrievals from the NOAA volcanic cloud alerting system were used to evaluate the hazard to aviation. A brief reconnaissance of Pavlof in July found that lava flows on the NW flank consist of rubbly, clast rich, 'a'a flows composed of angular blocks of agglutinate and rheomorphic lava. There are at least three overlapping flows, the longest of which extends about 5 km from the vent. Eruptive activity continued through early July, and has since paused or stopped. Historical eruptions of Mount Veniaminof volcano have been from an intracaldera cone within a 10-km summit caldera. Subtle pulsating tremor also signaled unrest at Veniaminof on June 7, a week prior to satellite observations of elevated surface temperatures within the caldera that indicated the presence of lava at the surface. Eruptive activity consisted of lava fountaining and effusion, and numerous explosive events that produced small ash clouds that typically reached only several hundred meters above the vent, and rarely were observed extending beyond the summit caldera. Seismicity was characterized by energetic tremor, and accompanied at times by numerous explosions that were heard by local residents at distances of 20-50 km, and detected as ground coupled airwaves at distant seismic stations (up to 200 km) and by an infrasound array (350 km distance). Because infrasound can propagate over great distances with little signal degradation or distortion, it was possible to correlate the ground-coupled airwaves between seismometers separated by 100's of km and thus identify their source. A helicopter fly over in July found that lava flows erupted from the intracaldera cone consist of 3-5 small lobes of rubbly spatter-rich lava up to 800 m in length on the southwest flank of the cone. The distal ends of the flows melted snow and ice adjacent to the cone to produce a water-rich plume, but there was no evidence for outflow of water from the caldera. Volcanic unrest has continued through early August, 2013.
Schneider, D. J.; Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K.; Haney, M. M.; Fee, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Read, C.
This is a collection of videos of unscripted interviews with Jake Lowenstern, who is the Scientist in Charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). YVO was created as a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and University of Utah to strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety. These video presentations give insights about many topics of interest about this area. Title: Yes! Yellowstone is a Volcano An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:00 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic features at Yellowstone: 'How do we know Yellowstone is a volcano?', 'What is a Supervolcano?', 'What is a Caldera?','Why are there geysers at Yellowstone?', and 'What are the other geologic hazards in Yellowstone?' Title: Yellowstone Volcano Observatory An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:15 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions about the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory: 'What is YVO?', 'How do you monitor volcanic activity at Yellowstone?', 'How are satellites used to study deformation?', 'Do you monitor geysers or any other aspect of the Park?', 'Are earthquakes and ground deformation common at Yellowstone?', 'Why is YVO a relatively small group?', and 'Where can I get more information?' Title: Yellowstone Eruptions An unscripted interview, January 2009, 6.45 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic eruptions at Yellowstone: When was the last supereruption at Yellowstone?', 'Have any eruptions occurred since the last supereruption?', 'Is Yellowstone overdue for an eruption?', 'What does the magma below indicate about a possible eruption?', 'What else is possible?', and 'Why didn't you think the Yellowstone Lake earthquake swarm would lead to an eruption?'
Wessells, Stephen; Lowenstern, Jake; Venezky, Dina
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has provided a new imaging geodesy technique to measure the deformation of volcanoes at tens-of-meter horizontal resolution with centimeter to subcentimeter vertical precision. The two-dimensional surface deformation data enables the construction of detailed numerical models allowing the study of magmatic and tectonic processes beneath volcanoes. This paper summarizes our recent InSAR studies over the Alaska-Aleutian volcanoes, which include New Trident, Okmok, Akutan, Augustine, Shishaldin, and Westdahl volcanoes. The first InSAR surface deformation over the Alaska volcanoes was applied to New Trident. Preliminary InSAR study suggested that New Trident volcano experienced several centimeters inflation from 1993 to 1995. Using the InSAR technique, we studied the 1997 eruption of Okmok. We have measured ~1.4 m deflation during the eruption, ~20 cm pre-eruptive inflation during 1992 to 1995, and >10 cm post-eruptive inflation within a year after the eruption, and modeled the deformations using Mogi sources. We imaged the ground surface deformation associated with the 1996 seismic crisis over Akutan volcano. Although seismic swarm did not result in an eruption, we found that the western part of the volcano uplifted ~60 cm while the eastern part of the island subsided. The majority of the complex deformation field at the Akutan volcano was modeled by dike intrusion and Mogi inflation sources. Our InSAR results also indicate that the pyroclastic flows from last the last eruption have been undergoing contraction/subsidence at a rate of about 3 cm per year since 1992. InSAR measured no surface deformation before and during the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin and suggested the eruption may be a type of open system. Finally, we applied...
Zhong Lu; Charles Wicks, Jr.; Daniel Dzurisin; Wayne Thatcher; John Power
The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.
Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman
The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.
Busey, Bob; Hinzman, Larry
The most recent eruption of Redoubt Volcano, about 160 km to the SW of Anchorage, Alaska, lasted from March through June 2009. The event started with about three weeks of alternating explosions and periods of dome growth, and ended with an effusive period of dome extrusion lasting several months. The geodetic network in place to observe this event consists of 14 markers reoccupied in 2001, 2008, 2009, and 2010. No continuous sites were present in the region until 2006, when the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) site AC17 was installed about 28 km to the ENE of the volcano. In response to elevated levels of seismicity beginning in January 2009, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) converted several campaign sites to temporary continuous deployments using fixed height mast installations. Here, we present the first geodetic study of Redoubt Volcano and focus on observations for the 2009 eruption. We investigate both static and kinematic positioning time series for different phases of the eruption from which we infer respective source geometry, location and volume changes. From the time series at AC17 we deduce the onset of precursory intrusive activity in May 2008. The intrusive trend reverses with the onset of explosive activity on March 23, 2009, which extrudes the first juvenile material. All temporary CGPS stations show rapid deflation during the time of explosive activity until April 04, 2009, when the rate of deformation decreases as the effusive phase set in. Preliminary modeling results suggest that sources feeding the precursory and explosive phase locate in roughly similar places at about 10 km depth, whereas the dome growth was fed from a shallower source at about 5 km. The kinematic positioning trajectories for the explosive period for certain stations show spikes in the positioning time series that correlate with individual explosions. We plot phase residuals for individual station-satellite-pairs along the sky tracks of the respective satellites. This shows clear directionality of the increased path delays due to ash plumes in the line of sight from station antenna to satellite - these cause the position offsets. Similarly to Houlie et al. (2005a,b), we find that we can detect path delay induced by ash injected into the atmosphere by explosions. We suggest to use this technique complementary to seismic and remote sensing in volcano monitoring.
Grapenthin, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kaufman, A. M.
UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance and data telemetry in several locations. With their help we have reduced the number of stations that require manual data download to six in the entire Alaska network getting us closer to our goal of 100% auto data archival for the Alaska network.
Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.
In September of 2004, UNAVCO and the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) installed five permanent Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations on Augustine Volcano, supplementing one existing CGPS station operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. All six CGPS stations proved crucial to scientists for detecting and monitoring the precursory deformation of the volcano beginning in early May 2005, as well as for monitoring the many subsequent small inflationary and deflationary episodes that characterized the 2006 eruption. Following the eruption, in September of 2006, PBO added six additional permanent CGPS stations. The 2006 eruption and its precursors were the first significant activity of the volcano in 20 years and the PBO CGPS network provided an unprecedented opportunity to monitor and detect volcanic ground deformation on an erupting Alaskan stratovolcano. Data from the new CGPS stations coupled with the existing seismic stations provided scientists with the first real opportunity to use geodetic data and real time seismic data to assess the volcanic hazards before, during, and after an Alaskan eruption.
Pauk, Benjamin A.; Jackson, Michael; Feaux, Karl; Mencin, David; Bohnenstiehl, Kyle
Efforts to determine general moment tensors (MTs) for microearthquakes in volcanic areas are often hampered by small seismic networks, which can lead to poorly constrained hypocentres and inadequate modelling of seismic velocity heterogeneity. In addition, noisy seismic signals can make it difficult to identify phase arrivals correctly for small magnitude events. However, small volcanic earthquakes can have source mechanisms that deviate from brittle double-couple shear failure due to magmatic and/or hydrothermal processes. Thus, determining reliable MTs in such conditions is a challenging but potentially rewarding pursuit. We pursued such a goal at Okmok Volcano, Alaska, which erupted recently in 1997 and in 2008. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates a seismic network of 12 stations at Okmok and routinely catalogues recorded seismicity. Using these data, we have determined general MTs for seven microearthquakes recorded between 2004 and 2007 by inverting peak amplitude measurements of P and S phases. We computed Green's functions using precisely relocated hypocentres and a 3-D velocity model. We thoroughly assessed the quality of the solutions by computing formal uncertainty estimates, conducting a variety of synthetic and sensitivity tests, and by comparing the MTs to solutions obtained using alternative methods. The results show that MTs are sensitive to station distribution and errors in the data, velocity model and hypocentral parameters. Although each of the seven MTs contains a significant non-shear component, we judge several of the solutions to be unreliable. However, several reliable MTs are obtained for a group of previously identified repeating events, and are interpreted as compensated linear-vector dipole events.
Pesicek, J.D.; Sileny, J.; Prejean, S.G.; Thurber, C.H.
Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra-proximal sites, along with an off-island section 20 km to the west, provide the first continuous tephrochronology for Augustine that extends from the earliest to latest Holocene. Because examined pumice-fall exposures are limited to a narrow azimuth on the south side of the volcano, the on-island record is likely an incomplete catalog of major eruptions. It is possible however, that the coarse-grained near vent exposures (within 2 km) represent large eruptions that blanketed the entire island in tephra and are representative of the entire Holocene record. The major Holocene tephra units exposed on-island are composed of coarse-grained (cm-scale) pumice ranging in color from white to cream (variably oxidized), and light to medium gray as well as banded varieties. Accidental lithic assembles are highly variable and often unique for individual eruptions. Pumices range from 60-66 wt % SiO2 in whole-rock composition and are distinguishable using trace and minor element abundances and field context. Glass geochemistry is often distinguishable between tephras, but more overlap exists among deposits and presents challenges for correlating to regional tephras.
Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.
Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra-proximal sites, along with an off-island section 20 km to the west, provide the first continuous tephrochronology for Augustine that extends from the earliest to latest Holocene. Because examined pumice-fall exposures are limited to a narrow azimuth on the south side of the volcano, the on-island record is likely an incomplete catalog of major eruptions. It is possible however, that the coarse-grained near vent exposures (within 2 km) represent large eruptions that blanketed the entire island in tephra and are representative of the entire Holocene record. The major Holocene tephra units exposed on-island are composed of coarse-grained (cm-scale) pumice ranging in color from white to cream (variably oxidized), and light to medium gray as well as banded varieties. Accidental lithic assembles are highly variable and often unique for individual eruptions. Pumices range from 60-66 wt % SiO2 in whole-rock composition and are distinguishable using trace and minor element abundances and field context. Glass geochemistry is often distinguishable between tephras, but more overlap exists among deposits and presents challenges for correlating to regional tephras.
Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L.
To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for data transmission. Overall, our strategy is to (1) maximize our ability to provide rapid assessments of changing conditions to ensure public safety, (2) minimize environmental and visual impact, and (3) install instrumentation in developed areas.
Yellowstone Volcano Observatory
In June and August, 2001 we deployed several portable seismometers on Okmok volcano, Umnak Island, Alaska. This marks the first seismic study of Okmok since 1946 and the first deployment of digital recording systems on the volcano. The first experiment involved two temporary ( ~7 day) digital systems and two analog drum recorders, and the second deployment consisted of two digital systems. We also conducted an experiment inside the caldera to investigate activity associated with cone A, the vent for the most recent (1997) eruption of Okmok. For this we took 10-minute recordings at 18 sites and compared tremor amplitudes with distance from the vent. Results from the caldera profiles indicate the presence of seismic tremor (f=2.3 Hz) at Okmok, with the strongest amplitudes recorded at sites between the caldera center and cone A. Unfortunately, data from a crossing profile line were compromised by high winds so we were unable to locate the tremor source, but evidence of tremor was found only within the caldera. The long-term systems detected >80 earthquakes, several of which were regional events. However, a seismometer deployed in the center of the Okmok caldera detected a sequence of small, low-frequency (1-5 Hz) events that may be related to hydrothermal activity in the caldera. During the two deployments we identified three excellent sites for eventual deployment of a permanent seismic network on Okmok. The instruments used for the study were designed at the Alaska Volcano Observatory for use in rapid response situations. Signals from an L-4C (T=1 sec) geophone were amplified then digitized with a Pico Technology ADC-42 digitizer connected to a laptop PC. The computer clock was synchronized every minute by a GPS receiver connected via the serial port. The computer clock was then used to time stamp the data. Because each instrument used a different type of PC, power consumption varied, with systems running 2-6 days on two 12-V batteries. Most of the problems encountered during the experiment resulted from the PC itself or with battery connections. The entire system (without batteries) fits into a relatively small (45 x 15 x 30 cm) Pelican case and can be deployed by one person in about 10 minutes.
Tytgat, G.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; McNutt, S. R.
The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, will complete the installation of a fourteen station GPS network on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. The primary data communications goal of the project is to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and streaming 1 Hz GPS data, via Ustream, from Unimak Island to three data relay points in the Aleutian chain. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO will co-locate the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The technical challenges involved in optimizing the data communications network for both the GPS data and the seismic data will be presented. From Unimak island, there will be three separate data telemetry paths: 1) West through a radio repeater on Akutan volcano to a VSAT in Akutan village, 2) East through a radio repeater to a T1 connection in Cold Bay, AK, 3) South through a radio repeater to a VSAT at an existing PBO GPS station in King Cove, AK. The difficulties involved in the project include complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.
Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Gallaher, W.; Pauk, B.; Smith, S.
The rapid detection of explosive volcanic eruptions and accurate determination of eruption-column altitude and ash-cloud movement are critical factors in the mitigation of volcanic risks to aviation and in the forecasting of ash fall on nearby communities. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, and it provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data that it captured during the Redoubt eruption. The volcano-monitoring Doppler radar operates in the C-band (5.36 cm) and has a 2.4-m parabolic antenna with a beam width of 1.6 degrees, a transmitter power of 330 watts, and a maximum effective range of 240 km. The entire disassembled system, including a radome, fits inside a 6-m-long steel shipping container that has been modified to serve as base for the antenna/radome, and as a field station for observers and other monitoring equipment. The radar was installed at the Kenai Municipal Airport, 82 km east of Redoubt and about 100 km southwest of Anchorage. In addition to an unobstructed view of the volcano, this secure site offered the support of the airport staff and the City of Kenai. A further advantage was the proximity of a NEXRAD Doppler radar operated by the Federal Aviation Administration. This permitted comparisons with an established weather-monitoring radar system. The new radar system first became functional on March 20, roughly a day before the first of nineteen explosive ash-producing events of Redoubt between March 21 and April 4. Despite inevitable start-up problems, nearly all of the events were observed by the radar, which was remotely operated from the Alaska Volcano Observatory office in Anchorage. The USGS and NEXRAD radars both detected the eruption columns and tracked the directions of drifting ash clouds. The USGS radar scanned a 45-degree sector centered on the volcano while NEXRAD scanned a full 360 degrees. The sector strategy scanned the volcano more frequently than the 360-degree strategy. Consequently, the USGS system detected event onset within less than a minute, while the NEXRAD required about 4 minutes. The observed column heights were as high as 20 km above sea level and compared favorably to those from NEXRAD. NEXRAD tracked ash clouds to greater distances than the USGS system. This experience shows that Doppler radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.
Hoblitt, R. P.; Schneider, D. J.
Pyroclastic flows entering the sea are plausible mechanisms for tsunami generation at volcanic island arcs worldwide. We evaluate tsunami generation by pyroclastic flow using an example from Aniakchak volcano in Alaska where evidence for tsunami inundation coincident with a major, caldera-forming eruption of the volcano ca. 3.5 ka has been described. Using a numerical model, we simulate the tsunami and compare the results to field estimates of tsunami run up.
Waythomas, C.F.; Watts, P.
Sometime between June 20 and July 15, 2004-and contemporaneous with an increase of seismicity beneath the volcano, and elevated gas emissions-a sudden release of impounded water from the summit area of Mt. Spurr volcano produced about a dozen separate debris flow lobes emanating from crevasses and bergschrunds in the surface ice several hundred meters down the east-southeast flank from the
R. G. McGimsey; C. A. Neal; C. F. Waythomas; R. Wessels; M. L. Coombs; K. L. Wallace
In mid-summer 2008, three significant volcanic eruptions occurred in the Andreanof Islands of the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok volcano began erupting on July 12, followed by Cleveland on July 21, and then by Kasatochi on August 7. In addition to this temporal correlation, there is also a geographic correlation: the eruptions occurred in a 525 km region representing only about 20% of the arc's length. Given these close proximities in space and time, it is natural to speculate about whether an underlying process is at work. Ultimately, the arc exists because of subduction, but the question remains if a more immediate trigger may be responsible for the concurrence. We began our inquiry into whether a link exists among the three eruptions by posing the following question: What is the probability that, by chance alone, Okmok, Kasatochi and Cleveland could simultaneously erupt? Answering this question requires both a statistical model for eruption frequency and empirical data of where and when eruptions have occurred in the past. We assume that eruptions follow a Poisson distribution, and estimate the expected number of eruptions per time interval for each volcano in the arc from the geologic record and observations contained in the Alaska Volcano Observatory's GeoDIVA database. We then perform a Monte Carlo experiment, simulating 10,000 years of eruptive activity at 30 day intervals. The results of the simulation indicate that the phenomenon of three eruptions beginning in a single month happens about once every 90 years. A spatial constraint requiring that the maximum separation among the volcanoes be less than 525 km increases this interval to about once every 900 years. Though these intervals are not so long as to rule out coincidence, they are long enough to warrant further investigation into the possibility of a common origin. Several candidates for a prospective cause are: (1) the Great Aleutian Earthquake of 1957, which includes the region of the three recent eruptions, may have triggered a period of increased volcanic activity that still persists; (2) a slow slip event, with associated non- volcanic tremor, have may have resulted in static stress changes favorable to volcanic eruptions; or (3) nearby volcanoes may interact with one another in such a way as to increase the chance of clustered eruptions. We consider each of these scenarios (as well as other more remote possibilities) and weigh their relative likelihoods against the probability of random correlation. In the end, no definitive answer emerges, though pure coincidence remains a simple and plausible explanation for this remarkable event.
Cervelli, P. F.; Cameron, C. E.
Iliamna Volcano is a 3053-meter high, glaciated stratovolcano in the southern Cook Inlet region of Alaska and is one of seven volcanoes in this region that have erupted multiple times during the past 10,000 yr. Prior to our studies of Iliamna Volcano, little was known about the frequency, magnitude, and character of Holocene volcanic activity. Here we present geologic evidence of the most recent eruptive activity of the volcano and provide the first outline of Late Holocene debris-avalanche and lahar formation. Iliamna has had no documented historical eruptions but our recent field investigations indicate that the volcano has erupted at least twice in the last 300 yr. Clay-rich lahar deposits dated by radiocarbon to ???1300 and ???90 yr BP are present in two major valleys that head on the volcano. These deposits indicate that at least two large, possibly deep-seated, flank failures of the volcanic edifice have occurred in the last 1300 yr. Noncohesive lahar deposits likely associated with explosive pyroclastic eruptions date to 2400-1300,>1500,???300, and <305 yr BP. Debris-avalanche deposits from recent and historical small-volume slope failures of the hydrothermally altered volcanic edifice cover most of the major glaciers on the volcano. Although these deposits consist almost entirely of hydrothermally altered rock debris and snow and ice, none of the recently generated debris avalanches evolved to lahars. A clay-rich lahar deposit that formed <90??60 radiocarbon yr BP and entered the Johnson River Valley southeast of the volcano cannot be confidently related to an eruption of Iliamna Volcano, which has had no known historical eruptions. This deposit may record an unheralded debris avalanche and lahar. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Waythomas, C.F.; Miller, T.P.; Beget, J.E.
This site describes active volcanoes from around the world by using the volcano links from the Michigan Technological University and the homepages of observatories at active volcanoes. Each volcano section contains photo images, maps, and reference text. Some sections contain bibliographies, volcano reports, and video clips of lahars. The volcanoes are organized by the following geographic regions: Africa and surrounding islands; the Southwest Pacific, Southeast Asia, and India; East Asia including Japan and Kamchatka; Antarctica; the North Atlantic and Iceland; the Mediterranean; South America and surrounding islands; Central Pacific, South Pacific and New Zealand; Alaska and the Northern Pacific Region; North America; and Central America.
Westdahl volcano, located at the west end of Unimak Island in the central Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, is a broad shield that produced moderate-sized eruptions in 1964, 1978-79, and 1991-92. Satellite radar interferometry detected about 17 cm of volcano-wide inflation from September 1993 to October 1998. Multiple independent interferograms reveal that the deformation rate has not been steady; more inflation occurred from 1993 to 1995 than from 1995 to 1998. Numerical modeling indicates that a source located about 9 km beneath the center of the volcano inflated by about 0.05 km3 from 1993 to 1998. On the basis of the timing and volume of recent eruptions at Westdahl and the fact that it has been inflating for more than 5 years, the next eruption can be expected within the next several years.
Lu, Z.; Wicks, C.; Dzurisin, D.; Thatcher, W.; Freymueller, J.T.; McNutt, S.R.; Mann, D.
Since 2003, we carry out a systematic InSAR survey of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, in the framework of an AO-ENVISAT project. Since 2005 this activity gets the status of Observatory Service of the Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand (OPGC). From 375 ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2010, we have produced more than 2100 interferograms that allowed us to map the deformations related to 21 eruptions and thus to better understand the internal processes acting during each eruption. In the same time, we have developed an automatic procedure to provide full resolution interferograms, trough a dedicated WEB site, to the Volcano Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), and our other partners, within a few hours after receiving the ASAR images. In this way, our work is a first step toward an operational system of InSAR monitoring of volcanic activity. Since the beginning of 2010, the VOLInSAR-PF database is also open to the entire community, trough an anonymous login that gives access to slightly reduced resolution interferograms. We will present the VOLInSAR-PF database, the main results it provides concerning the way Piton de la Fournaise is deforming, and the main perspectives for monitoring provided by the new InSAR data (PALSAR-ALOS, TerraSAR-X, RADARSAT-2, COSMO-Skymed) we are beginning to integrate in the database.
Froger, Jean-Luc; Cayol, Valérie; Augier, Aurélien; Souriot, Thierry
Debris avalanches entering the sea at Augustine Volcano, Alaska have been proposed as a mechanism for generating tsunamis. Historical accounts of the 1883 eruption of the volcano describe 6- to 9-meter-high waves that struck the coastline at English Bay (Nanwalek), Alaska about 80 kilometers east of Augustine Island. These accounts are often cited as proof that volcanigenic tsunamis from Augustine Volcano are significant hazards to the coastal zone of lower Cook Inlet. This claim is disputed because deposits of unequivocal tsunami origin are not evident at more than 50 sites along the lower Cook Inlet coastline where they might be preserved. Shallow water (<25 m) around Augustine Island, in the run-out zone for debris avalanches, limits the size of an avalanche-caused wave. If the two most recent debris avalanches, Burr Point (A.D. 1883) and West Island (<500 yr. B.P.) were traveling at velocities in the range of 50 to 100 meters per second, the kinetic energy of the avalanches at the point of impact with the ocean would have been between 1014 and 1015 joules. Although some of this energy would be dissipated through boundary interactions and momentum transfer between the avalanche and the sea, the initial wave should have possessed sufficient kinetic energy to do geomorphic work (erosion, sediment transport, formation of wave-cut features) on the coastline of lowwer Cook Inlet. Because widespread evidence of the effects of large waves cannot be found, it appears that the debris avalanches could not have been traveling very fast when they entered the sea, or they happened during low tide and displaced only small volumes of water. In light of these results, the hazard from volcanigenic tsunamis from Augustine Volcano appears minor, unless a very large debris avalanche occurs at high tide.
Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).
Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim
Okmok volcano is an active volcanic caldera located on the northeastern portion of Umnak Island in the Aleutian arc, with recent eruptions in 1997 and 2008. The Okmok area had ~900 locatable earthquakes between 2003 and June 2008, and an additional ~600 earthquakes from the beginning of the 2008 eruption to mid 2009, providing an adequate dataset for seismic tomography. To image the seismic velocity structure of Okmok, we apply waveform cross-correlation using bispectrum verification and double-difference tomography to a subset of these earthquakes. We also perform P-wave attenuation tomography using a spectral decay technique. We examine the spatio-temporal characteristics of seismicity in the opening sequence of the 2008 eruption to investigate the path of magma migration during the establishment of a new eruptive vent. We also incorporate the new earthquake relocations and three-dimensional (3D) velocity model with first-motion polarities to compute focal mechanisms for selected events in the 2008 pre-eruptive and eruptive periods. Through these techniques we obtain precise relocations, a well-constrained 3D P-wave velocity model, and a marginally resolved S-wave velocity model. We image a main low Vp and Vs anomaly directly under the caldera consisting of a shallow zone at 0–2 km depth connected to a larger deeper zone that extends to about 6 km depth. We find that areas of low Qp are concentrated in the central to southwestern portion of the caldera and correspond fairly well with areas of low Vp. We interpret the deeper part of the low velocity anomaly (4–6 km depth) beneath the caldera as a magma body. This is consistent with results from ambient noise tomography and suggests that previous estimates of depth to Okmok's magma chamber based only on geodetic data may be too shallow. The distribution of events preceding the 2008 eruption suggest that a combination of overpressure in the zone surrounding the magma chamber and the introduction of new material from below were jointly responsible for the explosive eruption. Magma escaping from the top of the main magma chamber likely reacted with both a smaller shallow pod of magma and groundwater on its way up below the Cone D area. The earthquakes in the 2008 pre-eruptive and eruptive periods are found to have a mixture of strike-slip, oblique normal, and oblique thrust mechanisms, with a dominant P-axis orientation that is nearly perpendicular to the regional tectonic stress. This may indicate that the stresses related to magmatic activity locally dominated regional tectonic forces during this time period.
Ohlendorf, Summer J.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Pesicek, Jeremy D.; Prejean, Stephanie G.
The 2008 eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes were the largest explosive eruptions in Alaska since at least 1992 and produced volcanic ash and gas clouds that entered the stratosphere. The Alaska Volcano Observatory utilized near-real-time satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, MODIS, MTSAT and OMI) to detect and track these clouds. Satellite data complemented the real-time seismic monitoring of these volcanoes by providing confirmation that an explosive eruption had occurred, estimating eruption cloud height, and observing the cloud movement and dispersion. Okmok volcano erupted on July 12 following several hours of seismic activity, and produced a volcanic cloud to an altitude of at least 16 km above sea level (asl). Visible-wavelength images from the GOES and MTSAT geostationary satellites showed a dark-colored ash-rich umbrella cloud was produced during the first 2 hours of the eruption, and was followed by a higher bright-colored water-rich cloud for the next 9 hours. True-color MODIS images from July 13 showed volcanic plumes from two vents in the NE sector of the summit caldera, one of which was ash-rich and the other steam-rich. The drifting volcanic cloud from the initial explosive eruption was visible in MODIS data as a brown layer above a meteorological cloud deck, but this cloud was not detectable using standard thermal infrared brightness temperature difference (BTD) images, possibly due to the lack of fine ash particles and/or low temperature contrast between the volcanic cloud and the underlying surface. Aerosol Index images from the OMI sensor indicated the presence of volcanic ash in the large drifting cloud for several days after the eruption. This ash detection technique is less sensitive to ash particle size and temperature contrast than the BTD algorithm, but is only available once per day. Kasatochi volcano erupted on August 7, after several days of intense earthquake activity, and produced volcanic clouds to an altitude of at least 18 km asl. Three main explosive events produced umbrella clouds that were observed in satellite data, followed by a 10 hour period of continuous ash production. Visible- wavelength images from the GOES and MTSAT satellites provided insight into the time history of the eruption. The first two explosive events were water-rich, likely due to the eruption passing through (and eliminating) a 0.5-km-diameter crater lake. These events were relatively short-lived (less than 1 hour in duration) and the resulting drifting volcanic clouds did not show thermal infrared BTD signals indicative of fine ash particles. The third explosive event produced a dark-colored ash-rich umbrella cloud that transitioned into a point source eruption plume. Vigorous emissions were observed for at least 10 hours and were characterized by a robust thermal infrared BTD signal indicative of abundant volcanic ash. This cloud was tracked using the BTD technique for more than 3 days as it moved east across the North Pacific.
Schneider, D. J.; Bailey, J.; Dehn, J.
The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and aptitude for the physical sciences, not necessarily volcanology. It will also serve as an entry point for students wishing to make extended exchange visits to the Russian Far East or Alaska, and to graduate students in volcanology wishing to undertake thesis research in North Pacific volcanism. The school represents the first educational effort of the newly established Japan Kamchatka Alaska Subduction Project (JKASP), which seeks to bring scientists of our three nations together in the study of one shared geophysical province, the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs.
Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.
Redoubt Volcano in south-central Alaska erupted between December 1989 and June 1990 in a sequence of events characterized by large tephra eruptions, pyroclastic flows, lahars and debris flows, and episodes of dome growth. The eruption was monitored by a network of five to nine seismic stations located 1 to 22 km from the summit crater. Notable features of the eruption seismicity include : (1) small long-period events beginning in September 1989 which increased slowly in number during November and early December; (2) an intense swarm of long-period events which preceded the initial eruptions on December 14 by 23 hours; (3) shallow swarms (0 to 3 km) of volcano-tectonic events following each eruption on December 15; (4) a persistent cluster of deep (6 to 10 km) volcano-tectonic earthquakes initiated by the eruptions on December 15, which continued throughout and beyond the eruption; (5) an intense swarm of long-period events which preceded the eruptions on January 2; and (6) nine additional intervals of increased long-period seismicity each of which preceded a tephra eruption. Hypocenters of volcano-tectonic earthquakes suggest the presence of a magma source region at 6-10 km depth. Earthquakes at these depths were initiated by the tephra eruptions on December 15 and likely represent the readjustment of stresses in the country rock associated with the removal of magma from these depths. The locations and time-history of these earthquakes coupled with the eruptive behavior of the volcano suggest this region was the source of most of the erupted material during the 1989-1990 eruption. This source region appears to be connected to the surface by a narrow pipe-like conduit as inferred from the hypocenters of volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Concentrations of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes followed each of the tephra eruptions on December 15; these shocks may represent stress readjustment in the wall rock related to the removal of magma and volatiles at these depths. This shallow zone was the source area of the majority of long-period seismicity through the remainder of the eruption. The long-period seismicity likely reflects the pressurization of the shallow portions of the magmatic system. ?? 1994.
Power, J.A.; Lahr, J.C.; Page, R.A.; Chouet, B.A.; Stephens, C.D.; Harlow, D.H.; Murray, T.L.; Davies, J.N.
Augustine Volcano, situated between the Cook and Katmai segments of the Eastern Aleutian Volcanic Arc, has erupted 5 times since its discovery in 1778. Eruptions are characterized by early vent-clearing eruptions with accompanying pyroclastic flows followed by dome-building and more pyroclastic flows. Bulk rock chemistry of historic and prehistoric lavas shows little variability. The lavas are calc-alkaline, low to medium K, porphyritic acid andesites, rare basalt, and minor dacite pumice. FeO*/MgO averages 1.6 over this silica range. Plagioclase phenocrysts show complicated zoning patterns, but olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene phenocrysts show little compositional variation. Hornblende, where present, is ubiquitously oxidized and was clearly out of equilibrium during the last stages of fractionation. Evolved liquid compositions of vitriophyric domes are rhyolitic, and of pumices are slightly less evolved suggesting that individual eruptions become more fractionated with time. Comparison of glass compositions with experimental results is consistent with low pressure fractionation of a relatively dry silicate melt. Disequilibrium of amphiboles and the evolved nature of glasses indicate that shallow level fractionation plays a significant role in the evolution of Augustine magmas. This model is consistent with a shallow magma chamber inferred from geophysical models of the Augustine system and also with its simple, predictable eruption pattern.
Daley, E.E.; Swanson, S.E.
Volcano seismology is a discipline that straddles seismology and volcanology. It consists of an abundance of specialized knowledge that is not taught in traditional seismology courses, and does not exist in any single book or textbook. Hence GEOS 671 was developed starting in 1995. The following topics are covered in the course: history and organization of the subject; instruments and networks; seismic velocities of volcanic materials; terminology and event classification; swarms, magnitudes, energy, b-values, p-values; high frequency (VT, A-type) earthquakes; low frequency (LP, B-type, VLP) earthquakes; volcanic tremor; volcanic explosions (C-type); attenuation and noise at volcanoes; large earthquakes near volcanoes; cycles of volcanic activity; forecasting of eruptions and assessment of eruptions in progress; magma chambers, S-wave screening, and tomography; selected topics, such as probability, chaos, lightning, and modelling. Case studies help illuminate the basic principles by providing benchmarks and specific examples of important trends, patterns, or dominant processes. Case studies include: Arenal 1968-2002; Redoubt 1989-90; Spurr 1992; Usu 1977; Mount St. Helens 1980; Kilauea 1983; Izu-Oshima 1986; Galeras 1988-1993; Long Valley 1980-1989; Pinatubo 1991; and Rabaul 1981-1994. The students each present two case studies during the semester. GEOS 671 has been taught 4 times (every other year) with 4-8 students each time. At least one student term paper from each class has been expanded into a published work. To keep up with new research, about 15 percent new material is added each time the course is taught. Finally, Alaska is home to 41 historically active volcanoes (80 Holocene) of which 23 are monitored with seismic networks. Students have a strong chance to apply what they learn in the course during real eruptive crises.
McNutt, S. R.
Create a poster about volcanoes Directions: Make a poster about volcanoes. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about volcanoes. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster and volcanoes. (5 points) Use at ...
The eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska produced a moderate sulfur emission (estimated at 1 × 10 tons SO 2), but relatively small volume of lava (0.11 km ) with pre-eruption estimates of 840-950 °C and fO 21.5 to 2.0 log units above NNO (Swanson, S.E., Nye, C.J., Miller, T.P., Avery, V.F., 1994. Magma mixing in the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano: Part II. Evidence from mineral and glass chemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 453-468). Petrologic estimates of sulfur production (Sigurdsson, H., Devine, J.D.,Davis, A.N., 1985. The petrologic estimation of volcanic degassing. Jokull 35, 1-8) from this eruption (Gerlach, T., Westrich, H.R., Casadevall, T.J., Finnegan, D.L., 1994. Vapor Saturation and accumulation in magmas of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 317-337) are considerably less than the measured sulfur emission, leading workers to propose the existence of a pre-eruption vapor phase to explain the "excess" sulfur. Initial examination of the 1989-1990 Redoubt eruptive products reported anhydrite (Nye, C.J., Swanson, S.E., Avery, V.F., Miller, T.P., 1994. Geochemistry of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano: Part I, whole-rock, major- and trace-element chemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 429-452.) in interstitial glass from some cognate gabbroic xenoliths, but anhydrite was not noted in any of the andesites. A Boeing 747 encountered the ash plume from the initial eruptive phase on December 15, 1989 and provided ash samples that reportedly contained gypsum (Bayhurst, G.K., Wohletz, K.H., Mason, A.S., 1994. A method for characterizing volcanic ash from the December 15, 1989, eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2047, 13-17). However, the identification was based on EDS analyses on a SEM and the mineral could have been anhydrite. Reexamination of the 1989-1990 Redoubt lavas and xenoliths revealed the presence of rare, fine-grained (10s of microns) anhydrite crystals in the lavas and larger (10s to 100s of microns) crystals in the xenoliths. The anhydrite forms elongate crystals with sharp contacts against the groundmass glass. Grains show rounded terminations suggesting breakdown of the anhydrite, perhaps during eruption. The anhydrite is a sparse phase in the lavas, but occurs in lavas and cognate xenoliths erupted throughout the eruption. The presence and breakdown of anhydrite may explain the "excess" sulfur associated with the Redoubt eruption. A careful search of other freshly erupted andesitic lavas solidified from hydrous, oxidizing magmas should reveal other examples of anhydrite and cause a rethinking of the source of sulfur in volcanic emissions.
Swanson, S. E.; Kearney, C. S.
A 5.6-m-long lake sediment core from Bear Lake, Alaska, located 22 km southeast of Redoubt Volcano, contains 67 tephra layers deposited over the last 8750 cal yr, comprising 15% of the total thickness of recovered sediment. Using 12 AMS 14C ages, along with the 137Cs and 210Pb activities of recent sediment, we evaluated different models to determine the age-depth relation of the core, and to determine the age of each tephra deposit. The selected age model is based on a mixed-effect regression that was passed through the adjusted tephra-free depth of each dated layer. The estimated age uncertainty of the 67 tephras averages ??105 yr (95% confidence intervals). Tephra-fall frequency at Bear Lake was among the highest during the past 500 yr, with eight tephras deposited compared to an average of 3.7/500 yr over the last 8500 yr. Other periods of increased tephra fall occurred 2500-3500, 4500-5000, and 7000-7500 cal yr. Our record suggests that Bear Lake experienced extended periods (1000-2000 yr) of increased tephra fall separated by shorter periods (500-1000 yr) of apparent quiescence. The Bear Lake sediment core affords the most comprehensive tephrochronology from the base of the Redoubt Volcano to date, with an average tephra-fall frequency of one every 130 yr. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schiff, C.J.; Kaufman, D.S.; Wallace, K.L.; Werner, A.; Ku, T.-L.; Brown, T.A.
A description of the status of the Poker Flat MST Radar as of early 1983 is included in the 1983 mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere MST Workshop Proceedings. The Observatory continues to operate in a continuous data-taking mode, except for a three-week planned campaign experiment concurrent with the STATE rocket program during June 1983. Construction of the digital preprocessing system mentioned in the last status report is all but complete. This additional improvement should be operational by late summer. The possibility of steering the array also mentioned in the last status report is being investigated. A project is underway to electronically steer the one-quarter vertical section of the array. Steering will be in finite steps within about + or - 5 deg of vertical. Successful testing of this modification may lead to eventually steering the entire array in this manner. Data analysis of the data base (now more than four years in length) continues with well over one dozen extramural scientific groups participating.
Balsley, B. B.
Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of
R. L. Wessels; M. S. Ramsey; D. S. Schneider; M. Coombs; J. Dehn; V. J. Realmuto
Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)
Kunar, L. N. S.
This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.
Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.
In this lesson, students investigate the processes that build volcanoes, the types of rocks they create, the factors that influence different eruption types, and the threats volcanoes pose to their surrounding environments. They will also create a notebook of volcano characteristics and use what they have learned to identify physical features and eruption types in some real-life documented volcanic episodes.
One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…
Tilling, Robert I.
Redoubt volcano, located on the west side of Cook Inlet approximately 170 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, began erupting in March 2009. The eruption, which consisted of at least 17 explosive events over a three-week time period followed by three months of dome-building, significantly impacted both aviation and oil production operations in the area. Pre-eruptive seismicity was generally limited to deep (>20 km) long-period (DLP) earthquakes starting in late 2008, transitioning to bursts of strong, shallow volcanic tremor for nearly three months prior to the eruption. The near-complete absence of precursory volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes is unusual for eruptions of this type and complicates understanding of the dynamics of the Redoubt magmatic system. However, the strong volcanic tremor preceding the eruption suggests that magma was ascending and the system was pressurizing for months prior to the first explosion - a situation during which VT earthquakes typically occur. The study of subtle changes in stress conditions at Redoubt may elucidate the reasons for the observed near-complete lack of precursory VT seismicity. Using first-motion data from waveforms recorded by seismic stations operated in the vicinity of Redoubt by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC), we computed double-couple fault-plane solutions for approximately 200 VT earthquakes occurring in the months prior to and immediately following the first eruption in March 2009. The analysis of the fault-plane solutions using spatial and temporal stress-tensor inversions combined with cumulative misfit analysis will help to constrain if, when, and where localized precursory changes in stress occurred. In addition, we performed an analysis of shear-wave splitting using data from deep slab events located by AEIC within a 70 km radius for one year prior to and one year following the eruption, which resulted in approximately 500 high-quality measurements on the longest-running three-component station (REF). Initial results from this station show a fast-polarization azimuth (? ) towards the northeast during the months preceding the eruption. After the eruption, ? is directed west-northwest, a direction more consistent with the regional stress direction. Shear-wave splitting analysis of data from additional Redoubt stations is expected to give further insight into the spatial pattern of local crustal stresses prior to the eruption.
Gardine, M.; Roman, D. C.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data indicate that the caldera of Okmok volcano, Alaska, subsided more than a meter during its eruption in 1997. The large deformation suggests a relatively shallow magma reservoir beneath Okmok. Seismic tomography using ambient ocean noise reveals two low-velocity zones (LVZs). The shallow LVZ corresponds to a region of weak, fluid-saturated materials within the caldera
Timothy Masterlark; Matthew Haney; Haylee Dickinson; Tom Fournier; Cheryl Searcy
Historically active Redoubt Volcano is a basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic-early Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. New SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age and trace-element concentration results for zircons from gabbroic xenoliths and crystal-rich andesitic mush from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit indicate that ~310 Ma and ~1865 Ma igneous rocks underlie Redoubt at depth. Two gabbros have sharply terminated prismatic zircons that yield ages of ~310 Ma. Zircons from a crystal mush sample are overwhelmingly ~1865 Ma and appear rounded due to incomplete dissolution. Binary plots of element concentrations or ratios show clustering of data for ~310-Ma grains and markedly coherent trends for ~1865-Ma grains; e.g., ~310-Ma grains have higher Eu/Eu* than most of the ~1865-Ma grains, the majority of which form a narrow band of decreasing Eu/Eu* with increasing Hf content which suggests that ~1865-Ma zircons come from igneous source rocks. It is very unlikely that detrital zircons from a metasedimentary rock would have this level of homogeneity in age and composition. One gabbro contains abundant ~1865 Ma igneous zircons, ~300-310 Ma fluid-precipitated zircons characterized by very low U and Th concentrations and Th/U ratios, and uncommon ~100 Ma zircons. We propose that (1) ~310 Ma gabbro xenoliths from Redoubt Volcano belong to the same family of plutons dated by Aleinikoff et al. (USGS Circular 1016, 1988) and Gardner et al. (Geology, 1988) located ?500 km to the northeast in basement rocks of the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes and (2) ~1865 Ma zircons are inherited from igneous rock, potentially from a continental fragment that possibly correlates with the Fort Simpson terrane or Great Bear magmatic zone of the Wopmay Orogen of northwestern Laurentia. Possibly, elements of these Paleoproterozoic terranes intersected the Paleozoic North American continental margin where they may have formed a component of the basement to the Wrangellia-Alexander-Peninsular composite terrane prior to transport to its present location (e.g., Colpron and Nelson, Geological Society, London, Special Publication 318, 2009). Xenocrysts from the ~1865 Ma igneous rocks, and possibly also ~310 Ma gabbros, are contained in relatively low-temperature mush and partially melted gabbro that we interpret to have been derived from the margin of the subvolcanic magma accumulation and storage region defined by seismicity at 4-10 km bsl. The Redoubt crystal mush contains evidence for assimilation of ~1865 Ma igneous rocks that have no equivalent exposed in Alaska. The discovery of Paleoproterozoic grains as the dominant zircon component in crystal mush raises the question of the origin of other crystals in Redoubt magmas.
Bacon, C. R.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wooden, J. L.
Local seismic and infrasound data are used to characterize the March-April 2009 eruptions of Redoubt volcano, Alaska. Data are from a network of ten seismic stations ranging from 2.6 to 21 km from the vent and a single infrasound sensor 12.2 km from the vent. Measurements were made for more than 30 explosive eruptions including the 19 numbered events that were identified during the eruption response. More than 30 smaller explosions were also identified. Measured parameters include onset time, duration, reduced displacement (DR), pressure, seismic energy, and acoustic energy. Results were compared with complementary gas and lightning data. Based on ratios of pressure to DR and acoustic to seismic energy we find that the initial group of explosive eruptions on 23-24 March was relatively stronger seismically and included the four highest DR values. We infer that these represent vent enlargement or stronger coupling between the magma and wall rocks. One event, at 12:31 UT on 23 March had an extremely high pressure of 250 Pa for the initial pulse and was likely weakly seismically coupled. A second group of explosive eruptions on 27-29 March was relatively stronger acoustically. Deposits were finer grained and of different lithology, with less scoria and more dense clasts. These two groups may represent different modes of gas release. Cumulative acoustic energy as a function of time correlates well with comparable lightning and SO2 data, suggesting that all three provide insight regarding different factors of gas release for the eruption as a whole. The number of events identified depends on criteria measured, and depends on the goals of the investigations. Overall the eruptions were substantially stronger than recent eruptions in Alaska, with some durations exceeding 1 h and pressures an order of magnitude higher.
McNutt, S. R.; Thompson, G.; West, M. E.; Fee, D.; Stihler, S.; Clark, E.
Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of 7 daytime and 15 nighttime Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes were acquired in response to this new activity. This response was facilitated by a new ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system. The ASTER data provided several significant observations as a part of a much larger suite of real-time or near-real-time data from other satellite (AVHRR, MODIS), airborne (FLIR, visual, gas), and ground-based (seismometers, radiometers) sensors used at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). ASTER is well-suited to volcanic observations because of its 15-m to 90-m spatial resolution, its ability to be scheduled and point off-nadir, and its ability to collect visible-near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) data during both the day and night. Aided by the volcano's high latitude (59.4°N) ASTER was able to provide frequent repeat imaging as short as one day between scenes with an average 6-day repeat during the height of activity. These data provided a time series of high-resolution VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR - detects temperatures from about 200°C to > 600°C averaged over a 30-m pixel), and TIR (detects temperatures up to about 100°C averaged over a 90-m pixel) data of the volcano and its eruptive products. Frequent satellite imaging of volcanoes is necessary to record rapid changes in activity and to avoid recurring cloud cover. Of the 22 ASTER scenes acquired between October 30, 2005 and May 30, 2006, the volcano was clear to partly cloudy in 13 scenes. The most useful pre-eruption ASTER Urgent Request image was acquired on December 20. These data showed a broad area of slightly elevated TIR radiances that correlated with new snow-free areas and fumaroles at the summit. Thin cirrus cloud cover prevented quantitative TIR temperature extraction. During the night of February 1, 2006, ASTER imaged an ash-rich plume and fresh pyroclastic-flow deposits near the end of a 6-day continuous phase of the eruption. A decorrelation stretch of ASTER TIR bands 14, 13, and 11 suggests that the eruption plume was a mixture of ash and SO2. The 90-m TIR sensor was able to detect subtle surface radiance differences between the cooler distal ends of the pyroclastic-flow deposits and the warmer proximal areas. These temperature differences were controlled by both the age (hours) and thickness of the deposits. The SWIR data show a region of ~ 700 m x 300 m of hot pixels centered at the summit dome with a maximum brightness temperature of 619°C. ASTER data spanning February 22 through March 14 documented the continued growth of the summit domes and lava flows and gradual cooling of the block and ash deposits.
Wessels, R. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. S.; Coombs, M.; Dehn, J.; Realmuto, V. J.
Pilot reports in January 1995 and geologic field observations from the summer of 1996 indicate that a relatively small explosive eruption of Makushin, one of the more frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc of Alaska, occured on 30 January 1995. Several independent radar interferograms that each span the time period from October 1993 to September 1995 show evidence of ???7 cm of uplift centered on the volcano's east flank, which we interpret as preeruptive inflation of a ???7-km-deep magma source (??V = 0.022 km3). Subsequent interferograms for 1995-2000, a period that included no reported eruptive activity, show no evidence of additional ground deformation. Interferometric coherence at C band is found to persist for 3 years or more on lava flow and other rocky surfaces covered with short grass and sparsely distributed tall grass and for at least 1 year on most pyroclastic deposits. On lava flow and rocky surfaces with dense tall grass and on alluvium, coherence lasts for a few months. Snow and ice surfaces lose coherence within a few days. This extended timeframe of coherence over a variety of surface materials makes C band radar interferometry an effective tool for studying volcano deformation in Alaska and other similar high-latitude regions.
Lu, Z.; Power, J.A.; McConnell, V.S.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.
In March 1996 an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (???3000 felt by local residents, Mmax = 5.1, cumulative moment of 2.7 ??1018 N m) beneath Akutan Island in the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, produced extensive ground cracks but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Synthetic aperture radar interferograms that span the time of the swarm reveal complex island-wide deformation: the western part of the island including Akutan volcano moved upward, while the eastern part moved downward. The axis of the deformation approximately aligns with new ground cracks on the western part of the island and with Holocene normal faults that were reactivated during the swarm on the eastern part of the island. The axis is also roughly parallel to the direction of greatest compressional stress in the region. No ground movements greater than 2.83 cm were observed outside the volcano's summit caldera for periods of 4 years before or 2 years after the swarm. We modeled the deformation primarily as the emplacement of a shallow, east-west trending, north dipping dike plus inflation of a deep, Mogi-type magma body beneath the volcano. The pattern of subsidence on the eastern part of the island is poorly constrained. It might have been produced by extensional tectonic strain that both reactivated preexisting faults on the eastern part of the island and facilitated magma movement beneath the western part. Alternatively, magma intrusion beneath the volcano might have been the cause of extension and subsidence in the eastern part of the island. We attribute localized subsidence in an area of active fumaroles within the Akutan caldera, by as much as 10 cm during 1992-1993 and 1996-1998, to fluid withdrawal or depressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.
Lu, Z.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.
The Mt. Redoubt volcano in Alaska underwent a series of 22 major explosive eruptions over a 2.5 week period between 23 March and 4 April 2009. We were able to deploy a 4-station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) in advance of the eruptions along a 60 km stretch of the Kenai coastline, 70-80 km east of Redoubt on the opposite side of Cook Inlet, and to monitor and control the station operations remotely via internet connections. The LMA data show that the eruptions produced spectacular lightning, both over and downwind of the volcano, lasting between 20 to 80 minutes depending on the eruption strength. The discharging was essentially continuous during the initial stages of the eruptions and gradually evolved into more discrete and spatially structured discharges displaced from 10 km up to 80 or 90 km away from Redoubt. The discharge rates and VHF radiation signals were comparable to or greater than observed in Great Plains thunderstorms, with discernible but complex 'flashes' occurring at a rate of 2-3 per second in the active stages of eruptions, decaying to about 10-15 per minute of horizontally extensive discrete discharges in later stages. Individual eruptions produced literally thousands of discharges. The approximately linear array of the mapping stations, coupled with their distance from Redoubt and the inability to have a station at a closer distance, has precluded obtaining useful altitude information from the time-of-arrival data. The exception has been lightning at the end of the March 28 eruption as the plume cloud drifted over the northern end of the LMA network; which showed negative charge at 6 km altitude and positive charge between 8 and 9 km altitude, exactly the same as seen in normally electrified thunderstorms. Three of the four stations had been deployed on 50-100m high bluffs overlooking Cook Inlet in an attempt to use sea-surface interference effects to determine altitude, as in our study of the 2006 Augustine eruptions. But only partial interference fringes are seen in the data making them more difficult to interpret and unlikely to provide additional information on the vertical charge structure of the clouds. By virtue of having prolific negative leader activity, the clouds clearly contained substantial amounts of net positive charge. Finally, cloud-to-ground and possibly some intracloud lightning associated with the Redoubt eruptions was detected by the Alaska BLM network, which located 518 strikes during the two week long eruption period. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) located 486 strikes during the same period. Most of the eruptions occurred during overcast or stormy weather conditions and were not seen visually, but during three eruptions the weather was clear enough for the lightning to be visually observed and also captured on photos and video. Distant video photographs of the lightning show the occurrence of both upward and downward branched channels below cloud base and are being analyzed to retrieve height information.
Krehbiel, P. R.; Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; McNutt, S. R.; Higman, B.; Holzworth, R. H.; Thomas, J. N.
This resource provides general information about volcanoes. It illustrates the growth of a volcano, using Paricutin and Mt. St. Helens as examples of an active volcano and a lava dome. The terms extinct and dormant are also discussed. This site provides an explanation of why and how volcanoes form, zones of subduction, mid-ocean ridges, and hot spots. Deadly dangers associated with eruptions are discussed as is the use of a tiltmeter for prediction. The content center lesson describes a possible connection between the lost continent of Atlantis and the island of Santorini. Dissolved gasses in magma and the creation of a lava dome are both demonstrated in the hands-on section.
We use shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis and double-difference relocation to examine temporal variations in seismic properties prior to and accompanying magmatic activity associated with the 2008 eruption of Okmok volcano, Alaska. Using bispectrum cross-correlation, a multiplet of 25 earthquakes is identified spanning five years leading up to the eruption, each event having first motions compatible with a normal fault striking NE–SW. Cross-correlation differential times are used to relocate earthquakes occurring between January 2003 and February 2009. The bulk of the seismicity prior to the onset of the eruption on 12 July 2008 occurred southwest of the caldera beneath a geothermal field. Earthquakes associated with the onset of the eruption occurred beneath the northern portion of the caldera and started as deep as 13 km. Subsequent earthquakes occurred predominantly at 3 km depth, coinciding with the depth at which the magma body has been modeled using geodetic data. Automated SWS analysis of the Okmok catalog reveals radial polarization outside the caldera and a northwest-southeast polarization within. We interpret these polarizations in terms of a magma reservoir near the center of the caldera, which we model with a Mogi point source. SWS analysis using the same input processing parameters for each event in the multiplet reveals no temporal changes in anisotropy over the duration of the multiplet, suggesting either a short-term or small increase in stress just before the eruption that was not detected by GPS, or eruption triggering by a mechanism other than a change of stress in the system.
Johnson, Jessica H.; Prejean, Stephanie; Savage, Martha K.; Townend, John
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.
Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.
The two most abundant gases released from magmatic systems are typically H2O and CO2, however, most phase equilibria studies examining crystallization applied to natural magmatic systems over the past 200 years have relied on H2O-saturated conditions. We will present the results of new phase equilibria experiments run using natural basaltic andesite starting materials from the 1991-1992 eruption of Westdahl volcano, Alaska, examining both H2O-saturated and undersaturated conditions, using a fixed ratio of XH2O ~0.7 and XCO2 ~0.3 in the total volatile budget. The experiments were conducted at total pressures (PTotal) of 0-200 MPa and 900-1050 °C, and fO2 set to the Ni-NiO buffer. Experiments were loaded into gold and Au75Pd25 capsules, and run in a TZM alloy pressure vessel for 48 hours before rapid quenching while still at pressure. After quenching, samples were polished and examined by microprobe and reflective microscopy. Identified mineral phases include plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, and minor orthopyroxene in both water-saturated and under- saturated experiments. A ~25 to 50 °C shift in temperature, at similar pressures is observed in the plagioclase and pyroxene stability curves when CO2 is added. Solubility models predict relatively low amounts of CO2 dissolved in the melt at similar conditions. Thus, our experiments indicate a significant effect of CO2 on the crystallization of mafic magmas at crustal pressures in volcanic arcs.
Rader, E. L.; Larsen, J.
The December 1989-June 1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano affected commercial and military air operations in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska. These effects were due to the direct impact of volcanic ash on jet aircraft, as well as to the rerouting and cancellations of flight operations owing to eruptive activity. Between December and February, five commercial jetliners were damaged from ash encounters. The most serious incident took place on December 15, 1989 when a Boeing 747-400 aircraft temporarily lost power of all four engines after encountering an ash cloud as the airplane descended for a landing in Anchorage. While there were no injuries to passengers, the damage to engines, avionics, and aircraft structure from this encounter is estimated at $80 million. Four additional encounters between jet aircraft and Redoubt ash clouds occurred in the Anchorage area on December 15 and 16, 1989 and February 21, 1990; none resulted in engine failure. Two additional encounters took place on December 17, 1989 when jet airliners encountered the Redoubt cloud over west Texas. At the time of these encounters, the cloud was up to 55 hours old and had traveled in excess of 2,900 nautical miles (5,300 km). Following the December 15 encounters, Anchorage International Airport remained open, however, most airline companies canceled operations for up to several days. As communications between Federal agencies and airlines improved, and as a better understanding of the nature and behavior of ash-rich eruption clouds was achieved, most airlines resumed normal service by early January 1990. The resulting loss of revenue at Anchorage International Airport during several months following the eruption is estimated to total $2.6 million. The impact on general aviation and military operations consisted mostly of cancellation and rerouting of flights. ?? 1994.
Deposits from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, record a complicated history of open system magmatic processes that produced a suite of intermediate (56.5 to 63.3% SiO2) lithologies containing rare and variably quenched basaltic to basaltic-andesite enclaves (49.5-57.3% SiO2). The eruption transitioned from an explosive phase (Jan 11-28) to a continuous phase (Jan 28-Feb 10) before ending following a month-long effusive phase in March. Whereas the explosive phase is dominated by a low-silica andesite (LSAS, 56.5-58.7% SiO2) lithology, high-silica andesite (HSA, 62.2-63.3% SiO2) is more common during the continuous phase and dense low-silica andesite (DLSA, 56.4-59.3% SiO2) occurs mostly during the effusive phase. Enclaves occur in all lithologies, although most commonly in DLSA and LSAS. Point-counting of enclaves in outcrop reveals an average abundance of <1 volume percent, however, some DLSA blocks contained in a unusually large pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at the end of the explosive phase near Rocky Point contain up to 3 volume percent enclaves. Transitional-type enclaves exist, but the two main end-member types of magmatic enclaves are P-type ('primitive') and H-type ('hybrid'). P-type enclaves range from 2-5 cm in diameter and are black with highly vesicular, acicular, and glassy interiors surrounded by quenched and cuspate margins, range in composition from 49.5-52% SiO2, and contain abundant olivine and sparse plagioclase antecrysts. H-type enclaves range in diameter from 1 to 10 cm and are variably gray with poorly vesicular interiors and underdeveloped cuspate margins, range from 52-57.3% SiO2, and contain equant crystals in a glass-poor groundmass with abundant plagioclase antecrysts and rare olivine. Many H-type enclaves, which are the only enclave type observed in the HSA lithology, are indistinguishable from LSAS and DLSA samples in terms of whole-rock composition, mineral compositions, and texture. All enclaves plot linearly in major and minor element graphical space in terms of whole-rock composition, and glass compositions from P-type enclaves also plot linearly with the rest of the 2006 sample suite. Magnetite-ilmenite pairs in P-type enclaves record core temperatures ranging from 975-1120°C compared to 840-940°C for H-type enclaves (fO2 increases with decreasing temperature from NNO+0.5 to +2.0) and core to rim diffusion profiles in magnetite grains from P-type enclaves from explosive and effusive phases indicate an average timescale of 1-month between heating of crystals via basalt replenishment and eruption. A key finding from this study is that magmatic enclaves produced during the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano record a complex and multi-step mixing and mingling scenario between intruding basalt and resident silicic mush, and possibly gabbroic cumulates/wall rock, that is inconsistent with any single currently employed mingling model (e.g., buoyant lift-off of vesiculated and undercooled basalt, prolonged undercooling of intruded basalt punctuated by subsequent intrusions, enclave dissagregation and ripening, or violent intrusion of bubbly basaltic plumes) that has been used to explain magmatic enclave formation at other arc systems characterized by lower magma temperature, higher crystallinity, and larger eruptive volumes (e.g., Unzen Volcano, Mt. Lassen, Soufriere Hills).
Browne, B. L.; Vitale, M. L.
The 1999 basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano (Alaska, USA) displayed both classical Strombolian activity and an explosive Subplinian plume. Strombolian activity at Shishaldin occurred in two major phases following the Subplinian activity. In this paper, we use acoustic measurements to interpret the Strombolian activity. Acoustic measurements of the two Strombolian phases show a series of explosions that are modeled by the vibration of a large overpressurised cylindrical bubble at the top of the magma column. Results show that the bubble does not burst at its maximum radius, as expected if the liquid film is stretched beyond its elasticity. But bursting occurs after one cycle of vibration, as a consequence of an instability of the air-magma interface close to the bubble minimum radius. During each Strombolian period, estimates of bubble length and overpressure are calculated. Using an alternate method based on acoustic power, we estimate gas velocity to be 30-60 m/s, in very good agreement with synthetic waveforms. Although there is some variation within these parameters, bubble length and overpressure for the first Strombolian phase are found to be ??? 82 ?? 11 m and 0.083 MPa. For the second Strombolian phase, bubble length and overpressure are estimated at 24 ?? 12 m and 0.15 MPa for the first 17 h after which bubble overpressure shows a constant increase, reaching a peak of 1.4 MPa, just prior to the end of the second Strombolian phase. This peak suggests that, at the time, the magma in the conduit may contain a relatively large concentration of small bubbles. Maximum total gas volume and gas fluxes at the surface are estimated to be 3.3 ?? 107 and 2.9 ?? 103 m3/s for the first phase and 1.0 ?? 108 and 2.2 ?? 103 m3/s for the second phase. This gives a mass flux of 1.2 ?? 103 and 8.7 ?? 102 kg/s, respectively, for the first and the second Strombolian phases. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vergniolle, S.; Boichu, M.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.
This module include four problem-based learning scenarios related to volcanoes and emphasize different kinds of volcanic hazards and geologic processes. The four scenarios are: whether to build a new high school in the shadow of a restless volcanic giant, Mt. Rainier; Kilauea in Hawaii shows signs of activity. What are the prospects for the nearby population?; Mt. Hood is starting to act like Mt. St. Helens did in 1980, but Mt. Hood is just 40 miles from the metropalitan area. How might an eruption impact this populated area?; and America's largest volcano in Yellowstone National Park is stirring. Are we facing an eruption as devastating as a nuclear attack? This module is from Exploring the Environment.
High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of selected lavas from Westdahl Volcano places time constraints on several key prehistoric eruptive phases of this large active volcano. A dike cutting old pyroclastic-flow and associated lahar deposits from a precursor volcano yields an age of 1,654+/-11 k.y., dating this precursor volcano as older than early Pleistocene. A total of 11 geographically distributed lavas with ages ranging from 47+/-14 to 127+/-2 k.y. date construction of the Westdahl volcanic center. Lava flows cut by an apparent caldera-rim structure yielded ages of 81+/-5 and 121+/-8 k.y., placing a maximum date of 81 ka on caldera formation. Late Pleistocene and Holocene lavas fill the caldera, but most of them are obscured by the large summit icecap.
Calvert, Andrew T.; Moore, Richard B.; McGimsey, Robert G.
Many of the world's active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines. During eruptions, diverse geophysical mass flows, including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and lahars, can deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean in a short period of time and thereby generate tsunamis. Deposits of both hot and cold volcanic mass flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet, indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by cold granular subaerial volcanic mass flows using examples from Augustine Volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region, and future eruptions, should they lead to debris-avalanche formation and tsunami generation, could be hazardous to some coastal areas. Geological investigations at Augustine Volcano suggest that as many as 12-14 debris avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during an A.D. 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami that was observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. Numerical simulation of mass-flow motion, tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation for Augustine Volcano indicate only modest wave generation by volcanic mass flows and localized wave effects. However, for east-directed mass flows entering Cook Inlet, tsunamis are capable of reaching the more populated coastlines of the southwestern Kenai Peninsula, where maximum water amplitudes of several meters are possible.
Waythomas, C.F.; Watts, P.; Walder, J.S.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory has recently installed a state of the art scanning electronic microscope (SEM) at its facility in Anchorage using ARRA funding. The SEM will be used to analyze volcanic deposits for their composition, texture, and other valuable information that will enable us to...
In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, satellite imagery and infrared cameras are used to study and predict eruptions of volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
Waveform inversions of the very-long-period components of the seismic wavefield produced by an explosive eruption that occurred on 11 January, 2006 at Augustine Volcano, Alaska constrain the seismic source location to near sea level beneath the summit of the volcano. The calculated moment tensors indicate the presence of a volumetric source mechanism. Systematic reconstruction of the source mechanism shows the source consists of a sill intersected by either a sub-vertical east-west trending dike or a sub-vertical pipe and a weak single force. The trend of the dike may be controlled by the east-west trending Augustine-Seldovia arch. The data from the network of broadband sensors is limited to fourteen seismic traces, and synthetic modeling confirms the ability of the network to recover the source mechanism. The synthetic modeling also provides a guide to the expected capability of a broadband network to resolve very-long-period source mechanisms, particularly when confronted with limited observational data.
Dawson, Phillip B.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Power, John
Waveform inversions of the very-long-period components of the seismic wavefield produced by an explosive eruption that occurred on 11 January, 2006 at Augustine Volcano, Alaska constrain the seismic source location to near sea level beneath the summit of the volcano. The calculated moment tensors indicate the presence of a volumetric source mechanism. Systematic reconstruction of the source mechanism shows the source consists of a sill intersected by either a sub-vertical east-west trending dike or a sub-vertical pipe and a weak single force. The trend of the dike may be controlled by the east-west trending Augustine-Seldovia arch. The data from the network of broadband sensors is limited to fourteen seismic traces, and synthetic modeling confirms the ability of the network to recover the source mechanism. The synthetic modeling also provides a guide to the expected capability of a broadband network to resolve very-long-period source mechanisms, particularly when confronted with limited observational data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Dawson, P.B.; Chouet, B.A.; Power, J.
Local seismic and infrasound observations of the 2009 explosive eruptions of Redoubt Volcano 2011 Accepted 20 March 2013 Available online 2 April 2013 Keywords: Explosive eruptions Infrasound made for more than 30 explosive erup- tions including the 19 numbered events that were identified
Clustered earthquakes located 25??km northeast of Augustine Volcano began about 6??months before and ceased soon after the volcano's 2006 explosive eruption. This distal seismicity formed a dense cluster less than 5??km across, in map view, and located in depth between 11??km and 16??km. This seismicity was contemporaneous with sharply increased shallow earthquake activity directly below the volcano's vent. Focal mechanisms for five events within the distal cluster show strike-slip fault movement. Cluster seismicity best defines a plane when it is projected onto a northeast-southwest cross section, suggesting that the seismogenic fault strikes northwest. However, two major structural trends intersect near Augustine Volcano, making it difficult to put the seismogenic fault into a regional-geologic context. Specifically, interpretation of marine multichannel seismic-reflection (MCS) data shows reverse faults, directly above the seismicity cluster, that trend northeast, parallel to the regional geologic strike but perpendicular to the fault suggested by the clustered seismicity. The seismogenic fault could be a reactivated basement structure.
Fisher, M.A.; Ruppert, N.A.; White, R.A.; Wilson, F.H.; Comer, D.; Sliter, R.W.; Wong, F.L.
A Compilation of Gas Emission-Rate Data from Volcanoes of Cook Inlet (Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Fourpeaked, Griggs, Mageik, Martin, Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Veniaminof), Alaska, from 1995-2006
INTRODUCTION This report presents gas emission rates from data collected during numerous airborne plume-measurement flights at Alaskan volcanoes since 1995. These flights began in about 1990 as means to establish baseline values of volcanic gas emissions during periods of quiescence and to identify anomalous levels of degassing that might signal the beginning of unrest. The primary goal was to make systematic measurements at the major volcanic centers around the Cook Inlet on at least an annual basis, and more frequently during periods of unrest and eruption. A secondary goal was to measure emissions at selected volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula. While the goals were not necessarily met in all cases due to weather, funding, or the availability of suitable aircraft, a rich dataset of quality measurements is the legacy of this continuing effort. An earlier report (Doukas, 1995) presented data for the period from 1990 through 1994 and the current report provides data through 2006. This report contains all of the available measurements for SO2, CO2, and H2S emission rates in Alaska determined by the U. S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 2006; airborne measurements for H2S began in Alaska in 2001. The results presented here are from Cook Inlet volcanoes at Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine and cover periods of unrest at Iliamna (1996) and Spurr (2004-2006) as well as the 2006 eruption of Augustine. Additional sporadic measurements at volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Martin, Mageik, Griggs, Veniaminof, Ukinrek Maars, Peulik, and Fourpeaked during its 2006 unrest) are also reported here.
Doukas, Michael P.; McGee, Kenneth A.
Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 4,364 earthquakes, of which 3,651 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity above background levels in 2011 at these instrumented volcanic centers. This catalog includes locations, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2011 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.
Unimak Island, the largest island in the eastern Aleutians of Alaska, is home to three major active volcanoes: Shishaldin, Fisher, and Westdahl. Shishaldin and Westdahl erupted within the past 2 decades and Fisher has shown persistent hydrothermal activity (Mann and Freymueller, 2003). Therefore, Unimak Island is of particular interest to geoscientists. Surface deformation on Unimak Island has been studied in several previous efforts. Lu et al. (2000, 2003) applied conventional InSAR techniques to study surface inflation at Westdahl during 1991 and 2000. Mann and Freymueller (2003) used GPS measurements to analyze inflation at Westdahl and subsidence at Fisher during 1998-2001. Moran et al., ( 2006) reported that Shishaldin, the most active volcano in the island , experienced no significant deformation during the 1993 to 2003 period bracketing two eruptions. In this paper, we present deformation measurements at Unimak Islank during 2003-2010 using advanced persistent scatterer InSAR (PSI). Due to the non-urban setting in a subarctic environment and the limited data acquisition, the number of images usable for PSI processing is limited to about 1-3 acquisitions per year. The relatively smaller image stack and the irregular acquisition distribution in time pose challenges in the PSI time-series processing. Therefore, we have developed a modified PSI technique that integrates external atmospheric information from numerical weather predication models to assist in the removal of atmospheric artifacts . Deformation modeling based on PSI results will be also presented. Our new results will be combined with previous findings to address the magma plumbing system at Unimak Island. 1) W. Gong, F. J. Meyer (2012): Optimized filter design for irregular acquired data stack in Persistent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Proceeding of Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, Munich, Germany.
Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lu, Z.
Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.
Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.
THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…
Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes. Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001. This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; (2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (4) station parameters and velocity models used for earthquake locations; (5) a summary of daily station usage throughout the catalog period; and (6) all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations presented in this report.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.
An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field.
Ruppert, Natalia G.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Hansen, Roger A.
Lower elevations are thawing out, while higher mountain ranges are still covered in snow in this MODIS image of Alaska from May 14, 2002. At right, the Aleutian Range falls along Alaska's eastern coastline. At upper right, a thin white line traversing generally south-southwest across the state is the Yukon River, still mostly frozen, although the high-resolution image shows a few dark places along the river's length that could be thawed. Sediment fills the waters along the southwestern coastline, with some blue-green color that could be phytoplankton, as well.
The intermittency pattern and evolution in waveforms of long-period (LP) seismic events during the intense, 23-h swarm that preceded the December 14, 1989 eruption of Redoubt volcano are investigated. Utilizing cross correlation to exploit the high degree of similarity among waveforms, a substantially more complete event catalog is generated than was available from near realtime detection based on short-term/long-term amplitude ratios, which was saturated by the high rate of activity. The temporal magnitude distribution of the predominant LP events is found to have an unusual banded structure in which the average magnitude of each band slowly increases and then decreases through time. A bifurcation that appears in the uppermost band shortly after the peak in magnitudes is characterized by a quasi-periodicity in intermittency and magnitude that is reminiscent of one of the classic routes to chaotic behavior in some non-linear systems. The waveforms of the predominant events evolve slowly but unsteadily through time. These gradual changes appear to result from variations in the relative amplitudes of spectral peaks that remain stable in frequency, which suggests that they are due to differential excitation of a single, resonant source. Two other previously unrecognized, repetitive waveforms are also identified, but the signals from these secondary events are not clearly recorded at distances beyond the closest station. Similarities among the spectra of the predominant and secondary events suggest that the signals from these events also could represent different modes of exciting the same source. Significant changes in the rates and the sizes of the largest of these secondary events appear to coincide with the peak in the size distribution of the predominant LPs. At least some of the non-repetitive LP waveforms in the swarm appear to be the result of the superposition of signals from the rapid repetition of predominant LP source, thus placing a constraint on the repeat time of the triggering mechanism for this source. A lone hybrid event, which has a waveform character intermediate between the predominant LP events and high-frequency volcano-tectonic events, was also identified in the swarm; the occurrence of this event provides important evidence that the low-frequency character of the LP events is a source rather than a path or site effect. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Stephens, C.D.; Chouet, B.A.
Historically Sactive Redoubt volcano is an Aleutian arc basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic–Early Tertiary Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith. The batholith intrudes the Peninsular tectonostratigraphic terrane, which is considered to have developed on oceanic basement and to have accreted to North America, possibly in Late Jurassic time. Xenoliths in Redoubt magmas have been thought to be modern cumulate gabbros and fragments of the batholith. However, new sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for zircon from gabbro xenoliths from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit are dominated by much older, ca. 310 Ma Pennsylvanian and ca. 1865 Ma Paleoproterozoic grains. Zircon age distributions and trace-element concentrations indicate that the ca. 310 Ma zircons date gabbroic intrusive rocks, and the ca. 1865 Ma zircons also are likely from igneous rocks in or beneath Peninsular terrane basement. The trace-element data imply that four of five Cretaceous–Paleocene zircons, and Pennsylvanian low-U, low-Th zircons in one sample, grew from metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids. Textural evidence of xenocrysts and a dominant population of ca. 1865 Ma zircon in juvenile crystal-rich andesite from the same pyroclastic deposit show that this basement has been assimilated by Redoubt magma. Equilibration temperatures and oxygen fugacities indicated by Fe-Ti–oxide minerals in the gabbros and crystal-rich andesite suggest sources near the margins of the Redoubt magmatic system, most likely in the magma accumulation and storage region currently outlined by seismicity and magma petrology at ?4–10 km below sea level. Additionally, a partially melted gabbro from the 1990 eruption contains zircon with U-Pb ages between ca. 620 Ma and ca. 1705 Ma, as well as one zircon with a U-Th disequilibrium model age of 0 ka. The zircon ages demonstrate that Pennsylvanian, and probably Paleoproterozoic, igneous rocks exist in, or possibly beneath, Peninsular terrane basement. Discovery of Pennsylvanian gabbro similar in age to Skolai arc plutons 500 km to the northeast indicates that the Peninsular terrane, along with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes, has been part of the Wrangellia composite terrane since at least Pennsylvanian time. Moreover, the zircon data suggest that a Paleoproterozoic continental fragment may be present in the mid-to-upper crust in southern Alaska.
Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wooden, Joseph L.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001; Dixon and others, 2002). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the basic seismic data and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. Appendix G contains a list of publications pertaining to seismicity of Alaskan volcanoes based on these and previously recorded data. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John
The Alaska-Aleutian island arc is well known for erupting both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas. To investigate the relative roles of chemical and temporal controls in generating these contrasting liquid lines of descent we have undertaken a detailed study of tholeiitic lavas from Akutan volcano in the oceanic A1eutian arc and calc-alkaline products from Aniakchak volcano on the continental A1askan Peninsula. The differences do not appear to be linked to parental magma composition. The Akutan lavas can be explained by closed-system magmatic evolution, whereas curvilinear trace element trends and a large range in 87 Sr/86 Sr isotope ratios in the Aniakchak data appear to require the combined effects of fractional crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing. Both magmatic suites preserve a similar range in 226 Ra-230 Th disequilibria, which suggests that the time scale of crustal residence of magmas beneath both these volcanoes was similar, and of the order of several thousand years. This is consistent with numerical estimates of the time scales for crystallization caused by cooling in convecting crustal magma chambers. During that time interval the tholeiitic Akutan magmas underwent restricted, closed-system, compositional evolution. In contrast, the calc-alkaline magmas beneath Aniakchak volcano underwent significant open-system compositional evolution. Combining these results with data from other studies we suggest that differentiation is faster in calc-alkaline and potassic magma series than in tholeiitic series, owing to a combination of greater extents of assimilation, magma mixing and cooling.
George, R.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.; Bacon, C.R.; Nye, C.; Stelling, P.; Dreher, S.
Hawaiian Volcanoes are best known for their frequent basaltic eruptions, which typically start with fast-moving channelized `a`a flows fed by high eruptions rates. If the flows continue, they generally transition into pahoehoe flows, fed by lower eruption rates, after a few days to weeks. Kilauea Volcano's ongoing eruption illustrates this--since 1986, effusion at Kilauea has mostly produced pahoehoe. The current state of lava flow simulation is quite advanced, but the simplicity of the models mean that they are most appropriately used during the first, most vigorous, days to weeks of an eruption - during the effusion of `a`a flows. Colleagues at INGV in Catania have shown decisively that MAGFLOW simulations utilizing satellite-derived eruption rates can be effective at estimating hazards during the initial periods of an eruption crisis. However, the algorithms do not simulate the complexity of pahoehoe flows. Forecasts of lava flow hazards are the most common form of volcanic hazard assessments made in Hawai`i. Communications with emergency managers over the last decade have relied on simple steepest-descent line maps, coupled with empirical lava flow advance rate information, to portray the imminence of lava flow hazard to nearby communities. Lavasheds, calculated as watersheds, are used as a broader context for the future flow paths and to advise on the utility of diversion efforts, should they be contemplated. The key is to communicate the uncertainty of any approach used to formulate a forecast and, if the forecast uses simple tools, these communications can be fairly straightforward. The calculation of steepest-descent paths and lavasheds relies on the accuracy of the digital elevation model (DEM) used, so the choice of DEM is critical. In Hawai`i, the best choice is not the most recent but is a 1980s-vintage 10-m DEM--more recent LIDAR and satellite radar DEM are referenced to the ellipsoid and include vegetation effects. On low-slope terrain, steepest descent lines calculated on a geoid-based DEM may differ significantly from those calculated on an ellipsoid-based DEM. Good estimates of lava flow advance rates can be obtained from empirical compilations of historical advance rates of Hawaiian lava flows. In this way, rates appropriate for observed flow types (`a`a or pahoehoe, channelized or not) can be applied. Eruption rate is arguably the most important factor, while slope is also significant for low eruption rates. Eruption rate, however, remains the most difficult parameter to estimate during an active eruption. The simplicity of the HVO approach is its major benefit. How much better can lava-flow advance be forecast for all types of lava flows? Will the improvements outweigh the increased uncertainty propagated through the simulation calculations? HVO continues to improve and evaluate its lava flow forecasting tools to provide better hazard assessments to emergency personnel.
Kauahikaua, J. P.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven volcanoes within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO located 3911 earthquakes in 2003. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2003; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2003.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John
Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes locations and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.
During the eruption of Redoubt Volcano from December 1989 through April 1990, the Alaska Volcano Observatory issued advance warnings of several tephra eruptions based on changes in seismic activity related to the occurrence of precursory swarms of long-period (LP) seismic events (dominant period of about 0.5 s). The initial eruption on December 14 occurred after 23 years of quiescence and was heralded by a 23-hour swarm of LP events that ended abruptly with the eruption. After a series of vent-clearing explosions over the next few days, dome growth began on December 21. Another swarm, with LP events similar to those of the first, began on the 26th and ended in a major tephra eruption on January 2. Eruptions continued over the next two weeks and then ceased until February 15, when a large eruption initiated a long phase of repetitive dome-building and dome-destroying episodes that continued into April. Warnings were issued before the major events on December 14 and January 2, but as the eruptive sequence continued after January 2, the energy of the swarms decreased and forecasting became more difficult. A significant but less intense swarm preceded the February 15 eruption, which was not forecast. This eruption destroyed the only seismograph on the volcanic edifice and stymied forecasting until March 4, when the first of three new stations was installed within 3 km of the active vent. From March 4 to the end of the sequence on April 21, there were eight eruptions, six of which were preceded by detectable swarms of LP events. Although weak, these swarms provided the basis for warnings issued before the eruptions on March 23 and April 6. The initial swarm on December 13 had the following features: (1) short duration (23 hours); (2) a rapidly accelerating rate of seismic energy release over the first 18 hours of the swarm, followed by a decline of activity during the 5 hours preceding the eruption; (3) a magnitude range from -0.4 to 1.6; (4) nearly identical LP signatures with a dominant period near 0.5 s; (5) dilatational first motions everywhere; and (6) a stationary source location at a depth of 1.4 km beneath the crater. This occurrence of long-period events suggests a model involving the interaction of magma with groundwater in which magmatic gases, steam and water drive a fixed conduit at a stationary point throughout the swarm. The initiation of that sequence of events is analogous to the failure of a pressure-relief valve connecting a lower, supercharged magma-dominated reservoir to a shallow hydrothermal system. A three-dimensional model of a vibrating fluid-filled crack recently developed by Chouet is found to be compatible with the seismic data and yields the following parameters for the LP source: crack length, 280-380 m; crack width, 140-190 m; crack thickness, 0.05-0.20 m; crack stiffness, 100-200; sound speed of fluid, 0.8-1.3 km/s; compressional-wave speed of rock, 5.1 km/s; density ratio of fluid to rock, ???0.4; and ratio of bulk modulus of fluid to rigidity of rock, 0.03-0.07. The fluid-filled crack is excited intermittently by an impulsive pressure drop that varies in magnitude within the range of 0.4 to 40 bar. Such disturbance appears to be consistent with a triggering mechanism associated with choked flow conditions in the crack. ?? 1994.
Chouet, B.A.; Page, R.A.; Stephens, C.D.; Lahr, J.C.; Power, J.A.
Shrub mud volcano, one of three mud volcanoes of the Klawasi group in the Copper River Basin, Alaska, has been discharging warm mud and water and CO2?rich gas since 1996. A field visit to Shrub in June 1999 found the general level of hot-spring discharge to be similar, but somewhat more widespread, than in the previous two years. Evidence of recent animal and vegetation deaths from CO2 exposure were confined to localized areas around various gas and fluid vents. Maximum fluid temperatures in each of three main discharge areas, ranging from 48-54?C, were equal to or higher than those measured in the two previous years; such temperatures are significantly higher than those observed intermittently over the past 30 years. At Upper Klawasi mud volcano, measured temperatures of 23-26?C and estimated rates of gas and water discharge in the summit crater lake were also similar to those observed in the previous two years. Gas discharging at Shrub and Upper Klawasi is composed of over 98% CO2 and minor amounts of meteoric gases (N2, O2, Ar) and gases partly of deeper origin (CH4 and He). The rate of CO2 discharge from spring vents and pools at Shrub is estimated to be ~10 metric tonnes per day. This discharge, together with measured concentrations of bicarbonate, suggest that a total CO2 upflow from depth of 20-40 metric tonnes per day at Shrub.Measurements were made of diffuse degassing rates from soil at one ~300 m2 area near the summit of Shrub that included vegetation kill suggestive of high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. Most of measured gas flow rates in this area were significantly higher than background values, and a CO2 concentration of 26 percent was measured at a depth of 10 cm where the gas flow rate was highest. Although additional measurements of diffuse gas flow were made elsewhere at Shrub, no other areas of vegetation kill related to diffuse degassing and high soil-gas CO2 concentrations could be seen from the air.Chemical and isotopic compositions of the gas and water discharging at Shrub and Upper Klawasi indicate derivation from a combination of mantle (magmatic) and crustal (marine sedimentary rock) sources and suggest a common fluid reservoir at depth. In particular, both the total dissolved carbon and values of 13C in CO2 are similar for fluids and gas sampled at each area, and do not appear to have changed with the onset of increased spring temperatures and fluid discharge at Shrub. This suggests that the underlying cause of the recent changes in discharge rate and temperature at Shrub is not an increase in the rate of input of magmatic heat and volatiles, but rather increases in the permeability of the upflow conduits that connect the gas-rich reservoir to the surface.
Sorey, Michael L.; Werner, Cindy; McGimsey, Robert G.; Evans, William C.
Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images, yielding 83.0% producer's accuracy (errors of omission) and 86.1% user's accuracy (errors of commission). These results represent a refinement of a decades-old entry from the USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). The information gained from this study could strengthen management practices by helping decision makers understand the ecological and economic consequences of glacial change. This procedure could be repeated in similar locations worldwide to provide communities with accurate, quantitative information about their changing glacial resources.
Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.
Pyroclastic-flow deposits, block-and-ash flow deposits, and lava flows produced during the mid-January through March 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano contain several distinct juvenile lithologies: 56-57 wt. % SiO2, porphyritic andesite with distinct olive green rinds ("green scoria"); ~62 wt. % SiO2 andesite with distinctly crystalline groundmass ("cinderblock"); dark and light grey andesites with low- to medium- SiO2 (57-60 wt. %) compositions; and banded clasts. Mid-January pyroclastic flow deposits contain predominantly green scoria; late-January pyroclastic flow deposits contain predominantly cinderblock and banded clasts with some light and dark grey andesite, and February-March lava flows and block-and-ash flows contain primarily dark grey and light grey low- to medium-SiO2 andesite. Phenocrysts in all lithologies are plagioclase, hypersthene, augite, Fe-Ti oxides, olivine, and rare amphibole, with plagioclase dominant at ~20-40 vol. % in all clasts. Four primary plagioclase textures are found in all samples: (1) euhedral plagioclase with few melt inclusions but often shot through with apatite crystals; (2) subhedral plagioclase dominated by melt inclusions and apatite crystals; (3) dominantly sieved plagioclase; and (4) plagioclase with a combination of melt inclusions and sieved texture. Banded clasts also contain skeletal plagioclase. Electron microprobe data show hypersthene and augite in the banded, cinderblock, and light grey andesite have average compositions of Wo2En65Fs32 and Wo44En41Fs14 respectively; some of the hypersthenes are rimmed with augite. The hypersthene and augite in the light grey andesite show slight zoning. Fe-Ti oxide pair compositions and calculations from the computer program QUILF indicate the green scoria oxides record temperatures of 855 to 998°C; the cinderblock andesite temperature estimates ranged from 841 to 898°C; and the banded pumice ranged from 849 to 870°C. The disequilibrium textures, the range of juvenile compositions, and the differences in equilibrium temperatures indicate at least two magmatic components present during the eruption with incomplete mingling and hybridization. Both components appear to be present throughout all phases of the eruptive activity although the relative proportions change with time. Future work will focus on phenocryst and whole rock data to test whether the high silica andesite represents a remobilization of shallow magma left from the 1986 eruption and if the low-silica andesite arrived from a deeper magma source and triggered the 2006 eruptions.
Tilman, M. R.; Larsen, J. F.; Coombs, M. L.; Nye, C. J.
The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska was particularly well monitored for volcanic gas emissions. We report 35 airborne measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates that span from October 2008 to August 2010. The magmatic system degassed primarily as a closed system although minor amounts of open system degassing were observed in the 6 months prior to eruption on March 15, 2009 and over 1 year following cessation of dome extrusion. Only 14% of the total CO2 was emitted prior to eruption even though high emissions rates (between 3630 and 9020 t/d) were observed in the final 6 weeks preceding the eruption. A minor amount of the total SO2 was observed prior to eruption (4%), which was consistent with the low emission rates at that time (up to 180 t/d). The amount of the gas emitted during the explosive and dome growth period (March 15-July 1, 2009) was 59 and 66% of the total CO2 and SO2, respectively. Maximum emission rates were 33,110 t/d CO2, 16,650 t/d SO2, and 1230 t/d H2S. Post-eruptive passive degassing was responsible for 27 and 30% of the total CO2 and SO2, respectively. SO2 made up on average 92% of the total sulfur degassing throughout the eruption. Magmas were vapor saturated with a C- and S-rich volatile phase, and regardless of composition, the magmas appear to be buffered by a volatile composition with a molar CO2/SO2 ratio of ~ 2.4. Primary volatile contents calculated from degassing and erupted magma volumes range from 0.9 to 2.1 wt.% CO2 and 0.27-0.56 wt.% S; whole-rock normalized values are slightly lower (0.8-1.7 wt.% CO2 and 0.22-0.47 wt.% S) and are similar to what was calculated for the 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt. Such contents argue that primary arc magmas are rich in CO2 and S. Similar trends between volumes of estimated degassed magma and observed erupted magma during the eruptive period point to primary volatile contents of 1.25 wt.% CO2 and 0.35 wt.% S. Assuming these values, up to 30% additional unerupted magma degassed in the year following final dome emplacement.
Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter J.; Doukas, Michael; Lopez, Taryn; Pfeffer, Melissa; McGimsey, Robert; Neal, Christina
The 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano (Alaska, USA) displayed both Strombolian and Subplinian basaltic activity. The Subplinian phase was preceded by a signal of low amplitude and constant frequency (??? 2 Hz) lasting 13 h. This "humming signal" is interpreted as the coalescence of the very shallow part of a foam building up in the conduit, which produces large gas bubbles before bursting. The acoustic waveform of the hum event is modelled by a Helmholtz resonator: gas is trapped into a rigid cavity and can only escape through a tiny upper hole producing sound waves. At Shishaldin, the radius of the hole (??? 5 m) is close to that of the conduit (??? 6 m), the cavity has a length of ??? 60 m, and gas presents only a small overpressure between (??? 1.2 ?? 10-3 and 4.5 ?? 10-3 MPa). Such an overpressure is obtained by the partial coalescence of a foam formed by bubbles with a diameter from ??? 2.3 mm at the beginning of the episode towards ??? 0.64 mm very close to the end of the phase. The intermittency between hum events is explained by the ripening of the foam induced by the H2O diffusion through the liquid films. The two extreme values, from 600 to 10 s, correspond to a bubble diameter from 2.2 to 0.3 mm at the beginning and end of the pre-Subplinian phase, respectively. The extremely good agreement between two independent estimates of bubble diameters in the shallow foam reinforces the validity of such an interpretation. The total gas volume lost at the surface during the humming events is at most 5.9 ?? 106 m3. At the very end of the pre-Subplinian phase, there is a single large bubble with an overpressure of ???0.42 MPa. The large overpressure suggests that it comes from significant depth, unlike other bubbles in the pre-Subplinian phase. This deep bubble may be responsible for the entire foam collapse, resulting in the Subplinian phase. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vergniolle, S.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.
On March 29, 2007, the Shiveluch Volcano on the Russian Federation's Kamchatka Peninsula erupted. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory the volcano underwent an explosive eruption between 01:50 and 2:30 UTC, sending an ash cloud skyward roughly 9,750 meters (32,000 feet), based on visual estimates. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite took this picture at 02:00 UTC on March 29. The top image shows the volcano and its surroundings. The bottom image shows a close-up view of the volcano at 250 meters per pixel. Satellites often capture images of volcanic ash plumes, but usually as the plumes are blowing away. Plumes have been observed blowing away from Shiveluch before. This image, however, is different. At the time the Aqua satellite passed overhead, the eruption was recent enough (and the air was apparently still enough) that the ash cloud still hovered above the summit. In this image, the bulbous cloud casts its shadow northward over the icy landscape. Volcanic ash eruptions inject particles into Earth's atmosphere. Substantial eruptions of light-reflecting particles can reduce temperatures and even affect atmospheric circulation. Large eruptions impact climate patterns for years. A massive eruption of the Tambora Volcano in Indonesia in 1815, for instance, earned 1816 the nickname 'the year without a summer.' Shiveluch is a stratovolcano--a steep-sloped volcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. One of Kamchatka's largest volcanoes, it sports a summit reaching 3,283 meters (10,771 feet). Shiveluch is also one of the peninsula's most active volcanoes, with an estimated 60 substantial eruptions in the past 10,000 years.
The Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network (ALISON) was initiated by Martin Jeffries (UAF polar scientist), Delena Norris-Tull (UAF education professor) and Ron Reihl (middle school science teacher, Fairbanks North Star Borough School District). The snow and ice measurement protocols were developed in 1999-2000 at the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) by Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska scientists and tested by home school teacher/students in winter 2001-2002 in Fairbanks, AK. The project was launched in 2002 with seven sites around the state (PFRR, Fairbanks, Barrow, Mystic Lake, Nome, Shageluk and Wasilla). The project reached its broadest distribution in 2005-2006 with 22 sites. The schools range from urban (Wasilla) to primarily Alaska native villages (Shageluk). They include public schools, charter schools, home schooled students and parents, informal educators and citizen scientists. The grade levels range from upper elementary to high school. Well over a thousand students have participated in ALISON since its inception. Equipment is provided to the observers at each site. Measurements include ice thickness (with a hot wire ice thickness gauge), snow depth and snow temperature (surface and base). Snow samples are taken and snow density derived. Snow variables are used to calculate the conductive heat flux through the ice and snow cover to the atmosphere. All data are available on the Web site. The students and teachers are scientific partners in the study of lake ice processes, contributing to new scientific knowledge and understanding while also learning science by doing science with familiar and abundant materials. Each autumn, scientists visit each location to work with the teachers and students, helping them to set up the study site, showing them how to make the measurements and enter the data into the computer, and discussing snow, ice and polar environmental change. A number of 'veteran' teachers are now setting up the study sites on their own. Each summer, a workshop in Fairbanks offers the teachers the opportunity to work and learn together, sharing their ALISON field experiences and transfer to the classroom, testing activities and materials, and adding to their content knowledge. This experiential learning project demonstrates that teachers and students can make scientifically valuable measurements when provided with easy-to-use equipment, clear directions and training. The project also shows that when provided with a stimulating learning opportunity, teachers and students find imaginative ways to extend the experience. For example, a number of students have made videos about their ALISON. Lesson plans using ALISON-related science concepts have been generated by ALISON teachers and others. Several ALISON teachers have published articles about the ALISON experience. ALISON teachers have been awarded prestigious Toyota Tapestry grants in support of their activities.
Morris, K.; Jeffries, M.
Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.
The EVOSS consortium of academic, industrial and institutional partners in Europe and Africa, has created a satellite-based volcano observatory, designed to support crisis management within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) framework of the European Commission. Data from 8 different payloads orbiting on 14 satellite platforms (SEVIRI on-board MSG-1, -2 and -3, MODIS on-board Terra and Aqua, GOME-2 and IASI onboard MetOp-A, OMI on-board Aura, Cosmo-SkyMED/1, /2, /3 and /4, JAMI on-board MTSAT-1 and -2, and, until April 8th2012, SCHIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT) acquired at 5 different down-link stations, are disseminated to and automatically processed at 6 locations in 4 countries. The results are sent, in four separate geographic data streams (high-temperature thermal anomalies, volcanic Sulfur dioxide daily fluxes, volcanic ash and ground deformation), to a central facility called VVO, the 'Virtual Volcano Observatory'. This system operates 24H/24-7D/7 since September 2011 on all volcanoes in Europe, Africa, the Lesser Antilles, and the oceans around them, and during this interval has detected, measured and monitored all subaerial eruptions occurred in this region (44 over 45 certified, with overall detection and processing efficiency of ~97%). EVOSS borne realtime information is delivered to a group of 14 qualified end users, bearing the direct or indirect responsibility of monitoring and managing volcano emergencies, and of advising governments in Comoros, DR Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Montserrat, Uganda, Tanzania, France and Iceland. We present the full set of eruptions detected and monitored - from 2004 to present - by multispectral payloads SEVIRI onboard the geostationary platforms of the MSG constellation, for developing and fine tuning-up the EVOSS system along with its real-time, pre- and post-processing automated algorithms. The set includes 91% of subaerial eruptions occurred at 15 volcanoes (Piton de la Fournaise, Karthala, Jebel al Tair, Erta Ale, Manda Hararo, Dalafilla, Nabro, Ol Doinyo Lengai, Nyiamulagira, Nyiragongo, Etna, Stromboli, Eyjafjallajökull, Grimsvötn, Soufriere Hills) showing radiant fluxes above ~0.5 GW and/or SO2 columns in excess of ~6 DU. Porting of automated thermal algorithms on MTSAT's JAMI (orbiting at 145°E) was developed on the eruptions of Merapi, Semeru Kliuchevskoi, Bezymianny and Shiveluch in 2006-2007, calibrated on the frequent activity of Batu Tara, and demonstrated on the 2012-2013 large eruption of Tolbachik.
Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.
As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at midlatitude or high-latitude volcanoes; (c) safety factors during unrest, which can limit where new instrumentation can safely be installed (particularly at near-vent sites that can be critical for precursor detection and eruption forecasting); and (d) the remoteness of many U.S. volcanoes (particularly those in the Aleutians and the Marianas Islands), where access is difficult or impossible most of the year. Given these difficulties, it is reasonable to anticipate that ground-based monitoring of eruptions at U.S. volcanoes will likely be performed primarily with instruments installed before unrest begins. 2. Given a growing awareness of previously undetected 2. phenomena that may occur before an eruption begins, at present the types and (or) density of instruments in use at most U.S. volcanoes is insufficient to provide reliable early warning of volcanic eruptions. As shown by the gap analysis of Ewert and others (2005), a number of U.S. volcanoes lack even rudimentary monitoring. At those volcanic systems with monitoring instrumentation in place, only a few types of phenomena can be tracked in near-real time, principally changes in seismicity, deformation, and large-scale changes in thermal flux (through satellite-based remote sensing). Furthermore, researchers employing technologically advanced instrumentation at volcanoes around the world starting in the 1990s have shown that subtle and previously undetectable phenomena can precede or accompany eruptions. Detection of such phenomena would greatly improve the ability of U.S. volcano observatories to provide accurate early warnings of impending eruptions, and is a critical capability particularly at the very high-threat volcanoes identified by Ewert and others (2005). For these two reasons, change from a reactive to a proactive volcano-monitoring strategy is clearly needed at U.S. volcanoes. Monitoring capabilities need to be expanded at virtually every volcanic center, regardless of its current state of
Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.
The Crater Peak flank vent of Mount Spurr volcano erupted June 27, August 18, and September 16- 17, 1992. The three eruptions were similar in intensity (vulcanian to subplinian eruption columns reaching up to 14 km Above Sea Level) and duration (3.5 to 4.0 hours) and produced tephra-fall deposits (12, 14, 15 x 10 6 m3 Dense Rock Equivalent [DRE]) discernible up to 1,000 km downwind. The June 27 ash cloud traveled north over the rugged, ice- and snow-covered Alaska Range. The August 18 ash cloud was carried southeastward over Anchorage, across Prince William Sound, and down the southeastern shoreline of the Gulf of Alaska. The September 16-17 ash plume was directed eastward over the Talkeetna and Wrangell mountains and into the Yukon Territory of Canada. Over 50 mass-per-unit-area (MPUA) samples were collected for each of the latter two fall deposits at distances ranging from about 2 km to 370 km downwind from the volcano. Only 10 (mostly proximal) samples were collected for the June fall deposit due to inaccessible terrain and funding constraints. MPUA data were plotted and contoured (isomass lines) to graphically display the distribution of each fall deposit. For the August and September eruptions, fallout was concentrated along a narrow (30 to 50 km wide) belt. The fallout was most concentrated (100,000 to greater than 250,000 g/m2) within about 80 km of the volcano. Secondary maxima occur at 200 km (2,620 g/m2) and 300 km (4,659 g/m2), respectively, down axis for the August and September deposits. The maxima contain bimodal grain size distributions (with peaks at 88.4 and 22.1 microns) indicating aggregation within the ash cloud. Combined tephra-volume for the 1992 Mount Spurr eruptions (41 x 10 6 m3 DRE) is comparable to that (tephra-fall only) of the 1989-90 eruptions of nearby Redoubt volcano (31-49 x 106 m3 DRE).
McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Riley, Colleen M.
We report the initial results of a magnetulluric (MT) field survey made in June 2005 & 2006 on the ice surface in the summit caldera (4200 m) of Mt. Wrangell Volcano, Alaska. The purpose was to determine the ice thickness of Mt. Wrangell's summit caldera with on-site passive measurements of VLF/ELF signals. Measurements were made using a Zonge GDP 32II, over a frequency range of roughly 1Hz 8 kHz. Included also are VLF field measurements of existing 24kHz US Navy signals made using a Geonics EM-16R in June 2004 & 2006. In 2006, measurements were coordinated with operation of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program's (HAARP) RF transmitter to test whether ionospheric ELF waves, potentially excited by HAARP, could be measured at the summit of Mt. Wrangell. This work was done in coordination with the 2004- 06 Mt. Wrangell international ice coring and research efforts (Hokkaido University, Japan, Russian Academy of Science, Kamchatka, and the University of Alaska). Though estimated to be as much as 1000m thick, the thickness of the ice in the center of Mt. Wrangell's caldera is not known. Efforts over the past 45 years to determine the ice thickness have met with numerous difficulties, and none have been conclusive in the center region. Previous radio echo sounding efforts: Motyka & Benson, 1976(surface,); Clark & Benson, 1989 (airborne) and Kanamori & Shairaiwa, 2003 (surface) gave reasonable results near the rim of the caldera but were inconclusive in the center region where the depth is expected to be maximum In summer 2004 a single radio-echo measurement in the center by Kanamori gave a depth of roughly 750 meters. Seismic measurements in 2004 by Lüthi &Truffer suggest an ice thickness of roughly 700- 900 meters though data interpretation was problematic. The 2005 Resistivity vs. Depth results from a site in the center of the caldera, using a smoothed 1-d inverse model (Zonge) show a significant change in resistivity at a depth of between 700-800 meters, possibly indicating the bottom of the ice. Analysis of the same data set using a Bostick model shows a resistivity break at a slightly shallower depth 600 700 meters. This effort is part of a pilot project investigating whether the HAARP RF transmitter located in Gakona, Alaska can effectively generate ionospheric VLF/ELF signals that can be used as probe waves to determine the thickness of the ice and potentially deeper structure in the caldera of Mt. Wrangell Volcano, Alaska. This work is the exploratory phase of the project determining whether VLF/ELF signals can be successfully used to measure the ice thickness in the center of Mt. Wrangell's summit caldera.
Solie, D. J.; Wescott, E.; Benson, C. S.; Kanamori, S.; Liu, D.
Analysis of satellite images of Kasatochi volcano and field studies in 2008 and 2009 have shown that within about one year of the 78 August 2008 eruption, significant geomorphic changes associated with surface and coastal erosion have occurred. Gully erosion has removed 300,000 to 600,000 m3 of mostly fine-grained volcanic sediment from the flanks of the volcano and much of this has reached the ocean. Sediment yield estimates from two representative drainage basins on the south and west flanks of the volcano, with drainage areas of 0.7 and 0.5 km2, are about 104 m3 km-2 yr-1 and are comparable to sediment yields documented at other volcanoes affected by recent eruptive activity. Estimates of the retreat of coastal cliffs also made from analysis of satellite images indicate average annual erosion rates of 80 to 140 m yr-1. If such rates persist it could take 35 years for wave erosion to reach the pre-eruption coastline, which was extended seaward about 400 m by the accumulation of erupted volcanic material. As of 13 September 2009, the date of the most recent satellite image of the island, the total volume of material eroded by wave action was about 106 m3. We did not investigate the distribution of volcanic sediment in the near shore ocean around Kasatochi Island, but it appears that erosion and sediment dispersal in the nearshore environment will be greatest during large storms when the combination of high waves and rainfall runoff are most likely to coincide. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.
Waythomas, C.F.; Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.
Iliamna is an andesitic stratovolcano of the Aleutian arc with regular gas and steam emissions and mantled by several large glaciers. Iliamna Volcano exhibits an unusual combination of frequent and large ice-rock avalanches in the order of 1 ?? 106??m3 to 3 ?? 107??m3 with recent return periods of 2-4??years. We have reconstructed an avalanche event record for the past 45??years that indicates Iliamna avalanches occur at higher frequency at a given magnitude than other mass failures in volcanic and alpine environments. Iliamna Volcano is thus an ideal site to study such mass failures and its relation to volcanic activity. In this study, we present different methods that fit into a concept of (1) long-term monitoring, (2) early warning, and (3) event documentation and analysis of ice-rock avalanches on ice-capped active volcanoes. Long-term monitoring methods include seismic signal analysis, and space-and airborne observations. Landsat and ASTER satellite data was used to study the extent of hydrothermally altered rocks and surface thermal anomalies at the summit region of Iliamna. Subpixel heat source calculation for the summit regions where avalanches initiate yielded temperatures of 307 to 613??K assuming heat source areas of 1000 to 25??m2, respectively, indicating strong convective heat flux processes. Such heat flow causes ice melting conditions and is thus likely to reduce the strength at the base of the glacier. We furthermore demonstrate typical seismic records of Iliamna avalanches with rarely observed precursory signals up to two hours prior to failure, and show how such signals could be used for a multi-stage avalanche warning system in the future. For event analysis and documentation, space- and airborne observations and seismic records in combination with SRTM and ASTER derived terrain data allowed us to reconstruct avalanche dynamics and to identify remarkably similar failure and propagation mechanisms of Iliamna avalanches for the past 45??years. Simple avalanche flow modeling was able to reasonably replicate Iliamna avalanches and can thus be applied for hazard assessments. Hazards at Iliamna Volcano are low due to its remote location; however, we emphasize the transfer potential of the methods presented here to other ice-capped volcanoes with much higher hazards such as those in the Cascades or the Andes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huggel, C.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Wessels, R.L.
Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…
Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.
Bluffs along the Hayes River valley, 31 km northeast and 40 km downstream from Hayes Volcano, reveal volcanic deposits that shed new light on its eruptive history. Three thick (>10 cm) and five thin (<10 cm) tephra-fall deposits are dacitic in whole rock composition and contain high proportions of amphibole to pyroxene and minor biotite and broadly correlate to Hayes tephra set H defined by earlier investigators. Two basal ages for the tephra-fall sequence of 3,690±30 and 3,750±30 14C yr B.P. are also consistent with the Hayes tephra set H timeframe. Distinguishing among Hayes tephra set H units is critical because the set is an important time-stratigraphic marker in south-central Alaska and this section provides a new reference section for Hayes tephra set H. Analysis of Fe-Ti oxide grains in the tephras shows promise for identifying individual Hayes deposits. Beneath the dacitic tephra sequence lies an older, poorly sorted tephra (tephra A) that contains dacite and rhyolite lapilli and whose basal age is 4,450±30 14C yr B.P. Immediately below the tephra-fall sequence (Unit III) lies a series of mass-flow deposits that are rich in rhyodacitic clasts (Unit II). Below Unit II and possibly coeval with it, is a 20–30 m thick pumiceous pyroclastic-flow deposit (Unit I) that extends to the valley floor. Here informally named the Hayes River ignimbrite, this deposit contains pumice clasts of rhyolite with quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, and biotite phenocrysts, an assemblage that is unique among known Quaternary volcanic products of Hayes and other Alaskan volcanoes. Units I, II, and tephra A of Unit III represent at least two previously unrecognized eruptions of Hayes Volcano that occurred prior to ~3,700 yr B.P. No compositionally equivalent distal tephra deposits correlative with Hayes Volcano rhyodacites or rhyolites have yet been identified, perhaps indicating that some of these deposits are pre-Holocene, and were largely removed by glacial ice during the last ice age. More field and analytical work is needed to further refine the eruptive history of Hayes Volcano.
Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L.; Hayden, Leslie A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.
Satellite remote sensing offers a glimpse into the eruption dynamics of the volcanoes of Kamchatka. Imaging using wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared to radar have been essential in helping to mitigate the effects of these eruptions. In thermal data a long-term and elusive goal is to detect precursory signals to eruptions. The data archive at the Alaska Volcano Observatory has nearly continuous coverage of these volcanoes from August 1993 to present, and offers a unique resource to establish baseline character for each volcano, and reliably detect differences that have led to the over 100 explosive events observed over this time. Volcanoes with active lava domes, in this case Bezymianny and Shivelch show the most promise in defining precursors to eruptions. In the case of Bezymianny, Thermal anomalies typically precede explosive activity, presumably representing lava extrusion destabilizing the lava dome through growth. Time sequences which show a steep increase, 10° C brightness temperature over the course of a day, are more likely to produce an explosive event. For Shiveluch the trend is not as clear. This emphasizes that each volcano requires different baseline data for comparison. Never the less, it is promising that for some volcanoes, thermal data provides precursory signals to eruptions.
Dehn, J.; van Manen, S.
Summary: The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents calculated earthquake hypocenters and seismic phase arrival data, and details changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2005. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at thirty-two volcanoes within Alaska in 2005 (Figure 1). The network was augmented by two new subnetworks to monitor the Semisopochnoi Island volcanoes and Little Sitkin Volcano. Seismicity at these volcanoes was still being studied at the end of 2005 and has not yet been added to the list of permanently monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. Following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at the Mount Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Korovin Volcano, formal monitoring of these volcanoes began in 2005. AVO located 9,012 earthquakes in 2005. Monitoring highlights in 2005 include: (1) seismicity at Mount Spurr remaining above background, starting in February 2004, through the end of the year and into 2006; (2) an increase in seismicity at Augustine Volcano starting in May 2005, and continuing through the end of the year into 2006; (3) volcanic tremor and seismicity related to low-level strombolian activity at Mount Veniaminof in January to March and September; and (4) a seismic swarm at Tanaga Volcano in October and November. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field in 2005; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2005; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2005.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazard Program (VHP) is revising the information architecture of our website to provide data within a geospatial context for emergency managers, educators, landowners in volcanic areas, researchers, and the general public. Using a map-based interface for displaying hazard information provides a synoptic view of volcanic activity along with the ability to quickly ascertain where hazards are in relation to major population and infrastructure centers. At the same time, the map interface provides a gateway for educators and the public to find information about volcanoes in their geographic context. A plethora of data visualization solutions are available that are flexible, customizable, and can be run on individual websites. We are currently using a Google map interface because it can be accessed immediately from a website (a downloadable viewer is not required), and it provides simple features for moving around and zooming within the large map area that encompasses U.S. volcanism. A text interface will also be available. The new VHP website will serve as a portal to information for each volcano the USGS monitors with icons for alert levels and aviation color codes. When a volcano is clicked, a window will provide additional information including links to maps, images, and real-time data, thereby connecting information from individual observatories, the Smithsonian Institution, and our partner universities. In addition to the VHP home page, many observatories and partners have detailed graphical interfaces to data and images that include the activity pages for the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Smithsonian Google Earth files, and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory pictures and data. Users with varied requests such as raw data, scientific papers, images, or brief overviews expect to be able to quickly access information for their specialized needs. Over the next few years we will be gathering, cleansing, reorganizing, and posting data in multiple formats to meet these needs.
Venezky, D. Y.; Snedigar, S.; Guffanti, M.; Bailey, J. E.; Wall, B. G.
Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page, which is sponsored by the Keweenaw Volcano Observatory, aims to provide information about volcanoes to the public and to complement other informational sites on the Web. Visitors will find information on what a volcano is, currently active volcanoes throughout the world, remote sensing of volcanoes, volcanic humor, and much more. The volcano hazard section of the site contains primarily original content that provides a Basic Guide to Volcanic Hazards and details Volcanic Cloud Hazards to Aviation, while offering volcano safety recommendations to the public. Although the site could use an update to its layout and organization, it does do a good job of presenting an interesting mix of unique information.
Done in cooperation with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) and the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW) Prefect This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards (or with the North American Stratigraphic Code). Any use of trade, product or firm names is for
T. P. Miller; G. Lvcgimsey; D. H. Rlchter J; J. R. Riehfe; Cj. Nye; M. E. Younf; Andj. A. Dumoulin
The morphology, stability and duration of seasonal landfast sea ice in Alaska's coastal zone is changing alongside large-scale ice thinning and retreat. The extent and complexity of change at the local level requires an integrated observing approach to assess implications of such change for coastal ecosystems and communities that rely on or make use of the sea-ice cover. Barrow, Alaska
Matthew L. Druckenmiller; Hajo Eicken; Mark A. Johnson; Daniel J. Pringle; Christina C. Williams
Before and during the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) installed a network of telemetered and nontelemetered cameras in Homer, Alaska, and on Augustine Island. On December 1, 2005, a network camera was installed at the Homer Field Station, a University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAF/GI) facility on a bluff near Homer, where telemetered Augustine data are received. The camera placed there provides observations of the volcano from a distance of 126 km (78 miles) in daylight hours during clear sky conditions. On January 9, 2006, a radio-telemetered network camera was installed on the lower eastern flank of the volcano at 'Mound,' 4.4 km (2.7 miles) from the summit. The proximity of this camera provided for near-field images of the volcano. A nontelemetered camera with onsite recording was installed 3.8 km (2.4 miles) north of the volcano's summit near Burr Point on December 17, 2005. This camera recorded high-resolution images at a rate of 4 images per hour through much of the eruptive sequence. A low-light camera was installed on February 8, 2006, at the Homer facility to augment the extreme low-light camera installed by the UAF/GI (Sentman and others, this volume). On September 10, 2006, a second radio-telemetered network camera was installed at Lagoon camp on the west side of Augustine Island, 5.4 km (3.3 miles) west-northwest of the summit. The installation of these camera systems proved valuable for assessing volcanic activity, determining ground hazards and on-island weather for visiting field teams, and deciphering depositional history after the eruption.
Paskievitch, John; Read, Cyrus; Parker, Thomas
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained a seismic monitoring program at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. Between 1994 and 1999, the AVO seismic monitoring program underwent significant changes with networks added at new volcanoes during each summer from 1995 through 1999. The existing network at Katmai –Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) was repaired in 1995, and new networks were installed at Makushin (1996), Akutan (1996), Pavlof (1996), Katmai - south (1996), Aniakchak (1997), Shishaldin (1997), Katmai - north (1998), Westdahl, (1998), Great Sitkin (1999) and Kanaga (1999). These networks added to AVO's existing seismograph networks in the Cook Inlet area and increased the number of AVO seismograph stations from 46 sites and 57 components in 1994 to 121 sites and 155 components in 1999. The 1995–1999 seismic network expansion increased the number of volcanoes monitored in real-time from 4 to 22, including Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Mount Snowy, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski volcano, Shisaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl volcano, Akutan volcano, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (see Figures 1-15). The network expansion also increased the number of earthquakes located from about 600 per year in1994 and 1995 to about 3000 per year between 1997 and 1999. Highlights of the catalog period include: 1) a large volcanogenic seismic swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes. This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.
Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.
Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi Volcano, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt Volcano. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2008.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.
Between January 1 and December 31, 2012, the Alaska Volcano Observatory located 4,787 earthquakes, of which 4,211 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by a seismograph network. There was significant seismic activity at Iliamna, Kanaga, and Little Sitkin volcanoes in 2012. Instrumentation highlights for this year include the implementation of the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System hardware and software in February 2012 and the continuation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work in the summer of 2012. The operational highlight was the removal of Mount Wrangell from the list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes hypocenters, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2012 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Haney, Matt; Parker, Tom; Searcy, Cheryl; Prejean, Stephanie
The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory uses a variety of ground- and satellite-based techniques to monitor Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes. Here, an HVO scientist sets up a portable GPS receiver to track surface changes during an island-wide survey of Hawai‘i’s volcanoes. &n...
A series of ERS radar interferograms that collectively span the time interval from July 1992 to August 2000 reveal that a presumed magma body located 6.6 ??? 0.5 km beneath the southwest flank of the Mount Peulik volcano inflated 0.051 ??? 0.005 km3 between October 1996 and September 1998. Peulik has been active only twice during historical time, in 1814 and 1852, and the volcano was otherwise quiescent during the 1990s. The inflation episode spanned at least several months because separate interferograms show that the associated ground deformation was progressive. The average inflation rate of the magma body was ???0.003 km3/month from October 1996 to September 1997, peaked at 0.005 km3/month from 26 June to 9 October 1997, and dropped to ???0.001 km3/month from October 1997 to September 1998. An intense earthquake swarm, including three ML 4.8 - 5.2 events, began on 8 May 1998 near Becharof Lake, ???30 km northwest of Peulik. More than 400 earthquakes with a cumulative moment of 7.15 ?? 1017 N m were recorded in the area through 19 October 1998. Although the inflation and earthquake swarm occured at about the same time, the static stress changes that we calculated in the epicentral area due to inflation beneath Peulik appear too small to provide a causal link. The 1996-1998 inflation episode at Peulik confirms that satellite radar interferometry can be used to detect magma accumulation beneath dormant volcanoes at least several months before other signs of unrest are apparent. This application represents a first step toward understanding the eruption cycle at Peulik and other stratovolcanoes with characteristically long repose periods.
Lu, Z.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Thatcher, W.
This Why Files article explores volcanoes and volcanic eruptions. Topics covered include: Alaska's Pavlof and its threat to jet engines; Mexico City's restless neighbor, Popocatepetl (El Popo); underground volcanic processes; modern forecasting of eruptions; various volcanic phenomena and features; large flood basalt areas around the world; California's volcanically active area, Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain; Indonesia's Krakatau eruption in 1883, which was the world's largest historical eruption; Krakatau's ecological contribution to the study of colonization of sterile lands; and central Mexico's Paricutin which was witnessed emerging from a farmer's field in 1943. Three scientists were interviewed for this article.
Kasatochi volcano, an island volcano in the Aleutian chain, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. The resulting ash and pyroclastic flows blanketed the island, covering terrestrial habitats. We surveyed the marine environment surrounding Kasatochi Island in June and July of 2009 to document changes in abundance or distribution of nutrients, fish, and marine birds near the island when compared to patterns observed on earlier surveys conducted in 1996 and 2003. Analysis of SeaWiFS satellite imagery indicated that a large chlorophyll-a anomaly may have been the result of ash fertilization during the eruption. We found no evidence of continuing marine fertilization from terrestrial runoff 10 months after the eruption. At-sea surveys in June 2009 established that the most common species of seabirds at Kasatochi prior to the eruption, namely crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) and least auklets (Aethia pusilla) had returned to Kasatochi in relatively high numbers. Densities from more extensive surveys in July 2009 were compared with pre-eruption densities around Kasatochi and neighboring Ulak and Koniuji islands, but we found no evidence of an eruption effect. Crested and least auklet populations were not significantly reduced by the initial explosion and they returned to attempt breeding in 2009, even though nesting habitat had been rendered unusable. Maps of pre- and post-eruption seabird distribution anomalies indicated considerable variation, but we found no evidence that observed distributions were affected by the 2008 eruption. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.
Drew, G.S.; Dragoo, D.E.; Renner, M.; Piatt, J.F.
Melting of snow and glacier ice during the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano caused winter flooding of the Drift River. Drift glacier was beheaded when 113 to 121 ?? 106 m3 of perennial snow and ice were mechanically entrained in hot-rock avalanches and pyroclastic flows initiated by the four largest eruptions between 14 December 1989 and 14 March 1990. The disruption of Drift glacier was dominated by mechanical disaggregation and entrainment of snow and glacier ice. Hot-rock avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows incised deep canyons in the glacier ice thereby maintaining a large ice-surface area available for scour by subsequent flows. Downvalley flow rheologies were transformed by the melting of snow and ice entrained along the upper and middle reaches of the glacier and by seasonal snowpack incorporated from the surface of the lower glacier and from the river valley. The seasonal snowpack in the Drift River valley contributed to lahars and floods a cumulative volume equivalent to about 35 ?? 106 m3 of water, which amounts to nearly 30% of the cumulative flow volume 22 km downstream from the volcano. The absence of high-water marks in depressions and of ice-collapse features in the glacier indicated that no large quantities of meltwater that could potentially generate lahars were stored on or under the glacier; the water that generated the lahars that swept Drift River valley was produced from the proximal, eruption-induced volcaniclastic flows by melting of snow and ice. ?? 1994.
Trabant, D.C.; Waitt, R.B.; Major, J.J.
Pyroclastic flows, mixed avalanches of pyroclasts and snow, and lahars erupted during three phases of activity at Augustine Volcano between January and April 2006. The activity also produced lava-domes, lava flows, and tephra. Aerial reconnaissance and limited observation during the eruption, and intensive field study later, helped us differentiate and characterize flowage deposits of each phase. A first explosive phase comprised several discrete pyroclastic eruptions that punctuated extrusion of andesitic lavas near the summit in mid- January. The second phase corresponded with rapid growth and pyroclastic collapse of a high-silica andesite dome in late January and early February. The third phase included small block-and-ash flows from steep- sided, andesitic lava flows between early February and April. The first eruptive phase, from January 13 to 17, included seven discrete explosions with durations of up to 11 minutes. These explosions generated the most widespread and widely varied clastic deposits of the eruption. Initial pyroclastic flows of this phase swept across steep, extensively snow-covered slopes around the majority of the volcano to form thin pyroclastic-flow deposits, lahars, and mixed avalanches comprising snow, water, and pyroclastic debris. Later phase-1 pyroclastic flows tended to follow drainages and produce deposits with more classic morphology, including blocky, lobate margins and levees. Phase-1 pyroclastic-flow deposits contain fine to coarse ash and 50 to 70% distinctive, olive-green, scoriaceous, cauliflower-shaped andesite, 15 to 20% light-gray, vesicular, high-silica andesite and 25 to 35% dark-gray, dense, porphyritic andesite. Flow morphologies, lithologies, and depositional contacts indicate that the lahars and mixed avalanches were deposited immediately after the pyroclastic flows that generated them. During the second eruptive phase, especially between January 28 and February 2, a high-silica-andesite dome grew and collapsed repeatedly to produce voluminous block-and-ash-flow deposits that spread over much of the north flank of the volcano. Phase-2 deposits are more voluminous and thicker than those of other phases. Distinctive levees characterize medial flow reaches. In distal areas, deposit margins are blocky and digitate. These block-and-ash flows comprise fine to coarse ash and 75 to 80% light-gray, variably vesicular, high-silica andesite, and 20 to 25% dark- and medium-gray, porphyritic andesite, but lack the olive-green andesite of phase 1. Phase-3 effusion of dark-gray to black, andesite lava flows north and northeast of the summit, from February to April, also generated block-and-ash flows. These deposits overlie those of the earlier phases, but are limited to lava fronts and margins.
Bull, K. F.; Vallance, J. W.; Coombs, M. L.
Repeat thermal imaging of volcanoes is important for describing baseline thermal behavior in order to detect future volcanic unrest or eruption precursors. Over 15,000 ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) day and night thermal infrared (TIR) views of Alaskan volcanoes have been acquired since early 2000 revealing many persistent thermal features. This presentation will report results of our ongoing assessment of TIR data for detecting and measuring small (<100m) and/or low-temperature (30 - 100°C) thermal features on volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors the status of volcanoes throughout Alaska and relies heavily on satellite remote sensing. AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors provide frequent (10-20/day), low-resolution (1 - 8km/pixel) TIR data which are used to detect volcanic emissions and elevated surface temperatures. While these low-resolution data are critical for detecting eruptions and ash clouds, smaller low-temperature features, such as fumaroles, are typically not detected by AVHRR and MODIS TIR. This work augments the existing AVO long-term temperature measurements of background and eruption thermal features observed in low-resolution satellite data by using much higher spatial resolution satellite and ground-based TIR data. ASTER is programmed to acquire several images per year at every volcano on Earth. The ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) provides additional acquisitions via a rapid response system that semi-automates additional volcano views when AVHRR or MODIS detects increased thermal output. ASTER is the only instrument that routinely acquires multiband (5 TIR bands, 8 -12 ?m) high spatial resolution (90-meter) TIR data over volcanic targets. Cloud-free level 2 kinetic temperature products from ASTER acquired from 2000 to 2012 allow us to produce thermal maps and temperature vs. time plots for each target volcano in Alaska. Retrospective analysis of archived ASTER TIR data has revealed subtle, small-scale variations in thermal activity at several Alaskan volcanoes. For example, ASTER TIR data of Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague, 7 km to the west, show patterns of independent thermal activity. Temperatures slowly increased at Pavlof Volcano before the August 2007 eruption, while temperature slowly decreased on average in the intermittently water-filled Mount Hague crater. ASTER TIR of the Redoubt Volcano summit area detects a gradual increase in both the area and temperature of small gaps in the ice beginning nearly 16 months before the 2009 eruption. Thermal features at several other volcanoes persist at a fairly constant temperature within the error of atmospheric effects. While in some cases infrequent ASTER TIR views are able to detect subtle anomalies, robust, automated detection and early identification of thermal precursors at active volcanoes requires better spatial and temporal resolution. Field-based TIR sensors at select volcanoes provide these data and help validate satellite TIR data. However, new high-resolution multispectral TIR satellite sensors with frequent, at least daily, night and day acquisitions are needed to provide a consistent, long-term synoptic thermal view of every volcano and eruptive activity. The multispectral TIR sensor described in NASA's HyspIRI mission concept could provide essential spaceborne TIR that would help to meet this requirement.
Wessels, R.; Vaughan, R.; Patrick, M. R.; Ramsey, M.
Physical and compositional data and K-Ar ages are reported for 14 rear-arc volcanoes that lic 11-22 km behind the narrowly linear volcanic front defined by the Mount Katmai-to-Devils Desk chain on the Alaska Peninsula. One is a 30-km3 stratocone (Mount Griggs; 51-63% SiO2) active intermittently from 292 ka to Holocene. The others are monogenetic cones, domes, lava flows, plugs, and maars, of which 12 were previously unnamed and unstudied; they include seven basalts (48-52% SiO2), four mafic andesites (53-55% SiO2), and three andesite-dacite units. Six erupted in the interval 500-88 ka, one historically in 1977, and five in the interval 3-2 Ma. No migration of the volcanic front is discernible since the late Miocene, so even the older units erupted well behind the front. Discussion explores the significance of the volcanic front and the processes that influence compositional overlaps and differences among mafic products of the rear-arc volcanoes and of the several arc-front edifices nearby. The latter have together erupted a magma volume of about 200 km3, at least four times that of all rear-arc products combined. Correlation of Sr-isotope ratios with indices of fractionation indicates crustal contributions in volcanic-front magmas (0.7033-0.7038), but lack of such trends among the rear-arc units (0.70298-0.70356) suggests weaker and less systematic crustal influence. Slab contributions and mantle partial-melt fractions both appear to decline behind the front, but neither trend is crisp and unambiguous. No intraplate mantle contribution is recognized nor is any systematic across-arc difference in intrinsic mantle-wedge source fertility discerned. Both rear-arc and arc-front basalts apparently issued from fluxing of typically fertile NMORB-source mantle beneath the Peninsular terrane, which docked here in the Mesozoic. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.
Hildreth, W.; Fierstein, J.; Siems, D.F.; Budahn, J.R.; Ruiz, J.
The July-August 2008 phreatomagmatic eruption of Okmok Volcano produced ~ 0.26 km3 (DRE) of phenocryst-poor (1 to 2 vol.%) basaltic andesite ejecta, compositionally distinct from the basalt erupted during 1997 (51.90 wt.% SiO2). Analyzed juvenile products are tan to dark gray vesicular lapilli (scoria), and dense, purple-black bombs. Whole-rock compositions cluster tightly (54.97 ± 0.25 wt.% SiO2). The eruption also produced mafic ash containing basaltic groundmass glasses (52 wt.% SiO2) and olivine-hosted melt inclusions (down to 47 wt.% SiO2). The scoria and early-erupted ash contain compositionally similar plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine phenocrysts. Olivine phenocrysts in the scoria and ash are not in equilibrium with the basaltic andesite whole-rock composition. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions yield 0.11 (± 0.04) to 3.61 (± 1.24) wt.% total H2O by ?-FTIR, with an average of 1.23 ± 0.68 (1?) wt.%. Three inclusions contain CO2 = 37 to 49 ppm with the rest below detection. Solubility model-derived inclusion entrapment/re-equilibration depths extend from near surface to 4.6 (± 2.5) km, in agreement with recent geophysical studies. The 2008 eruption was triggered by an influx of melt-rich basalt originating from the 3 to 6 km storage region beneath the center of the caldera, which intersected a shallower, more evolved magma body beneath Cone D. Our study concludes that the Okmok magma system is “mush-column” like, containing multiple magma bodies with a common and frequent replenishment source, but segregated with unique geochemical signatures.
Larsen, Jessica F.; ?liwi?ski, Maciej G.; Nye, Christopher; Cameron, Cheryl; Schaefer, Janet R.
The 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced tephra-fall deposits during four eruptive phases. The island setting, deposition of thin, fine-grained fall deposits onto the snowpack, and subsequent reworking by high winds and surface-water flow has removed much of the original proximal fall record. During the late precursory phase (December 2005), small phreatic explosions produced very light, localized tephra fall. Tephra from one such event is composed of altered and fresh, possibly juvenile, glass shards. The greatest volume of tephra fall was produced during the explosive phase (January 11 - 28) when 13 discrete explosive events generated plumes between 3 -14 km ASL during a period of dome building and collapse. Associated strong seismicity lasted 1-11 min (avg 4 min), closely matching the duration of plume generation followed by detachment from the vent and distribution by local winds. On January 11, explosions generated two plumes to ~9 km ASL and deposited trace amounts of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna W and NW of Augustine. Tephra from this event are not well preserved and were likely small in volume, but proximal and distal samples collected during the eruption are composed mainly of older dense dome fragments and crystals with little to no juvenile material. On January 13 and 14, six discrete explosions produced plumes to 9 - 11 km ASL that dispersed to the N-NE and deposited < 1mm of ash on Homer, Seldovia, Nanwelek and Port Graham. Coarse proximal fall deposits are composed mainly of olive- green, scoriaceous, low-silica andesite; subordinate black, dense, porphyritic low-silica andesite; white, variably vesicular high-silica andesite; and accidental lithic fragments. During this time, low-silica andesite dome extrusion was occurring. An explosion on January 17 produced a plume to ~14 km ASL that dispersed to the W-NW and deposited 1 mm of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna. Coarse proximal fall deposits contain the same clast types as the January 13-14 events, with proportionally more white high-silica andesite that ranges to higher vesicularities and only rare accidental lithic clasts. On January 27-28, four explosions produced plumes to 3-9 km ASL, that dispersed to the SE and S-SW leading into the continuous phase (January 28 - February 2), characterized by constant low-level ash emissions punctuated by discrete explosions of tephra to 3-8 km ASL. The plume was dispersed to the S depositing ~1mm of ash on Afognak and Kodiak Islands (January 27-February 2). No correlative proximal coarse-grained fall deposits have been identified. Fine to very fine light gray, massive ash deposits are perhaps the most common fall fraction on the island and likely represent elutriation from pyroclastic flows generated during this time interval (from high-silica andesite dome collapse). The effusive phase (February 2-late March) produced a low-silica andesite lava dome and flows. Very fine, pinkish massive ash deposits on the N, W and E sectors overlie other fall deposits and are likely elutriate from small block and ash flows associated with growth of steep-sided lava flows. No significant tephra plumes occurred during this time, although a small volume tephra deposit of mostly black, dense, low-silica andesite overlies pyroclastic-flow deposits from mid January and likely represents a small explosion which is corroborated by infrasound sensor data during this phase.
Wallace, K. L.; Neal, C.; McGimsey, G.
This page consists of two maps of the world, showing how earthquakes define the boundaries of tectonic plates. Volcanoes are also distributed at plate boundaries (the "Ring of Fire" in the Pacific) and at oceanic ridges. It is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory website, which features written material, images, maps, and links to related topics.
The 7-8 August, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, located in the central Aleutians Islands, Alaska, produced compositionally heterogeneous basaltic andesite (52-55 wt% SiO2). Bulk compositions of basaltic andesite samples lie along linear trends in element-element variation diagrams, while plagioclase, titanomagnetite and amphibole phenocrysts from the basaltic andesite are compositionally bimodal. Titanomagnetite phenocrysts are divided compositionally into low-Ti (~5 wt. % TiO2) and high-Ti (~8-10 wt. % TiO2) groups, while amphibole phenocrysts are divided into low-Al (~10-12 wt. % Al2O3) and high-Al (~14-16 wt. % Al2O3) populations. The first plagioclase population (Group 1), which is volumetrically dominant, consists of oscillatory-zoned phenocrysts that trend towards comparatively low-Ca rims (An55-65). These phenocrysts are normally zoned, with discrete spikes up to ~An90. The second population (Group 2) is more calcic with most rims up to ~An90, yet a subpopulation exists where rims sharply decrease in calcium content, reaching as low as ~An60, but are otherwise texturally and compositionally homogeneous (~An90). In addition to phenocryst compositions, plagioclase microlites are normally zoned, > 50% have rim compositions > An80, and they are typically more calcic than Group 1 rims. The most likely explanation for the compositional diversity in the bulk and phenocrysts is mixing between mafic and silicic end members, leading to linear mixing trends in the basaltic andesite bulk compositions. Group 1 plagioclase phenocrysts, low-Al amphibole and high-Ti titanomagnetite likely derived from the silicic mixing end member, while the mafic mixing end member contributed the Group 2 plagioclase phenocrysts, high-Al amphibole and low-Ti titanomagnetite. Plagioclase-liquid thermometry indicates that the mafic end member was likely hotter (900-1050 °C) than the silicic end member (800-950 °C). Microlites are frequently assumed to form due to decompression and magmatic degassing during ascent and eruption. However, in the case of Kasatochi, the mixing of these two magmas prior to eruption, and the temperature difference between them, led to undercooling of the mafic end member, and the nucleation of the anomalously high-An microlites in the mafic end member's more calcic liquids.
Neill, O. K.; Larsen, J. F.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.
This webcam shows a static image of Mount St. Helens taken from the Johnston Ridge Observatory. The Observatory and VolcanoCam are located at an elevation of approximately 4,500 feet, about five miles from the volcano. The observer is looking approximately south-southeast across the North Fork Toutle River Valley. The VolcanoCam image automatically updates approximately every five minutes. Other features include current conditions reports, weather updates, an image achive, and eruption movies. In addition, there are frequently asked questions, and information about using the VolcanoCam image and funding for the VolcanoCam.
Between January 1 and December 31, 2009, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 8,829 earthquakes, of which 7,438 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. Monitoring highlights in 2009 include the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, as well as unrest at Okmok Caldera, Shishaldin Volcano, and Mount Veniaminof. Additionally severe seismograph subnetwork outages resulted in four volcanoes (Aniakchak, Fourpeaked, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being removed from the formal list of monitored volcanoes in late 2009. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2009; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2009; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2009, and a dataless SEED volume for the AVO seismograph network.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.
The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake provided an excellent opportunity to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 247-2159 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ???1 hr after the Mw 7.9 arrival time at each network and for significant increases in located earthquakes in the hours after the mainshock. We found compelling evidence for triggering only at the Katmai volcanic cluster (KVC, 720-755 km southwest of the epicenter), where small earthquakes with distinct P and 5 arrivals appeared within the mainshock coda at one station and a small increase in located earthquakes occurred for several hours after the mainshock. Peak dynamic stresses of ???0.1 MPa at Augustine Volcano (560 km southwest of the epicenter) are significantly lower than those recorded in Yellowstone and Utah (>3000 km southeast of the epicenter), suggesting that strong directivity effects were at least partly responsible for the lack of triggering at Alaskan volcanoes. We describe other incidents of earthquake-induced triggering in the KVC, and outline a qualitative magnitude/distance-dependent triggering threshold. We argue that triggering results from the perturbation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the KVC and suggest that the comparative lack of triggering at other Alaskan volcanoes could be a result of differences in the nature of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.
Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; Sanchez, J.J.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.
Fairbanks MS thesis, 139 p., available at http://www.avo.alaska.edu/downloads/ Bacon, C. R., and Lowenstern., Larsen, J. F., Neal, C. A., Nye, C. J., and Schaefer, J. R., 2005, Preliminary volcano- hazard assessment
A commercially-available lightning-detection system was temporarily deployed near Cook Inlet, Alaska in an attempt to remotely monitor volcanogenic lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. The system became operational on February 14, 1990; lightning was detected in 11 and located in 9 of the 13 subsequent eruptions. The lightning was generated by ash clouds rising from pyroclastic density currents produced by collapse of a lava dome emplaced near Redoubt's summit. Lightning discharge (flash) location was controlled by topography, which channeled the density currents, and by wind direction. In individual eruptions, early flashes tended to have a negative polarity (negative charge is lowered to ground) while late flashes tended to have a positive polarity (positive charge is lowered to ground), perhaps because the charge-separation process caused coarse, rapid-settling particles to be negatively charged and fine, slow-settling particles to be positively charged. Results indicate that lightning detection and location is a useful adjunct to seismic volcano monitoring, particularly when poor weather or darkness prevents visual observation. The simultaneity of seismicity and lightning near a volcano provides the virtual certainty that an ash cloud is present. This information is crucial for aircraft safety and to warn threatened communities of impending tephra falls. The Alaska Volcano Observatory has now deployed a permanent lightning-detection network around Cook Inlet. ?? 1994.
The Alaska Science Forum Web site is provided by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The forum consists of articles written about various science subjects by scientists from the Geophysical Institute. Categories include the aurora, earthquakes, fun science facts, historic Alaska, mountains, rocks and geology, volcanoes, weather, and more. One of the latest articles, by Ned Rozell, is titled: Bogs, Permafrost and the Global Carbon Equation. Each of the articles is listed along with the author's name and a direct link to the online publication, most of which are fairly short and geared towards nonscientists making reading easy and interesting. [JAB
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program site contains links to selected material related to volcanic hazards. Users can access information about the volcanic hazards program, publications, topical maps of volcanoes world wide, aviation safety reports, volcanic hazard reports, computer software, volcano digital series and educational videos. Several USGS fact sheets are also available for volcanoes in Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, the Pacific Northwest and around the world. Fact sheets can be downloaded as pdf files or html. This site contains a wide variety of comprehensive material on the world's volcanoes and the hazards associated with them.
Deep beneath the surface of Earth lies one of the most destructive and yet least understood of the natural forces on the planet: the super volcano. This radio broadcast presents discussions with scientists at Yellowstone National Park who are investigating this potentially devastating natural phenomenon. Yellowstone National Park is one of the largest supervolcanoes in the world. It last erupted 640,000 years ago and scientists are now predicting that the next eruption may not be far off. To discover more, a new volcanic observatory has been built in the park to monitor the extreme volcanic activity going on beneath the surface of this much visited destination. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.
article title: Nicaraguan Volcanoes View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project: MISR category: gallery ...
Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of multiple observation geometries in change detection procedures. Additionally, it will be shown how SAR-based hazard information can be integrated with data from optical satellites, thermal sensors, webcams and models to create near-real time volcano hazard information. We will introduce a prototype monitoring system that integrates SAR-based hazard information into the near real-time volcano hazard monitoring system of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. This prototype system was applied to historic eruptions of the volcanoes Okmok and Augustine, both located in the North Pacific. We will show that for these historic eruptions, the addition of SAR data lead to a significant improvement in activity detection and eruption monitoring, and improved the accuracy and timeliness of eruption alerts.
Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.
On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
The Eastern Alaska/Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in a number of >M8.0 earthquakes in the 20th century on multiple segments, causing strong ground shaking and generating Pacific-wide trunamis. Seismic variability along the arc within the Semidi-Shumagin segments, considered locked and creeping sections respectively, may be attributable to structural variations in the megathrust. We placed eight seismometers (6 broadband and 2 short-period) throughout the Alaska peninsula for the summer of 2011 to both record local seismicity and to serve as an onshore component to the Langseth ALEUT cruise. We combine these data with data from selected stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to locate local seismicity, to define the megathrust boundary, and to develop a velocity model of the arc in this region. So far, ~550 events during the two-month period were located using P- and S-phases and a local velocity model. Data from OBS's deployed during the ALEUT cruise will improve accuracy of locations along the megathrust.
Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Abers, G. A.; Shillington, D. J.; Becel, A.
This Earth Observatory image of the day shows the ash plume of Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull volcano spreading from Iceland to continental Europe. The page includes a short article on the volcano and its effect on European airspace.
Ever wanted to have your own volcano laboratory, but didn't want to clean up all that lava? Be a super-scientist and create your own volcano online. The Alaska Museum of Natural History is dedicated to the study and exhibition of Alaskaâs natural history and to promoting and developing educational programs which benefit students and enrich the curricula of schools and universities. The Museum focuses on Alaska's unique geological, cultural, and ecological history. In addition to Make Your Own Volcano, the website offers extensive links, resources and educational modules including Kids Activity Sheets, Dinosaurs of Alaska, the Broken Mammoth Archeological Site, and Dinosaur Tracks, which explores the information that can be gleaned from the study of footprints.
AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations such as ANSS, Alaska Volcano Observatory, Bradley Lake Dam, Red Dog Mine, The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, and City and State Emergency Managers has helped link vast networks together so that the overall data transition can be varied. This lessens the likelihood of having a single point of failure for an entire network. Robust communication is key to retrieving seismic data. AEIC has gone through growing pains learning how to harden our network and encompassing the many types of telemetry that can be utilized in today's world. Redundant telemetry paths are a goal that is key to retrieving data, however at times this is not feasible with the vast size and terrain in Alaska. We will demonstrate what has worked for us and what our network consists of.
Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologist Michael Poland explaining to international volcano scientists that faulting in this area of Kilauea Volcano can be quantified by looking at the magnitude of fracture opening versus the age of lavas, and that 30 meters of extension has occurred in the past ~600 ...
In the 1990s, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior started the Decade Volcano Project. As part of their work, they designated sixteen volcanoes particularly worthy of study "because of their explosive histories and close proximity to human populations." The group recently teamed up with National Geographic to create a guide to these volcanoes via this interactive map. Navigating through the map, visitors can learn about Mount Rainier, Colima, Galeras, Santorini, and other prominent volcanoes. For each volcano, there's a brief sketch that gives the date of its last eruption, its elevation, nearby population centers, and a photograph.
On September 17th, 2006, Fourpeaked volcano had a widely-observed phreatic eruption. At the time, Fourpeaked was an unmonitored volcano with no known Holocene activity, based on limited field work. Airborne gas sampling began within days of the eruption and a modest seismic network was installed in stages. Vigorous steaming continued for months; however, there were no further eruptions similar in scale to the September 17 event. This eruption was followed by several months of sustained seismicity punctuated by vigorous swarms, and SO2 emissions exceeding a thousand tons/day. Based on observations during and after the phreatic eruption, and assuming no recent pre-historical eruptive activity at Fourpeaked, we propose that the activity was caused by a minor injection of new magma at or near 5km depth beneath Fourpeaked, which remained active over several months as this magma equilibrated into the crust. By early 2007 declining seismicity and SO2 emission signaled the end of unrest. Because the Fourpeaked seismic network was installed in stages and the seismicity was punctuated by discrete swarms, we use Fourpeaked to illustrate quantitatively the efficacy and shortcomings of rapid response seismic networks for tracking volcanic earthquakes.
Gardine, M.; West, M.; Werner, C.; Doukas, M.
This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic volcano being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...
In this paper, optical, SAR, and InSAR data from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, are used to demonstrate how fusion of photogrammatically derived, high resolution DEMs can be used to quantify extent and volume of eruption-related depositional features; to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of differential InSAR (d-InSAR) for volcano deformation monitoring; and how coherence maps of lava, pyroclastic flow deposits, and lahars provide information on deposition history and coherence recovery time of areas disrupted by lahars. Augustine Volcano's most recent eruption occurred in December 2005 through March 2006. Post 2006-eruption data from the ALOS-PRISM satellite is available from image acquisitions on 21 September 2007, 25 May 2008, and 26 September 2009. The ALOS-PRISM instrument consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers for simultaneous imaging in nadir, forward, and backward directions. This results in along-track stereoscopy in overlapping images (triplets), with horizontal resolution at nadir of 2.5-meters. DEMs produced from these high resolution triplets are compared to pre-eruption DEMs from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to delineate depositional features and quantify their volumes. Multi-temporal DEMs are also beneficial for the generation of topography-free d-InSAR images Separate d-InSAR analyses based on DEMs from PRISM triplets and the SRTM demonstrate the improvement in deformation-estimate precision that is achieved by using high-resolution DEM information. Augustine's 2006 eruption produced significant lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars, which were previously mapped in detail. Coherence mapping from pre- and post-eruption Envisat data are validated by comparison to the available detail maps, and analyzed to determine the extent to which coherence mapping can resolve the time sequence of deposition during the 2006 eruption. Additional radar data sets are available from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) instrument, also onboard ALOS. Although PALSAR offers horizontal resolution as low as 10 m, its 2006 launch date precludes interferograms that span the eruption. Nonetheless, PALSAR data was used to examine post-eruption deposition. By comparing PALSAR data with C-band Envisat results, we examined which sensor system promises higher performance in terms of coherence behavior and accuracy of deposition estimates at Augustine. The location of Augustine Volcano creates a dynamic environment with rapid surface changes. Precipitation, wave action, snow melt runoff, and other environmental factors all combine to limit interferometric coherence to a relatively short temporal baseline of ~2 years. With ample data available from Augustine's post-eruption time frame, however, this presents an opportunity to quantify the recovery time of surface areas that have lost coherence, been reworked, and now show new coherence in their reworked orientation. These findings could have key ecological implications for Augustine and other active volcanic areas, and enable us to better understand coherence behavior of depositional material.
McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.
Within the 10 km diameter caldera that characterizes Okmok Volcano, a field of post-caldera cones and deposits demonstrate many features associated with water-magma interactions. A unit deposited prior to the formation of the present caldera provides evidence for large explosive hydrovolcanic eruptions in the past as well. This unit is referred to as the Middle Scoria Unit as it is stratigraphically located between the ~9000 BP Okmok I and 2050 BP Okmok II caldera-forming events. Here, we present data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, and eruptive mechanisms of the Middle Scoria Unit, which averages a thickness of 2.5 meters. The basal layer of the Middle Scoria consists of moderately well sorted, highly inflated juvenile clasts of basaltic composition (53.88 wt.% SiO2) that average 3 to 5 cm in size. Capping the base is a sequence of layers alternating between oxidized reddish lithic fragments and poorly vesicular scoria averaging 1 mm to 3 cm in size. The contacts between the scoria and lithic layers are less discrete in the top section, with a higher proportion of mixing averaging up to 75% for a clast-rich layer. The upper layers of the unit also show reverse grading and contain dense, poorly vesicular scoria fragments and lithic fragments of 2 mm to 1.5 cm in size. The Middle Scoria unit has been found on the neighboring Unalaska Island, approximately 30 km to the East, revealing a wide dispersal. Our results indicate that this eruption began as a highly explosive, purely magmatic and rare basaltic Plinian eruption. With time, the eruptive series evolved to incorporate external water, as demonstrated by the successions of oxidized lithic lapilli and poorly vesicular scoria layers. Our preliminary interpretations of the Middle Scoria indicate that Okmok Volcano may be capable of highly explosive basaltic Plinian and hydrovolcanic eruptions.
Wong, L. J.
Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability of coverage by future lava flows.
Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.
The U.S. Geological Survey on 29 April released a comprehensive review of the 169 U.S. volcanoes, and established a framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System that is being formulated by the Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories. The framework proposes an around-the-clock Volcano Watch Office and improved instrumentation and monitoring at targeted volcanoes. The report, authored by USGS scientists John Ewert, Marianne Guffanti, and Thomas Murray, notes that although a few U.S. volcanoes are well-monitored, half of the most threatening volcanoes are monitored at a basic level and some hazardous volcanoes have no ground-based monitoring.
Determination of the precise locations of seismic events associated with the 1989-1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano posed a number of problems, including poorly known crustal velocities, a sparse station distribution, and an abundance of events with emergent phase onsets. In addition, the high relief of the volcano could not be incorporated into the hypoellipse earthquake location algorithm. This algorithm was modified to allow hypocenters to be located above the elevation of the seismic stations. The velocity model was calibrated on the basis of a posteruptive seismic survey, in which four chemical explosions were recorded by eight stations of the permanent network supplemented with 20 temporary seismographs deployed on and around the volcanic edifice. The model consists of a stack of homogeneous horizontal layers; setting the top of the model at the summit allows events to be located anywhere within the volcanic edifice. Detailed analysis of hypocentral errors shows that the long-period (LP) events constituting the vigorous 23-hour swarm that preceded the initial eruption on December 14 could have originated from a point 1.4 km below the crater floor. A similar analysis of LP events in the swarm preceding the major eruption on January 2 shows they also could have originated from a point, the location of which is shifted 0.8 km northwest and 0.7 km deeper than the source of the initial swarm. We suggest this shift in LP activity reflects a northward jump in the pathway for magmatic gases caused by the sealing of the initial pathway by magma extrusion during the last half of December. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes did not occur until after the initial 23-hour-long swarm. They began slowly just below the LP source and their rate of occurrence increased after the eruption of 01:52 AST on December 15, when they shifted to depths of 6 to 10 km. After January 2 the VT activity migrated gradually northward; this migration suggests northward propagating withdrawal of magma from a plexus of dikes and/or sills located in the 6 to 10 km depth range. Precise relocations of selected events prior to January 2 clearly resolve a narrow, steeply dipping, pencil-shaped concentration of activity in the depth range of 1-7 km, which illuminates the conduit along which magma was transported to the surface. A third event type, named hybrid, which blends the characteristics of both VT and LP events, originates just below the LP source, and may reflect brittle failure along a zone intersecting a fluid-filled crack. The distribution of hybrid events is elongated 0.2-0.4 km in an east-west direction. This distribution may offer constraints on the orientation and size of the fluid-filled crack inferred to be the source of the LP events. ?? 1994.
Lahr, J.C.; Chouet, B.A.; Stephens, C.D.; Power, J.A.; Page, R.A.
Makushin Volcano on Unalaska Island, AK is potentially the most threatening volcano in the Aleutian chain, being close to the largest Aleutian towns of Dutch Harbor and Unalaska. This study reports the eruption chronology and triggering mechanism for the most recent highly explosive event, the 7.7 ka Driftwood Pumice-fall event. The Driftwood Pumice reaches thicknesses of over 2 m, and isopach contours estimate a total deposit volume of 0.3-0.9 km3, covering an area of at least 8100 km2. These reconstructions show an eruption on the scale of the 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption, with a VEI of 4-5. In the field, the deposit was divided into four stratigraphic horizons from bottom to top, and tephra within these layers becomes systematically more mafic upward through the section, ranging from a basal low-SiO2 dacite (64 wt.% SiO2) to an upper medium-SiO2 andesite (61.5 wt.% SiO2). High-Ca plagioclase (An75-83) and high-Mg olivine (Mg69-75) grains within the pumice are in great disequilibrium with the dacitic glass (64-69 wt.% SiO2), suggesting their origin in a more mafic magma. Geochemical trends, disequilibrium mineral populations, and mineral zonation patterns within these plagioclase and olivine xenocrysts show evidence of magma mixing between a bulk siliceous magma chamber and a mafic injection. The amount of the mafic component increases upward within the deposit, ranging from 0-25% throughout the section. The mafic injection is calculated to have been ~110-200 °C hotter than the siliceous magma chamber. The thermal pulse provided by the injection likely initiated convection and volatile exsolution within the siliceous magma body, ultimately causing the Driftwood Pumice eruption. Diffusion rates based on the thickness of lower-Mg rim zonations (<10 µm thick rims of Mg64) in the olivine xenocrysts show a lag-time of ~1 year between the basaltic injection and the resulting eruption. Similar delays between mafic injections and eruptions are seen in numerous other volcanic systems where magma mixing has been cited as the eruption trigger. The Driftwood Pumice is stratigraphically sandwiched between numerous smaller ashfalls, many of which consist of light-dark ash couplets. The color and compositional differences between the layers of these ash couplets are similar to differences within the Driftwood Pumice horizons, though the Driftwood Pumice is significantly thicker than the couplets. The repeated occurrences of light tephra overlain by dark, more mafic tephra suggest that magma mixing via a mafic injection is a common mechanism for sparking Makushin eruptions.
Lerner, A.; Crowley, P.; Hazlett, R. W.; Nicolaysen, K. E.
Satellite observations played an important role in monitoring the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano. It represented the first opportunity for observers to use, in an operational setting, new Web-based tools and techniques developed by the Alaska Volcano Observatory remote sensing group. The 'Okmok Algorithm' was used to analyze thermal infrared satellite data and highlight changes in the style and phases of activity. Temperature measurements were used to estimate ash cloud heights, which compared favorably to radar and ground-based observations, although larger discrepancies were seen when compared to pilot reports. Brightness temperature difference techniques were used to locate and track the 14 ash clouds produced during the explosive phase of the eruption. Stacking of these analyses allowed the creation of composite maps showing the distribution of airborne ash. The data from these maps were further combined with information from local reports and samples of ashfall to create a prototype of a concentration map that could be used to assess the potential hazard an eruption represents to aircraft, infrastructure and human health.
Bailey, John E.; Dean, Kenneson G.; Dehn, Jonathan; Webley, Peter W.
The New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) is a seafloor observatory at Axial Seamount, an active underwater volcano located about 250 miles off the coast of the northwest United States. The observatory studies the relationships between submarine volcanic activity, the chemistry of seafloor hotsprings, and the biological communities that depend on them. Materials available at the NeMO web site include updates from observatory expeditions, videos and animations, and an interactive feature that lets users pilot a simulated remotely operated vehicle to explore the seamount. The NeMO curriculum page features a unit, with activities, in which students investigate a swarm of small earthquakes and the disappearance of an instrument. A volcanic eruption occurred at Axial in January 1998, destroying some hydrothermal vent sites and creating new ones. Since then NeMO scientists have been assessing the impact of the eruption and documenting the ongoing changes in Axial's summit caldera.
Part of Prentice Hall's Planet Diary, this computer activity covers volcanic activity. Students research the most recent volcanic activity and the locations and names of each volcano. They then find out which tectonic plates the volcanoes are located on or if they are hot spots, and if any are part of the Ring of Fire.
Ascending eruption cloud from Redoubt Volcano as viewed to the west from the Kenai Peninsula. The mushroom-shaped plume rose from avalanches of hot debris (pyroclastic flows) that cascaded down the north flank of the volcano. A smaller, white steam plume rises from the summit crater. ...
A hydrovolcanic eruption near Cone D on the floor of Okmok caldera, Alaska, began on 12 July 2008 and continued until late August 2008. The eruption was preceded by inflation of a magma reservoir located beneath the center of the caldera and ~3 km below sea level (bsl), which began immediately after Okmok's previous eruption in 1997. In this paper we use data from several radar satellites and advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to produce a suite of 2008 coeruption deformation maps. Most of the surface deformation that occurred during the eruption is explained by deflation of a Mogi-type source located beneath the center of the caldera and 2–3 km bsl, i.e., essentially the same source that inflated prior to the eruption. During the eruption the reservoir deflated at a rate that decreased exponentially with time with a 1/e time constant of ~13 days. We envision a sponge-like network of interconnected fractures and melt bodies that in aggregate constitute a complex magma storage zone beneath Okmok caldera. The rate at which the reservoir deflates during an eruption may be controlled by the diminishing pressure difference between the reservoir and surface. A similar mechanism might explain the tendency for reservoir inflation to slow as an eruption approaches until the pressure difference between a deep magma production zone and the reservoir is great enough to drive an intrusion or eruption along the caldera ring-fracture system.
Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel
After the March-April 1986 explosive eruption a comprehensive gas study at Augustine was undertaken in the summers of 1986 and 1987. Airborne COSPEC measurements indicate that passive SO2 emission rates declined exponentially during this period from 380??45 metric tons/day (T/D) on 7/24/86 to 27??6 T/D on 8/24/87. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Augustine magma reservoir has become more degassed as volcanic activity decreased after the spring 1986 eruption. Gas samples collected in 1987 from an 870??C fumarole on the andesitic lava dome show various degrees of disequilibrium due to oxidation of reduced gas species and condensation (and loss) of H2O in the intake tube of the sampling apparatus. Thermochemical restoration of the data permits removal of these effects to infer an equilibrium composition of the gases. Although not conclusive, this restoration is consistent with the idea that the gases were in equilibrium at 870??C with an oxygen fugacity near the Ni-NiO buffer. These restored gas compositions show that, relative to other convergent plate volcanoes, the Augustine gases are very HCl rich (5.3-6.0 mol% HCl), S rich (7.1 mol% total S), and H2O poor (83.9-84.8 mol% H2O). Values of ??D and ??18O suggest that the H2O in the dome gases is a mixture of primary magmatic water (PMW) and local seawater. Part of the Cl in the Augustine volcanic gases probably comes from this shallow seawater source. Additional Cl may come from subducted oceanic crust because data by Johnston (1978) show that Cl-rich glass inclusions in olivine crystals contain hornblende, which is evidence for a deep source (>25km) for part of the Cl. Gas samples collected in 1986 from 390??-642??C fumaroles on a ramp surrounding the inner summit crater have been oxidized so severely that restoration to an equilibrium composition is not possible. H and O isotope data suggest that these gases are variable mixtures of seawater, FMW, and meteoric steam. These samples are much more H2O-rich (92%-97% H2O) than the dome gases, possibly due to a larger meteoric steam component. The 1986 samples also have higher Cl/S, S/C, and F/Cl ratios, which imply that the magmatic component in these gases is from the more degassed 1976 magma. Thus, the 1987 samples from the lava dome are better indicators than the 1986 samples of degassing within the Augustine magma reservoir, even though they were collected a year later and contain a significant seawater component. Future gas studies at Augustine should emphasize fumaroles on active lava domes. Condensates collected from the same lava-dome fumarole have enrichments ot 107-102 in Cl, Br, F, B, Cd, As, S, Bi, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Cu, K, Li, Na, Si, and Ni. Lower-temperature (200??-650??C) fumaroles around the volcano are generally less enriched in highly volatile elements. However, these lower-termperature fumaroles have higher concentration of rock-forming elements, probably derived from the wall rock. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.
Symonds, R.B.; Rose, W.I.; Gerlach, T.M.; Briggs, P.H.; Harmon, R.S.
The U.S. Geological Survey on 29 April released a comprehensive review of the 169 U.S. volcanoes, and established a framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System that is being formulated by the Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories. The framework proposes an around-the-clock Volcano Watch Office and improved instrumentation and monitoring at targeted volcanoes. The report, authored by USGS scientists
The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano spawned about 20 areally significant tephra-fall deposits between December 14, 1989 and April 26, 1990. Tephra plumes rose to altitudes of 7 to more than 10 km and were carried mainly northward and eastward by prevailing winds, where they substantially impacted air travel, commerce, and other activities. In comparison to notable eruptions of the recent past, the Redoubt events produced a modest amount of tephra-fall deposits - 6 ?? 107 to 5 ?? 1010 kg for individual events and a total volume (dense-rock equivalent) of about 3-5 ?? 107 m3 of andesite and dacite. Two contrasting tephra types were generated by these events. Pumiceous tephra-fall deposits of December 14 and 15 were followed on December 16 and all later events by fine-grained lithic-crystal tephra deposits, much of which fell as particle aggregates. The change in the character of the tephra-fall deposits reflects their fundamentally different modes of origin. The pumiceous deposits were produced by magmatically driven explosions. The finegrained lithic-crystal deposits were generated by two processes. Hydrovolcanic vent explosions generated tephrafall deposits of December 16 and 19. Such explosions continued as a tephra source, but apparently with diminishing importance, during events of January and February. Ash clouds of lithic pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of actively growing lava domes probably contributed to tephra-fall deposits of all events from January 2 to April 26, and were the sole source of tephra fall for at least the last 4 deposits. ?? 1994.
Scott, W.E.; McGimsey, R.G.
In this Web-based, interactive story, Tutangiaq (Too-tang-geye-ack - nicknamed 2T), a Canada Goose, flies across Alaska looking for his family. As he flies, he tells students about the 49th state. Students learn several facts about the state, including how Alaska was purchased from the Russians,. They can also compare the size of Alaska to other states. 2T takes a flight across the volcanic chain in Alaska and helps students interactively explore how scientists monitor volcanoes from satellite images in near-real time. At the coast, the bird also meets his Walrus friend who shows him how the sea ice edge has receded and gives an example of an adverse effect on marine life. Finally, 2T arrives in Fairbanks where children use satellite imagery to help him find and unite with his family.
This paper reports results of an experiment initiated in 1977 to determine the effects of climate on permafrost in Alaska. Permafrost observatories with boreholes were established along a north–south transect of Alaska in undisturbed permafrost terrain. The analysis and interpretation of annual temperature measurements in the boreholes and daily temperature measurements of the air, ground and permafrost surfaces made with
T. E. Osterkamp
This work explores techniques for deriving quantitative data from webcam observations. It illustrates the role that webcams can play in volcano monitoring, and shows our recently developed tools for the collation and dissemination of this data. Over the past 5 years, digital cameras have been installed at a number of volcanoes to allow the general public to see volcanic activity from the comfort of their own homes. In the last 3 years these webcam images have become part of the twice-daily volcano monitoring report by the remote sensing team of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). To allow comprehensive and systematic analysis, a database has been created containing all AVO webcam images as well as images from St. Helens and three KVERT webcams for Bezymianny, Klyucheskoy and Shiveluch. In total, some 1.6 million images are currently held. The number increases daily as new images are obtained and processed. The database holds additional information about each image such as both image-wide and localized-region statistics. Our tools have been developed to answer specific questions utilizing this data. Of the current 1.6 million images in the database, a very small percentage is considered interesting for volcano monitoring; the remainder can be ignored due to complete cloud cover or (for nocturnal images) lack of luminescence. We have developed a tool for automatically isolating uninteresting images (primarily based on image histograms.) Uninteresting images are tagged, which allows for them to be excluded from further processing. Our next tool is an automated system for isolating and measuring nocturnal luminescence. This tool has been developed using images of St. Helens and is being extended to work with other webcams where nightime lava glow have been seen. The system works by first minimizing each camera's unique dark current and amplification noise signals and then establishes if any pixels fulfill a number of criteria that would indicate they are real "glow" pixels. A third tool integrates the webcam data into Google Earth, allowing the height of plumes to be easily estimated and also the location of features on the sides of the volcano to be accurately placed on to the ground/GoogleMap surface. This tool makes visualization of multiple webcams of a single volcano easy. The recent eruptive phase of St. Helens has prompted the development of a system for measuring 'dome growth'. A technique using stacks of images and the Irani-Peleg super-resolution algorithm to estimate subpixel region growth is being tested at the moment. The final tool presented (currently under development) is a simple volcanic plume finder. It works by analyzing the RGB histograms of key regions around the volcano vent and flagging image statistics which indicate the possible presence of steam. It is postulated that when adjusted for local climatic conditions the amount of steaming may be indicative of change at a volcano. These techinques aim to move the analysis of webcam images into an operational framework on a sound scientific footing.
Lovick, J.; Lawlor, O.; Dean, K.; Dehn, J.
Natural Resources Canada has launched yet another impressive and educational Web site. At this site you can learn all you wanted to know about Canadian volcanoes and volcanology. The site offers an introduction to volcanoes, in-depth sections on types, eruptions, hazards, and risks. You can also discover interesting facts, such as how eruptions in Alaska and the Western coast of the US impact agriculture and air travel in Canada. In addition to text, the site offers a wonderful interactive Map of Canadian Volcanoes. The Catalogue of Canadian Volcanoes is also an excellent reference tool. Available in English and French, this site is easy to understand and ideal for science students as well as anyone interested in volcanology. This site is also reviewed in the August 22, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.
NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENTS AND VISITORS OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENTS AND VISITORS AT THE NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY The National Radio Astronomy Observatory designs, builds, and operates the world's largest and most advanced radio telescopes. Scientists from
In this game, learners are volcanoes that must complete several steps to erupt. Starting at home plate, learners draw cards until they have enough points to move to first base. This process repeats for each learner at each base, and each base demonstrates a different process in a volcano's eruption. The first learner to make it back to home plate erupts and is the winner. This is a good introduction to volcanoes. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.
Science, American A.
In the summer of 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) successfully forecast eruption at an unmonitored volcano, Kasatochi, and was unable to forecast eruption at a well monitored volcano, Okmok. We use these case studies to explore the limitations and opportunities of seismically monitored and unmonitored systems and to evaluate situations when we can expect to succeed and when we must expect to fail in eruption forecasting. Challenges in forecasting eruptions include interpreting seismicity in context of volcanic history, developing a firm understanding of distance scales over which pre- and co-eruptive seismic signals are observed, and improving our ability to discriminate processes causing tremor. Kasatochi Volcano is a 3 km wide island in the central Aleutian Islands with no confirmed historical activity. Little is known about the eruptive history of the volcano. It was not considered an immediate threat until 3 days prior to eruption. A report of ground shaking by a biology field crew on the island on August 4 was the first indication of unrest. On August 6 a vigorous seismic swarm became apparent on the nearest seismic stations 40 km distant. The aviation color code/volcano alert level at Kasatochi was increased to Yellow/Advisory in response to increasing magnitude and frequency of earthquakes. The color code/alert level was increased to Orange/Watch on August 7 when volcanic tremor was observed in the wake of the largest earthquake in the sequence, a M 5.6. Three hours after the onset of volcanic tremor, eruption was confirmed by satellite data and the color code/alert level increased to Red/Warning. Eruption forecasting was possible only due to the exceptionally large moment release of pre-eruptive seismicity. The key challenge in evaluating the situation was distinguishing between tectonic activity and a volcanic swarm. It is likely there were weeks to months of precursory seismicity, however little instrumental record exists due to the lack of a seismic network on Kasatochi Island. Unlike Kasatochi, Okmok volcano, also located in the central Aleutian Islands, hosts 13 telemetered seismic stations and several telemetered GPS stations. The volcano has received considerable study by AVO, and the record of historical eruptions is well known. Despite regular scrutiny of Okmok data, the 2008 eruption was a surprise as there were fewer than 3 hours of clear pre-eruptive seismicity. The color code/alert level at Okmok went directly from Green/Normal to Red/Warning on July 12 after eruptive activity began. Interpretation of co-eruptive seismicity remained a challenge through the course of the eruption as bursts of volcanic tremor often did not correlate immediately with ash output at the vent as observed in satellite data.
Prejean, S.; Power, J.; Brodsky, E.
In this module, students can explore two ways that volcanoes affect Earth: by directly threatening people and the environments adjacent to them, and by ejecting aerosols into the atmosphere. The module consists of three investigations in which they will study the local effects of volcanism using images of Mount St. Helens, examine how the effects of volcanic activity can be remotely sensed and monitored from space using NASA data for Mount Spurr in Alaska, and see how geography and spatial perspective are useful in addressing global issues in the tracking and mapping of aerosol hazards such as the ash cloud emitted by the 1989 eruption on Redoubt Volcano. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.
Scientists at the Cascade Volcano Observatory have completed hazard assessments for the five active volcanos in Washington. The five studies included Mount Adams (Scott and others, 1995), Mount Baker (Gardner and others, 1995), Glacier Peak (Waitt and others, 1995), Mount Rainier (Hoblitt and others, 1995) and Mount St. Helens (Wolfe and Pierson, 1995). Twenty Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets have been created that represent the hazard information from the assessments. The twenty data sets have individual Open File part numbers and titles
Schilling, Steve P.
The Klyuchevskaya Volcano on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula continued its ongoing activity by releasing another plume on May 24, 2007. The same day, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image, at 01:00 UTC. In this image, a hotspot marks the volcano's summit. Outlined in red, the hotspot indicates where MODIS detected unusually warm surface temperatures. Blowing southward from the summit is the plume, which casts its shadow on the clouds below. Near the summit, the plume appears gray, and it lightens toward the south. With an altitude of 4,835 meters (15,863 feet), Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) is both the highest and most active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula. As part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Klyuchevskaya is estimated to have experienced more than 100 flank eruptions in the past 3,000 years. Since its formation 6,000 years ago, the volcano has seen few periods of inactivity. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. The Rapid Response Team provides daily images of this region.
... of which are so thick that they block the penetration of light from CALIPSO's lidar to the surface. The yellow layer near the surface over France is believed to be primarily air pollution, but could also contain ash from the volcano. Highlighting its ...
Interactive global satellite imagery datasets such as hosted by Google Earth provide a dynamic platform for educational outreach in the Earth Sciences. Users with widely varied backgrounds can easily view geologic features on a global-to-local scale, giving access to educational background on individual geologic features or events such as volcanoes and earthquakes. The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) volcano data became available as a Google Earth layer on 11 June 2006. Locations for about 1550 volcanoes with known or possible Holocene activity are shown as red triangles with associated volcano names that appear when zooming in to a regional-scale view. Clicking on a triangle opens an informational balloon that displays a photo, geographic data, and a brief paragraph summarizing the volcano's geologic history. The balloon contains links to a larger version of the photo with credits and a caption and to more detailed information on the volcano, including eruption chronologies, from the GVP website. Links to USGS and international volcano observatories or other websites focusing on regional volcanoes are also provided, giving the user ready access to a broad spectrum of volcano data. Updates to the GVP volcano layer will be provided to Google Earth. A downloadable file with the volcanoes organized regionally is also available directly from the GVP website (www.volcano.si.edu) and provides the most current volcano data set. Limitations of the implied accuracy of spacially plotted data at high zoom levels are also apparent using platforms such as Google Earth. Real and apparent mismatches between plotted locations and the summits of some volcanoes seen in Google Earth satellite imagery occur for reasons including data precision (deg/min vs. deg/min/sec) and the GVP convention of plotting the center-point of large volcanic fields, which often do not correspond to specific volcanic vents. A more fundamental problem originates from the fact that regional topographic mapping does not utilize a standardized global datum, so that locations from topographic maps often diverge from those of the World Geodetic System datum used in geo-registered satellite imagery. These limitations notwithstanding, virtual globe platforms such as Google Earth provide an easily accessible pathway to volcano data for a broad spectrum of users ranging from the home/classroom to Earth scientists.
Venzke, E.; Siebert, L.; Luhr, J. F.
on projects that took him to Yellowstone National Park, Long Valley, most of the Cascades volcanoes, the South-1994), a member of the geodesy group at the Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington, died with the U.S. Geological Survey in the summer of 1985. In the spring of 1986, he began his career in volcano
In the beginning, there was Volcano News, an interdisciplinary forum where volcanophiles of all stripes—4professional and amateur, “hard” and “soft” scientists alike— could exchange information. Unfortunately, Volcano News became extinct when editor-publisher Chuck Wood became involved in editing Volcanoes of North America. Janet Cullen Tanaka, a former contributing associate editor of Volcano News is planning the publication of a new interdisciplinary volcano newsletter to cover all facets of volcano studies, from geophysics to emergency management.
Thermal infrared (TIR) images provided a timely pre- and syn-eruption record of summit changes, lava flow emplacement, and pyroclastic-flow-deposit distribution during the Alaska Volcano Observatory's (AVO) response to the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano. A series of images from both handheld and helicopter mounted forward looking infrared radiometers (FLIR) captured detailed views during a series of 13 overflights from December 2005 through August 2006. In conjunction with these images, data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provided frequent multispectral synoptic views of the eruption's emissions and deposits. The ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system also facilitated more frequent scheduling and faster data availability during the eruption. Airborne and satellite imaging provided 20 different days of TIR coverage over the 5-month eruptive period, with 4 of those days covered by both FLIR and ASTER. The high-resolution TIR images documented gradual pre-eruption heating of the summit, emplacement of pyroclastic-flow deposits, rapid temperature increase as the lava dome and flows formed, and slow cooling of the volcanic deposits that followed. The high-resolution data uniquely documented segmentation of the lava flows into hot areas of increased flow deformation and cooler, more stable crust on the active flows. In contrast, the satellite TIR data provided synoptic views of the areal distribution of volcanic products at Augustine including the extent and composition of the plumes.
Wessels, Rick L.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Schneider, David J.; Dehn, Jonathan; Ramsey, Michael S.
Temporal changes in waveform characteristics and earthquake locations associated with the 2006 Augustine eruption and preeruptive seismicity provide constraints on eruptive processes within the edifice. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes occur within the upper 1 to 2 km at Augustine between and during eruptive cycles, and we use the Alaska Volcano Observatory hypocenter and waveform catalog from 1993 to 2006 to constrain changes in event similarity and location over time. Waveform crosscorrelation with bispectrum verification improves the pick accuracy of the catalog data to yield better locations and allows for identification of families of similar earthquakes. Event waveform similarity is low at Augustine, with ~60 to 70 percent of events failing to form event families of more than 10 events. The remaining earthquakes form event families over multiple time scales. Events prior to the 2006 eruption exhibit a high degree of similarity over multiple years. Earthquakes recorded during the precursory and explosive phases of the 2006 eruption form swarms of similar earthquakes over periods of days or hours. Seismicity rate and event similarity decrease rapidly during the explosive and effusive eruption phases. The largest recorded swarms accompany reports of increased steaming and explosive eruptions at the summit. Relative relocation of some event families indicates upward migration of activity over time, consistent with magma transport by way of an ascending dike. Multiple regions of the edifice generate seismicity simultaneously, however, suggesting the edifice contains a network of fractures and/or dikes.
DeShon, Heather R.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Power, John A.
Monitoring Volcanoes using Seismic Noise Correlations* Florent Brenguier (1), Daniel Clarke (2 Fournaise Volcano Observatory, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. 2 Institut de Physique du Globe de In this paper, we summarize some recent results of measurements of temporal changes of active volcanoes using
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.
Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.
The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, provided a rare opportunity to compare satellite measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with airborne SO2 measurements by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Herein we: (1) compare OMI and airborne SO2 column density values for Redoubt's tropospheric plume, (2) calculate daily SO2 masses from Mount Redoubt for the first three months of the eruption, (3) develop simple methods to convert daily measured SO2 masses into emission rates to allow satellite data to be directly integrated with the airborne SO2 emissions dataset, (4) calculate cumulative SO2 emissions from the eruption, and (5) evaluate OMI as a monitoring tool for high-latitude degassing volcanoes. A linear correlation (R2 ~ 0.75) is observed between OMI and airborne SO2 column densities. OMI daily SO2 masses for the sample period ranged from ~ 60.1 kt on 24 March to below detection limit, with an average daily SO2 mass of ~ 6.7 kt. The highest SO2 emissions were observed during the initial part of the explosive phase and the emissions exhibited an overall decreasing trend with time. OMI SO2 emission rates were derived using three methods and compared to airborne measurements. This comparison yields a linear correlation (R2 ~ 0.82) with OMI-derived emission rates consistently lower than airborne measurements. The comparison results suggest that OMI's detection limit for high latitude, springtime conditions varies from ~ 2000 to 4000 t/d. Cumulative SO2 masses calculated from daily OMI data for the sample period are estimated to range from 542 to 615 kt, with approximately half of this SO2 produced during the explosive phase of the eruption. These cumulative masses are similar in magnitude to those estimated for the 1989-90 Redoubt eruption. Strong correlations between daily OMI SO2 mass and both tephra mass and acoustic energy during the explosive phase of the eruption suggest that OMI data may be used to infer relative eruption size and explosivity. Further, when used in conjunction with complementary datasets, OMI daily SO2 masses may be used to help distinguish explosive from effusive activity and identify changes in lava extrusion rates. The results of this study suggest that OMI is a useful volcano monitoring tool to complement airborne measurements, capture explosive SO2 emissions, and provide high temporal resolution SO2 emissions data that can be used with interdisciplinary datasets to illuminate volcanic processes.
Lopez, Taryn; Carn, Simon; Werner, Cynthia; Fee, David; Kelly, Peter; Doukas, Michael; Pfeffer, Melissa; Webley, Peter; Cahill, Catherine; Schneider, David
WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories' (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. Volcanoes are frequently restless but only a fraction of unrest leads to eruptions. We aim to compile and make the data of historical volcanic unrest available as a reference tool during volcanic crises, for observatory or other user to compare or look for systematic in many unrest episodes, and also provide educational tools for teachers and students on understanding volcanic processes. Furthermore, we promote the use of relational databases for countries that are still planning to develop their own monitoring database. We are now in the process of populating WOVOdat in collaboration with volcano observatories worldwide. Proprietary data remains at the observatories where the data originally from. Therefore, users who wish to use the data for publication or to obtain detail information about the data should directly contact the observatories. To encourage the use of relational database system in volcano observatories with no monitoring database, WOVOdat project is preparing an installable standalone package. This package is freely downloadable through our website (www.wovodat.org), ready to install and serve as database system in the local domain to host various types of volcano monitoring data. The WOVOdat project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). In the current stage of data population, our website supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing schematic design, information and documentation, and also data submission. As anticipation of various data formats coming from different observatories, we provide an interactive tools for user to convert their data into standard WOVOdat format file before then able to upload and store in the database system. We are also developing various visualization tools that will be integrated in the system to ease user on querying and viewing the data. As soon as the database is sufficiently populated, data and tools will made accessible to public users.
Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Win, N.-T.-Z.; Chen, L.-D.; Newhall, C.
This image of the Nyiragonga volcano eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the volcano's summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.
Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.
Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.
ALASKA MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAM 2012 #12;2012 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Observer Manual Contents Section 1: The Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Marine Mammal Stock Program 1.5 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Section 2: The Southeast Alaska Environment 2
Volcanic ash is one of the major potential hazards from volcanic eruptions. It can have both short-range effects from proximal ashfall and long range impacts from volcanic ash clouds. The timely tracking and understanding of recently emitted volcanic ash clouds is important, because they can cause severe damage to jet aircraft engines and shut down major airports. Dispersion models play an important role in forecasting the movement of volcanic ash clouds by being the only means to predict a clouds' trajectory. Where available, comparisons are possible to both remote-sensing data and observations from the ground and aircraft. This was demonstrated in January 2006, when Augustine Volcano erupted after about a 20-year hiatus. From January 11 to 28, 2006, there were 13 explosive events, with some lasting as long as 11 minutes and producing ash clouds as high as 10-12 km (33,000-39,000 ft) above mean sea level (a.m.s.l). From January 28 to February 4, 2006, there was a more continuous phase, with ash clouds reaching 4-5 km a.m.s.l (13,000-16,000 ft). During the eruption, the Puff dispersion model was used by the Alaska Volcano Observatory for trajectory forecasting of the associated volcanic ash eruption clouds. The six explosive events on January 13 and 14, 2006, were the first time the 'multiple eruptions' capability of the Puff model was used during an eruption response. Here we show the Puff model predictions made during the 2006 Augustine eruption and compare these predictions to satellite remote-sensing data, Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) radar, and ashfall measurements. In addition, we discuss how automated predictions for volcanoes at elevated alert status provide a quicker assessment of the risk from the potential ash clouds.
Webley, Peter W.; Dean, Kenneson G.; Dehn, Jonathan, Dehn; Bailey, John E.; Peterson, Rorik
In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Kilauea volcano (Figure 1)—one of the most active volcanoes on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike
In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Klauea volcano (Figure 1)one of the most active volcanoes on Earthhas provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Kauahikaua, J.; Poland, M.
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.
Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitor the eruptive state of volcanoes throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatkan, and Kurile arcs. This is accomplished in part by analyzing thermal infrared (TIR) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors at least twice per day for major thermal anomalies. The AVHRR and MODIS 1-km spatial resolution data have been very useful for detecting large and/or high-temperature thermal signatures such as Strombolian activity as well as lava and pyroclastic flows. Such anomalies commonly indicate a major eruptive event is in progress. However, in order to observe and quantify small and/or lower temperature thermal features such as fumaroles and lava domes, higher spatial resolution data with better radiometric and spectral resolution are required. We have reviewed 2600 available night and day time TIR scenes acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) over the volcanoes of the northern Pacific. The current archive spans from March, 2000 to present. ASTER is the only instrument that routinely acquires high spatial resolution (30 - 90 m) night time data over volcanic targets. These data sets typically contain 5 TIR (8-12 microns) with 90 meter spatial resolution and 6 shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands (1-3 microns) with 30 meter spatial resolution. After the general survey of the volcanic arcs, we have focused our efforts on several targets. Mt. Hague, in the Emmons Lake complex on the Alaska Peninsula, has had mostly cloud-free ASTER observations for twenty night time TIR and six daytime TIR since August 2000. A small lake in the lower crater of Mt. Hague has had a history of appearing and disappearing over the last few years. The ASTER data combined with several recent field observations allow us to track the changes in lake area and associated temperatures. With more frequent observations, we hope to determine the mechanism of these changes. The 1975-76 craters and lava flows of New Tolbachik Volcano in central Kamchatka appear as persistent thermal features in clear night time ASTER TIR data with ASTER TIR temperatures as high as 22° C. Handheld FLIR TIR images (~0.5m pixels) from August 2004 show temperatures >176° C on the lava flow and >226° C in the crater wall. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in southern Kamchatka also have several persistent thermal features in the ASTER data from late 2001 until at least November 2003. These features correlate to a vigorous fumarole field and crater lakes. The Mutnovsky thermal features were also observed in AVHRR data by KEMSD in March, June, and July 2003. The goal of this work is to better detect changes in current volcano activity or precursors to new activity. Our ongoing survey of the ASTER TIR data has created a database of many small (<90 m) or low temperature (20 to 38° C) thermal features at several volcanoes in the northern Pacific region. We will attempt to observe each of the identified features at least annually using ASTER data as it becomes available over each target.
Wessels, R.; Senyukov, S.; Tranbenkova, A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. J.
RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be replicated in Alaska, with plans to begin with 40 rising 9th graders during the summer of 2012. The program will continue to add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacty of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th.
This volcano resource introduces the six-type classification system and points out weaknesses of the classic three-type system. The six types of volcanoes are shield volcanoes, strato volcanoes, rhyolite caldera complexes, monogenetic fields, flood basalts, and mid-ocean ridges. For each type of volcano there is a description of both structure and dynamics along with examples of each. You can account for more than ninty percent of all volcanoes with these six types. Additionally, any system will be more useful if you use modifiers from the other potential classification schemes with the morphological types.
The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.
Ponomarev, D. N.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialists from the Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including personnel at Menlo Park, California, the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, the Alaska Volcano Observatory in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, and the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program in Washington, DC, are developing
D. W. Ramsey; J. E. Robinson; S. P. Schilling; J. R. Schaefer; P. Kimberly; F. A. Trusdell; M. C. Guffanti; G. C. Mayberry; C. E. Cameron; J. G. Smith; J. A. McIntire; S. Snedigar; J. W. Ewert
Volcanoes is an exhibit from the Annenberg Media Project that provides a wealth of information about volcanoes and includes sections such as Melting Rocks, the Dynamic Earth, and Forecasting. Interactive exercises enable the user to learn how rock turns into magma, how to locate volcanoes, and how to decide if building a project near a volcano is safe. Quicktime videos are used for each of the six categories to illustrate the points outlined in the text.
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the historic and current monitoring of active volcanoes around the globe. Techniques to measure deviations in pressure and stress induced by subterranean magma movement, as well as other technologies, explain the ways in which researchers monitor and predict volcanoes. Case studies of volcanoes such as Mt. St. Helens, El Chichon, Mauna Loa, and others are discussed.
Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)
Olds, Henry, Jr.
This formative assessment item discusses common misconceptions about volcano location around the world. Resources include background and content information as well as alignment to the National Science Education Standards. The probe could easily be modified to be used with a study of earthquakes instead of volcanoes. Teachers can access other resources including facts about volcanoes and lesson ideas.
This educational resource describes the science behind volcanoes and volcanic processes. Topics include volcanic environments, volcano landforms, eruption dynamics, eruption products, eruption types, historical eruptions, and planetary volcanism. There are two animations, over 250 images, eight interactive tests, and a volcano crossword puzzle.
Ice-volcano interactions in EyjafjallajÃ¶kull volcano, Iceland EyjÃ³lfur MagnÃºsson1, MagnÃºs Tumi Sciences, University of Iceland, ReykjavÃk, Iceland 2. Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, ReykjavÃk, Iceland 3. Icelandic Coast Guard SPIRIT workshop 29&30 April 2010, Toulouse Picture by EyjÃ³lfur
This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, takes an in-depth look at the new generation of astronomy equipment. It provides an overview of the discovery of neutrinos, subatomic particles, and their role in the developing field of physics, studies that showed that nuclear reactions, including those that power the stars, produce an enormous number of neutrinos, the creation of neutrino observatories deep underground and the stunning and unexpected advances these observatories have already made.
Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes. These scripts would require minor to moderate modifications for use elsewhere, primarily to customize directory navigation. If the user has some familiarity with MATLAB, or programming in general, these modifications should be easy. Although we originally anticipated needing the Image Processing Toolbox, the scripts in the appendixes do not require it. Thus, only the base installation of MATLAB is needed. Because fairly basic MATLAB functions are used, we expect that the script can be run successfully by versions earlier than 2009b.
Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren
The Rainwater Observatory, located in French Camp, Mississippi, features astronomy workshops for educators and educational programs for the public. It also hosts an informal astronomical association and an annual amateur astronomers' conference. The educator workshops focus on activities to teach astronomy using robotic telescopes available through the Las Cumbres Global Telescope Network (including the Sangre Telescope at Rainwater Observatory), and on learning hands-on activities that can be used in the classroom to teach concepts of astronomy. The Observatory's web site includes an ask-an-astronomer feature, a virtual tour, information on the Sangre Astronomical Research Telescope (their newest research telescope), and an e-newsletter with information about upcoming programs and events and current headlines in space science.
In addition to hosting one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc, Akutan Island, Alaska, is the site of a significant geothermal resource within Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV). We deployed 15 broadband (30 s to 50 Hz) seismometers in and around HSBV during July 2012 as part of an effort to establish a baseline for background seismic activity in HSBV prior to geothermal production on the island. The stations recorded data on-site and were retrieved in early September 2012. Additional targets for the array include the tracking of deep tectonic tremor known to occur within the Aleutian subduction zone and the characterization of volcano-tectonic (VT) and deep long period (DLP) earthquakes from Akutan Volcano. Because 13 of the stations in the array sit within an area roughly 1.5 km by 1.5 km, we plan to apply methods based on stacking and beamforming to analyze the waveforms of extended signals lacking clear phase arrivals (e.g., tremor). The average spacing of the seismometers, roughly 350 m, provides sensitivity to frequencies between 2-8 Hz. The stacking process also increases the signal-to-noise ratio of small amplitude signals propagating across the array (e.g., naturally occurring geothermal seismicity). As of August 2012, several episodes of tectonic tremor have been detected in the vicinity of Akutan Island during the array deployment based on recordings from nearby permanent stations operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). This is the first small-aperture array deployed in the Aleutian Islands and the results should serve as a guide for future array deployments along the Aleutian Arc as part of the upcoming EarthScope and GeoPRISMS push into Alaska. We demonstrate the power of array methods based on stacking at Akutan Volcano using a sequence of DLP earthquakes from June 11, 2012 that were recorded on the permanent AVO stations. We locate and characterize the lowest frequency portion of the signals at 0.5 Hz. At these low frequencies, the traditional "sparse" local network at Akutan effectively becomes a small-aperture array relative to the wavelength. We exploit the coherency among the stations and locate the DLPs by using a novel stacking method. The crux of the method involves scanning over all possible source locations and relative polarity combinations between the local stations to find the one that maximizes the stacked power at a well-defined region in the subsurface. As a result, the method is applicable even in the presence of mixed polarities. We discover that two of the stations at Akutan have DLP waveforms with opposite polarities compared to the other stations. Accounting for this polarity variation gives a DLP source location at 10 km depth, to the west-southwest of the Akutan summit caldera. These results give clear evidence for non-isotropic radiation patterns associated with DLPs and show the promise of array methods based on waveform stacking for providing future insights into the origin of volcanic as well as geothermal and tectonic seismicity.
Haney, M. M.; Prejean, S. G.; Ghosh, A.; Power, J. A.; Thurber, C. H.
Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.
Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.
Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.
Volcanoes generate a wide variety of phenomena that can alter the Earth's surface and atmosphere and endanger people and property. While most of the natural hazards illustrated and described in this fact sheet are associated with eruptions, some, like landslides, can occur even when a volcano is quiet. Small events may pose a hazard only within a few miles of a volcano, while large events can directly or indirectly endanger people and property tens to hundreds of miles away.
Myers, Bobbie M.; Brantley, Steven R.
This is the on-line version of a general interest publication prepared by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). It provides a general introduction to volcanoes and volcanology. Topics include types of volcanoes; types of eruptions; submarine volcanoes; and features associated with volcanic terrains (geysers, hot springs, etc.). There is also discussion of volcanoes and their association to plate tectonics, extraterrestrial volcanoes, monitoring and research efforts, and the impacts of volcanoes on human populations. A text-only version is also available.
NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) "studies the dynamic interactions between submarine volcanic activity and seafloor hotsprings at an observatory, Axial seamount." The website presents a host of information on the participants, tools, and cruise plans for past, present, and scheduled expeditions. Researchers can learn about the Remote Access Sampler (RAS) and a Bottom Access Pressure Recorder (BPR) which transmits the latest data from the seafloor to the website. Through NeMO explorer, users can explore the seafloor with panorama, fly-throughs, and video clips. The education section offers stimulating curriculum materials where students can learn about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, axial volcanoes, and much more.
A real-time 24/7 Anatahan volcano-monitoring and eruption detection system is now operational. There had been no real-time seismic monitoring on Anatahan during the May 10, 2003 eruption because the single telemetered seismic station on Anatahan Island had failed. On May 25, staff from the Emergency Management Office (EMO) of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a replacement telemetered seismic station on Anatahan whose data were recorded on a drum recorder at the EMO on Saipan, 130 km to the south by June 5. In late June EMO and USGS staff installed a Glowworm seismic data acquisition system (Marso et al, 2003) at EMO and hardened the Anatahan telemetry links. The Glowworm system collects the telemetered seismic data from Anatahan and Saipan, places graphical display products on a webpage, and exports the seismic waveform data in real time to Glowworm systems at Hawaii Volcano Observatory and Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO). In early July, a back-up telemetered seismic station was placed on Sarigan Island 40 km north of Anatahan, transmitting directly to the EMO on Saipan. Because there is currently no population on the island, at this time the principal hazard presented by Anatahan volcano would be air traffic disruption caused by possible erupted ash. The aircraft/ash hazard requires a monitoring program that focuses on eruption detection. The USGS currently provides 24/7 monitoring of Anatahan with a rotational seismic duty officer who carries a Pocket PC-cell phone combination that receives SMS text messages from the CVO Glowworm system when it detects large seismic signals. Upon receiving an SMS text message notification from the CVO Glowworm, the seismic duty officer can use the Pocket PC - cell phone to view a graphic of the seismic traces on the EMO Glowworm's webpage to determine if the seismic signal is eruption related. There have been no further eruptions since the monitoring system was installed, but regional tectonic earthquakes have provided frequent tests of the system. Reliance on a Pocket PC - cell phone requires that the seismic duty officer remain in an area with cell phone coverage. With this monitoring method, the USGS is able to provide rapid notice of an Anatahan eruption to the EMO and the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center. Reference Marso, J.N., Murray, T.L., Lockhart, A.B., Bryan, C.J., Glowworm: An extended PC-based Earthworm system for volcano monitoring. Abstracts, Cities On Volcanoes III, Hilo Hawaii, July 2003.
Marso, J. N.; Lockhart, A. B.; White, R. A.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Trusdell, F. A.; Camacho, J. T.; Chong, R.
In the past decade, baseline data have been obtained on pre-eruptive water contents for several volcanic arcs worldwide. One surprising observation is that parental magmas contain ~ 4 wt% H2O on average at each arc worldwide . Within each arc, the variation from volcano to volcano is from 2 to 6 w% H2O, with few exceptions. The similar averages at different arcs are unexpected given the order of magnitude variations in the concentration of other slab tracers. H2O is clearly different from other tracers, however, being both a major driver of melting in the mantle and a major control of buoyancy and viscosity in the crust. Some process, such as mantle melting or crustal storage, apparently modulates the water content of mafic magmas at arcs. Mantle melting may deliver a fairly uniform product to the Moho, if the wet melt process includes a negative feedback. On the other hand, magmas with variable water content may be generated in the mantle, but a crustal filter may lead to magma degassing up to a common mid-to-upper crustal storage region. Testing between these two end-member scenarios is critical to our understanding of subduction dehydration, global water budgets, magmatic plumbing systems, melt generation and eruptive potential. The Alaska-Aleutian arc is a prime location to explore this fundamental problem in the subduction water cycle, because active volcanoes vary more than elsewhere in the world in parental H2O contents (based on least-degassed, mafic melt inclusions hosted primarily in olivine). For example, Shishaldin volcano taps magma with among the lowest H2O contents globally (~ 2 wt%) and records low pressure crystal fractionation , consistent with a shallow magma system (< 1 km bsl). At the other extreme, Augustine volcano is fed by a mafic parent that contains among the highest H2O globally (~ 7 wt%), and has evolved by deep crystal fractionation , consistent with a deep magma system (~ 14 km bsl). Do these magmas stall at different depths because of different crustal regimes or because of different primary magma compositions? Do magmas degas until they physically stall, or do they stall when they start to degas? One test of this is whether H2O contents correlate with tracers from the subduction zone that are not fractionated easily during crystal fractionation or degassing. We find a strong negative correlation between H2O/Ce (based on the maximum H2O measured in a given inclusion population) and Nb/Ce in eight Aleutian volcanoes, which is well explained by variable amounts of a slab fluid, but would be fortuitous, or strongly disturbed, if major degassing took place in the crust during magma ascent. Thus, geochemical data point to a strong slab-mantle control on H2O, that may set the future course of magma ascent, storage and eruption. Integrated studies are needed to test this prediction, including seismic imaging and geodetic response of the volcanic system, from the slab to the surface.  Plank, et al. (2011) Min. Mag. 75: 1648.  Zimmer, et al. (2010) J. Pet. 51: 2411-2444.
Plank, T.; Zimmer, M. M.; Hauri, E. H.
The quadrangle includes the Capital Mountain Volcano and the northern part of Mount Sanford Volcano in the Wrangell Mountains of south-central Alaska. The Capital Mountain volcano is a relatively small, andesitic shield volcano of Pleistocene age, which contains a 4-km-diameter summit caldera and a spectacular post-caldera radial dike swam. Lava flows from the younger Pleistocene Mount Sanford Volcano overlap the south side of the Capital Mountain Volcano. Copper-stained fractures in basaltic andesite related to a dike-filled rift of the North Sanford eruptive center are the only sign of mineralization in the quadrangle. Rock glaciers, deposits of Holocene and Pleistocene valley glaciers and Pleistocene Copper River basin glaciers mantle much of the volcanic bedrock below elevations of 5,500 ft.
Richter, D.H.; Ratte, J.C.; Schmoll, H.R.; Leeman, W.P.; Smith, J.G.; Yehle, L.A.
Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.
Young, Eric W.
High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.
Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie
Home of the Clark Telescope, the Lowell Observatory's mission is to pursue the study of astronomy, especially the study of our solar system and its evolution, to conduct pure research in astronomical phenomena, and to maintain quality public education and outreach programs to bring the results of astronomical research to the general public. The Steele Visitor Center, the staging area for all daytime tours and evening programs, also houses the interactive exhibit hall, the Giclas Lecture Hall, and more. Known for its solar system research, Lowell astronomers are conducting investigations of near-Earth asteroids, planetary satellites and ring systems, Centaurs, Kuiper Belt objects, and comets. A decades long study of the photometric stability of the Sun also continues. The Discovery Channel Telescope is Lowell Observatory’s newest project to design and construct a powerful, 4.2-meter telescope. Currently under development, the Discovery Channel Telescope will significantly advance Lowell’s scientific research capabilities while providing opportunities for real-time global broadcasting and educational programming about astronomy and science.
EarthScope, a broad-based geophysics program funded by the US National Science Foundation, takes a multidisciplinary approach to studying the structure and evolution of the North American continent and the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. The integrated observing systems that make up the EarthScope facilities provide data streams that address fundamental questions at a variety of scales including the active nucleation zone of earthquakes, individual faults and volcanoes, the deformation along the plate boundary, and the structure of the continent and planet. EarthScope data are freely and openly available to maximize participation from the national and international scientific community and to provide ongoing educational outreach to students and the public. EarthScope facilities include the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and the USArray. With leadership from the U.S. academic research community, consortium members, and through collaboration with other national and international organizations, IRIS operates, maintains, and manages the USArray facility and UNAVCO manages the PBO and SAFOD facilities. USArray consists of a portable array of 400 broadband seismometers that traverse North America and Alaska over a 15- year period; a pool of broadband, short-period, and active source seismometers available for deployment in areas where a denser observations are required; and seven permanent and 20 portable magnetotelluric (MT) instruments. SAFOD consists of a 3.1 km instrumented and core-sampled borehole that crosses the seismogenic zone of the San Andreas fault, designed to directly reveal the physical and chemical processes controlling earthquake generation. The PBO is a permanent network of continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations, borehole tensor strainmeters, long baseline laser strainmeters, and a pool of campaign GPS units that provide deformation data for fundamental studies of the dynamics of plate motions, earthquakes, and volcanoes. Distributed EarthScope data management systems ensure that all data collected by the USArray, PBO, SAFOD, and partner organizations are archived and distributed to the science community, educators, and the public free of charge and without delay. Our presentation will review the construction and operations of the EarthScope facility and provide science highlights that illustrate the transformational power of openly available, integrated community data sets. We will compare and contrast the EarthScope facility with other international geographically distributed Earth science observatories such as GEONET, AUscope, and EPOS.
Jackson, Mike E.; Woodward, R.
1 The Evolution of Large Shield Volcanoes on Venus Robert R. Herrick Lunar and Planetary Institute Author: Robert R. Herrick Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks 903 Koyukuk Dr. Fairbanks by retrograde subduction and or delamination [Janes et al., 1992; Sandwell and Schubert, 1992; Koch and Manga
Herrick, Robert R.
University of Alaska Graduate Survey 2012 Prepared for: University of Alaska March 2013 #12;University of Alaska Graduate Survey 2012 Prepared for: University of Alaska Prepared by: Juneau Â· Anchorage ............................................................................................................................... 60 Survey Instrument
such area is the Kivu Basin of East Africa. Located along the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and seismic activity that has formed as a result of tectonic extension between East Africa and the restSAR Captures Rifting and Volcanism in East Africa by Michael P. Poland, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS
From soon after its launch in December 1999, the ASTER sensor on the NASA Terra satellite has been acquiring data of volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters around the world. ASTER has the capability to acquire high spatial resolution data from the visible to thermal infrared wavelength region. Those data, in conjunction with its ability to generate digital elevation models (DEMs), makes ASTER particularly useful for numerous aspects of volcanic remote sensing. However, the nature of the ASTER scheduling/data collection/calibration pathway makes rapid observations of hazard locations nearly impossible. The sensor's acquisitions are scheduled in advance and the data are processed and calibrated in Japan prior to archiving in the United States. This can produce a lag of at least several days from the initial request to data scheduling and another several days after acquisition until the data are available. However, there exists a manual "rapid response" mode that provides faster data scheduling, processing and availability. This mode has now been semi-automated and linked to larger-scale and more rapid monitoring alert system. The first phase has been to integrate with the Alaska Volcano Observatory's current near-real-time satellite monitoring system, which relies on high temporal/low spatial resolution orbital data. This phase of the project has focused on eruptions in the north Pacific region, and in particular over Kamchatka, Russia. Several beneficial factors have combined that resulted in over 1350 ASTER images being acquired for the five most thermally-active Kamchatka volcanoes (Bezymianny, Karimsky, Kluichevskoi, Sheveluch and Tolbachik). These factors include the orbital alignment of Terra, the high latitude of the peninsula, and the many eruptions and volcanic activity in Kamchatka. From the inception of the automated rapid response program in 2003, an additional 350 scenes have been acquired over the Kamchatka volcanoes, which have targeted both small-scale activity and larger eruptions for science and hazard response. Numerous eruptions have been observed that displayed varying volcanic styles including basaltic lava flow emplacement, silicic lava dome growth, pyroclastic flow production, volcanic ash plume production, fumarolic activity, and geothermal emission. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the current ASTER rapid response program in Kamchatka, focus on two specific eruptions of Sheveluch volcano, and discuss the future expansion plans for global hazard response.
Ramsey, M.; Wessels, R.; Dehn, J.; Duda, K.; Harris, A.; Watson, M.
Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.
Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.
Seismicity at Augustine Volcano in south-central Alaska was monitored continuously between 1970 and 2007. Seismic instrumentation on the volcano has varied from one to two short-period instruments in the early 1970s to a complex network comprising 8 to 10 short-period, 6 broadband, and 1 strong-motion instrument in 2006. Since seismic monitoring began, the volcano has erupted four times; a relatively minor eruption in 1971 and three major eruptions in 1976, 1986, and 2006. Each of the major eruptions was preceded by 9 to 10 months of escalating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquake activity that began near sea level. The major eruptions are characterized seismically by explosive eruptions, rock avalanches, lahars, and periods of small repetitive low-frequency seismic events often called drumbeats that are associated with periods of lava effusion, and they all followed a similar pattern, beginning with an explosive onset that was followed by several months of discontinuous effusive activity. Earthquake hypocenters were observed to move upward from near sea level toward the volcano?s summit over a roughly 9-month period before the 1976 and 1986 eruptions. The 1976 eruption was preceded by a small number of earthquakes that ranged in depth from 2 to 5 km below sea level. Earthquakes in this depth range were also observed following the 2006 eruption. The evolution of earthquake hypocenters associated with the three major eruptions, in conjunction with other supporting geophysical and geological observations, suggests that the Augustine magmatic system consists of a deeper magma source area at about 3.5 to 5 km below sea level and a shallower system of cracks near sea level where volatiles and magma may temporally reside as they ascend to the surface. The strong similarity in seismicity and character of the 1976, 1986, and 2006 eruptions suggests that the processes responsible for magma generation, rise, and eruption at Augustine Volcano have been roughly constant since the early 1970s.
Power, John A.; Lalla, Douglas J.
This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) Location: 60.0 degrees North latitude, 140.7 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 2, 3 and 4 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Date Acquired: June 8, 2001
Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…
Arnold, Robert D.; And Others
This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…
Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987
Mauna Loa on the Island Hawai?i is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawai?i (Island of Hawai?i) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.
Trusdell, Frank A.
. Total Number of Charges, Age 6Â17 Column percentages. Source of data: Alaska Division of Juvenile Vol. 27, No. 1 Please see Sex offenders, page 7 Sex Offenders in the Alaska Juvenile Justice System AndrÃ© B. Rosay and Ronald S. Everett This article looks at the characteristics of 29 juvenile sex
The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.
Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.
Radio astronomy programs comprise three very-long-baseline interferometer projects, ten spectral line investigations, one continuum mapping in the 0.8 cm region, and one monitoring of variable sources. A low-noise mixer was used in mapping observations of 3C273 at 31 GHz and in detecting of a new methyl alcohol line at 36,169 MHz in Sgr B2. The new Mark 2 VLBI recording terminal was used in galactic H2O source observations using Haystack and the Crimean Observatory, USSR. One feature in W29 appears to have a diameter of 0.3 millisec of arc and a brightness temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th power K. Geodetic baseline measurements via VLBI between Green Bank and Haystack are mutually consistent within a few meters. Radar investigations of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon have continued. The favorable opposition of Mars and improvements in the radar permit measurements on a number of topographic features with unprecedented accuracy, including scarps and crater walls. The floor of Mare Serenitatis slopes upward towards the northeast and is also the location of a strong gravitational anomaly.
Deposits from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, record a complex history of magma mixing before and during the eruption. The eruption produced five major lithologies: low-silica andesite scoria (LSAS; 56.5 to 58.7 weight percent SiO2), mostly during the initial explosive phase; high-silica andesite pumice (HSA; 62.2 to 63.3 weight percent SiO2), prevalent during the continuous phase; dense low-silica andesite (DLSA; 56.4 to 59.3 weight percent SiO2), predominantly during the late effusive phase; and dense intermediate andesite (DIA) and banded clasts, present throughout the eruption but most abundant in the continuous phase. The DIA and banded clasts have compositions that fall between and partially overlap the ranges noted above. All rock types are phenocryst-rich (36 to 44 volume percent), containing plagioclase, orthopyroxene, augite, Fe-Ti oxides, olivine, and rare amphibole, apatite, and anhydrite. Glasses from tephra and flow-deposit clasts range from 66 to nearly 80 weight percent SiO2 and represent highly evolved melt relative to the bulk rock compositions. Fe-Ti oxides recorded fO2~2 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer and temperatures of 904+47 degree(s) C and 838+14 degree(s) C from LSAS and HSA samples, respectively, with the intermediate lithologies falling in the middle of these ranges. The dense low-silica andesite and scoria (collectively LSA) are compositionally nearly identical, and trace-element patterns show that the HSA is not the result of shallow crustal fractionation of the LSA. The petrological and geochemical data indicate that two-component magma mixing between the LSA and HSA caused the compositional spread in eruptive products. The phenocryst population in the LSA suggests that it represents a hybrid formed from the HSA and an unerupted, basaltic 'replenishing' magma. On the basis of petrological and geophysical observations reported here and elsewhere in this volume, the HSA was stored as a crystal-rich mush with its top at ~5-km depth. An influx of basalt remobilized and partially mixed with a portion of the mush, forming the hybrid LSA. The lower viscosity LSA ascended towards the surface as a dike, erupting during the explosive phase in mid-January 2006. In late January, a large explosion produced the first significant volumes of HSA, followed by several days of rapid HSA effusion during the eruption's continuous phase. After a three-week hiatus marked by elevated gas output, signifying an open system, degassed LSA erupted during the final, effusive phase. Consistency in eruptive styles and compositions suggests that the HSA magma body may have been similarly rejuvenated during the past several eruptions. Appendixes 1-5 These appendixes are in digital form and consist of additional descriptions and compositional data for samples used in this study. They consist of spreadsheet documents provided in several file formats. * Appendix 1. Samples of Augustine Volcano 2006 eruptive products used in this study, sorted by eruptive unit and lithologic type. This table lists samples of Augustine Volcano 2006 eruptive products used in this study. The samples are sorted by eruptive unit and lithologic type. * Appendix 2. Modal Mineralogy and Point Count Data for the Augustine Eruptive Lithologies. This table presents the modal mineralogy data, determined from 1,000 point counts from thin sections of each lithology. These data form the basis for the average modal mineralogy data presented in table 2 and figure 4. * Appendix 3. Augustine Whole-Rock Geochemical Analyses. This appendix includes data collected by the Washington State University Geoanalytical Laboratory for the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The data include analyses from 2006 Augustine eruptive products, as well as pre-2006 historical, and early Holocene and Pleistocene samples. * Appendix 4. Groundmass Glass Electron Microprobe Analyses from Augustine 2006 Samples used in this Study. This appendix includes gla
Larsen, Jessic F.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Tilman, Mariah; Izbekov, Pavel; Cameron, Cheryl
Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)
Science and Children, 1980
This picture is a composite of a black and white near infrared image of Jupiter and its satellite Io and a color image of Io at shorter wavelengths taken at almost the same time on March 5, 1994. These are the first images of a giant planet or its satellites taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since the repair mission in December 1993. Io is too small for ground-based telescopes to see the surface details. The moon's angular diameter of one arc second is at the resolution limit of ground based telescopes. Many of these markings correspond to volcanoes that were first revealed in 1979 during the Voyager spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. Several of the volcanoes periodically are active because Io is heated by tides raised by Jupiter's powerful gravity. The volcano Pele appears as a dark spot surrounded by an irregular orange oval in the lower part of the image. The orange material has been ejected from the volcano and spread over a huge area. Though the volcano was first discovered by Voyager, the distinctive orange color of the volcanic deposits is a new discovery in these HST images. (Voyager missed it because its cameras were not sensitive to the near-infrared wavelengths where the color is apparent). The sulfur and sulfur dioxide that probably dominate Io's surface composition cannot produce this orange color, so the Pele volcano must be generating material with a more unusual composition, possibly rich in sodium. The Jupiter image, taken in near-infrared light, was obtained with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera in wide field mode. High altitude ammonia crystal clouds are bright in this image because they reflect infrared light before it is absorbed by methane in Jupiter's atmosphere. The most prominent feature is the Great Red Spot, which is conspicuous because of its high clouds. A cap of high-altitude haze appears at Jupiter's south pole. The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science. Credit: John Spencer, Lowell Observatory; NASA
This site describes where volcanoes are found in terms of plate tectonics and explains why they occur at those locations. S map shows that volcanoes are located mainly at plate boundaries. Then there are explanations for plate motion, mantle convection, and magma generation. The three types of plate boundaries are listed as divergent, convergent, and transform. There is also information about the relationship between types of boundaries and types of volcanism and the fact that intraplate volcanism describes volcanic eruptions within tectonic plates. The site features a diagram that depicts each type, with a link for more information about the Earth's internal heat energy and interior structure.
Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while erosion incises deep river valleys, such as those on the Island of Kaua?i. The edges of the submarine terraces that ring the islands, thus, mark paleocoastlines that are now as much as 2,000 m underwater, many of which are capped by drowned coral reefs.
Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.
At this interactive site the student attempts to rate the eruption of a volcano according to the Volcanic Explosive Index (VEI). After seeing the step by step eruption of an actual volcano, the student is introduced to VEI scale, which includes a description of the eruption, volume of ejected material, plume height, eruption type, duration, total known eruptions with that VEI, and an example. Each factor is linked to a section where it is explained in detail. After evaluating all of the factors and rating them, the student selects a VEI number and clicks for feedback. The correct answer is given with an explanation.
THE GEOLOGIC RISK IN THE LAKE KIVU BASIN AREA PRODUCTED BY EARTHQUAKES. Case of the February 3th 2008 earthquake. By: L.M.Bagalwa(1), F.Lukaya(1), M.Burume(2), J.Moeyerson(3) (1): Goma Volcano Observatory, D.R.Congo (2): Naturals Sciences Research Center
The eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is prone to earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 4 on the Richter scale. The western edge of Lake Kivu, the most populated part of the region is no exception to the solicitation of these earthquakes. Since 1997, the western basin of Lake Kivu is experiencing intense seismicity, several earthquakes of great intensity, magnitude greater than or equal to 4 develop major destructive phenomena. These include the 1997 earthquake (M = 4.7) 2000 (M = 4.6 and 5.4), 2002 (M = 4.9, 5.2, 6.1 and 24 October 2002 M = 6.2) of February 3rd 2008 (M = 6). Earthquakes of Kalehe on October 24th 2002 and Birava, February 3rd 2008 have resulted deformations of soil, human and material damage. This latest natural disaster ever known in the south-western basin of Lake Kivu has attracted our scientific curiosity we go there to inquire into its causes and consequences in this region. The basin of Lake Kivu is affected by transform faults emerging (MUKONKI & CHOROWICZ, 1980, quoted by K.S.KAVOTHA & ali, 1990) that delimit the Rift were intersecting at the level of Lake Kivu. We Consider the seismicity, volcanism and uplift of the basin of Lake Kivu as a sign of fracturing under way to delimit a plate tectonics formed (Wong and Von Herzen, 1974, quoted by KSKAVOTHA et al, 1990). The physiography of Lake Kivu is dominated by the fault which borders the western shore and one which intersects the island of Idjwi. The telemetry data of Goma Volcano Observatory added to those of the seismographic station of Lwiro have always revealed a pattern of epicenters clearer in Lake Kivu. In correlation with the faults of the region, earthquakes affect mainly the western edge of Lake Kivu and the island of Idjwi with increasing density from north to south (K.S.KAVOTHA et al, 1990). The great earthquake of Lake Kivu basin on February 03rd 2008, of magnitude 6 on the Richter scale occurred at 07 hours 34 minutes 12 seconds GMT, about 20 km north of Bukavu, 80km south-west of Goma, between 02,314S and 028,896E, at a depth of 10km epicentral surface. Three major aftershocks followed to this great earthquake and were recorded at the seismographic station of Lwiro and the Goma Volcano Observatory: 1. The first after shock at 10 hours 56minutes 10seconds AM GMT, of magnitude 5.0, located at 20km depth and oriented on the north-east of Bukavu and 80km depth on the west of Butare in Rwanda between 02.456 S and 029.039 E. 2. The second after shock at 11 hours 07 minutes AM GMT, of magnitude 4.7, located at 25km depth on the north-east of Bukavu and 75 km depth on the south-west of Goma, between 02.307S and 028.997E. 3. The third after shock at 11hours 37minutes 49secondes AM GMT, of magnitude 4.5, located at 40km depth on the west of Butare in Rwanda and 55km depth on the east of Bukavu between 02.525S and 029.363E (Lukaya N'yombo Fr,11 February 2008). Other after shocks not indicated in this text was shacked the western of Lake Kivu basin. This great earthquake and its first two aftershocks were located in the south western of Lake Kivu basin, in Ishungu and Birava region in territory of Kabare. The damage is observed on a radius of approximately 20 km. This earthquake has reactivated the faults along the western shore of the Lake Kivu, but also those of the Fomulac-Kakondo-Ishungu-Birava axis. Those in Bukavu town, the South and North direction have not escaped at this reactivation. The movement of these faults has caused deformations in the surface soil and buildings erected on these flaws have suffered cracks and destruction. We will present damages of this natural risk in our poster presentation.
Bagalwa Rukeza, Montfort
Help students make real-world connections to Earth science concepts such as volcanoes with the help of modern technology. This article enumerates several websites where students can explore these forces of nature in a variety of ways - all from a safe distance!
Christmann, Edwin P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.
How would you handle a volcano diasater? In this game, you've just been appointed chief of the Emergency Management Agency for Bluebear County. Everyone is counting on you to handle the eruption of Mount Spur. Download this game to find out. Before you play, make sure Flash is installed on your computer.
British Broadcasting Corporation
The diversity of volcanic activity on Mars throughout geologic time was one of the major factors that has controlled the spatial distribution of surface mineralogies. The traditional view of Martian volcanism is one in which effusive activity has dominated the entire preserved geologic history of the planet, with the minor exception of phreatomagnetic activity and associated volcano ground-ice interactions. However, two lines of evidence have caused reconsidering of this view, and have led to the possible role of explosive volcanism on Mars. First, detailed analysis of high resolution Viking Orbiter images has provided good evidence for explosive activity on Hecates Tholus and Alba Patera. Secondly, the problems believed to exist in associating explosive volcanism with silicic magmas on Mars, and the consequent unusual magmatic evolutionary trend for Martian volcanoes from silica-rich to silica-poor, may now be circumvented by the consideration of basatic plinian activity similar in kind to terrestrial eruptions such as the 1886 Tarawera eruption. The morphologic evidence for an early phase of explosive activity on Mars is briefly reviewed, and a model is presented for the emplacement of ash-flow deposits on Martian volcanoes. The volcanoes Alba Patera and Olympus Mons are considered in this context, along with some of the older Martian tholi and paterae
Mouginis-Mark, Pete; Wilson, Lionel
In this worksheet students identify and label the characteristic features of shield, cinder cone and composite volcanoes. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.
The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to
Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.
The University of Fairbanks's Alaska Climate Research Center offers a host of materials about its climate research and about Alaska's climate in general. The website supplies abstracts of the Center's research projects such as _The Urban Heat Island Effect at Fairbanks, Alaska_ and _Radiation Climatology of Alaska_. Researchers can find data and statistics on Alaska's temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, pressure, and wind. The website provides Climographs for various areas throughout the state. Students can discover how latitude, continentiality, and elevation affect Alaska's climate.
Many of the worlds active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines, and during eruptions the transfer of mass from volcano to sea is a potential source mechanism for tsunamis. Flows of granular material off of volcanoes, such as pyroclastic flow, debris avalanche, and lahar, often deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean that have a large potential tsunami hazard. The deposits of both hot and cold volcanic grain flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by granular subaerial volcanic flows using examples from Aniakchak volcano in southwestern Alaska, and Augustine volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Evidence for far-field tsunami inundation coincident with a major caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak volcano ca. 3.5 ka has been described and is the basis for one of our case studies. We perform a numerical simulation of the tsunami using a large volume pyroclastic flow as the source mechanism and compare our results to field measurements of tsunami deposits preserved along the north shore of Bristol Bay. Several attributes of the tsunami simulation, such as water flux and wave amplitude, are reasonable predictors of tsunami deposit thickness and generally agree with the field evidence for tsunami inundation. At Augustine volcano, geological investigations suggest that as many as 14 large volcanic-rock avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during the 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. By analogy with the 1883 event, previous studies concluded that tsunamis could have been generated many times in the past. If so, geological evidence of tsunamis, such as tsunami deposits on land, should be found in the area around Augustine Island. Paradoxically, unequivocal evidence for tsunami inundation has been found. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region and a future tsunami from the volcano would have devastating consequences to villages, towns, oil-production facilities, and the fishing industry, especially if it occurred at high tide (the tidal range in this area is about 5 m). Numerical simulation experiments of tsunami generation, propagation and inundation using a subaerial debris avalanche source at Augustine volcano indicate only modest wave generation because of the shallow water surrounding the volcano (maximum water depth about 25 m). Lahar flows produced during eruptions at snow and ice clad volcanoes in the Aleutian arc also deliver copious amounts of sediment to the sea. These flows only rarely transform to subaqueous debris flows that may become tsunamigenic. However, the accumulation of loose, unconsolidated sediment on the continental shelf may lead to subaqueous debris flows and landslides if these deposits become mobilized by large earthquakes. Tsunamis produced by this mechanism could potentially reach coastlines all along the Pacific Rim. Finally, recent work in the western Aleutian Islands indicates that many of the island volcanoes in this area have experienced large-scale flank collapse. Because these volcanoes are surrounded by deep water, the tsunami hazard associated with a future sector collapse could be significant.
Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.
The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.
Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.
From the advent of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) and the launch of the first flagship satellite (Terra) in December 1999, the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia has been observed frequently. Data from sensors such as MODIS and ASTER have been particularly valuable in capturing processes associated with the large eruptions at Bezymianny (2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007) and Shiveluch (2001, 2004, 2005 and 2007). The high spatial resolution of the ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) sensor (90m/pixel) in conjunction with the relatively rapid revisit time (1-5 days) at the higher latitudes of Kamchatka has been effective in capturing detailed changes in the lava domes, such as following the December 2006 Bezymianny eruption. The temperature distribution of the domes detected from space and airborne TIR data has been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth and the location of zones of weakness as well as interpreting dome collapse events. The emitted radiance has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing from their surfaces. The success of these satellite-based observations gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The ASTER Urgent Request Protocol has been in place since 2004 and has increased the observational frequency in Kamchatka by 30%. Field campaigns to Bezymianny and Shiveluch were funded by this program and carried out in 2004, 2005 and 2007 in conjunction with the Russian Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS) and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). They took place following large eruptions and allowed ground- and helicopter-based visible and TIR data to be acquired. Definitive changes were noted on the lava domes, which were linked to the response of the magma system. Although the growth of these two domes has been nearly continuous over the past several decades, each is emplaced in different ways. Bezymianny grows by mostly successively-emplaced, lower aspect lava lobes, whereas Shiveluch tends to grow thicker lobes that are commonly destroyed by explosive events and/or collapse events. The long term synoptic record of thermal infrared observations in Kamchatka helped to reveal this variability, which is linked to the composition, topography and resupply rate at each volcano.
Carter, A. J.; Ramsey, M. S.
The Brooks Astronomical Observatory, located at Central Michigan University, was built for research and public use. The website presents the history of the Observatory and its technological capabilities. Users can find a long list of scientific publications based on research performed at the observatory. The numerous astronomical topics researched include asteroids, stellar clusters, occultations, and light pollution. Individuals can view fantastic images of comets, planets, and other space phenomena collected at the Observatory.
This is the Student Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside volcanoes by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. The Student Page contains the activity preparation instructions and materials list, key words, and a photograph of the experimental setup. There is also an extension activity question that has students predict what will happen when the experiment is run using an elongated model. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.
A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.
This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.
According to theory of plate tectonics, Earth is an active planet -- its surface is composed of many individual plates that move and interact, constantly changing and reshaping Earth's outer layer. Volcanoes and earthquakes both result from the movement of tectonic plates. This interactive feature shows the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes and the boundaries of tectonic plates. By clicking on a map, viewers can superimpose the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes and earthquakes.
During the course of the annual vacation season, luxury cruise ships carrying up to 3000 passengers visit the coastal cities and small towns of Alaska. Alaska is the first state to impose regulations requiring such vessels to submit to inspection and monitoring of gray water and...
This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…
Jennings, Mary, Ed.
The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.
Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)
This website illustrates the Alaska Quaternary Center's (at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks) commitment "to the promotion of interdisciplinary research and the enhancement of interdisciplinary instruction in Quaternary sciences." Users can view images of the field work and learn how to obtain quaternary data from the AQC Quaternary Research Geodatabase.
Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.
Lockridge, P. (National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO (USA))
This visually arresting site from the Alaska Historical Society is a superb resource for teachers of history and social studies, or for anyone fascinated by the 49th state. Discover AlaskaÃ¢ÂÂs History is a great place to start. After perusing the FAQs, readers may wish to look at the subheading, For Teachers and Students, where Alaskan history has been divided into easily digestible categories such as 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964, and Alaska Statehood and Constitutional Convention 1955/1956, with corresponding articles and links. The For Researchers section offers links to helpful resources around the web. The weekly AHS Blog is a well-composed and informative romp through AlaskaÃ¢ÂÂs past, with posts covering canneries and gold camps, baseball and boats.
The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10.8 and IR 12.0. The GlobVolcano information system and its current experimentation represent a
Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.
Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) California Volcano Observatory (CalVO) aims to advance scientific understanding of volcanic processes and to lessen harmful impacts of volcanic activity in California and Nevada. Within CalVO's area of responsibility, ten volcanoes or volcanic centers have been identified by a national volcanic threat assessment in support of developing the U.S. National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS) as posing moderate, high, or very high threats to surrounding communities based on their recent eruptive histories and their proximity to vulnerable people, property, and infrastructure. To better understand the extent of potential hazards at these and other volcanoes and volcanic centers, the USGS Volcano Science Center (VSC) is continually compiling spatial databases of volcano information, including: geologic mapping, hazards assessment maps, locations of geochemical and geochronological samples, and the distribution of volcanic vents. This digital mapping effort has been ongoing for over 15 years and early databases are being converted to match recent datasets compiled with new data models designed for use in: 1) generating hazard zones, 2) evaluating risk to population and infrastructure, 3) numerical hazard modeling, and 4) display and query on the CalVO as well as other VSC and USGS websites. In these capacities, spatial databases of CalVO volcanoes and their derivative map products provide an integrated and readily accessible framework of VSC hazards science to colleagues, emergency managers, and the general public.
Ramsey, D. W.
The upper Cook Inlet region of southcentral Alaska would be significantly impacted by a major tephrafall, owing to a widespread population and heavily travelled transportation corridors. To evaluate the likelihood of such an occurrence, the tephra deposits of the region have been inventoried. Approximately 90 deposits of Holocene age are sufficiently thick to have been preserved for sampling; the frequency of such major tephrafalls ranges from 1 every 200 years near sources on the west side of upper Cook Inlet, to 1 every 1000 years on the more populated east side. The volcanoes located on the west side of upper Cook Inlet are, from north to south, Hayes, Spurr, Redoubt, and Iliamna. Hayes volcano produced the most extensive set of 6 to perhaps 8 tephra layers in the region about 3650 yr B.P. and produced one other, less extensive tephra layer during Holocene time. Spurr and Redoubt volcanoes have produced, respectively, approximately 35 and 30 Holocene layers which were dispersed eastward toward population centers. No Holocene tephra layers of Iliamna have been recognized with certainty; consequently, several tephra layers which originated to the south of the region must have a source at Augustine Volcano, or some more distant volcano. Tephra layers of Hayes volcano are calc-alkaline dacites. Most of the Spurr deposits are tholeiitic, basaltic andesites whereas those of Redoubt Volcano are calc-alkaline andesites and dacites. ?? 1985.
Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) is a very large shield-shaped volcano located in northern California where it forms part of the southern Cascade Range of volcanoes. It has erupted hundreds of times during its half-million-year history, including nine times during the past 5,200 years, most recently 950 years ago. This record represents one of the highest eruptive frequencies among Cascade volcanoes and includes a wide variety of different types of lava flows and at least two explosive eruptions that produced widespread fallout. Compared to those of a typical Cascade stratovolcano, eruptive vents at MLV are widely distributed, extending 55 km north-south and 40 km east-west. The total area covered by MLV lavas is >2,000 km2, about 10 times the area of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Judging from its long eruptive history and its frequent eruptions in recent geologic time, MLV will erupt again. Although the probability of an eruption is very small in the next year (one chance in 3,600), the consequences of some types of possible eruptions could be severe. Furthermore, the documented episodic behavior of the volcano indicates that once it becomes active, the volcano could continue to erupt for decades, or even erupt intermittently for centuries, and very likely from multiple vents scattered across the edifice. Owing to its frequent eruptions, explosive nature, and proximity to regional infrastructure, MLV has been designated a 'high threat volcano' by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Volcano Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity, but with only two seismometers located high on the volcano and no other USGS monitoring equipment in place, MLV is at present among the most poorly monitored Cascade volcanoes.
Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Nathenson, Manuel; Champion, Duane E.; Ramsey, David W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ewert, John W.
Roughly 1100 years ago, the Changbaishan volcano that lies along the border between northeastern China and North Korea erupted, sending pyroclastic flows dozens of kilometers and blasting a 5-kilometer-wide chunk off of the tip of the stratovolcano. The eruption, known as the Millennium eruption because of its proximity to the turn of the first millennium, was one of the largest volcanic events in the Common Era. In the subsequent period, there have been three smaller eruptions, the most recent of which took place in 1903. Starting in 1999, spurred by signs of resumed activity, scientists established the Changbaishan Volcano Observatory, a network to track changing gas compositions, seismic activity, and ground deformation. Reporting on the data collected over the past 12 years, Xu et al. found that these volcanic indices each leapt during a period of heightened activity from 2002 to 2006.
Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.
Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl
Kilauea volcano, in Hawaii, may be the best understood basaltic volcano in the world. Magma rises from a depth of 80 km or more and resides temporarily in near-surface reservoirs: eruption begins when the crust above one of these reservoirs splits open in response to a pressure increase. Repeated rift-zone eruptions compress Kilauea's flanks; after decades of accumulation, the stress
Robert I. Tilling; John J. Dvorak
Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.
Hudson, Travis L.
Vol. 23, No. 4 Please see Expenditures, page 10 HIGHLIGHTS INSIDE THIS ISSUE Â· A detailed review of a book on terrorism and the U.S. Constitution in the era of the war on terror (page 2). Â· Results;2 Alaska Justice Forum 23(4), Winter 2007 Review Essay Terrorism and the Constitution: Security, Civil
A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)
LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.
This is the Teacher Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside volcanoes by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. Activity preparation instructions are on the Student Page, while the Teacher Page has background, preparation, and in-class information. An extension activity has the students repeat the experiment using a square bread pan to simulate the original research that was done using elongate models with triangular cross-sections. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.
How Volcanoes Work was constructed and is maintained by Dr. Vic Camp from San Diego State University's Department of Geological Sciences. The site takes a comprehensive look into every aspect of volcanic formations and eruptions, including historical eruptions (Mt. St. Helens) and volcanism on other planets. Well written and designed, this site offers excellent illustrations, photographs, and several multimedia files such as a cross-sectional view of an eruption taking place. Anyone from geology students to lifelong learners will find this site interesting and informative.
Clustered earthquakes located 25 km northeast of Augustine Volcano occurred more frequently beginning about 8 months before the volcano?s explosive eruption in 2006. This increase in distal seismicity was contemporaneous with an increase in seismicity directly below the volcano?s vent. Furthermore, the distal seismicity intensified penecontemporaneously with signals in geodetic data that appear to reveal a transition from magmatic inflation of the volcano to dike injection. Focal mechanisms for five events within the distal cluster show strike-slip-fault movement. Directly above the earthquake cluster, shallow (<5 km deep) folds and faults mapped using multichannel seismic-reflection data strike northeast, parallel to the regional structural grain. About 10 km northeast of Augustine Volcano, however, the Augustine-Seldovia arch, an important trans-basin feature, strikes west and intersects the northeast-striking structural zone. We propose that the fault causing the distal earthquake cluster strikes northwest, subparallel to the arch, and is a right-lateral strike-slip fault. Future earthquake monitoring might show whether increasing activity in the remote cluster can aid in making eruption forecasts.
Fisher, Michael A.; Ruppert, Natalia A.; White, Randall A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.
The Earth Observatory Glossary defines words from space science, ecology and Earth science. It is part of the NASA Earth Observatory site, which provides new satellite imagery and scientific information about Earth with a focus on climate and environmental change. The new glossary mode allows users to browse the Earth Observatory site with special terms highlighted that, when selected, will take you to the appropriate entry in the glossary.
Housed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center reports and provides information on seismic activity in Alaska. While its southern Pacific coast colleague, California, gets a lot more attention when it comes to earthquakes, Alaska experienced a magnitude 6.7 earthquake already this summer and was rocked by a 7.9 in 2002. The site offers links to general information about the center, general earthquake information, research activities at the center, education and outreach materials (including information on seismology education projects), and much more. The site is well populated with materials and should provide a great resources for those interested in North American seismic events.
The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.
O'Dell, R. (Conservation Foundation Latter, Washington, DC (USA))
Mondragon Catch Accounting/Data Quality Alan Kinsolving Fishery Regulation Specialist Jason Gasper ResourceNOAA Fisheries Alaska Region Glenn Merrill Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries Rachel Baker CSP, Allocation Forrest Bowers Fishery Management Specialist Gretchen Harrington
The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network. PMID:15709313
On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh olivine basalt were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, from water depths of 400 and 900 m. The shallower dredge site was within one-half mile of the active submarine vent evidenced at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano located on the ‘trench-slope break’ or ‘outer-arc high’ of the New Georgia Group, approximately 35 km seaward of the main volcanic line and only 30 km landward of the base of the trench inner wall. The volcano has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see cover photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978, but in each case it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982.
Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.
Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.
Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald
Since 2003, EarthScope has been installing a network of seismometers, known as the Transportable Array-across the continental United States and southern Canada. The station deployments will be completed in the Conterminous US in the fall of 2013. Beginning in October, 2013, and continuing for 5 years, EarthScope's Transportable Array plans to create a grid of seismic sensors in approximately 300 locations In Alaska and Western Canada. The proposed station grid is 85 km, and target locations will supplement or enhance existing seismic stations operating in Alaska. When possible, they will also be co-located with existing GPS stations constructed by the Plate Boundary Observatory. We review the siting plans for stations, the progress towards reconnaissance and permitting, and detail the engineering concept of the stations. In order to be able to determine the required site conditions and descriptions of installation methods to the permitting agencies, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement and communication concepts appropriate for the challenging high-latitude environment that is proposed for deployment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and the lower-48 U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the region. IRIS has experimented with different portable drills and drilling techniques to create shallow holes (1-5M) in permafrost and rock outcrops. Seasonal changes can affect the performance of seismometers in different ways depending on the emplacement technique. Results of these tests are described in a companion presentation.
Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.; Hafner, K.
This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.
Grybeck, Donald J.
Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS (56.0N, 160.5E) is one of several active volcanoes in the CIS and is 15,584 ft. in elevation. Fresh ash fall on the south side of the caldera can be seen as a dirty smudge on the fresh snowfall. Just to the north of the Kamchatka River is Shiveluch, a volcano which had been active a short time previously. There are more than 100 volcanic edifices recognized on Kamchatka, 15 of which are still active.
In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.Size: 40.5 x 40.5 km (25.1 x 25.1 miles) Location: 16.7 deg. North lat., 62.2 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 29, 2002
Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats
Pilcher, Steven H.
Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.
Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald
Using this kit, students may construct paper models of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Parts sheets for printing, instructions, and a list of other required materials are included. Links to other related sites are also provided.
A magnetic observatory is a specially designed ground-based facility that supports time-series measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field. Observatory data record a superposition of time-dependent signals related to a fantastic diversity of physical processes in the Earth’s core, mantle, lithosphere, ocean, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and, even, the Sun and solar wind.
Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, Arnaud
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a 1000 tonne heavy water Cerenkov detector built to observe neutrinos from the sun and from supernovae. It is located deep underground to reduce the cosmic background radiation to negligible levels. The observatory is nearing completion and will commence full data taking early in 1999. Some aspects of its design and construction, and some of
R. L. Helmer; R. L. Hahn; J. K. Rowley; A. L. Carter; B. Hollebone; D. Kessler; I. Blevis; F. Dalnoki-Veress; A. DeKok; J. Farine; D. R. Grant; C. K. Hargrove; G. Laberge; I. Levine; K. McFarlane; H. Mes; A. T. Noble; V. M. Novikov; M. O'Neill; M. Shatkay; C. Shewchuk; D. Sinclair; E. T. H. Clifford; R. Deal; E. D. Earle; E. Gaudette; G. Milton; B. Sur; J. Bigu; J. H. M. Cowan; D. L. Cluff; E. D. Hallman; R. U. Haq; J. Hewett; J. G. Hykawy; G. Jonkmans; R. Michaud; A. Roberge; J. Roberts; E. Saettler; M. H. Schwendener; H. Seifert; D. Sweezey; R. Tafirout; C. J. Virtue; D. N. Beck; Y. D. Chan; X. Chen; M. R. Dragowsky; F. W. Dycus; J. Gonzalez; M. C. P. Isaac; Y. Kajiyama; G. W. Koehler; K. T. Lesko; M. C. Moebus; E. B. Norman; C. E. Okada; A. W. P. Poon; P. Purgalis; A. Schuelke; A. R. Smith; R. G. Stokstad; S. Turner; I. Zlimen; J. M. Anaya; T. J. Bowles; S. J. Brice; E.-I. Esch; M. M. Fowler; A. Goldschmidt; A. Hime; A. F. McGirt; G. G. Miller; W. A. Teasdale; J. B. Wilhelmy; J. M. Wouters; J. D. Anglin; M. Bercovitch; W. F. Davidson; R. S. Storey; S. Biller; R. A. Black; R. J. Boardman; M. G. Bowler; J. Cameron; B. Cleveland; A. P. Ferraris; G. Doucas; H. Heron; C. Howard; N. A. Jelley; A. B. Knox; M. Lay; W. Locke; J. Lyon; S. Majerus; M. Moorhead; M. Omori; N. W. Tanner; R. K. Taplin; M. Thorman; D. L. Wark; J. C. Barton; P. T. Trent; R. Kouzes; M. M. Lowry; A. L. Bell; E. Bonvin; M. Boulay; M. Dayon; F. Duncan; L. S. Erhardt; H. C. Evans; G. T. Ewan; R. Ford; A. Hallin; A. Hamer; P. M. Hart; P. J. Harvey; D. Haslip; C. A. W. Hearns; R. Heaton; J. D. Hepburn; C. J. Jillings; E. P. Korpach; H. W. Lee; J. R. Leslie; M.-Q. Liu; H. B. Mak; A. B. McDonald; J. D. MacArthur; W. McLatchie; B. A. Moffat; S. Noel; T. J. Radcliffe; B. C. Robertson; P. Skensved; R. L. Stevenson; X. Zhu; S. Gil; J. Heise; R. J. Komar; C. W. Nally; H. S. Ng; C. E. Waltham; R. C. Allen; G. Bühler; H. H. Chen; G. Aardsma; T. Andersen; K. Cameron; M. C. Chon; R. H. Hanson; P. Jagam; J. Karn; J. Law; R. W. Ollerhead; J. J. Simpson; N. Tagg; J.-X. Wang; C. Alexander; E. W. Beier; J. C. Cook; D. F. Cowen; E. D. Frank; W. Frati; P. T. Keener; J. R. Klein; G. Mayers; D. S. McDonald; M. S. Neubauer; F. M. Newcomer; R. J. Pearce; R. G. V. de Water; R. V. Berg; P. Wittich; Q. R. Ahmad; J. M. Beck; M. C. Browne; T. H. Burritt; P. J. Doe; C. A. Duba; S. R. Elliott; J. E. Franklin; J. V. Germani; P. Green; A. A. Hamian; K. M. Heeger; M. Howe; R. M. Drees; A. Myers; R. G. H. Robertson; M. W. E. Smith; T. D. Steiger; T. V. Wechel; J. F. Wilkerson
Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF-Sponsored Workshop December 2004 #12 States of America. 2005. #12;Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF Sponsored Workshop sensor technology and the networks that collect data from them. Present work clearly demonstrates
Hamilton, Michael P.
National Radio Astronomy Observatory Diversity Plan July 1, 2007 Â© 2007 #12;NRAO Diversity Plan;3 Introduction For the past 50 years, NRAO has led the world in the field of radio astronomy. This success is attributable to the ability of the Observatory's people to constantly anticipate and adapt to changes
The 2005-6 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced tephra-fall deposits during each of four eruptive phases. Late in the precursory phase (December 2005), small phreatic explosions produced small-volume, localized, mostly nonjuvenile tephra. The greatest volume of tephra was produced during the explosive phase (January 11-28, 2006) when 13 discrete Vulcanian explosions generated ash plumes between 4 and 14 km above mean sea level (asl). A succession of juvenile tephra with compositions from low-silica to high-silica andesite is consistent with the eruption of two distinct magmas, represented also by a low-silica andesite lava dome (January 13-16) followed by a high-silica andesite lave dome (January 17-27). On-island deposits of lapilli to coarse ash originated from discrete vent explosions, whereas fine-grained, massive deposits were elutriated from pyroclastic flows and rock falls. During the continuous phase (January 28-February 10, 2006), steady growth and subsequent collapses of a high-silica andesite lava dome caused continuous low-level ash emissions and resulting fine elutriate ash deposits. The emplacement of a summit lava dome and lava flows of low-silica andesite during the effusive phase (March 3-16, 2006) resulted in localized, fine-grained elutriated ash deposits from small block-and-ash flows off the steep-sided lava flows. Mixing of two end-member magmas (low-silica and high-silica andesite) is evidenced by the overall similarities between tephra-fall and contemporaneous lava-dome and flow lithologies and by the chemical heterogeneity of matrix glass compositions of coarse lapilli and glass shards in the ash-size fraction throughout the 2005-6 eruption. A total mass of 2.2 x 1010 kg of tephra fell (bulk volume of 2.2 x 107 m3 and DRE volume of 8.5 x 106 m3) during the explosive phase, as calculated by extrapolation of mass data from a single Vulcanian blast on January 17. Total tephra-fall volume for the 2005-6 eruption is about an order of magnitude smaller than other historical eruptions from Augustine Volcano. Ash plumes of short duration and small volume caused no more than minor amounts (=1 mm) of ash to fall on villages and towns in the lower Cook Inlet region, and thus little hazard was posed to local communities. The bulk of the ash fell into Cook Inlet. Monitoring by the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the eruption helped to prevent hazardous encounters of ash and aircraft Appendix 2 This appendix is in digital form and is titled Raw Electron Microprobe Geochemical Analyses of Glass from Augustine 2005-2006 Tephra. It consists of Table 6 which is a spreadsheet document provided in several file formats. It contains the data used to derive table 2 and figure 7 after analyses were filtered to eliminate the inclusion of mineral data and other bad data points.
Wallace, Kristi L.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.
Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.
Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.
S Alaska consists of a complex tectonic boundary that is gradational from subduction of Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath N American Plate (NA) in the W to a transform fault between these two plates in the SE. Adding complexity, the Yakutat Plate (YAK) is in between. The YAK is exposed in NE Gulf of Alaska and has been well mapped (Plafker, 1987). It is bound by the NA to the E at the Fairweather fault and by the PAC to the S. Relative to NA, YAK is moving 47 mm/yr N30°W and PAC is moving 51 mm/yr N20°W (Fletcher & Freymueller, 2003). The YAK and deeper PAC extend NW beneath the NA as flat slabs (Brocher et al., 1994). They subduct to the W and NW in Cook Inlet region (Ratchkovsky et al., 1997), resulting in the Cook Inlet volcanic arc. They also subduct farther NNW toward the Denali volcanic gap and fault. The subducted part of the YAK is split by a transform fault exposed at Montana Creek (MC) at 62°06'N to 62°10'N at 150°W. It extends S60°W toward the most N Cook Inlet volcano, Hayes, and extends N60°E beyond Talkeetna Mts. Right-lateral WSW motion and thick fault gauge have been documented by McGee (1978) on MC and a S60°W fault scarp cutting Quaternary deposits has been mapped (Reed & Nelson, 1980). Fuis et al. (2008) seismically recognized 110 km of missing YAP NW of Talkeetna Mts, which he thought was due to a 'tear' in the YAK to the far S. Nikoli Greenstone has been found in the Talkeetna Mts just S of this transform (Schmidt, 2003) that is 70 km SW of any other mapped Nikoli. This fault offset is also shown by 7.8 km/sec Vp depth contours, which represent the YAK (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2006), as 110 km at N60°W. Based on magnetic data (Csejtey & Griscom, 1978; Saltus et al., 2007), the fault is regionally recognized as a 10× km zone on the WSW margin of the large S Alaska magnetic high. The fault zone has narrow WSW magnetic highs and depressions. This fault is also recognized on digital relief (Riehle et al., 1996); but, another pronounced N60°E linear feature also exists 20× km S, which trends into Mt. Spurr volcano. It could be another transform. If the MC transform is taking all the discrepancy between PAC and YAK, the S part of the fault would be moving relatively 9 mm/yr to S60°W. This transform has possibly been active for 12 million years. The Wrangell volcanoes with respect to YAK are associated with a spreading ridge. Yet, with respect to PAC, they are associated with a subduction zone (Stevens et al., 1984). The Totschunda and Fairweather faults are the new westward developing Denali transform. The Castle Mountain fault, located about 65 km to the SE of the MC transform, is oriented N65°E. It has had significant right-lateral offset of at least 30 km based on 7.8 km/sec Vp depth contours and of 26 km by magnetic offsets (Haeussler & Saltus, 2004). This older transform probably corresponds to Tertiary volcanics SW of the Mt Spurr/Hayes volcanic complex. Two active megathrust faults exist in south central Alaska; a 1964 type megathrust between PAC and YAK (Plafker, 1969), and a more continental megathrust between YAK and NA (Reeder, 2012). Based on Knik Arm subsidence events, these two types alternate and the next megathrust should occur in 350× years. This more continental megathrust would result in uplift of the N side of the Castle Mountain fault. It might even correspond to significant right-lateral movement on the seismically quiet MC transform.
Reeder, J. W.
This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE tells the story of how environmentalists, Alaska Native peoples, and engineers concerned about the effects of permafrost challenged plans for the Alaska oil pipeline.
The Japan Meteorological Agency installed and operates a network of borehole strainmeters in south-east Honshu. One of these instruments is on Izu-Oshima, a volcanic island at the northern end of the Izu-Bonin arc. That strainmeter recorded large strain changes associated with the 1986 eruption of Miharayama on the island. Miyake-jima, about 70 km south of Izu-Oshima, erupted in 1983. No deformation monitoring was available on Miyake-jima but several changes occurred in the strain record at Izu-Oshima. There was a clear change in the long-term strain rate 2 days before the Miyake eruption. Frequent short period events recorded by the strainmeter showed a marked change in their character. The Izu-Oshima strainmeter showed that, over the period from 1980 to the 1986 eruption, the amplitude of the solid earth tides increased by almost a factor of two. At the time of the Miyake eruption, the rate of increase of the tidal amplitude also changed. While all of these changes were observed on a single instrument, they are very different types of change. From a number of independent checks, we can be sure that the strainmeter did not experience any change in performance at that time. Thus it recorded a change in deformation behavior in three very different frequency bands: over very long term, at tidal periods ( ~ day) and at very short periods (minutes). It appears that the distant eruption in 1984 had an effect on the magmatic system under Izu-Oshima. More recent tomographic and seismic attenuation work in the Tohoku (northern Honshu) area has show the existence of a low velocity, high attenuation horizontally elongated structure under the volcanic front. If such a structure exists in the similar tectonic setting for these volcanoes, it could provide a mechanism for communication between the volcanoes.
Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Kamigaichi, O.
Uturuncu volcano belongs to the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex in the central Andes, the product of an ignimbrite ''flare-up''. The region has been the site of large-scale silicic magmatism since 10 Ma, producing 10 major eruptive calderas and edifices, some of which are multiple-eruption resurgent complexes as large as the Yellowstone or Long Valley caldera. Satellite measurements show that the hill has been rising more than half an inch a year for almost 20 years, suggesting that the Uturuncu volcano, which has erupted last time more than 300,000 years ago, is steadily inflating, which makes it fertile ground for study. In 2009 an international multidisciplinary team formed a project called PLUTONS to study Uturuncu. Under this project a 100 km wide seismic network was set around the volcano by seismologists from University of Alaska Fairbanks. Local seismicity is well distributed and provides constraints on the shallow crust. Ray paths from earthquakes in the subducting slab complement this with steep ray paths that sample the deeper crust. Together the shallow and deep earthquakes provide strong 3D coverage of Uturuncu and the surrounding region. To study the deformation source beneath the volcano we performed simultaneous tomographic inversion for the Vp and Vs anomalies and source locations, using the non-linear passive source tomographic code, LOTOS. We estimated both P and S wave velocity structures beneath the entire Uturuncu volcano by using arrival times of P and S waves from more than 600 events registered by 33 stations. To show the reliability of the results, we performed a number of different tests, including checkerboard synthetic tests and tests with odd/even data. Obtained Vp/Vs ratio distribution shows increased values beneath the south Uturuncu, at a depth of about 15 km. We suggest the high ratio anomaly is caused by partial melt, presented in expanding magma chamber, responsible for the volcano inflation. The resulting Vp, Vs and the ratio reveal the paths of the ascending fluids and melts, feeding the magma chamber. This work was partly supported by Project #7.3 of BES RAS and Project #14-05-31176 mola of RFBR.
Kukarina, Ekaterina; West, Michael; Koulakov, Ivan
The eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, 180 km south of Tokyo, Japan, since July 2000 has resulted in the emission of large amounts of sulfur dioxide. The volumes of sulfur dioxide emitted were vast, equivalent to half the anthropogenic emission from China on annual average. Short-time aerosol sampling, conducted at the Happo Ridge observatory in the central mountainous region of Japan,
Mizuo Kajino; Hiromasa Ueda; Hikaru Satsumabayashi; Zhiwei Han
International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
One third grade teacher reflects on her students living by the ocean and their frequent jaunts to the beaches where expansive slabs of granite jut out into the sea. During the summer, they run along the rocks and explore the cracks and crevices. Through their geology unit, the students discovered that this granite was formed "inside" a volcano. The students asked, "Why isn't the granite inside the volcano now? Where is the rest of the volcano?" These questions provided the seeds for an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." Students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. This geology unit helped them understand and experience the changing nature of our Earth and the place where they live firsthand.
Mangiante, Elaine S.
Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.
This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.
This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.
Chowdhury, Taniya; Graham, David
The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.
Hanisch, R. J.
Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its temporary Director.
Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.
Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.
At this website, the European Commission and six European organizations discuss the creation of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory Project (AVO) for European astronomy. Visitors can discover the function of a Virtual Observatory (VO) as "an international astronomical community-based initiative" aimed at allowing "global electronic access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories." Users can learn about the current problems associated with combining astronomical data collected all over the world and how a VO can streamline this data. The website supplies numerous images illustrating galactic scenarios, AVO prototypes, and AVO goals.
This is the homepage of the Alaska Native Science Commission (ANSC), an organization dedicated to bringing together research and science in partnership with the Native community. Site materials include information on Alaska Native communities; a searchable database of contacts for community knowledge and a directory of local, statewide, and federally recognized Alaska Native agencies. There is also information on organizational ethics and protocols, regulatory agencies, a browsable database of research projects, and information on sources of funding. The Key Issues page provides information on issues of concern, such as avian flu, climate change, observations about contaminants and environmental change, traditional knowledge systems, traditional foods, and views on climate change and ecology. For students, there is information on einternship and scholarship opportunities. The publications page provides access to archived newsletters, presentations, and reports.
Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.
This is a Web-based story of three children who venture out to find their great-grandfather's treasure box that was lost in the remote state of Alaska. Using simple terminology, the story integrates complex Earth and space science concepts, such as the formation of gold deposits and the operation of satellites. The children model creative thinking, acquire and interpret radar images, plan a treasure hunt, work systematically, and learn about Alaska. They also experience the successes and setbacks of actual research. The story provides opportunities for readers to engage in coloring activities, model building, unit conversions, and math calculations. Additionally, readers can interactively view an image from different heights and compare the size of Alaska to other U.S. states.
Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4?m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor.
Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk
Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4?m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. PMID:25384354
Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.
Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.
A guide to the expected characteristics of the space telescope (ST) observatory is presented. The general objectives of the ST observatory are summarized. The plans for the development of the observatory are described with a brief history of the scientific activities; an account of the scope of the present program; a summary of the major responsibilities of the contractors; and a list of the project milestones are included. The performance characteristics of the observatory are provided including the imaging and stray light characteristics, pointing capability, and operational access. The expected performance characteristics of all six of the first generation science instruments are summarized. The mode of operations is described which includes a discussion of program options, guide star selection, methods of acquisition, and quick look data capabilities.
Bahcall, J. N.; Odell, C. R.
Gimpsey MLA, during his visit to the Armagh Observatory on 14 March 2001 to announce the naming of asteroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.9 Future Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 Research 7 2.1 Impact
The Oceanic Microbial Observatory is a project run jointly by Dr. Craig Carlson of the University of California-Santa Barbara, and Dr. Stephen Giovannoni of Oregon State University. Centered on the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site, the "goal of this microbial observatory project is to understand the cell biology and biogeochemical activities of the major bacterioplankton groups-SAR11, SAR86, SAR202 and SAR116, marine actinobacteria, SAR324, and SAR406, by applying new high throughput technologies for cell culturing, and studying the metabolism of these organisms in nature and their interactions with organic matter in the oceans." The Microbial Observatory website contains links to downloadable publications, public data sets, and poster presentations. The site also offers links to a number of other microbial observatories; and connects to the Bermuda Biological Station for Research as well.
The back-bone of Icelandic geoscientific research infrastructure is the country's permanent monitoring networks, which have been built up to monitor seismic and volcanic hazard and deformation of the Earth's surface. The networks are mainly focussed around the plate boundary in Iceland, particularly the two seismic zones, where earthquakes of up to M7.3 have occurred in centuries past, and the rift zones with over 30 active volcanic systems where a large number of powerful eruptions have occurred, including highly explosive ones. The main observational systems are seismic, strong motion, GPS and bore-hole strain networks, with the addition of more recent systems like hydrological stations, permanent and portable radars, ash-particle counters and gas monitoring systems. Most of the networks are owned by a handful of Icelandic institutions, but some are operated in collaboration with international institutions and universities. The networks have been in operation for years to decades and have recorded large volumes of research quality data. The main Icelandic infrastructures will be networked in the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). The plate boundary in the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ) with its book-shelf tectonics and repeating major earthquakes sequences of up to M7 events, has the potential to be defined a natural laboratory within EPOS. Work towards integrating multidisciplinary data and technologies from the monitoring infrastructures in the SISZ with other fault regions has started in the FP7 project NERA, under the heading of Networking of Near-Fault Observatories. The purpose is to make research-quality data from near-fault observatories available to the research community, as well as to promote transfer of knowledge and techical know-how between the different observatories of Europe, in order to create a network of fault-monitoring networks. The seismic and strong-motion systems in the SISZ are also, to some degree, being networked nationally to strengthen their early warning capabilities. In response to the far-reaching dispersion of ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption and subsequent disturbance to European air-space, the instrumentation of the Icelandic volcano observatory was greatly improved in number and capability to better monitor sub-surface volcanic processes as well as the air-borne products of eruptions. This infrastructure will also be networked with other European volcano observatories in EPOS. Finally the Icelandic EPOS team, together with other European collaborators, has responded to an FP7 call for the establishment of an Icelandic volcano supersite, where land- and space-based data will be made available to researchers and hazard managers, in line with the implementation plan of the GEO. The focus of the Icelandic volcano supersite are the active volcanoes in Iceland's Eastern volcanic zone.
Vogfjörd, K. S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hjaltadóttir, S.; Björnsson, H.; Arason, Ø.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Kjartansson, E.; Sigbjörnsson, R.; Halldórsson, B.; Valsson, G.
Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...
The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) is located in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, 60 km NW of Johannesburg. It is one of four national research facilities operated by the National Research Foundation. The Observatory was established in 1975 at the former NASA Deep Space Station 51, which was founded in 1961 to support unmanned US space probes to the Moon and planets, a...
The North Pacific is subject to various seasonal climate phenomena and material circulations. Therefore intra-annual ice core data are necessary for an assessment of the climate variations. To assess past variations, a 50-m ice core was drilled at the summit of Mount Wrangell Volcano, Alaska. The dust number, tritium concentrations, and stable hydrogen isotope were analyzed. The period covered was
Teppei J. Yasunari; Takayuki Shiraiwa; Syosaku Kanamori; Yoshiyuki Fujii; Makoto Igarashi; Koji Yamazaki; Carl S. Benson; Takeo Hondoh
Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)
Two mosaiced pieces of Magellan image strips display the area east of the Rhea Mons volcano on Venus. This image is centered at about 32.5 degrees north latitude and 286.6 degrees east longitude. The mosaic is 47 kilometers (28 miles) wide and 135 km (81 miles) long. This region has been previously identified as 'tessera' from Earth-based radar (Arecibo) images. The center of the image is dominated by a network of intersecting ridges and valleys. The radar bright north south trending features in this image range from 1 km (0.6 mile) to 3 km (1.8 miles) in length. The average spacing between these ridges is about 1.5 km (0.9 mile). The dark patches at the top of the image are smooth surfaces and may be lava flows located in lowlands between the higher ridge and the valley terrain. This image is a mosaic of two orbits obtained in the first Magellan radar test and played back to Earth to the Deep Space Network stations near Goldstone, Calif. and Canberra, Australia, respectively. The resolution of this image is approximately 120 meters (400 feet).
CQ3. Volcanoes Do volcanoes signal impending eruptions through changes in the temperature and extent of vegetation cover? #12;CQ3: Do volcanoes signal impending eruptions through changes changes in eruptive behavior at already active volcanoes. Rising magma ultimately results in a flux
In this interactive activity, learn about strategies used in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to help avoid oil spills and to identify and contain environmental contaminants. The activity features videos adapted from the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, KTOO, and NOVA: The Big Spill.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.
Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…
Brune, Jeff; And Others
The bases for the development of this resource book were notes and a course outline used in teaching Alaska History at the junior high school level. It can be used as a checklist, a guide to organizing lesson plans, selecting classroom and testing materials, and as a source of concepts and information for any grade level. Most of the material is…
Peratrovich, Robert J., Jr., Comp.
The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.
The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…
Johnston, Thomas F.
Microearthquake (< M3.0) swarms occur frequently in volcanic environments, but do not always culminate in an eruption. Such non-eruptive swarms may be caused by stresses induced by magma intrusion, hydrothermal fluid circulation, or regional tectonic processes, such as slow-slip earthquakes. Strandline Lake, located 30 km northeast of Mount Spurr volcano in south-central Alaska, experienced a strong earthquake swarm between August 1996 and August 1998. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) catalog indicates that a total of 2,999 earthquakes were detected during the swarm period, with a maximum magnitude of Mw 3.1 and a depth range of 0-30 km below sea level (with the majority of catalog hypocenters located between 5-10 km BSL). The cumulative seismic moment of the swarm was 2.03e15 N m, equivalent to a cumulative magnitude of Mw 4.2. Because of the swarm's distance from the nearest Holocene volcanic vent, seismic monitoring was poor and gas and deformation data for the swarm period do not exist. However, combined waveforms from a dense seismic network on Mount Spurr and from several regional seismic stations allowed us to re-analyze the swarm earthquakes. We first developed a new 1-D velocity model for the Strandline Lake region by re-picking and inverting precise arrival times for 27 large Strandline Lake earthquakes. The new velocity model reduced the average RMS for these earthquakes from 0.16 to 0.11s, and the average horizontal and vertical location errors from 3.3 to 2.5 km and 4.7 to 3.0 km, respectively. Depths of the 27 earthquakes ranged from 10.5 to 22.1 km with an average depth of 16.6 km. A moderately high b-value of 1.33 was determined for the swarm period, possibly indicative of magmatic activity. However, a similarly high b-value of 1.25 was calculated for the background period. 28 well-constrained fault plane solutions for both swarm and background earthquakes indicate a diverse mixture of strike-slip, dip-slip, and reverse faulting beneath Strandline Lake. Finally, 8 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images spanning the swarm period unambiguously show no evidence of surface deformation. While a shallow volcanic intrusion appears to be an unlikely cause of the Strandline Lake swarm based on our new well-constrained earthquake depths and the absence of strong surface deformation, the depth range of 10.5 and 22.1 km for relocated earthquakes and the high degree of FPS heterogeneity for this swarm are similar to an earthquake swarm beneath Lake Tahoe, California in 2003 caused by a deep intrusion near the base of the crust (Smith et al, 2004, Science 305,1277-1280). This similarity suggests that a deep crustal magmatic intrusion could have occurred beneath the Strandline Lake area in 1997 and may have been responsible for the resulting microearthquake activity.
Kilgore, W.; Roman, D. C.; Power, J. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Biggs, J.
As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…
Man Against Volcano: The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland This booklet was originally published in 1976 under the title "Man Against Volcano:The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands, Iceland:Town of Vestmannaeyjar with Helgafell in the right back- ground (photo courtesy of SÃ³larfilma). #12;Man Against Volcano
Networking of six European near-fault observatories (NFO) was established In the FP7 infrastructure project NERA (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation). This networking has included sharing of expertise and know-how among the observatories, distribution of analysis tools and access to data. The focus of the NFOs is on research into the active processes of their respective fault zones through acquisition and analysis of multidisciplinary data. These studies include the role of fluids in fault initiation, site effects, derived processes such as earthquake generated tsunamis and landslides, mapping the internal structure of fault systems and development of automatic early warning systems. The six fault zones are in different tectonic regimes: The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in Iceland, the Marmara Sea in Turkey and the Corinth Rift in Greece are at plate boundaries, with strike-slip faulting characterizing the SISZ and the Marmara Sea, while normal faulting dominates in the Corinth Rift. The Alto Tiberina and Irpinia faults, dominated by low- and medium-angle normal faulting, respectively are in the Apennine mountain range in Italy and the Valais Region, characterized by both strike-slip and normal faulting is located in the Swiss Alps. The fault structures range from well-developed long faults, such as in the Marmara Sea, to more complex networks of smaller, book-shelf faults such as in the SISZ. Earthquake hazard in the fault zones ranges from significant to substantial. The Marmara Sea and Corinth rift are under ocean causing additional tsunami hazard and steep slopes and sediment-filled valleys in the Valais give rise to hazards from landslides and liquefaction. Induced seismicity has repeatedly occurred in connection with geothermal drilling and water injection in the SISZ and active volcanoes flanking the SISZ also give rise to volcanic hazard due to volcano-tectonic interaction. Organization among the NERA NFO's has led to their gaining working-group status in EPOS as the WG on Near Fault Observatories, representing multidisciplinary research of faults and fault zones.
Vogfjörd, Kristín; Bernard, Pascal; Chiraluce, Lauro; Fäh, Donat; Festa, Gaetano; Zulficar, Can
In this activity, learners create volcanoes like those they have examined on Earth and Mars through images taken by spacecraft. Using baking soda and vinegar, learners model volcanic eruptions and explore the basics of volcanoes, how scientists view and identify these features from space, and reflect on what the presence of volcanoes means about a planetâs interior. This activity is part of a 60-minute set of activities in which learners, ages 8â13, explore and compare the features of Mars and Earth, discuss what the features suggest about the history of Mars, and create a model to help them understand how scientists view and study other worlds--like Mars. The activities help to show why scientists are interested in exploring Mars for evidence of past life, and address the question: "Why are we searching for life on Mars?"
Institute, Lunar A.
Why are space observatories important? The answer concerns twinkling stars in the night sky. To reach telescopes on Earth, light from distant objects has to penetrate Earth's atmosphere. Although the sky may look clear, the gases that make up our atmosphere cause problems for astronomers. These gases absorb the majority of radiation emanating from celestial bodies so that it never reaches the astronomer's telescope. Radiation that does make it to the surface is distorted by pockets of warm and cool air, causing the twinkling effect. In spite of advanced computer enhancement, the images finally seen by astronomers are incomplete. NASA, in conjunction with other countries' space agencies, commercial companies, and the international community, has built observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find the answers to numerous questions about the universe. With the capabilities the Space Shuttle provides, scientist now have the means for deploying these observatories from the Shuttle's cargo bay directly into orbit.
This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. In this lesson, students use the Internet to research data on earthquakes and volcanoes and plot locations to determine plate boundaries. Extensions include interpretation of interaction between plate boundaries, causes of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the comparison of the formation of Olympus Mons on Mars and the Hawaiian volcanic chain. There are worksheets, references, assessment ideas, and vocabulary available for educators.
Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.
Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.
Lists of important volcano-monitoring disciplines usually include seismology, geodesy, and gas geochemistry. Visual monitoring - the essence of volcanology - is usually not mentioned. Yet, observations of the outward appearance of a volcano provide data that is equally as important as that provided by the other disciplines. The eye was almost certainly the first volcano monitoring-tool used by early man. Early volcanology was mostly descriptive and was based on careful visual observations of volcanoes. There is still no substitute for the eye of an experienced volcanologist. Today, scientific instruments replace or augment our senses as monitoring tools because instruments are faster and more sensitive, work tirelessly day and night, keep better records, operate in hazardous environments, do not generate lawsuits when damaged or destroyed, and in most cases are cheaper. Furthermore, instruments are capable of detecting phenomena that are outside the reach of our senses. The human eye is now augmented by the camera. Sequences of timed images provide a record of visual phenomena that occur on and above the surface of volcanoes. Photographic monitoring is a fundamental monitoring tool; image sequences can often provide the basis for interpreting other data streams. Monitoring data are most useful when they are generated and are available for analysis in real-time or near real-time. This report describes the current (as of 2006) system for real-time photograph acquisition and transmission from remote sites on Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes to the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). It also describes how the photographs are archived and analyzed. In addition to providing system documentation for HVO, we hope that the report will prove useful as a practical guide to the construction of a high-bandwidth network for the telemetry of real-time data from remote locations.
Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Castella, Frederic; Cervelli, Peter F.
We investigated the microseismicity recorded in an active volcano to infer information concerning the volcano structure and long-term dynamics, by using relative relocations and focal mechanisms of microearthquakes. There were 32,000 earthquakes of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes recorded by more than eight stations of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network between 1988 and 1999. We studied 17,000 of these events and relocated more than 70%, with an accuracy ranging from 10 to 500 m. About 75% of these relocated events are located in the vicinity of subhorizontal decollement planes, at a depth of 8-11 km. However, the striking features revealed by these relocation results are steep southeast dipping fault planes working as reverse faults, clearly located below the decollement plane and which intersect it. If this decollement plane coincides with the pre-Mauna Loa seafloor, as hypothesized by numerous authors, such reverse faults rupture the pre-Mauna Loa oceanic crust. The weight of the volcano and pressure in the magma storage system are possible causes of these ruptures, fully compatible with the local stress tensor computed by Gillard et al. . Reverse faults are suspected of producing scarps revealed by kilometer-long horizontal slip-perpendicular lineations along the decollement surface and therefore large-scale roughness, asperities, and normal stress variations. These are capable of generating stick-slip, large-magnitude earthquakes, the spatial microseismic pattern observed in the south flank of Kilauea volcano, and Hilina-type instabilities. Rupture intersecting the decollement surface, causing its large-scale roughness, may be an important parameter controlling the growth of Hawaiian volcanoes.
Got, J.-L.; Okubo, P.
While obtaining astronomical data can be an expensive endeavor, locating this data online can be a time-consuming task. Fortunately, the US National Virtual Observatory's website makes that process much simpler. The Observatory and the website are funded the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research Program, and seventeen astronomy and computer science organizations in the US and Canada have been involved in its development. Most visitors will want to browse through the FAQ section, which gives specific details on what can be found here. Additionally, visitors will want to look over the "Getting Started" section, as it uses screenshots and annotations to lead users through the operation of five key applications that are available through the Observatory.
This article, entitled Mountains of Fire, describes the relationship between the types of volcanic activity and plate movement and the connection between types of volcanoes and how they erupt. The article is supported by a video of an erupting volcano, a photograph of an eruption and an animation depicting pyroclastic flow and the formation of a composite volcano. It is also supported by three sidebars, called Volcanoes of North America, Montserrat: An Island Under Siege, and Volcanoes on other Planets. These sidebars also have videos or photographs to enhance their message.
Multiplets, or repeating earthquakes, are commonly observed at volcanoes, particularly those exhibiting unrest. At Kilauea, multiplets have been observed as part of long period (LP) earthquake swarms [Battaglia et al., 2003] and as volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes associated with dike intrusion [Rubin et al., 1998]. The focus of most previous studies has been on the precise location of the multiplets based on reviewed absolute locations, a process that can require extensive human intervention and post-processing. Conversely, the detection of multiplets and measurement of multiplet parameters can be done in real-time without human interaction with locations approximated by the stations that best record the multiplet. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is in the process of implementing and testing an algorithm to detect multiplets in near-real time and to analyze certain metrics to provide enhanced interpretive insights into ongoing volcanic processes. Metrics such as multiplet percent of total seismicity, multiplet event recurrence interval, multiplet lifespan, average event amplitude, and multiplet event amplitude variability have been shown to be valuable in understanding volcanic processes at Bezymianny Volcano, Russia and Mount St. Helens, Washington and thus are tracked as part of the algorithm. The near real-time implementation of the algorithm can be triggered from an earthworm subnet trigger or other triggering algorithm and employs a MySQL database to store results, similar to an algorithm implemented by Got et al. . Initial results using this algorithm to analyze VT earthquakes along Kilauea's Upper East Rift Zone between September 2010 and August 2011 show that periods of summit pressurization coincide with ample multiplet development. Summit pressurization is loosely defined by high rates of seismicity within the summit and Upper East Rift areas, coincident with lava high stands in the Halema`uma`u lava lake. High percentages, up to 100%, of earthquakes occurring during summit pressurization were part of a multiplet. Percentages were particularly high immediately prior to the March 5 Kamoamoa eruption. Interestingly, many multiplets that were present prior to the Kamoamoa eruption were reactivated during summit pressurization occurring in late July 2011. At a correlation coefficient of 0.7, 90% of the multiplets during the study period had populations of 10 or fewer earthquakes. Between periods of summit pressurization, earthquakes that belong to multiplets rarely occur, even though magma is flowing through the Upper East Rift Zone. Battaglia, J., Got, J. L. and Okubo, P., 2003. Location of long-period events below Kilauea Volcano using seismic amplitudes and accurate relative relocation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, v.108 (B12) 2553. Got, J. L., P. Okubo, R. Machenbaum, and W. Tanigawa (2002), A real-time procedure for progressive multiplet relative relocation at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92(5), 2019. Rubin, A. M., D. Gillard, and J. L. Got (1998), A reinterpretation of seismicity associated with the January 1983 dike intrusion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103(B5), 10003.
Thelen, W. A.
Adak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska is covered with Holocene sequences of soil-tephra complexes. Tephra layers are useful for establishing a chronographic framework on the island. Black (1976) thought that the three conspicuous tephra deposits (Main, Intermediate and Sandwich) erupted from Kanaga volcano. Waythomas et al. (2001), however, inferred that a possible source volcano of the tephras was Mount Moffett, Adak Island. We conducted a tephrostratigraphic study on the island to re-evaluate the chronological framework and to determine the sources of the tephras. Chemical compositions of volcanic glass were determined by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Radiocarbon dates were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The three tephra layers increase in thickness from south to north. Among them, Intermediate and Sandwich tephras contain fresh lithic fragments. Thickness and maximum diameter of lithic fragments (ML) suggests that their source was Adagdak volcano or a now submerged volcano nearby. The presence of a lava dome and crater rim in the northern part of Adagdak volcano makes it a likely candidate for the source of the tephras. Eruptions of the Intermediate, Sandwich, YBO and Forty Year tephra deposits were dated to approximately 7.2, 4.7, 3.6 and 0.4 cal ka BP, respectively.
Okuno, M.; Wada, K.; Gualtieri, L. M.; Nakamura, T.; Sarata, B.; Torii, M.
This Web site describes Lowell Observatory's Planets, Small Solar System Bodies, Astrophysics, and Comets research programs. Visitors can learn about studies of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io and of Pluto, the planet discovered at Lowell Observatory. The site supplies researchers with Galileo photo polarimeter radiometer (PPR) data as well as an immense amount of asteroid information including plots depicting the position of stars and asteroids within user-specified parameters. Amateur astronomers will find helpful advice from Syuichi Nakano about the equipment to use while making asteroid observations.