Sample records for alaska volcano observatory

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory Monitoring Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An Alaska Volcano Observatory Monitoring station with Peulik Volcano behind. This is the main repeater for the Peulik monitoring network located on Whale Mountain, Beecharaof National Wildlife Refuge....

  2. 2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

  3. 1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.

  4. 2012 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Julie A.; Neal, Christina A.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, or suspected unrest at 11 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2012. Of the two verified eruptions, one (Cleveland) was clearly magmatic and the other (Kanaga) was most likely a single phreatic explosion. Two other volcanoes had notable seismic swarms that probably were caused by magmatic intrusions (Iliamna and Little Sitkin). For each period of clear volcanic unrest, AVO staff increased monitoring vigilance as needed, reviewed eruptive histories of the volcanoes in question to help evaluate likely outcomes, and shared observations and interpretations with the public. 2012 also was the 100th anniversary of Alaska’s Katmai-Novarupta eruption of 1912, the largest eruption on Earth in the 20th century and one of the most important volcanic eruptions in modern times. AVO marked this occasion with several public events.

  5. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  6. 2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  7. 1996 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.

  8. 2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  9. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  10. 2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  11. Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska, the number of calls to Ops, emails to the webmaster, and the amount of data served via the AVO website greatly increased during elevated volcanic activity designated by the USGS aviation color code and volcano alert level. Lessons learned include, Ops staffing requirements during periods of high call volume, the need for ash fall hazard information in multiple languages, and the value of real-time observations of remote Aleutian eruptions made by local mariners. An important theme of public inquiries concerned the amount and potential climate impacts of the significant sulfur dioxide gas and ash plumes emitted by Okmok and Kasatochi, including specific questions on the amount of sulfur dioxide discharged during each eruption. The significant plumes produced at the onset of the Okmok and Kasatochi eruptions also had lengthy national and international aviation impacts and yet-to-be resolved hemispherical or possible global, climactic effects.

  12. Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory to Public Inquiry Concerning the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adleman, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano provided the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) with an opportunity to test its newly renovated Operations Center (Ops) at the Alaska Science Center in Anchorage. Because of the demand for interagency operations and public communication, Ops became the hub of Augustine monitoring activity, twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, from January 10 through May 19, 2006. During this time, Ops was staffed by 17 USGS AVO staff, and over two dozen Fairbanks-based AVO staff from the Alaska Department of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute and USGS Volcano Hazards Program staff from outside Alaska. This group engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding agencies throughout the eruption. Before and during the eruption, reference sheets - ;including daily talking - were created, vetted, and distributed to prepare staff for questions about the volcano. These resources were compiled into a binder stationed at each Ops phone and available through the AVO computer network. In this way, AVO was able to provide a comprehensive, uniform, and timely response to callers and emails at all three of its cooperative organizations statewide. AVO was proactive in scheduling an Information Scientist for interviews on-site with Anchorage television stations and newspapers several times a week. Scientists available, willing, and able to speak clearly about the current activity were crucial to AVO's response. On January 19, 2006, two public meetings were held in Homer, 120 kilometers northeast of Augustine Volcano. AVO, the West Coast Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, and the Kenai Peninsula Borough Office of Emergency Management gave brief presentations explaining their roles in eruption response. Representatives from several local, state, and federal agencies were also available. In addition to communicating with the public by daily media interviews and phone calls to Ops, all activity reports, images, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Hundreds of emails were answered. The AVO website quickly became highly organized and the most up-to-date and comprehensive place for anyone with internet access to learn about the eruption and AVO's response. This was the first such organized response of AVO and may be the outgrowth of increased expectations of AVO by the public. From November 28, 2005, through May 16, 2006, staff logged and answered approximately 400 phone calls and 1000 emails about Augustine. AVO's interagency response plan and relationships with other key agencies helped in responding to requests from the media and the public for a wide variety of information. However, the most frequent questions from callers were about ash fall advisories and what to do in the event of an ash fall. This highlighted the need to produce coordinated, co-agency reporting of ash fall potential and recommended preparation.

  13. 1995 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.

    1996-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity (SVA) at 6 volcanic centers in 1995: Mount Martin (Katmai Group), Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Kliuchef/Korovin, and Kanaga. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) on the 1995 eruptions of 2 Russian volcanoes: Bezymianny and Karymsky. This report summarizes volcanic activity in Alaska during 1995 and the AVO response, as well as information on the 2 Kamchatkan eruptions. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a "significant" investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of phone calls throughout the year reporting steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1995 response record.

  14. 1997 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Wallace, Kristi L.

    1999-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors over 40 historically active volcanoes along the Aleutian Arc. Twenty are seismically monitored and for the rest, the AVO monitoring program relies mainly on pilot reports, observations of local residents and ship crews, and daily analysis of satellite images. In 1997, AVO responded to eruptive activity or suspect volcanic activity at 11 volcanic centers: Wrangell, Sanford, Shrub mud volcano, Iliamna, the Katmai group (Martin, Mageik, Snowy, and Kukak volcanoes), Chiginagak, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Okmok, Cleveland, and Amukta. Of these, AVO has real-time, continuously recording seismic networks at Iliamna, the Katmai group, and Pavlof. The phrase “suspect volcanic activity” (SVA), used to characterize several responses, is an eruption report or report of unusual activity that is subsequently determined to be normal or enhanced fumarolic activity, weather-related phenomena, or a non-volcanic event. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) about the 1997 activity of 5 Russian volcanoes--Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Karymsky, and Alaid (SVA). This report summarizes volcanic activity and SVA in Alaska during 1997 and the AVO response, as well as information on the reported activity at the Russian volcanoes. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a “significant” investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of reports throughout the year of steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1997 response record.

  15. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  16. Public Outreach and Communications of the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Snedigar, Seth F.; Neal, Christina A.; Wallace, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The 2005-6 eruption of Augustine Volcano in the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, greatly increased public desire for volcano hazard information, as this eruption was the most significant in Cook Inlet since 1992. In response to this heightened concern, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) increased ongoing efforts to deliver specific eruption-focused information to communities nearest to the volcano, created a public communications strategy to assist staff with managing requests, and used the recently upgraded AVO Web site as a primary information-delivery path. During the eruption, AVO responded to a minimum of ~1,700 individual requests for information from the media, the public, and other organizations with responsibilities associated with volcanic activity in Alaska; requests were received both as phone calls to the observatory and e-mail stemming from the AVO Web site. Staff also delivered approximately two dozen Augustine-specific presentations and gave nearly three dozen tours of the AVO Anchorage Operations Center in Anchorage. This intensity of public interaction was markedly higher than during noneruptive periods. During the Augustine unrest and eruption, AVO also refined its internal communication procedures, instituted and maintained up-to-date and concise talking points concerning the most recent and relevant volcanic activity and hazards, and created a media management plan to assist staff in working with members of the media. These items aided staff in maintaining a consistent message concerning the eruption, potential hazards, and our response activities. The AVO Web site, with its accompanying database, is the backbone of AVO's external and internal communications. This was the first Cook Inlet volcanic eruption with a public expectation of real-time access to data, updates, and hazards information over the Internet. In March 2005, AVO improved the Web site from individual static pages to a dynamic, database-driven site. This new system provided quick and straightforward access to the latest information for (1) staff within the observatory, (2) emergency managers from State and local governments and organizations, (3) the media, and (4) the public. From mid-December 2005 through April 2006, the AVO Web site served more than 45 million Web pages and about 5.5 terabytes of data.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  18. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....

  19. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John

    2008-01-01

    Washington's Mount St. Helens volcano reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.

  20. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO). The site features news and events, updates on current activity of Cascade Range volcanoes, and information summaries on each of the volcanoes in the range. There are also hazard assessment reports, maps, and a 'Living with Volcanoes' feature that provides general interest information. A set of menus provides access to more technical information, such as a glossary, information on volcano hydrology, monitoring information, a photo archive, and information on CVO research projects.

  1. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. It features news articles, monitoring information, status reports and information releases, and information on the volcanic history of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Users can access monthly updates with alert levels and aviation warning codes and real-time data on ground deformation, earthquakes, and hydrology. There is also a list of online products and publications, and an image gallery

  2. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) resource provides links to news and current events regarding volcanoes and current activities and a summary for the Cascade Range and its volcanoes. Other links connect to information about living with volcanoes, visiting a volcano, educational outreach, and hazards assessment reports and maps. There are also extensive menus for links to the USGS volcano hazards program, individual volcano information, and a FAQ site along with a menu of interests list and a miscellaneous list of sites.

  3. Cascades Volcano Observatory: Educational Outreach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to educational materials produced by the Cascades Volcano Observatory. The items include news and current events, information on current activity of the Cascades volcanoes, and emergency information in the event of an eruption. There are also frequently-asked-questions features, a glossary, and links to reading materials such as fact sheets and reports of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). For educators and students, there are activities, special features, posters, videos, and slide shows.

  4. Thomas A. Jaggar, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thomas A. Jaggar founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912 and served as its Director until 1940.  Shown here in 1925, Jaggar is at work in HVO's first building, which, at the time, was located on the northeast rim of K?lauea Volcano’s summit caldera, near the present-day Volc...

  5. Alaska - Russian Far East connection in volcano research and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program is the continuous series of international volcanological field schools organized in partnership with the Kamchatka State University. Each year more than 40 students and young scientists participate in our annual field trips to Katmai, Alaska and Mutnovsky, Kamchatka.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. The final year of GPS Installations in the Alaska Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, B.; Pauk, B.; Enders, M.; Bierma, R.; Gasparich, S.; Marzulla, A.; Feaux, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the National Science Foundation funded Earthscope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 1100 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. The Alaska region is an important area of study because of the major crustal deformation and high volcanic activity associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. The PBO network will provide data to help better understand these earth processes. In the fifth and final year of the PBO installation phase, we built 31 GPS Stations and installed 8 tilt meters in Alaska. These installs completed the PBO network in Alaska which comprises 135 GPS stations and 12 tilt meters. We also completed maintenance visits to GPS stations installed during earlier years of the five year project. In the 2008 field season we faced some of our most difficult logistical challenges with installations in remote areas, islands and volcanoes. Highlights include boat-based helicopter supported installs in the Shumagin Islands on Chernabura, Nagai and Popof; and 13 GPS stations and 8 tiltmeters installed on Unimak Island to monitor Westdahl and Shishaldin volcanoes. The Unimak installations were completed in a four week period and were carried out in cooperation with scientists from the Alaska Volcano Observatory. We also installed the remaining stations monitoring the Denali fault and integrated the Denali earthquake response stations built by University of Alaska Fairbanks into the PBO network. Now that the installations are completed, the PBO network will be operated and maintained by UNAVCO engineers for the next 10 years. Data from all of the PBO stations are available from the UNAVCO archive.

  14. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  15. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Akutan Volcano east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The volcano is located about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the volcano. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan Volcano and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the volcano and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the volcano flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the volcano. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the volcano.

  16. Analysis and interpretation of volcano deformation in Alaska: Studies from Okmok and Mt. Veniaminof volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Thomas J.

    Four studies focus on the deformation at Okmok Volcano, the Alaska Peninsula and Mt. Veniaminof. The main focus of the thesis is the volcano deformation at Okmok Volcano and Mt. Veniaminof, but also includes an investigation of the tectonic related compression of the Alaska Peninsula. The complete data set of GPS observations at Okmok Volcano are investigated with the Unscented Kalman Filter time series analysis method. The technique is shown to be useful for inverting geodetic data for time dependent non-linear model parameters. The GPS record at Okmok from 2000 to mid 2007 shows distinct inflation pulses which have several months duration. The inflation is interpreted as magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir under the caldera center and approximately 2.51cm below sea level. The location determined for the magma reservoir agrees with estimates determined by other geodetic techniques. Smaller deflation signals in the Okmok record appear following the inflation pulses. A degassing model is proposed to explain the deflation. Petrologic observations from lava erupted in 1997 provide an estimate for the volatile content of the magma. The solution model VolatileCalc is used to determine the amount of volatiles in the gas phase. Degassing can explain the deflation, but only under certain circumstances. The magma chamber must have a radius between ˜1 and 21cm and the intruding magma must have less than approximately 500ppm CO2 . At Mt. Veniaminof the deformation signal is dominated by compression caused by the convergence of the Pacific and North American Plates. A subduction model is created to account for the site velocities. A network of GPS benchmarks along the Alaska Peninsula is used to infer the amount of coupling along the mega-thrust. A transition from high to low coupling near the Shumagin Islands has important implications for the seismogenic potential of this section of the fault. The Shumagin segment likely raptures in more frequent smaller magnitude quakes. The tectonic study provides a useful backdrop to examine the volcano deformation at Mt. Veniaminof. After being corrected for tectonic motion the sites velocities indicate inflation at the volcano. The deformation is interpreted as pressurization occurring beneath the volcano associated with eruptive activity in 2005.

  17. Stratigraphic framework of Holocene volcaniclastic deposits, Akutan Volcano, east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, but until recently little was known about its history and eruptive character. Following a brief but sustained period of intense seismic activity in March 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory began investigating the geology of the volcano and evaluating potential volcanic hazards that could affect residents of Akutan Island. During these studies new information was obtained about the Holocene eruptive history of the volcano on the basis of stratigraphic studies of volcaniclastic deposits and radiocarbon dating of associated buried soils and peat. A black, scoria-bearing, lapilli tephra, informally named the 'Akutan tephra,' is up to 2 m thick and is found over most of the island, primarily east of the volcano summit. Six radiocarbon ages on the humic fraction of soil A-horizons beneath the tephra indicate that the Akutan tephra was erupted approximately 1611 years B.P. At several locations the Akutan tephra is within a conformable stratigraphic sequence of pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits that are all part of the same eruptive sequence. The thickness, widespread distribution, and conformable stratigraphic association with overlying pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits indicate that the Akutan tephra likely records a major eruption of Akutan Volcano that may have formed the present summit caldera. Noncohesive lahar and pyroclastic-flow deposits that predate the Akutan tephra occur in the major valleys that head on the volcano and are evidence for six to eight earlier Holocene eruptions. These eruptions were strombolian to subplinian events that generated limited amounts of tephra and small pyroclastic flows that extended only a few kilometers from the vent. The pyroclastic flows melted snow and ice on the volcano flanks and formed lahars that traveled several kilometers down broad, formerly glaciated valleys, reaching the coast as thin, watery, hyperconcentrated flows or water floods. Slightly cohesive lahars in Hot Springs valley and Long valley could have formed from minor flank collapses of hydrothermally altered volcanic bedrock. These lahars may be unrelated to eruptive activity.

  18. NGEE Arctic Webcam Photographs, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman

    The NGEE Arctic Webcam (PTZ Camera) captures two views of seasonal transitions from its generally south-facing position on a tower located at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Alaska. Images are captured every 30 minutes. Historical images are available for download. The camera is operated by the U.S. DOE sponsored Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project.

  19. Glacial cycles and the growth and destruction of Alaska volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, M. L.; Calvert, A. T.; Bacon, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers have affected profoundly the growth, collapse, preservation, and possibly, eruptive behavior of Quaternary stratovolcanoes in Alaska. Holocene alpine glaciers have acted as effective agents of erosion on volcanoes north of ~55 °N and especially north of 60 °N. Cook Inlet volcanoes are particularly vulnerable as they sit atop rugged intrusive basement as high as 3000 m asl. Holocene glaciers have swept away or covered most of the deposits and dome lavas of frequently active Redoubt (60.5 °N); carved through the flanks of Spurr's active vent, Crater Peak (61.3 °N); and all but obscured the edifice of Hayes (61.6 °N), whose Holocene eruptive history is known almost exclusively though far-traveled tephra and flowage deposits. Relationships between Pleistocene eruptive histories, determined by high-precision Ar-Ar dating of lava flows, and marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 2-8 (Bassinot et al., 1994, EPSL, v. 126, p. 91­-108) vary with a volcano's latitude, size, and elevation. At Spurr, 26 ages cluster in interglacial periods. At Redoubt, 28 ages show a more continual eruptive pattern from the end of MIS 8 to the present, with a slight apparent increase in output following MIS 6, and almost no preservation before 220 ka. Veniaminof (56.2 °N) and Emmons (55.5°N), large, broad volcanoes with bases near sea level, had voluminous eruptive episodes during the profound deglaciations after MIS 8 and MIS 6. At Akutan (54.1 °N), many late Pleistocene lavas show evidence for ice contact; ongoing dating will be able to pinpoint ice thicknesses. Furthest south and west, away from thick Pleistocene ice on the Alaska Peninsula and mainland, the Tanaga volcanic cluster (51.9 °N) has a relatively continuous eruptive record for the last 200 k.y. that shows no clear-cut correlation with glacial cycles, except a possible hiatus during MIS 6. Finally, significant edifice collapse features have been temporally linked with deglaciations. A ~10-km3 debris-avalanche deposit from Spurr directly overlies bedrock, suggesting that edifice collapse closely followed MIS 2. The geologic history of Veniaminof suggests possible massive edifice collapse following MIS 6. A stack of westward-dipping lavas and breccias on the east flank of Redoubt Volcano erupted during MIS 6, and may have also failed during the major deglaciation of MIS 5.5.

  20. Evidence for dike emplacement beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska in 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Cashman, K.V.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two earthquake swarms, comprising 88 and 2833 locatable events, occurred beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May and August of 1996. Swarm earthquakes ranged in magnitude from -0.9 to 3.3. Increases in SO2 and CO2 emissions detected during the fall of 1996 were coincident with the second swarm. No other physical changes were observed in or around the volcano during this time period. No eruption occurred, and seismicity and measured gas emissions have remained at background levels since mid-1997. Earthquake hypocenters recorded during the swarms form a cluster in a previously aseismic volume of crust located to the south of Iliamna's summit at a depth of -1 to 4 km below sea level. This cluster is elongated to the NNW-SSE, parallel to the trend of the summit and southern vents at Iliamna and to the regional axis of maximum compressive stress determined through inversion of fault-plane solutions for regional earthquakes. Fault-plane solutions calculated for 24 swarm earthquakes located at the top of the new cluster suggest a heterogeneous stress field acting during the second swarm, characterized by normal faulting and strike-slip faulting with p-axes parallel to the axis of regional maximum compressive stress. The increase in earthquake rates, the appearance of a new seismic volume, and the elevated gas emissions at Iliamna Volcano indicate that new magma intruded beneath the volcano in 1996. The elongation of the 1996-1997 earthquake cluster parallel to the direction of regional maximum compressive stress and the accelerated occurrence of both normal and strike-slip faulting in a small volume of crust at the top of the new seismic volume may be explained by the emplacement and inflation of a subvertical planar dike beneath the summit of Iliamna and its southern satellite vents. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Plate Boundary Observatory Permanent Global Positioning System Network on Augustine Volcano Before and After the 2006 Eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Jackson, Michael; Feaux, Karl; Mencin, David; Bohnenstiehl, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In September of 2004, UNAVCO and the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) installed five permanent Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations on Augustine Volcano, supplementing one existing CGPS station operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. All six CGPS stations proved crucial to scientists for detecting and monitoring the precursory deformation of the volcano beginning in early May 2005, as well as for monitoring the many subsequent small inflationary and deflationary episodes that characterized the 2006 eruption. Following the eruption, in September of 2006, PBO added six additional permanent CGPS stations. The 2006 eruption and its precursors were the first significant activity of the volcano in 20 years and the PBO CGPS network provided an unprecedented opportunity to monitor and detect volcanic ground deformation on an erupting Alaskan stratovolcano. Data from the new CGPS stations coupled with the existing seismic stations provided scientists with the first real opportunity to use geodetic data and real time seismic data to assess the volcanic hazards before, during, and after an Alaskan eruption.

  2. Determination and uncertainty of moment tensors for microearthquakes at Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesicek, J. D.; Sileny, J.; Prejean, S. G.; Thurber, C. H.

    2012-09-01

    Efforts to determine general moment tensors (MTs) for microearthquakes in volcanic areas are often hampered by small seismic networks, which can lead to poorly constrained hypocentres and inadequate modelling of seismic velocity heterogeneity. In addition, noisy seismic signals can make it difficult to identify phase arrivals correctly for small magnitude events. However, small volcanic earthquakes can have source mechanisms that deviate from brittle double-couple shear failure due to magmatic and/or hydrothermal processes. Thus, determining reliable MTs in such conditions is a challenging but potentially rewarding pursuit. We pursued such a goal at Okmok Volcano, Alaska, which erupted recently in 1997 and in 2008. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates a seismic network of 12 stations at Okmok and routinely catalogues recorded seismicity. Using these data, we have determined general MTs for seven microearthquakes recorded between 2004 and 2007 by inverting peak amplitude measurements of P and S phases. We computed Green's functions using precisely relocated hypocentres and a 3-D velocity model. We thoroughly assessed the quality of the solutions by computing formal uncertainty estimates, conducting a variety of synthetic and sensitivity tests, and by comparing the MTs to solutions obtained using alternative methods. The results show that MTs are sensitive to station distribution and errors in the data, velocity model and hypocentral parameters. Although each of the seven MTs contains a significant non-shear component, we judge several of the solutions to be unreliable. However, several reliable MTs are obtained for a group of previously identified repeating events, and are interpreted as compensated linear-vector dipole events.

  3. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra-proximal sites, along with an off-island section 20 km to the west, provide the first continuous tephrochronology for Augustine that extends from the earliest to latest Holocene. Because examined pumice-fall exposures are limited to a narrow azimuth on the south side of the volcano, the on-island record is likely an incomplete catalog of major eruptions. It is possible however, that the coarse-grained near vent exposures (within 2 km) represent large eruptions that blanketed the entire island in tephra and are representative of the entire Holocene record. The major Holocene tephra units exposed on-island are composed of coarse-grained (cm-scale) pumice ranging in color from white to cream (variably oxidized), and light to medium gray as well as banded varieties. Accidental lithic assembles are highly variable and often unique for individual eruptions. Pumices range from 60-66 wt % SiO2 in whole-rock composition and are distinguishable using trace and minor element abundances and field context. Glass geochemistry is often distinguishable between tephras, but more overlap exists among deposits and presents challenges for correlating to regional tephras.

  4. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Akutan Alaskan Volcano Tiltmeter Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauk, B. A.; Gallaher, W.; Dittmann, T.; Smith, S.

    2007-12-01

    During August of 2007, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) successfully installed four Applied Geomechanics Lily Self Leveling Borehole Tiltmeters on Akutan Volcano, in the central Aleutian islands of Alaska. All four stations were collocated with existing PBO Global Positioning Systems (GPS) stations installed on the volcano in 2005. The tiltmeters will aid researchers in detecting and measuring flank deformation associated with future magmatic intrusions of the volcano. All four of the tiltmeters were installed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by JL Aviation and logistical support from the Trident Seafood Corporation, the City of Akutan, and the Akutan Corporation. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all drilling equipment be transported to each site from the village of Akutan by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and with internal loads. Each tiltmeter hole was drilled to a depth of approximately 30 feet with a portable hydraulic/pneumatic drill rig. The hole was then cased with splined 2.75 inch PVC. The PVC casing was cemented in place with grout and the tiltmeters were installed and packed with fine grain sand to stabilize the tiltmeters inside the casing. The existing PBO NetRS GPS receivers were configured to collect the tiltmeter data through a spare receiver serial port at one sample per minute and 1 hour files. Data from the GPS receivers and tiltmeters is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the village of Akutan that transmits the data using satellite based communications to connect to the internet and to the UNAVCO Facility data archive where it is made freely available to the public.

  5. Multiple Parent Magmas at Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska, Imply Multiple Protoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P.; Nye, C. J.

    2002-12-01

    Recent petrographic and compositional investigations of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska has revealed two distinct, simultaneously active magmatic series. For convenience, these series have been termed high Rb (HRB; relatively Al-poor, Fe-, Ti-, incompatible-rich) and low Rb (LRB; relatively Al-rich, Fe-, incompatible-poor), although differences between the series extend beyond Rb concentration. The LRB series ranges from 48-57 wt.% SiO2 and is distinguished by higher crystallinity, smaller ranges in major element concentrations, lower degrees of Fe enrichment, steep drops in Al2O3, lower incompatible trace element concentrations and less scatter in trace element variation plots. The HRB series ranges from 49-68 wt.% SiO2 and is comparatively less crystalline, Fe-Ti and incompatible-trace-element enriched, with wider ranges in major element compositions and greater scatter in trace element variation plots. Although products from the LRB series dominate the younger Shishaldin deposits, both magmatic series have been active throughout the history of the volcano, and on one occasion erupted simultaneously. Only the LRB series rocks preferentially erupt from flank vents rather than the summit. Compositional differences between the LRB and HRB series suggest these magmas have undergone separate developmental paths, likely as a result of different crustal storage conditions. Incompatible trace element concentrations in HRB basalts are significantly greater than basalts of the LRB, indicating these magmas are not related by fractionation of a common parent. Major and trace element modeling suggests these magma series have not been generated through a single magma experiencing differing degrees of crustal assimilation. Two different parental magmas must therefore be present. Initial analyses do not indicate these magmas have resulted from differential degrees of partial melting of the mantle wedge, and suggest a separate protolith for each magma series.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Data, January to December 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) summary presents seismic data gathered during the year. The seismic summary is offered without interpretation as a source of preliminary data. It is complete in the sense that most data for events of M>1.5 routinely gathered by the Observatory are included. The HVO summaries have been published in various forms since 1956. Summaries prior to 1974 were issued quarterly, but cost, convenience of preparation and distribution, and the large quantities of data dictated an annual publication beginning with Summary 74 for the year 1974. Summary 86 (the introduction of CUSP at HVO) includes a description of the seismic instrumentation, calibration, and processing used in recent years. Beginning with 2004, summaries are simply identified by the year, rather than Summary number. The present summary includes background information on the seismic network and processing to allow use of the data and to provide an understanding of how they were gathered. A report by Klein and Koyanagi (1980) tabulates instrumentation, calibration, and recording history of each seismic station in the network. It is designed as a reference for users of seismograms and phase data and includes and augments the information in the station table in this summary.

  7. New Seismic Data From Okmok Volcano, Alaska, Using a Rapid Response Seismic Recording System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, G.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2001-12-01

    In June and August, 2001 we deployed several portable seismometers on Okmok volcano, Umnak Island, Alaska. This marks the first seismic study of Okmok since 1946 and the first deployment of digital recording systems on the volcano. The first experiment involved two temporary ( ~7 day) digital systems and two analog drum recorders, and the second deployment consisted of two digital systems. We also conducted an experiment inside the caldera to investigate activity associated with cone A, the vent for the most recent (1997) eruption of Okmok. For this we took 10-minute recordings at 18 sites and compared tremor amplitudes with distance from the vent. Results from the caldera profiles indicate the presence of seismic tremor (f=2.3 Hz) at Okmok, with the strongest amplitudes recorded at sites between the caldera center and cone A. Unfortunately, data from a crossing profile line were compromised by high winds so we were unable to locate the tremor source, but evidence of tremor was found only within the caldera. The long-term systems detected >80 earthquakes, several of which were regional events. However, a seismometer deployed in the center of the Okmok caldera detected a sequence of small, low-frequency (1-5 Hz) events that may be related to hydrothermal activity in the caldera. During the two deployments we identified three excellent sites for eventual deployment of a permanent seismic network on Okmok. The instruments used for the study were designed at the Alaska Volcano Observatory for use in rapid response situations. Signals from an L-4C (T=1 sec) geophone were amplified then digitized with a Pico Technology ADC-42 digitizer connected to a laptop PC. The computer clock was synchronized every minute by a GPS receiver connected via the serial port. The computer clock was then used to time stamp the data. Because each instrument used a different type of PC, power consumption varied, with systems running 2-6 days on two 12-V batteries. Most of the problems encountered during the experiment resulted from the PC itself or with battery connections. The entire system (without batteries) fits into a relatively small (45 x 15 x 30 cm) Pelican case and can be deployed by one person in about 10 minutes.

  8. Radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: Initial deployment of a transportable Doppler radar system for volcano-monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoblitt, R. P.; Schneider, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The rapid detection of explosive volcanic eruptions and accurate determination of eruption-column altitude and ash-cloud movement are critical factors in the mitigation of volcanic risks to aviation and in the forecasting of ash fall on nearby communities. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, and it provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data that it captured during the Redoubt eruption. The volcano-monitoring Doppler radar operates in the C-band (5.36 cm) and has a 2.4-m parabolic antenna with a beam width of 1.6 degrees, a transmitter power of 330 watts, and a maximum effective range of 240 km. The entire disassembled system, including a radome, fits inside a 6-m-long steel shipping container that has been modified to serve as base for the antenna/radome, and as a field station for observers and other monitoring equipment. The radar was installed at the Kenai Municipal Airport, 82 km east of Redoubt and about 100 km southwest of Anchorage. In addition to an unobstructed view of the volcano, this secure site offered the support of the airport staff and the City of Kenai. A further advantage was the proximity of a NEXRAD Doppler radar operated by the Federal Aviation Administration. This permitted comparisons with an established weather-monitoring radar system. The new radar system first became functional on March 20, roughly a day before the first of nineteen explosive ash-producing events of Redoubt between March 21 and April 4. Despite inevitable start-up problems, nearly all of the events were observed by the radar, which was remotely operated from the Alaska Volcano Observatory office in Anchorage. The USGS and NEXRAD radars both detected the eruption columns and tracked the directions of drifting ash clouds. The USGS radar scanned a 45-degree sector centered on the volcano while NEXRAD scanned a full 360 degrees. The sector strategy scanned the volcano more frequently than the 360-degree strategy. Consequently, the USGS system detected event onset within less than a minute, while the NEXRAD required about 4 minutes. The observed column heights were as high as 20 km above sea level and compared favorably to those from NEXRAD. NEXRAD tracked ash clouds to greater distances than the USGS system. This experience shows that Doppler radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  9. Holocene Tephrochronology from Lake Sediments, Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, C. J.; Kaufman, D. S.; Wallace, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    Lake sediments in volcanically active areas provide a geological archive of tephra-fall events because sedimentation often occurs continuously and organic material for 14C dating is commonly available; lake sediments, therefore, contain valuable information about tephra fall and associated hazards. Recovering tephra-fall records from lakes requires careful site selection, core recovery, and tephra age assignments. A 5.6-m-long lake sediment core from Bear Lake, Alaska, located 22 km southeast of Redoubt Volcano, contains 67 tephra layers deposited over the last ca. 8750 cal yr BP. A previous core taken from a shallow site at Bear Lake contains 38 tephra layers suggesting that a deeper site in lakes provides a more complete sediment record as shallow sites are susceptible to remobilization and have lower sedimentation rates. We use 12 AMS 14C ages, along with the 137Cs and 210Pb activities of the top 8.5 cm of sediment, to evaluate different models to determine the age-depth relation of sediment, and to determine the age of each tephra deposit. The selected age model is based on a cubic smooth spline function that was passed through the adjusted tephra-free depth of each dated layer; the age model provides an example of how best to date lake sediment in a volcanically active area where presumably instantaneous tephra deposition compounds a simple age-depth relationship. Using the age model we find that tephra-fall frequency at Bear Lake was among the highest during the past ~500 yr, with eight tephras deposited compared to an average of 3.7 per 500 yr over the last 8500 yr. Other periods of increased tephra fall occurred ca. 2500-3500, 4500-5000, and 7000-7500 cal yr BP. Our record suggests that Bear Lake experienced extended periods (1000-2000 yr) of increased tephra fall between shorter periods (500-1000 yr) of quiescence. The Bear Lake sediment core affords the most comprehensive tephrochronology from the base of the Redoubt Volcano to date, with an average tephra-fall frequency of once every 130 yr and places recent eruptive activity in context of Holocene volcanism.

  10. Rapid Inflation Caused by Shallow Magmatic Activities at Okmok Volcano, Alaska, Detected by GPS Campaigns 2000-2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Miyagi; J. Freymueller; F. Kimata; T. Sato; D. Mann

    2006-01-01

    Okmok volcano is located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. This volcano consists of a large caldera, and there are several post-caldera cones within the caldera. It has erupted more than 10 times during the last century, with the latest eruption occurring in February 1997. Annual GPS campaigns during 2000-2003 have revealed a rapid inflation at Okmok volcano.

  11. Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by pryoclastic flow at Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Watts, P.

    2003-01-01

    Pyroclastic flows entering the sea are plausible mechanisms for tsunami generation at volcanic island arcs worldwide. We evaluate tsunami generation by pyroclastic flow using an example from Aniakchak volcano in Alaska where evidence for tsunami inundation coincident with a major, caldera-forming eruption of the volcano ca. 3.5 ka has been described. Using a numerical model, we simulate the tsunami and compare the results to field estimates of tsunami run up.

  12. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Cameron; J. Dehn; J. E. Bailey; P. Webley

    2009-01-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO's remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's

  13. Observing active deformation of volcanoes in North America: Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and associated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Enders, M.; Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Baker, S.; Lisowski, M.; Smith, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, records deformation of the geologically diverse North America western plate boundary, with subnetworks of instruments concentrated at selected active and potentially active volcanoes. These sensors record deformation and earthquakes and allow monitoring agencies and researchers to analyze changes in ground motion and seismicity. The intraplate volcanoes at Yellowstone and Long Valley are characterized by uplift/subsidence cycles, high seismicity, and hydrothermal activity but there have been no historic eruptions at either volcano. PBO maintains dense GPS networks of 20-25 stations at each of these volcanoes, with an additional 5 boreholes at Yellowstone containing tensor strainmeters, short-period seismometers, and borehole tiltmeters. Subduction zone volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc have had multiple historic eruptions, and PBO maintains equipment at Augustine (8 GPS), Akutan (8 GPS, 4 tiltmeters), and Unimak Island (14 GPS, 8 tiltmeters). The Unimak stations are at the active Westdahl and Shishaldin edifices and the nearby, inactive Isanotski volcano. In the Cascade Arc, PBO maintains networks at Mount St. Helens (15 GPS, 4 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, 8 borehole tiltmeters), Shasta (7 GPS, 1 borehole strainmeter and seismometer), and Lassen Peak (8 GPS). Data from many of these stations in the Pacific Northwest and California are also provided as realtime streams of raw and processed data. Real-time GPS data, along with high-rate GPS data, will be an important new resource for detecting and studying future rapid volcanic deformation events and earthquakes. UNAVCO works closely with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, archiving data from USGS GPS stations in Alaska, Cascadia, and Long Valley. The PBO and USGS networks combined provide more comprehensive coverage than PBO alone, particularly of the Cascade Arc, where the USGS maintains a multiple instruments near each volcano. Ground-based instruments are supplemented by remote sensing data sets. UNAVCO supports the acquisition of InSAR and LiDAR imaging data, with archiving and distribution of these data provided by UNAVCO and partner institutions. We provide descriptions and access information for geodetic data from the PBO volcano subnetworks and their applications to monitoring for scientific and public safety objectives. We also present notable examples of activity recorded by these instruments, including the 2004-2010 accelerated uplift episode at the Yellowstone caldera and the 2006 Augustine eruption.

  14. SEISMIC RECORDINGS OF ICE AND DEBRIS AVALANCHES OF ILIAMNA VOLCANO, ALASKA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Caplan-Auerbach; Stephanie G. Prejean; John A. Power

    Seismic data recorded on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, indicate that Iliamna ice avalanches are preceded by up to several hours of p recursory seismicity. This precursory activity is represented by a 1-3 hour period of activity comprising a sequence of discrete repeatin g earthquakes and a period of continuous groundshaking that builds in amplitude. The avalanche itself is represented by a

  15. Permafrost Observatory near Gakona, Alaska. Local-Scale Features in Permafrost Distribution and Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Romanovsky; K. Yoshikawa; D. Sergueev; Y. Shur

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2004, the Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks (GI UAF) established the Gakona Permafrost Observatory. This project is funded by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. The Observatory is located in a large intermountain depression in the Copper River Basin. Permafrost in this area is widespread, in spite of its location near

  16. US Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website presents its objectives "to advance the scientific understanding of volcanic processes and to lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity." The public can explore information on volcano monitoring, warning schemes, and emergency planning. Students and educators can find out about the types, effects, location, and history of volcano hazards. The website offers recent online volcano reports and maps, volcano factsheets, videos, and a photo glossary. Teachers can find online versions of many educational volcano-related books and videos. The website features the volcanic observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley, and Yellowstone.

  17. Record of late holocene debris avalanches and lahars at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Miller, T.P.; Beget, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Iliamna Volcano is a 3053-meter high, glaciated stratovolcano in the southern Cook Inlet region of Alaska and is one of seven volcanoes in this region that have erupted multiple times during the past 10,000 yr. Prior to our studies of Iliamna Volcano, little was known about the frequency, magnitude, and character of Holocene volcanic activity. Here we present geologic evidence of the most recent eruptive activity of the volcano and provide the first outline of Late Holocene debris-avalanche and lahar formation. Iliamna has had no documented historical eruptions but our recent field investigations indicate that the volcano has erupted at least twice in the last 300 yr. Clay-rich lahar deposits dated by radiocarbon to ???1300 and ???90 yr BP are present in two major valleys that head on the volcano. These deposits indicate that at least two large, possibly deep-seated, flank failures of the volcanic edifice have occurred in the last 1300 yr. Noncohesive lahar deposits likely associated with explosive pyroclastic eruptions date to 2400-1300,>1500,???300, and <305 yr BP. Debris-avalanche deposits from recent and historical small-volume slope failures of the hydrothermally altered volcanic edifice cover most of the major glaciers on the volcano. Although these deposits consist almost entirely of hydrothermally altered rock debris and snow and ice, none of the recently generated debris avalanches evolved to lahars. A clay-rich lahar deposit that formed <90??60 radiocarbon yr BP and entered the Johnson River Valley southeast of the volcano cannot be confidently related to an eruption of Iliamna Volcano, which has had no known historical eruptions. This deposit may record an unheralded debris avalanche and lahar. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismic observations of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska - 1989-2010 and a conceptual model of the Redoubt magmatic system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, John A.; Stihler, Scott D.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Haney, Matthew M.; Ketner, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Seismic activity at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, has been closely monitored since 1989 by a network of five to ten seismometers within 22 km of the volcano's summit. Major eruptions occurred in 1989-1990 and 2009 and were characterized by large volcanic explosions, episodes of lava dome growth and failure, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Seismic features of the 1989-1990 eruption were 1) weak precursory tremor and a short, 23-hour-long, intense swarm of repetitive shallow long-period (LP) events centered 1.4 km below the crater floor, 2) shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) and hybrid earthquakes that separated early episodes of dome growth, 3) 13 additional swarms of LP events at shallow depths precursory to many of the 25 explosions that occurred over the more than 128 day duration of eruptive activity, and 4) a persistent cluster of VT earthquakes at 6 to 9 km depth. In contrast the 2009 eruption was preceded by a pronounced increase in deep-LP (DLP) events at lower crustal depths (25 to 38 km) that began in mid-December 2008, two months of discontinuous shallow volcanic tremor that started on January 23, 2009, a strong phreatic explosion on March 15, and a 58-hour-long swarm of repetitive shallow LP events. The 2009 eruption consisted of at least 23 major explosions between March 23 and April 5, again accompanied by shallow VT earthquakes, several episodes of shallow repetitive LP events and dome growth continuing until mid July. Increased VT earthquakes at 4 to 9 km depth began slowly in early April, possibly defining a mid-crustal magma source zone. Magmatic processes associated with the 2009 eruption seismically activated the same portions of the Redoubt magmatic system as the 1989-1990 eruption, although the time scales and intensity vary considerably among the two eruptions. The occurrence of precursory DLP events suggests that the 2009 eruption may have involved the rise of magma from lower crustal depths. Based on the evolution of seismicity during the 1989-1990 and 2009 eruptions the Redoubt magmatic system is envisioned to consist of a shallow system of cracks extending 1 to 2 km below the crater floor, a magma storage or source region at roughly 3 to 9 km depth, and a diffuse magma source region at 25 to 38 km depth. Close tracking of seismic activity allowed the Alaska Volcano Observatory to successfully issue warnings prior to many of the hazardous explosive events that occurred in 2009.

  19. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for the Tanaga Volcanic Cluster, Tanaga Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Volcano Hazards at Tanaga Volcanic Cluster The Tanaga volcanic cluster lies on the northwest part of Tanaga Island, about 100 kilometers west of Adak, Alaska, and 2,025 kilometers southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The cluster consists of three volcanoes-from west to east, they are Sajaka, Tanaga, and Takawangha. All three volcanoes have erupted in the last 1,000 years, producing lava flows and tephra (ash) deposits. A much less frequent, but potentially more hazardous phenomenon, is volcanic edifice collapse into the sea, which likely happens only on a timescale of every few thousands of years, at most. Parts of the volcanic bedrock near Takawangha have been altered by hydrothermal activity and are prone to slope failure, but such events only present a local hazard. Given the volcanic cluster's remote location, the primary hazard from the Tanaga volcanoes is airborne ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize the major volcanic hazards associated with the Tanaga volcanic cluster.

  20. Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter locations observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Challenges to Integrating Geographically-Dispersed Data and Expertise at U.S. Volcano Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, T. L.; Ewert, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    During the past 10 years the data and information available to volcano observatories to assess hazards and forecast activity has grown dramatically, a trend that will likely continue. Similarly, the ability of observatories to draw upon external specialists who can provide needed expertise is also increasing. Though technology easily provides the ability to move large amounts of information to the observatory, the challenge remains to efficiently and quickly integrate useful information and expertise into the decision-making process. The problem is further exacerbated by the use of new research techniques during times of heightened activity. Eruptive periods typically accelerate research into volcanic processes as scientists use the opportunity to test new hypotheses and develop new tools. Such experimental methods can be extremely insightful, but may be less easily integrated into the normal data streams that inform decisions. Similarly, there is an increased need for collaborative tools that allow efficient and effective communication between the observatory and external experts. Observatories will continue to be the central focus for integrating information, assessing hazards, and communicating with the public, but will increasingly draw on experts at other observatories, government agencies, academia and even the private sector, both foreign and domestic, to provide analysis and assistance. Fostering efficient communication among such a diverse and geographically dispersed group is a challenge. Addressing these challenges is one of the goals of the U.S. National Volcano Early Warning System, falling under the effort to improve interoperability among the five U.S. volcano observatories and their collaborators. In addition to providing the mechanisms to handle the flow of data, efforts will be directed at simplifying - though retaining the required nuance - information and merging data streams while developing tools that enable observatory staff to quickly integrate the data into the decision-making process. Also, advances in the use of collaborative tools and organizational structure will be required if observatories are to tap into the intellectual resources throughout the volcanological community. The last 10 years saw a continuing explosion in the quantity and quality of data and expertise available to address volcano hazards and volcanic activity; the challenge over the next 10 years will be for us to make the best use of it.

  2. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  3. Headless Debris Flows From Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Waythomas, C. F.; Wessels, R.; Coombs, M. L.; Wallace, K. L.

    2004-12-01

    Sometime between June 20 and July 15, 2004-and contemporaneous with an increase of seismicity beneath the volcano, and elevated gas emissions-a sudden release of impounded water from the summit area of Mt. Spurr volcano produced about a dozen separate debris flow lobes emanating from crevasses and bergschrunds in the surface ice several hundred meters down the east-southeast flank from the summit. These debris flows were first observed by AVO staff on a July 15 overflight and appeared to represent a single flooding event; subsequent snow cover and limited accessibility have prevented direct investigation of these deposits. Observed from the air, they are dark, elongate lobate deposits, up to several hundred meters long and tens of meters wide, draping the steep (up to ~45 degree) slopes and cascading over and into crevasses. A water-rich phase from the flows continued down slope of the termini of several lobate deposits, eroding linear rills into the snow and ice down slope. We infer that the dark material composing these flows is likely remobilized coarse lapilli from the June 1992 tephra fall produced by an eruption of Crater Peak, a satellite vent of Mt. Spurr located 3.5 km to the south. Between 1 and 2 meters of basaltic andesite tephra fell directly on the Spurr summit during the 1992 eruption. The exact mechanism for sudden release of water-laden remobilized tephra flows from the summit basin is not clear. However, observations in early August, 2004, of an 80 m x 110-m-wide pit in the summit area snow and ice suggest the possibility of a partial roof collapse of a summit meltwater basin, likely associated with subglacial melting due to recent heat flux. Such a collapse could have led to the hydraulic surge of meltwater, and rapid mixing with tephra to produce slurries. These slurries traveled down slope beneath the ice surface to emerge through existing crevasses and other easy points of exit on the steep inclines. Mount Spurr is an ice- and snow covered, Quaternary andesitic volcanic complex, comprising a centrally located dome (or stratocone) in a breached, 5-km-wide, glacier-filled caldera that dissects ancestral Mt. Spurr volcano. The summit of Mt. Spurr is 130 km west of Anchorage, AK and reaches 3,374 m in elevation. The summit dome complex is topographically asymmetric, with a steeper southwest side and a more gradually sloping northeast flank To our knowledge, this is the first time such debris flows have been observed near the summit of Mt. Spurr. However, the existence of ponded water near the summit may not be unique to 2004. A review of historical photographs and descriptions of the Spurr summit area indicates a dynamic environment that responds to complex variations in snowfall accumulation, solar radiation, and geothermal heat flux. Other authors have noted variations in summit snow pack and the ephemeral appearance of a snow-filled depression and possibly a water-filled pit in 1964 aerial photographs of the summit. The formation of these debris flows near the summit of Mt. Spurr in conjunction with elevated seismicity below the summit and the development of a collapse pit in summit ice cap suggest that increasing geothermal heat flux, possibly in combination with above normal temperatures and long periods of clear, sunny weather in the region is responsible.

  4. Reevaluation of tsunami formation by debris avalanche at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Debris avalanches entering the sea at Augustine Volcano, Alaska have been proposed as a mechanism for generating tsunamis. Historical accounts of the 1883 eruption of the volcano describe 6- to 9-meter-high waves that struck the coastline at English Bay (Nanwalek), Alaska about 80 kilometers east of Augustine Island. These accounts are often cited as proof that volcanigenic tsunamis from Augustine Volcano are significant hazards to the coastal zone of lower Cook Inlet. This claim is disputed because deposits of unequivocal tsunami origin are not evident at more than 50 sites along the lower Cook Inlet coastline where they might be preserved. Shallow water (<25 m) around Augustine Island, in the run-out zone for debris avalanches, limits the size of an avalanche-caused wave. If the two most recent debris avalanches, Burr Point (A.D. 1883) and West Island (<500 yr. B.P.) were traveling at velocities in the range of 50 to 100 meters per second, the kinetic energy of the avalanches at the point of impact with the ocean would have been between 1014 and 1015 joules. Although some of this energy would be dissipated through boundary interactions and momentum transfer between the avalanche and the sea, the initial wave should have possessed sufficient kinetic energy to do geomorphic work (erosion, sediment transport, formation of wave-cut features) on the coastline of lowwer Cook Inlet. Because widespread evidence of the effects of large waves cannot be found, it appears that the debris avalanches could not have been traveling very fast when they entered the sea, or they happened during low tide and displaced only small volumes of water. In light of these results, the hazard from volcanigenic tsunamis from Augustine Volcano appears minor, unless a very large debris avalanche occurs at high tide.

  5. Seismicity and seismic structure at Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlendorf, Summer J.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Pesicek, Jeremy D.; Prejean, Stephanie G.

    2014-05-01

    Okmok volcano is an active volcanic caldera located on the northeastern portion of Umnak Island in the Aleutian arc, with recent eruptions in 1997 and 2008. The Okmok area had ~900 locatable earthquakes between 2003 and June 2008, and an additional ~600 earthquakes from the beginning of the 2008 eruption to mid 2009, providing an adequate dataset for seismic tomography. To image the seismic velocity structure of Okmok, we apply waveform cross-correlation using bispectrum verification and double-difference tomography to a subset of these earthquakes. We also perform P-wave attenuation tomography using a spectral decay technique. We examine the spatio-temporal characteristics of seismicity in the opening sequence of the 2008 eruption to investigate the path of magma migration during the establishment of a new eruptive vent. We also incorporate the new earthquake relocations and three-dimensional (3D) velocity model with first-motion polarities to compute focal mechanisms for selected events in the 2008 pre-eruptive and eruptive periods. Through these techniques we obtain precise relocations, a well-constrained 3D P-wave velocity model, and a marginally resolved S-wave velocity model. We image a main low Vp and Vs anomaly directly under the caldera consisting of a shallow zone at 0-2 km depth connected to a larger deeper zone that extends to about 6 km depth. We find that areas of low Qp are concentrated in the central to southwestern portion of the caldera and correspond fairly well with areas of low Vp. We interpret the deeper part of the low velocity anomaly (4-6 km depth) beneath the caldera as a magma body. This is consistent with results from ambient noise tomography and suggests that previous estimates of depth to Okmok's magma chamber based only on geodetic data may be too shallow. The distribution of events preceding the 2008 eruption suggest that a combination of overpressure in the zone surrounding the magma chamber and the introduction of new material from below were jointly responsible for the explosive eruption. Magma escaping from the top of the main magma chamber likely reacted with both a smaller shallow pod of magma and groundwater on its way up below the Cone D area. The earthquakes in the 2008 pre-eruptive and eruptive periods are found to have a mixture of strike-slip, oblique normal, and oblique thrust mechanisms, with a dominant P-axis orientation that is nearly perpendicular to the regional tectonic stress. This may indicate that the stresses related to magmatic activity locally dominated regional tectonic forces during this time period.

  6. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and aptitude for the physical sciences, not necessarily volcanology. It will also serve as an entry point for students wishing to make extended exchange visits to the Russian Far East or Alaska, and to graduate students in volcanology wishing to undertake thesis research in North Pacific volcanism. The school represents the first educational effort of the newly established Japan Kamchatka Alaska Subduction Project (JKASP), which seeks to bring scientists of our three nations together in the study of one shared geophysical province, the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs.

  7. Strongly Gliding Harmonic Tremor Preceding Eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec, A. J.; Prejean, S. G.; Vidale, J. E.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Occasionally volcanic tremor’s dominant frequency and its overtones change continuously with time, or ‘glide’. Gliding spectral lines have been described on volcanoes of varying sizes and compositions. During the most recent eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, gliding spectral lines appear prominently before five nearly consecutive explosions of the ~19 large explosions. The fundamental frequency glides upward from less than 1 Hz to as high as 30 Hz in the span of just a few minutes prior to eruption. Then, a relative seismic silence of a few tens of seconds precedes the eruption. Over the years, several different mechanisms have been invoked to explain occurrences of lower frequency gliding harmonic tremor on other volcanoes. The most popular explanations attribute the gliding to changing properties of a resonating crack, or to the repeated excitation of a source with gradually varying inter-event time intervals. Indeed, the first case of gliding at Redoubt was preceded by an 8 hour swarm of repeating high-frequency earthquakes in which the earthquakes comprising this swarm became gradually more frequent, eventually blending smoothly into tremor. This observation leads us to favor the explanation that the gliding harmonic tremor is created by the superposition of repeating earthquakes, likely driven by instability of the magma column. Velocity spectrogram of an example of gliding on Redoubt, recorded at a station located approximately 4 km east of the vent.

  8. Low pressure fractionation in arc volcanoes: an example from Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, E.E.; Swanson, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Augustine Volcano, situated between the Cook and Katmai segments of the Eastern Aleutian Volcanic Arc, has erupted 5 times since its discovery in 1778. Eruptions are characterized by early vent-clearing eruptions with accompanying pyroclastic flows followed by dome-building and more pyroclastic flows. Bulk rock chemistry of historic and prehistoric lavas shows little variability. The lavas are calc-alkaline, low to medium K, porphyritic acid andesites, rare basalt, and minor dacite pumice. FeO*/MgO averages 1.6 over this silica range. Plagioclase phenocrysts show complicated zoning patterns, but olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene phenocrysts show little compositional variation. Hornblende, where present, is ubiquitously oxidized and was clearly out of equilibrium during the last stages of fractionation. Evolved liquid compositions of vitriophyric domes are rhyolitic, and of pumices are slightly less evolved suggesting that individual eruptions become more fractionated with time. Comparison of glass compositions with experimental results is consistent with low pressure fractionation of a relatively dry silicate melt. Disequilibrium of amphiboles and the evolved nature of glasses indicate that shallow level fractionation plays a significant role in the evolution of Augustine magmas. This model is consistent with a shallow magma chamber inferred from geophysical models of the Augustine system and also with its simple, predictable eruption pattern.

  9. Recent Results From Seafloor Instruments at the NeMO Observatory, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Chadwick; D. A. Butterfield; R. W. Embley; C. Meinig; S. E. Stalin; S. L. Nooner; M. A. Zumberge; C. G. Fox

    2002-01-01

    NeMO is a seafloor observatory at Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) in the NE Pacific. Axial Volcano was chosen for NeMO because it has the largest magma supply on the JdFR, and is therefore the best place to study volcanic events and the perturbations they cause to pre-existing hydrothermal systems. In

  10. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes

    2000-01-01

    The world’s largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century broke out at Novarupta (fig. 1) in June 1912, filling with hot ash what came to be called the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and spreading downwind more fallout than all other historical Alaskan eruptions combined. Although almost all the magma vented at Novarupta, most of it had been stored beneath Mount Katmai 10 km away, which collapsed during the eruption. Airborne ash from the 3-day event blanketed all of southern Alaska, and its gritty fallout was reported as far away as Dawson, Ketchikan, and Puget Sound (fig. 21). Volcanic dust and sulfurous aerosol were detected within days over Wisconsin and Virginia; within 2 weeks over California, Europe, and North Africa; and in latter-day ice cores recently drilled on the Greenland ice cap. There were no aircraft in Alaska in 1912—fortunately! Corrosive acid aerosols damage aircraft, and ingestion of volcanic ash can cause abrupt jet-engine failure. Today, more than 200 flights a day transport 20,000 people and a fortune in cargo within range of dozens of restless volcanoes in the North Pacific. Air routes from the Far East to Europe and North America pass over and near Alaska, many flights refueling in Anchorage. Had this been so in 1912, every airport from Dillingham to Dawson and from Fairbanks to Seattle would have been enveloped in ash, leaving pilots no safe option but to turn back or find refuge at an Aleutian airstrip west of the ash cloud. Downwind dust and aerosol could have disrupted air traffic anywhere within a broad swath across Canada and the Midwest, perhaps even to the Atlantic coast. The great eruption of 1912 focused scientific attention on Novarupta, and subsequent research there has taught us much about the processes and hazards associated with such large explosive events (Fierstein and Hildreth, 1992). Moreover, work in the last decade has identified no fewer than 20 discrete volcanic vents within 15 km of Novarupta (Hildreth and others, 1999, 2000, 2001; Hildreth and Fierstein, 2000), only half of which had been named previously—the four stratovolcanoes Mounts Katmai, Mageik, Martin, and Griggs; the cone cluster called Trident Volcano; Snowy Mountain; and the three lava domes Novarupta, Mount Cerberus, and Falling Mountain. The most recent eruptions were from Trident Volcano (1953–74), but there have been at least eight other, probably larger, explosive events from the volcanoes of this area in the past 10,000 years. This report summarizes what has been learned about the volcanic histories and styles of eruption of all these volcanoes. Many large earthquakes occurred before and during the 1912 eruption, and the cluster of Katmai volcanoes remains seismically active. Because we expect an increase in seismicity before eruptions, seismic monitoring efforts to detect volcanic unrest and procedures for eruption notification and dissemination of information are included in this report. Most at risk from future eruptions of the Katmai volcanic cluster are (1) air-traffic corridors of the North Pacific, including those approaching Anchorage, one of the Pacific’s busiest international airports, (2) several regional airports and military air bases, (3) fisheries and navigation on the Naknek Lake system and Shelikof Strait, (4) pristine wildlife habitat, particularly that of the Alaskan brown bear, and (5) tourist facilities in and near Katmai National Park.

  11. One hundred volatile years of volcanic gas studies at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: Chapter 7 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutton, Andrew J.; Elias, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    The first volcanic gas studies in Hawai‘i, beginning in 1912, established that volatile emissions from K?lauea Volcano contained mostly water vapor, in addition to carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This straightforward discovery overturned a popular volatile theory of the day and, in the same action, helped affirm Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr.’s, vision of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) as a preeminent place to study volcanic processes. Decades later, the environmental movement produced a watershed of quantitative analytical tools that, after being tested at K?lauea, became part of the regular monitoring effort at HVO. The resulting volatile emission and fumarole chemistry datasets are some of the most extensive on the planet. These data indicate that magma from the mantle enters the shallow magmatic system of K?lauea sufficiently oversaturated in CO2 to produce turbulent flow. Passive degassing at K?lauea’s summit that occurred from 1983 through 2007 yielded CO2-depleted, but SO2- and H2O-rich, rift eruptive gases. Beginning with the 2008 summit eruption, magma reaching the East Rift Zone eruption site became depleted of much of its volatile content at the summit eruptive vent before transport to Pu‘u ‘?‘?. The volatile emissions of Hawaiian volcanoes are halogen-poor, relative to those of other basaltic systems. Information gained regarding intrinsic gas solubilities at K?lauea and Mauna Loa, as well as the pressure-controlled nature of gas release, have provided useful tools for tracking eruptive activity. Regular CO2-emission-rate measurements at K?lauea’s summit, together with surface-deformation and other data, detected an increase in deep magma supply more than a year before a corresponding surge in effusive activity. Correspondingly, HVO routinely uses SO2 emissions to study shallow eruptive processes and effusion rates. HVO gas studies and K?lauea’s long-running East Rift Zone eruption also demonstrate that volatile emissions can be a substantial volcanic hazard in Hawai‘i. From its humble beginning, trying to determine the chemical composition of volcanic gases over a century ago, HVO has evolved to routinely use real-time gas chemistry to track eruptive processes, as well as hazards.

  12. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  13. Adakitic volcanism in the eastern Aleutian arc: Petrology and geochemistry of Hayes volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, K.; Hart, W. K.; Coombs, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, 135 km northwest of Anchorage, Hayes volcano is responsible for the most widespread tephra fall deposit in the regional Holocene record (~3,500 BP). Hayes is bounded to the west by the Cook Inlet volcanoes (CIV; Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and separated from the nearest volcanism to the east, Mount Drum of the Wrangell Volcanic Field (WVF), by a 400 km-wide volcanic gap. We report initial results of the first systematic geochemical and petrologic study of Hayes volcano. Hayes eruptive products are calc-alkaline dacites and rhyolites that have anomalous characteristics within the region. Major and trace element analyses reveal that the Hayes rhyolites are more silicic (~74 wt. % SiO2) than compositions observed in other CIV, and its dacitic products possess the distinctive geochemical signatures of adakitic magmas. Key aspects of the Hayes dacite geochemistry include: 16.03 - 17.54 wt. % Al2O3, 0.97 - 2.25 wt. % MgO, Sr/Y = 60 - 78, Yb = 0.9 - 1.2 ppm, Ba/La = 31 - 79. Such signatures are consistent with melting of a metamorphosed basaltic source that leaves behind a residue of garnet ± amphibole ± pyroxene via processes such as melting of a subducting oceanic slab or underplated mafic lower crust, rather than flux melting of the mantle wedge by dehydration of the down-going slab. Additionally, Hayes tephras display a distinctive mineralogy of biotite with amphibole in greater abundance than pyroxene, a characteristic not observed at other CIV. Furthermore, Hayes rhyolites and dacites exhibit little isotopic heterogeneity (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70384 - 0.70395, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.866 - 18.889) suggesting these lavas originate from the same source. Hayes volcano is approximately situated above the western margin of the subducting Yakutat terrane and where the dip of the Pacific slab beneath Cook Inlet shallows northward. Due to its position along the margin of the subducting Yakutat terrane, it is plausible that Hayes magmas are the result of partial melting of this slab where thermal erosion and weakening of the crust occurs along the Pacific plate-Yakutat terrane transition. Additionally, flat slab subduction may be responsible for producing adakitic magmas by equilibration of the hydrous slab with ambient mantle temperatures. In contrast, it is possible that the adakitic signature at Hayes is from underplated mafic lower crust that melted as the result of pooling mantle melt at depth. Two volcanoes within the WVF, Mt. Drum and Mt. Churchill, are adakitic with an abundance of biotite and amphibole similar to Hayes volcano and have been suggested to have slab melt origins. Mt. Drum lavas have less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr but overlapping 206Pb/204Pb signatures while Mt. Churchill, which approximately overlies the eastern edge of the Yakutat terrane, has similar 87Sr/86Sr compositions, but more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb than Hayes. Mt. Spurr, the nearest CIV to Hayes volcano (90 km south), does not share its adakitic signature but exhibits overlapping, more heterogeneous isotopic compositions. Thus, understanding the petrogenetic history of Hayes volcano is essential not only to explain the development of an adakitic volcanic system but how this relates to regional, arc-wide volcanism.

  14. Eruptive history and petrology of Mount Drum volcano, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, D.H.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.; Miller, T.P.; Lanphere, M.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Smith, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Mount Drum is one of the youngest volcanoes in the subduction-related Wrangell volcanic field (80x200 km) of southcentral Alaska. It lies at the northwest end of a series of large, andesite-dominated shield volcanoes that show a northwesterly progression of age from 26 Ma near the Alaska-Yukon border to about 0.2 Ma at Mount Drum. The volcano was constructed between 750 and 250 ka during at least two cycles of cone building and ring-dome emplacement and was partially destroyed by violent explosive activity probably after 250 ka. Cone lavas range from basaltic andesite to dacite in composition; ring-domes are dacite to rhyolite. The last constructional activity occured in the vicinity of Snider Peak, on the south flank of the volcano, where extensive dacite flows and a dacite dome erupted at about 250 ka. The climactic explosive eruption, that destroyed the top and a part of the south flank of the volcano, produced more than 7 km3 of proximal hot and cold avalanche deposits and distal mudflows. The Mount Drum rocks have medium-K, calc-alkaline affinities and are generally plagioclase phyric. Silica contents range from 55.8 to 74.0 wt%, with a compositional gap between 66.8 and 72.8 wt%. All the rocks are enriched in alkali elements and depleted in Ta relative to the LREE, typical of volcanic arc rocks, but have higher MgO contents at a given SiO2, than typical orogenic medium-K andesites. Strontium-isotope ratios vary from 0.70292 to 0.70353. The compositional range of Mount Drum lavas is best explained by a combination of diverse parental magmas, magma mixing, and fractionation. The small, but significant, range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the basaltic andesites and the wide range of incompatible-element ratios exhibited by the basaltic andesites and andesites suggests the presence of compositionally diverse parent magmas. The lavas show abundant petrographic evidence of magma mixing, such as bimodal phenocryst size, resorbed phenocrysts, reaction rims, and disequilibrium mineral assemblages. In addition, some dacites and andesites contain Mg and Ni-rich olivines and/or have high MgO, Cr, Ni, Co, and Sc contents that are not in equilibrium with the host rock and indicate mixing between basalt or cumulate material and more evolved magmas. Incompatible element variations suggest that fractionation is responsible for some of the compositional range between basaltic andesite and dacite, but the rhyolites have K, Ba, Th, and Rb contents that are too low for the magmas to be generated by fractionation of the intermediate rocks. Limited Sr-isotope data support the possibility that the rhyolites may be partial melts of underlying volcanic rocks. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Rheologic and structural controls on the deformation of Okmok volcano, Alaska: FEMs, InSAR, and ambient noise tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Masterlark; Matthew Haney; Haylee Dickinson; Tom Fournier; Cheryl Searcy

    2010-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data indicate that the caldera of Okmok volcano, Alaska, subsided more than a meter during its eruption in 1997. The large deformation suggests a relatively shallow magma reservoir beneath Okmok. Seismic tomography using ambient ocean noise reveals two low-velocity zones (LVZs). The shallow LVZ corresponds to a region of weak, fluid-saturated materials within the caldera

  16. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO network as a platform for ongoing research and hazard monitoring equipment may also continue to serve the needs of the research community and the public beyond the sun-setting and completion of EarthScope science plan in 2018.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory summary 100; Part 1, seismic data, January to December 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2001-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) summary presents seismic data gathered during the year and a chronological narrative describing the volcanic events. The seismic summary is offered without interpretation as a source of preliminary data. It is complete in the sense that all data for events of M?1.5 routinely gathered by the Observatory are included. The emphasis in collection of tilt and deformation data has shifted from quarterly measurements at a few water-tube tilt stations (“wet” tilt) to a larger number of continuously recording borehole tiltmeters, repeated measurements at numerous spirit-level tilt stations (“dry” tilt), and surveying of level and trilateration networks. Because of the large quantity of deformation data now gathered and differing schedules of data reduction, the seismic and deformation summaries are published separately. The HVO summaries have been published in various forms since 1956. Summaries prior to 1974 were issued quarterly, but cost, convenience of preparation and distribution, and the large quantities of data dictated an annual publication beginning with Summary 74 for the year 1974. Summary 86 (the introduction of CUSP at HVO) includes a description of the seismic instrumentation, calibration, and processing used in recent years. The present summary includes enough background information on the seismic network and processing to allow use of the data and to provide an understanding of how they were gathered.

  18. Preeruptive inflation and surface interferometric coherence characteristics revealed by satellite radar interferometry at Makushin Volcano, Alaska: 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Power, J.A.; McConnell, V.S.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot reports in January 1995 and geologic field observations from the summer of 1996 indicate that a relatively small explosive eruption of Makushin, one of the more frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc of Alaska, occured on 30 January 1995. Several independent radar interferograms that each span the time period from October 1993 to September 1995 show evidence of ???7 cm of uplift centered on the volcano's east flank, which we interpret as preeruptive inflation of a ???7-km-deep magma source (??V = 0.022 km3). Subsequent interferograms for 1995-2000, a period that included no reported eruptive activity, show no evidence of additional ground deformation. Interferometric coherence at C band is found to persist for 3 years or more on lava flow and other rocky surfaces covered with short grass and sparsely distributed tall grass and for at least 1 year on most pyroclastic deposits. On lava flow and rocky surfaces with dense tall grass and on alluvium, coherence lasts for a few months. Snow and ice surfaces lose coherence within a few days. This extended timeframe of coherence over a variety of surface materials makes C band radar interferometry an effective tool for studying volcano deformation in Alaska and other similar high-latitude regions.

  19. Investigation of volcanic processes using seismology and geodesy at Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlendorf, Summer Joi

    Okmok Volcano, Alaska is a frequently active system with eruptions in 1997 and 2008 that differed in style and vent location. We conduct various seismic and geodetic studies of Okmok, focusing on better characterizing the volcano's subsurface structure and changes leading up to the 2008 eruption. In the first study, we perform ambient noise interferometry using cross-correlation of noise between station pairs to investigate changes in Okmok's seismic properties preceding and following the 2008 eruption. In the second, we test the influence of phase-weighted versus linear stacking on the quality of ambient noise tomography (ANT). In the third, we perform a joint inversion of body-wave arrivals and surface wave dispersion to solve for three-dimensional P-wave and S-wave velocity structure and hypocenter locations. Finally, we conduct time series analysis with temporal adjustment of Okmok's deformation between 1997 and 2008 using wrapped phase observations from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). We find two prominent signals in relative seismic velocity in the intereruptive period, strongest on station pairs with paths beneath the caldera. These are a seasonal variation, believed to be due to precipitation and snow loading, overprinted by a gradual increase in velocity until the 2008 eruption. The increase, contrary to typical observations preceding eruptions, may be due to viscoelastic effects decreasing the stresses above the pressurized magma chamber during the late intereruptive period. We find that phase-weighted stacking improves the signal-to-noise ratio of Green's functions and the quality of dispersion curves, group velocity maps, and the resulting S velocity model with respect to linearly stacking. The ANT-derived S model shows two major low velocity zones (LVZs) at depths that agree with previous studies, but their lateral extent is unrealistically large. Joint inversion of body-wave and surface-wave data produces an optimal P model similar to the body-wave-only model, but the S model improves noticeably and suggests slightly greater depth extent of the lower LVZ. From temporal adjustment on InSAR-estimated variations in source strength, we find an adequate fit to a parameterization consisting of twoexponential decay steps, suggesting that viscoelastic processes play a role in deformation during intereruptive periods.

  20. Ground deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1996 an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (???3000 felt by local residents, Mmax = 5.1, cumulative moment of 2.7 ??1018 N m) beneath Akutan Island in the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, produced extensive ground cracks but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Synthetic aperture radar interferograms that span the time of the swarm reveal complex island-wide deformation: the western part of the island including Akutan volcano moved upward, while the eastern part moved downward. The axis of the deformation approximately aligns with new ground cracks on the western part of the island and with Holocene normal faults that were reactivated during the swarm on the eastern part of the island. The axis is also roughly parallel to the direction of greatest compressional stress in the region. No ground movements greater than 2.83 cm were observed outside the volcano's summit caldera for periods of 4 years before or 2 years after the swarm. We modeled the deformation primarily as the emplacement of a shallow, east-west trending, north dipping dike plus inflation of a deep, Mogi-type magma body beneath the volcano. The pattern of subsidence on the eastern part of the island is poorly constrained. It might have been produced by extensional tectonic strain that both reactivated preexisting faults on the eastern part of the island and facilitated magma movement beneath the western part. Alternatively, magma intrusion beneath the volcano might have been the cause of extension and subsidence in the eastern part of the island. We attribute localized subsidence in an area of active fumaroles within the Akutan caldera, by as much as 10 cm during 1992-1993 and 1996-1998, to fluid withdrawal or depressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. 1989-90 Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, and the First Test Case of a USGS Lahar-Detection System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Clucas

    This web page describes the lahars that swept down the Drift River Valley during the 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, and the testing of a new experimental detection and warning system designed to track lahars and debris flows and to give warning to people downstream. In this case, an oil-storage facility in the Cook Inlet area was at risk. The seismometers used (acoustic-flow monitors) were sensitive to ground vibration at relatively high frequencies. On April 6, 1990 the system did detect and track lahars moving down a valley in real time. The amplitude and ground velocity data are diagrammed.

  2. Modeling and forecasting tephra hazards at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, during 2009 unrest and eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Denlinger, R. P.; Wallace, K. L.; Schaefer, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    In late 2008, Redoubt Volcano, on the west coast of Alaska’s Cook Inlet, began a period of unrest that culminated in more than 19 small tephra-producing events between March 19 and April 4, 2009, followed by growth of a lava dome whose volume now exceeds 70 million cubic meters. The explosive events lasted from <1 to 31 minutes, sent tephra columns to heights of 19 km asl, and emitted dense-rock (DRE) tephra volumes up to several million cubic meters. Tephra fall affected transportation and infrastructure throughout Cook Inlet, including the Anchorage metropolitan area. The months of unrest that preceded the first explosive event allowed us to develop tools to forecast tephra hazards. As described in an accompanying abstract, colleagues at the University of Pisa produced automated, daily tephra-fall forecast maps using the 3-D VOL-CALPUFF model with input scenarios that represented likely event sizes and durations. Tephra-fall forecast maps were also generated every six hours for hypothetical events of 10M m3 volume DRE using the 2-D model ASHFALL, and relationships between hypothetical plume height and eruption rate were evaluated four times daily under then-current atmospheric conditions using the program PLUMERIA. Eruptive deposits were mapped and isomass contours constructed for the two largest events, March 24 (0340-0355Z) and April 4 (1358-1429Z), which produced radar-determined plume heights of 18.3 and 15.2 km asl (~15.6 and 12.5 km above the vent), and tephra volumes (DRE) of 6.3M and 3.1M m3, respectively. For the volumetric eruption rates calculated from mapped erupted volume and seismic duration (V=6.2×103 and 1.7×103 m3/s DRE), measured plume heights H above the vent fall within 10% of the empirical best-fit curve H=1.67V0.259 published in the book Volcanic Plumes by Sparks et al. (1997, eq. 5.1). The plume heights are slightly higher than (but still within 13% of) the 14.6 and 11.1 km predicted by PLUMERIA under the existing atmospheric conditions. We have also modeled these two events using the 3-D transient model FALL3D, which considers topographic effects on wind and tephra dispersal. Using the eruption rates and plume heights constrained by deposit mapping, seismic data, and Doppler radar, and an archived wind field obtained from the NOAA GDAS model for these dates, modeled isomass contours from the April 4 event closely resemble measured values, but modeled contours from the March 24 event extend only about half to three fourths as far from the volcano as measured. This discrepancy may result from inaccuracies in the modeled wind pattern, the grain-size distribution, or turbulent entrainment algorithms. The deposit pattern may also have been affected by a lateral blast which is thought to have accompanied this event.

  3. Variations in eruption style during the 1931 A.D. eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, Robert S.; Gardner, James E.; Neal, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The 1931 A.D. eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska, progressed from subplinian to effusive eruptive style and from trachydacite to basaltic andesite composition from multiple vent locations. Eyewitness accounts and new studies of deposit stratigraphy provide a combined narrative of eruptive events. Additional field, compositional, grain size, componentry, density, and grain morphology data document the influences on changing eruptive style as the eruption progressed. The eruption began on 1 May 1931 A.D. when a large subplinian eruption column produced vesicular juvenile-rich tephra. Subsequent activity was more intermittent, as magma interacted with groundwater and phreatomagmatic ash and lithic-rich tephra was dispersed up to 600 km downwind. Final erupted products were more mafic in composition and the eruption became more strombolian in style. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that two trachydacitic lava flows were erupted from separate but adjacent vents before the phreatomagmatic phase concluded and that basaltic andesite lava from a third vent began to effuse near the end of explosive activity. The estimated total bulk volume of the eruption is 0.9 km3, which corresponds to approximately 0.3 km3 of magma. Eruption style changes are interpreted as follows: (1) a decrease in magma supply rate caused the change from subplinian to phreatomagmatic eruption; (2) a subsequent change in magma composition caused the transition from phreatomagmatic to strombolian eruption style. Additionally, the explosion and effusion of a similar magma composition from three separate vents indicates how the pre-existing caldera structure controlled the pathway of shallow magma ascent, thus influencing eruption style.

  4. Variations in eruption style during the 1931A.D. eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, R.S.; Gardner, J.E.; Neal, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The 1931A.D. eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska, progressed from subplinian to effusive eruptive style and from trachydacite to basaltic andesite composition from multiple vent locations. Eyewitness accounts and new studies of deposit stratigraphy provide a combined narrative of eruptive events. Additional field, compositional, grain size, componentry, density, and grain morphology data document the influences on changing eruptive style as the eruption progressed. The eruption began on 1 May 1931A.D. when a large subplinian eruption column produced vesicular juvenile-rich tephra. Subsequent activity was more intermittent, as magma interacted with groundwater and phreatomagmatic ash and lithic-rich tephra was dispersed up to 600km downwind. Final erupted products were more mafic in composition and the eruption became more strombolian in style. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that two trachydacitic lava flows were erupted from separate but adjacent vents before the phreatomagmatic phase concluded and that basaltic andesite lava from a third vent began to effuse near the end of explosive activity. The estimated total bulk volume of the eruption is 0.9km3, which corresponds to approximately 0.3km3 of magma. Eruption style changes are interpreted as follows: (1) a decrease in magma supply rate caused the change from subplinian to phreatomagmatic eruption; (2) a subsequent change in magma composition caused the transition from phreatomagmatic to strombolian eruption style. Additionally, the explosion and effusion of a similar magma composition from three separate vents indicates how the pre-existing caldera structure controlled the pathway of shallow magma ascent, thus influencing eruption style. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  5. The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: impacts on aircraft operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The December 1989-June 1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano affected commercial and military air operations in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska. These effects were due to the direct impact of volcanic ash on jet aircraft, as well as to the rerouting and cancellations of flight operations owing to eruptive activity. Between December and February, five commercial jetliners were damaged from ash encounters. The most serious incident took place on December 15, 1989 when a Boeing 747-400 aircraft temporarily lost power of all four engines after encountering an ash cloud as the airplane descended for a landing in Anchorage. While there were no injuries to passengers, the damage to engines, avionics, and aircraft structure from this encounter is estimated at $80 million. Four additional encounters between jet aircraft and Redoubt ash clouds occurred in the Anchorage area on December 15 and 16, 1989 and February 21, 1990; none resulted in engine failure. Two additional encounters took place on December 17, 1989 when jet airliners encountered the Redoubt cloud over west Texas. At the time of these encounters, the cloud was up to 55 hours old and had traveled in excess of 2,900 nautical miles (5,300 km). Following the December 15 encounters, Anchorage International Airport remained open, however, most airline companies canceled operations for up to several days. As communications between Federal agencies and airlines improved, and as a better understanding of the nature and behavior of ash-rich eruption clouds was achieved, most airlines resumed normal service by early January 1990. The resulting loss of revenue at Anchorage International Airport during several months following the eruption is estimated to total $2.6 million. The impact on general aviation and military operations consisted mostly of cancellation and rerouting of flights. ?? 1994.

  6. Lahar Inundation of the Drift River Valley During the 2009 Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Scott, W. E.; Pierson, T. C.; Major, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano in south-central Alaska began its most recent eruption on March 15 and erupted explosively at least 20 times between then and April 4, 2009. The 3110 m high, snow-and-ice-clad stratovolcano includes a circular, ice-filled summit crater that is breached to the north. The volcano supports about 4 km3 of ice and snow and about 1 km3 of this makes up Drift glacier on the north side of the volcano. Explosive eruptions between March 22 and April 4, which included the destruction of at least two lava domes, triggered two large lahars in the Drift River valley on March 23 and April 4, and several smaller lahars between March 24 and March 31. The heights of mud lines, character of deposits examined in the field, areas of deposition, and estimates of flow width, depth, and velocity revealed that the lahars on March 23 and April 4 were the largest mass flows of the eruption. In the ~1.5-km-wide upper Drift River valley, flow depths averaged about 10 m, flow velocities, although not measured directly, were at least 10-14 m/s, and peak discharges were on the order of 105 m3/s. Depositional areas (about 12.5 km2) and volumes (0.063-0.088 km3) were similar. Despite these similarities, the two lahars had very different compositions and origins. The March 23 lahar was a flowing slurry of snow and ice that entrained tablular blocks of river ice, seasonal snow in the valley, and glacier ice eroded from Drift glacier. Its deposit was up to 5 m thick, and contained roughly 30% sediment, rock debris and water, and 70% or more river and glacier ice. It was frozen soon after it was emplaced and later buried by the April 4 lahar. Juvenile material has not yet been found in the deposit. The lahar of April 4, in contrast, was a hyperconcentrated flow, as interpreted from massive to faintly and horizontally stratified sand to fine gravel deposits up to 4 m thick. Gravel clasts were predominantly juvenile andesite. We infer the March 23 lahar to have been initiated by a rapid series of vent-clearing explosions that blasted up through at least 50 m of crater-filling glacier ice and snow, producing a voluminous release of meltwater from the crater. The resulting flood eroded and entrained snow, fragments of glacier and river ice, and liquid water along its flow path. Small-volume pyroclastic flows, possibly associated with minor eruption-column collapses, may have contributed additional meltwater to the lahar. Meltwater generated by subglacial hydrothermal activity and stored beneath Drift glacier may have been ejected or released rapidly as well. Juvenile clasts in the April 4 deposit indicate that this lahar was initiated when hot dome-collapse pyroclastic flows scoured snow, ice, and rock debris from the upper Drift glacier and produced a meltwater flood that further entrained sediment. The two lahars, comparable in volume to the largest lahars of the 1989-90 Redoubt eruption, produced about 5-7 m of channel aggradation in the lower Drift River valley and inundated an oil storage and transfer facility located there.

  7. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar study of Okmok volcano, Alaska, 1992-2003: Magma supply dynamics and postemplacement lava flow deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, T.; Dzurisin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Okmok volcano, located in the central Aleutian arc, Alaska, is a dominantly basaltic complex topped with a 10-km-wide caldera that formed circa 2.05 ka. Okmok erupted several times during the 20th century, most recently in 1997; eruptions in 1945, 1958, and 1997 produced lava flows within the caldera. We used 80 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images (interferograms) to study transient deformation of the volcano before, during, and after the 1997 eruption. Point source models suggest that a magma reservoir at a depth of 3.2 km below sea level, located beneath the center of the caldera and about 5 km northeast of the 1997 vent, is responsible for observed volcano-wide deformation. The preeruption uplift rate decreased from about 10 cm yr-1 during 1992-1993 to 2 ??? 3 cm yr-1 during 1993-1995 and then to about -1 ??? -2 cm yr-1 during 1995-1996. The posteruption inflation rate generally decreased with time during 1997-2001, but increased significantly during 2001-2003. By the summer of 2003, 30 ??? 60% of the magma volume lost from the reservoir in the 1997 eruption had been replenished. Interferograms for periods before the 1997 eruption indicate consistent subsidence of the surface of the 1958 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction. Interferograms for periods after the eruption suggest at least four distinct deformation processes: (1) volcano-wide inflation due to replenishment of the shallow magma reservoir, (2) subsidence of the 1997 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction, (3) deformation of the 1958 lava flows due to loading by the 1997 flows, and (4) continuing subsidence of 1958 lava flows buried beneath 1997 flows. Our results provide insights into the postemplacement behavior of lava flows and have cautionary implications for the interpretation of inflation patterns at active volcanoes.

  8. Duration-amplitude relationships of volcanic tremor and earthquake swarms preceding and during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRoin, Nicole; McNutt, Stephen R.; Thompson, Glenn

    2015-02-01

    Duration-amplitude relationships were studied for tremor episodes and earthquake swarms occurring during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Duration-amplitude distribution plots were generated daily from January 1 to May 31 and fit with both an exponential law and power law. Comparing R2 values of the fit for both laws showed that the exponential law fit better for days in which volcanic tremor and earthquake swarms occurred, while the power law fit better for other days. Fitting segments of seismic data with both an exponential and a power law leads to a metric that has potential for volcano monitoring: R2exp/R2pow, the ratio of the R2 fits using the exponential law and the power law. The ratio R2exp/R2pow tended to be greater than 1 when volcanic activity or precursory seismic activity was occurring, and less than 1 when no volcano-seismic activity was occurring. Duration-amplitude plots were generated for episodes of volcanic tremor that were identified by the R2exp/R2pow ? 1 method and compared in an attempt to identify changes that may have occurred during the eruption. Stronger episodes of volcanic tremor showed higher characteristic amplitudes. Maximum heights of the plumes generated by the explosions showed a positive correlation with the characteristic amplitude of the concurrent tremor.

  9. Permafrost Observatory near Gakona, Alaska. Local-Scale Features in Permafrost Distribution and Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V.; Yoshikawa, K.; Sergueev, D.; Shur, Y.

    2005-12-01

    During the summer of 2004, the Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks (GI UAF) established the Gakona Permafrost Observatory. This project is funded by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. The Observatory is located in a large intermountain depression in the Copper River Basin. Permafrost in this area is widespread, in spite of its location near the southern boundary of the discontinuous permafrost zone. Together with the recently established Barrow Permafrost Observatory and with other GI UAF Permafrost Observatories, the Gakona Observatory will provide critically needed information on the permafrost response to recent and projected climate warming. The positioning of this observatory near the southern limits of permafrost distribution in Alaska makes this location very advantageous. With the growing possibility of near-future climate warming, permafrost integrity at this location will be affected first and will show significant changes in the very near future. In fact, at some locations within the area of observations permafrost already started to degrade and closed and, possibly, open taliks have been formed. Mean annual air temperature in this area was increasing from -3.5 C in the early 1950s to -1.6 C in the early 2000s. Several 10 m deep boreholes within the area with natural and disturbed surface conditions were equipped with thermistor strings and loggers to automatically monitor ground temperature dynamics with one-hour time resolution. Air temperature, snow depth, and soil liquid water content at four different depths together with 30 m deep temperature profile are also measured hourly at one location in the black spruce forest. The temperature data obtained in the first year of the project at this location show that permafrost temperature within the depth interval between 3 and 30 meters is practically constant at -0.6 C during the entire year. Obtained data also show that the partial thaw of permafrost from the top down is already underway and tightly relates to distinguish surface micro-topographical features. These features are elongated depressions (0.5 to 1.5 m deep and 10 to 100 m wide) with no trees and no moss on the ground surface. The depth to the permafrost table within these depressions are different at different locations and vary between 2 and 8 meters according to a survey by Duane Miller & Associates and to our temperature measurements in several boreholes. Repeated measurements of the permafrost table location within one of these depressions show increase in depth from approximately 3.5 m in 1989 to 5 m in 2004. As part of our initial survey, we applied geophysical methods (DC Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar) to investigate permafrost distribution in vertical and horizontal directions within the research area. Results obtained using DC Resistivity survey (Syscal Pro R1 switch 72 channel resistivity system) show that permafrost in the forest is stable and contain a limited amount of unfrozen water (resistivity is 600 ohm-m and higher, up to 1800 ohm-m). The lower boundary of permafrost locates at the depth of 50 to 60 meters. A talik (possibly open) was discovered under one of the mentioned above elongated depressions. The lateral extent of this talik is only 10 meters at the surface increasing with depth to several tens of meters.

  10. Acoustic measurements of the 1999 basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska 1. Origin of Strombolian activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vergniolle, S.; Boichu, M.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 1999 basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano (Alaska, USA) displayed both classical Strombolian activity and an explosive Subplinian plume. Strombolian activity at Shishaldin occurred in two major phases following the Subplinian activity. In this paper, we use acoustic measurements to interpret the Strombolian activity. Acoustic measurements of the two Strombolian phases show a series of explosions that are modeled by the vibration of a large overpressurised cylindrical bubble at the top of the magma column. Results show that the bubble does not burst at its maximum radius, as expected if the liquid film is stretched beyond its elasticity. But bursting occurs after one cycle of vibration, as a consequence of an instability of the air-magma interface close to the bubble minimum radius. During each Strombolian period, estimates of bubble length and overpressure are calculated. Using an alternate method based on acoustic power, we estimate gas velocity to be 30-60 m/s, in very good agreement with synthetic waveforms. Although there is some variation within these parameters, bubble length and overpressure for the first Strombolian phase are found to be ??? 82 ?? 11 m and 0.083 MPa. For the second Strombolian phase, bubble length and overpressure are estimated at 24 ?? 12 m and 0.15 MPa for the first 17 h after which bubble overpressure shows a constant increase, reaching a peak of 1.4 MPa, just prior to the end of the second Strombolian phase. This peak suggests that, at the time, the magma in the conduit may contain a relatively large concentration of small bubbles. Maximum total gas volume and gas fluxes at the surface are estimated to be 3.3 ?? 107 and 2.9 ?? 103 m3/s for the first phase and 1.0 ?? 108 and 2.2 ?? 103 m3/s for the second phase. This gives a mass flux of 1.2 ?? 103 and 8.7 ?? 102 kg/s, respectively, for the first and the second Strombolian phases. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cooling Induced Variations in Crystallization of a Basaltic Pumice From Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szramek, L. A.; Gardner, J. E.; Hort, M.

    2005-12-01

    Nucleation and growth rates of crystals are needed to model how fast magma can fractionate and solidify. Here, we use textural changes of crystals within basaltic pumice to infer such rates in basaltic magma. Pumice ejected during volcanic eruptions cools quickly by conducting heat to cold air that is incorporated into the eruption plume. Our modeling shows that cooling is highly non-linear through a pumice, with the rim cooling within seconds and the core remaining hot for an order of magnitude longer or more. We focus on pumice erupted in April 1999 from Shishladin volcano, Alaska, in which 1.4x107 m3 (DRE) of tholeiitic basalt erupted in sub-Plinian style at a mass flux of 2.5x106 kg s-1. Pre-eruptive water contents, as determined from melt inclusions via FTIR, was 1.5 wt.%. Pumices contain a groundmass assemblage of plagioclase, olivine, augite, and Fe-Ti oxides; the phenocryst assemblage also contains hypersthene. Pumice cores have >25 vol.% plagioclase and >15 vol.% Fe-Ti oxides in the groundmass, whereas rims have <20 vol. % plagioclase and no Fe-Ti oxides. Plagioclase microlites cluster in composition at An50-55, with no observable trend from rim to core. Textures also vary across the pumice, most notability with a doubling of the number density of swallowtail-shaped plagioclase from core to rim; when present, Fe-Ti oxides are dendritic. We see localized areas within the pumice that appear to be small shards as well as areas with drastically different textures without sharp boundaries. In one sample, bulk vesicularity is 57 vol.%, varies locally along the rim from 40-60 vol.%. Those variations do not correlate with groundmass texture. We speculate that some of the textural variations arise from air infiltrating the pumice during cooling. In addition, some smaller fragments have been incorporated into the larger one while still hot. To determine areas of conductive cooling we will examine further variations in vesicularity and texture. After determining areas of the pumice that resulted from conductive cooling, we will use our textural data with modeled cooling to determine the growth and nucleation rates of plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides.

  12. Volcanic Ash From 1989 Mt. Redoubt Eruption, Alaska

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory has recently installed a state of the art scanning electronic microscope (SEM) at its facility in Anchorage using ARRA funding.  The SEM will be used to analyze volcanic deposits for their composition, texture, and other valuable information that will enable us to...

  13. Argon geochronology of late Pleistocene to Holocene Westdahl volcano, Unimak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, Andrew T.; Moore, Richard B.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of selected lavas from Westdahl Volcano places time constraints on several key prehistoric eruptive phases of this large active volcano. A dike cutting old pyroclastic-flow and associated lahar deposits from a precursor volcano yields an age of 1,654+/-11 k.y., dating this precursor volcano as older than early Pleistocene. A total of 11 geographically distributed lavas with ages ranging from 47+/-14 to 127+/-2 k.y. date construction of the Westdahl volcanic center. Lava flows cut by an apparent caldera-rim structure yielded ages of 81+/-5 and 121+/-8 k.y., placing a maximum date of 81 ka on caldera formation. Late Pleistocene and Holocene lavas fill the caldera, but most of them are obscured by the large summit icecap.

  14. Transient volcano deformation sources imaged with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Application to Seguam Island, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Transient volcano deformation sources imaged with interferometric synthetic aperture radar time series of source strength attribute a distinctive transient behavior to each of the three source data accounts for the transient, interrelated behavior of the source clusters and the observed

  15. Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Watts, P.; Walder, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the world's active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines. During eruptions, diverse geophysical mass flows, including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and lahars, can deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean in a short period of time and thereby generate tsunamis. Deposits of both hot and cold volcanic mass flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet, indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by cold granular subaerial volcanic mass flows using examples from Augustine Volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region, and future eruptions, should they lead to debris-avalanche formation and tsunami generation, could be hazardous to some coastal areas. Geological investigations at Augustine Volcano suggest that as many as 12-14 debris avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during an A.D. 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami that was observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. Numerical simulation of mass-flow motion, tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation for Augustine Volcano indicate only modest wave generation by volcanic mass flows and localized wave effects. However, for east-directed mass flows entering Cook Inlet, tsunamis are capable of reaching the more populated coastlines of the southwestern Kenai Peninsula, where maximum water amplitudes of several meters are possible.

  16. Determining the seismic source mechanism and location for an explosive eruption with limited observational data: Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Power, John

    2011-02-01

    Waveform inversions of the very-long-period components of the seismic wavefield produced by an explosive eruption that occurred on 11 January, 2006 at Augustine Volcano, Alaska constrain the seismic source location to near sea level beneath the summit of the volcano. The calculated moment tensors indicate the presence of a volumetric source mechanism. Systematic reconstruction of the source mechanism shows the source consists of a sill intersected by either a sub-vertical east-west trending dike or a sub-vertical pipe and a weak single force. The trend of the dike may be controlled by the east-west trending Augustine-Seldovia arch. The data from the network of broadband sensors is limited to fourteen seismic traces, and synthetic modeling confirms the ability of the network to recover the source mechanism. The synthetic modeling also provides a guide to the expected capability of a broadband network to resolve very-long-period source mechanisms, particularly when confronted with limited observational data.

  17. Application of photogrammetry to the study of volcano-glacier interactions on Mount Wrangell, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, C. S.; Follett, A. B.

    1986-01-01

    Most Alaskan volcanoes are glacier covered and provide excellent opportunities to study interactions between glaciers and volcanoes. The present paper is concerned with such a study, taking into account the Mt. Wrangell (4317 m) which is the northernmost active volcano (solfatara activity) on the Pacific Rim (62 deg N; 144 deg W). While the first photographs on the summit of Mt. Wrangell were published more than 75 years ago, research there began in 1953 and 1954. Satellite images reveal activity at the summit of Mt. Wrangell. However, the resolution is not sufficient for conducting important measurements regarding ice volume losses. For this reason, vertical aerial photographs of the summit were obtained, and a field trip to the summit was conducted. Aspects of photogrammetry are discussed, taking into account questions of ground control, aerial photography, topographic mapping, digital cross sections, and orthophotos.

  18. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 4,364 earthquakes, of which 3,651 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity above background levels in 2011 at these instrumented volcanic centers. This catalog includes locations, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2011 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  19. Gas emissions from failed and actual eruptions from Cook Inlet Volcanoes, Alaska, 1989–2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Werner; Mike P. Doukas; Peter J. Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Cook Inlet volcanoes that experienced an eruption between 1989 and 2006 had mean gas emission rates that were roughly an order\\u000a of magnitude higher than at volcanoes where unrest stalled. For the six events studied, mean emission rates for eruptions\\u000a were ?13,000 t\\/d CO2 and 5200 t\\/d SO2, but only ?1200 t\\/d CO2 and 500 t\\/d SO2 for non-eruptive events (‘failed eruptions’). Statistical analysis

  20. A Compilation of Gas Emission-Rate Data from Volcanoes of Cook Inlet (Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Fourpeaked, Griggs, Mageik, Martin, Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Veniaminof), Alaska, from 1995-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.; McGee, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents gas emission rates from data collected during numerous airborne plume-measurement flights at Alaskan volcanoes since 1995. These flights began in about 1990 as means to establish baseline values of volcanic gas emissions during periods of quiescence and to identify anomalous levels of degassing that might signal the beginning of unrest. The primary goal was to make systematic measurements at the major volcanic centers around the Cook Inlet on at least an annual basis, and more frequently during periods of unrest and eruption. A secondary goal was to measure emissions at selected volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula. While the goals were not necessarily met in all cases due to weather, funding, or the availability of suitable aircraft, a rich dataset of quality measurements is the legacy of this continuing effort. An earlier report (Doukas, 1995) presented data for the period from 1990 through 1994 and the current report provides data through 2006. This report contains all of the available measurements for SO2, CO2, and H2S emission rates in Alaska determined by the U. S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 2006; airborne measurements for H2S began in Alaska in 2001. The results presented here are from Cook Inlet volcanoes at Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine and cover periods of unrest at Iliamna (1996) and Spurr (2004-2006) as well as the 2006 eruption of Augustine. Additional sporadic measurements at volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Martin, Mageik, Griggs, Veniaminof, Ukinrek Maars, Peulik, and Fourpeaked during its 2006 unrest) are also reported here.

  1. ALASKA VOLCANO-DEBRIS-MONITORING SYSTEM: NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT FORECASTING VOLCANIC-PLUME MOVEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Hufford

    The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano during 1989-90 revealed a number of deficiencies in National Weather Service (NWS) operations that greatly hampered the forecaster's ability to accurately forecast and issue timely advisories on the movement of airborne volcanic debris. The forecaster lacked knowledge of (1) the physical properties of airborne volcanic debris, (2) the initial location of debris in the atmosphere,

  2. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes. Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001. This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; (2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (4) station parameters and velocity models used for earthquake locations; (5) a summary of daily station usage throughout the catalog period; and (6) all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations presented in this report.

  3. Mapping recent lava flows at Westdahl Volcano, Alaska, using radar and optical satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Rykhus, R.; Masterlark, T.; Dean, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    Field mapping of young lava flows at Aleutian volcanoes is logistically difficult, and the utility of optical images from aircraft or satellites for this purpose is greatly reduced by persistent cloud cover. These factors have hampered earlier estimates of the areas and volumes of three young lava flows at Westdahl Volcano, including its most recent (1991-1992) flow. We combined information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with multispectral Landsat-7 data to differentiate the 1991-1992 flow from the 1964 flow and a pre-1964 flow, and to calculate the flow areas (8.4, 9.2, and 7.3 km 2, respectively). By differencing a digital elevation model (DEM) from the 1970-1980s with a DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000, we estimated the average thickness of the 1991-1992 flow to be 13 m, which reasonably agrees with field observations (5-10 m). Lava-flow maps produced in this way can be used to facilitate field mapping and flow-hazards assessment, and to study magma-supply dynamics and thus to anticipate future eruptive activity. Based on the recurrence interval of recent eruptions and the results of this study, the next eruption at Westdahl may occur before the end of this decade. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001; Dixon and others, 2002). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the basic seismic data and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. Appendix G contains a list of publications pertaining to seismicity of Alaskan volcanoes based on these and previously recorded data. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.

  5. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven volcanoes within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO located 3911 earthquakes in 2003. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2003; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2003.

  6. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2011-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes locations and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  7. Chemical versus temporal controls on the evolution of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at two volcanoes in the Alaska-Aleutian arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, R.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.; Bacon, C.R.; Nye, C.; Stelling, P.; Dreher, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian island arc is well known for erupting both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas. To investigate the relative roles of chemical and temporal controls in generating these contrasting liquid lines of descent we have undertaken a detailed study of tholeiitic lavas from Akutan volcano in the oceanic A1eutian arc and calc-alkaline products from Aniakchak volcano on the continental A1askan Peninsula. The differences do not appear to be linked to parental magma composition. The Akutan lavas can be explained by closed-system magmatic evolution, whereas curvilinear trace element trends and a large range in 87 Sr/86 Sr isotope ratios in the Aniakchak data appear to require the combined effects of fractional crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing. Both magmatic suites preserve a similar range in 226 Ra-230 Th disequilibria, which suggests that the time scale of crustal residence of magmas beneath both these volcanoes was similar, and of the order of several thousand years. This is consistent with numerical estimates of the time scales for crystallization caused by cooling in convecting crustal magma chambers. During that time interval the tholeiitic Akutan magmas underwent restricted, closed-system, compositional evolution. In contrast, the calc-alkaline magmas beneath Aniakchak volcano underwent significant open-system compositional evolution. Combining these results with data from other studies we suggest that differentiation is faster in calc-alkaline and potassic magma series than in tholeiitic series, owing to a combination of greater extents of assimilation, magma mixing and cooling.

  8. Evolution of the December 14, 1989 precursory long-period event swarm at Redoubt volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, C.D.; Chouet, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittency pattern and evolution in waveforms of long-period (LP) seismic events during the intense, 23-h swarm that preceded the December 14, 1989 eruption of Redoubt volcano are investigated. Utilizing cross correlation to exploit the high degree of similarity among waveforms, a substantially more complete event catalog is generated than was available from near realtime detection based on short-term/long-term amplitude ratios, which was saturated by the high rate of activity. The temporal magnitude distribution of the predominant LP events is found to have an unusual banded structure in which the average magnitude of each band slowly increases and then decreases through time. A bifurcation that appears in the uppermost band shortly after the peak in magnitudes is characterized by a quasi-periodicity in intermittency and magnitude that is reminiscent of one of the classic routes to chaotic behavior in some non-linear systems. The waveforms of the predominant events evolve slowly but unsteadily through time. These gradual changes appear to result from variations in the relative amplitudes of spectral peaks that remain stable in frequency, which suggests that they are due to differential excitation of a single, resonant source. Two other previously unrecognized, repetitive waveforms are also identified, but the signals from these secondary events are not clearly recorded at distances beyond the closest station. Similarities among the spectra of the predominant and secondary events suggest that the signals from these events also could represent different modes of exciting the same source. Significant changes in the rates and the sizes of the largest of these secondary events appear to coincide with the peak in the size distribution of the predominant LPs. At least some of the non-repetitive LP waveforms in the swarm appear to be the result of the superposition of signals from the rapid repetition of predominant LP source, thus placing a constraint on the repeat time of the triggering mechanism for this source. A lone hybrid event, which has a waveform character intermediate between the predominant LP events and high-frequency volcano-tectonic events, was also identified in the swarm; the occurrence of this event provides important evidence that the low-frequency character of the LP events is a source rather than a path or site effect. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Amphibole reaction rim textures and mineralogy from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Nature vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henton, S.; Larsen, J. F.; Coombs, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano forms a small island located in Alaska's Cook Inlet, approximately 180 miles southwest of Anchorage. The 2006 eruption began January 11, 2006, and evolved from an initial phase of explosive activity, through continuous and effusive phases, ending approximately mid-March 2006. We present data on the textural and mineralogical make-up of amphibole reaction rims from 2006 andesites from Augustine. Naturally formed reaction rims are compared to rims formed through decompression and heating experiments. Amphiboles make up less than 1 modal % of most samples. However, variations in composition and texture help to explain pre-and syn-eruptive magma histories. The Augustine 2006 amphiboles contain a mixture of rimmed and unrimmed grains. In order of decreasing abundance (by tally), the dominant phases in reaction rims are orthopyroxene, oxides, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene. Most amphibole reaction rims are between 1- 40 microns in thickness. Thicker rims (> 40 microns) were primarily erupted in the later effusive phase of the eruption. In general, the thickest reactions rims (> 60 microns average thickness) contain coarser individual reaction rim grains (with feret diameters of 15-50 microns). Reaction rims with average thickness of less than 60 microns tend to contain finer reaction rim grains (with feret diameters of 10 microns or less). Some reactions rims show a coarsening of rim grains across the rim, from the amphibole boundary to the glass boundary. Preliminary results show no systematic changes in the aspect ratios of reaction rim grains, either across the rim, or between the different rims. Some rims show a decrease in the An content of plagioclase across the rim, from the amphibole boundary to the glass boundary. Reaction rim textures and mineralogy are complex and suggest that multiple forcing factors (including heating and decompression) were responsible for their formation. This study will compare these natural reaction rims to those formed in experiments.

  10. Hydrothermal activity and carbon-dioxide discharge at Shrub and upper Klawasi mud volcanoes, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Werner, Cindy; McGimsey, Robert G.; Evans, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Shrub mud volcano, one of three mud volcanoes of the Klawasi group in the Copper River Basin, Alaska, has been discharging warm mud and water and CO2?rich gas since 1996. A field visit to Shrub in June 1999 found the general level of hot-spring discharge to be similar, but somewhat more widespread, than in the previous two years. Evidence of recent animal and vegetation deaths from CO2 exposure were confined to localized areas around various gas and fluid vents. Maximum fluid temperatures in each of three main discharge areas, ranging from 48-54?C, were equal to or higher than those measured in the two previous years; such temperatures are significantly higher than those observed intermittently over the past 30 years. At Upper Klawasi mud volcano, measured temperatures of 23-26?C and estimated rates of gas and water discharge in the summit crater lake were also similar to those observed in the previous two years. Gas discharging at Shrub and Upper Klawasi is composed of over 98% CO2 and minor amounts of meteoric gases (N2, O2, Ar) and gases partly of deeper origin (CH4 and He). The rate of CO2 discharge from spring vents and pools at Shrub is estimated to be ~10 metric tonnes per day. This discharge, together with measured concentrations of bicarbonate, suggest that a total CO2 upflow from depth of 20-40 metric tonnes per day at Shrub.Measurements were made of diffuse degassing rates from soil at one ~300 m2 area near the summit of Shrub that included vegetation kill suggestive of high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. Most of measured gas flow rates in this area were significantly higher than background values, and a CO2 concentration of 26 percent was measured at a depth of 10 cm where the gas flow rate was highest. Although additional measurements of diffuse gas flow were made elsewhere at Shrub, no other areas of vegetation kill related to diffuse degassing and high soil-gas CO2 concentrations could be seen from the air.Chemical and isotopic compositions of the gas and water discharging at Shrub and Upper Klawasi indicate derivation from a combination of mantle (magmatic) and crustal (marine sedimentary rock) sources and suggest a common fluid reservoir at depth. In particular, both the total dissolved carbon and values of 13C in CO2 are similar for fluids and gas sampled at each area, and do not appear to have changed with the onset of increased spring temperatures and fluid discharge at Shrub. This suggests that the underlying cause of the recent changes in discharge rate and temperature at Shrub is not an increase in the rate of input of magmatic heat and volatiles, but rather increases in the permeability of the upflow conduits that connect the gas-rich reservoir to the surface.

  11. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's current approach to forecasting lava flow hazards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Hawaiian Volcanoes are best known for their frequent basaltic eruptions, which typically start with fast-moving channelized `a`a flows fed by high eruptions rates. If the flows continue, they generally transition into pahoehoe flows, fed by lower eruption rates, after a few days to weeks. Kilauea Volcano's ongoing eruption illustrates this--since 1986, effusion at Kilauea has mostly produced pahoehoe. The current state of lava flow simulation is quite advanced, but the simplicity of the models mean that they are most appropriately used during the first, most vigorous, days to weeks of an eruption - during the effusion of `a`a flows. Colleagues at INGV in Catania have shown decisively that MAGFLOW simulations utilizing satellite-derived eruption rates can be effective at estimating hazards during the initial periods of an eruption crisis. However, the algorithms do not simulate the complexity of pahoehoe flows. Forecasts of lava flow hazards are the most common form of volcanic hazard assessments made in Hawai`i. Communications with emergency managers over the last decade have relied on simple steepest-descent line maps, coupled with empirical lava flow advance rate information, to portray the imminence of lava flow hazard to nearby communities. Lavasheds, calculated as watersheds, are used as a broader context for the future flow paths and to advise on the utility of diversion efforts, should they be contemplated. The key is to communicate the uncertainty of any approach used to formulate a forecast and, if the forecast uses simple tools, these communications can be fairly straightforward. The calculation of steepest-descent paths and lavasheds relies on the accuracy of the digital elevation model (DEM) used, so the choice of DEM is critical. In Hawai`i, the best choice is not the most recent but is a 1980s-vintage 10-m DEM--more recent LIDAR and satellite radar DEM are referenced to the ellipsoid and include vegetation effects. On low-slope terrain, steepest descent lines calculated on a geoid-based DEM may differ significantly from those calculated on an ellipsoid-based DEM. Good estimates of lava flow advance rates can be obtained from empirical compilations of historical advance rates of Hawaiian lava flows. In this way, rates appropriate for observed flow types (`a`a or pahoehoe, channelized or not) can be applied. Eruption rate is arguably the most important factor, while slope is also significant for low eruption rates. Eruption rate, however, remains the most difficult parameter to estimate during an active eruption. The simplicity of the HVO approach is its major benefit. How much better can lava-flow advance be forecast for all types of lava flows? Will the improvements outweigh the increased uncertainty propagated through the simulation calculations? HVO continues to improve and evaluate its lava flow forecasting tools to provide better hazard assessments to emergency personnel.

  12. Operational Monitoring of Volcanoes Using Keyhole Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2007-12-01

    Volcanoes are some of the most geologically powerful, dynamic, visually appealing structures on the Earth's landscape. Volcanic eruptions are hard to predict, difficult to quantify and impossible to prevent, making effective monitoring a difficult proposition. In Alaska, volcanoes are an intrinsic part of the culture, with over 100 volcanoes and volcanic fields that have been active in historic time monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Observations and research are performed using a suite of methods and tools in the fields of remote sensing, seismology, geodesy and geology, producing large volumes of geospatial data. Keyhole Markup Language (KML) offers a context in which these different, and in the past disparate, data can be displayed simultaneously. Dynamic links keep these data current, allowing it to be used in an operational capacity. KML is used to display information from the aviation color codes and activity alert levels for volcanoes to locations of thermal anomalies, earthquake locations and ash plume modeling. The dynamic refresh and time primitive are used to display volcano webcam and satellite image overlays in near real-time. In addition a virtual globe browser using KML, such as Google Earth, provides an interface to further information using the hyperlink, rich- text and flash-embedding abilities supported within object description balloons. By merging these data sets in an easy to use interface, a virtual globe browser provides a better tool for scientists and emergency managers alike to mitigate volcanic crises.

  13. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

  14. Particle morphologies and formation mechanisms of fine volcanic ash aerosol collected from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkleff, P. G.; Cahill, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    Fine volcanic ash aerosol (35-0.09um) erupted in 2006 by Augustine Volcano, southwest of Anchorage, Alaska was collected by a DRUM cascade impactor and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy for individual particle chemistry and morphology. Results of these analyses show ash particles occur as either individual glass shard and mineral phase (plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, hornblende, etc.) particles or aggregates thereof. Individual glass shard ash particles are angular, uniformly-sized, consist of calc-alkaline whole-rock elements (Si, Al, Fe, Na, and Ca) and are not collocated on the sample media with non-silicate, Cl and S bearing sea salt particles. Aggregate particles occur as two types: pure ash aggregates and sea salt-cored aggregates. Pure ash aggregates are made up of only ash particles and contain no other constituents. Sea salt-cored aggregates are ash particles commingled with sea salts. Determining the formation processes of the different ash particle types need further investigation but some possibilities are proposed here. Individual ash particles may exist when the ambient air is generally dry, little electrical charge exists on ash particles, the eruptive cloud is generally dry, or the number of individual particles exceeds the scavenging capacity of the water droplets present. Another possibility is that ash aggregates may break apart as relative humidity drops over time and causes ash-laden water droplets to evaporate and subsequently break apart. Pure ash aggregates may form when the ambient air and plume is relatively dry but the ash has a significant charge to cause ash to aggregate. Or they could form during long-range transport when turbulent or Brownian motion can cause ash particles to collide and coagulate. Pure ash aggregates could also form as a result of water droplet scavenging and subsequent evaporation of water droplets, leaving behind only ash. In this case, droplets would not have interacted with a sea salt-containing boundary layer. Sea salt-cored aggregates could form when ash particles travel over a maritime environment and sea salt aerosol could easily be incorporated in the plume from the surrounding atmosphere. When the particles are sampled, pressure drops within the DRUM impactor cause the water in the droplet to evaporate, leaving behind ash aggregated with salt

  15. Acoustic measurements of the 1999 basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska 2. Precursor to the Subplinian phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vergniolle, S.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano (Alaska, USA) displayed both Strombolian and Subplinian basaltic activity. The Subplinian phase was preceded by a signal of low amplitude and constant frequency (??? 2 Hz) lasting 13 h. This "humming signal" is interpreted as the coalescence of the very shallow part of a foam building up in the conduit, which produces large gas bubbles before bursting. The acoustic waveform of the hum event is modelled by a Helmholtz resonator: gas is trapped into a rigid cavity and can only escape through a tiny upper hole producing sound waves. At Shishaldin, the radius of the hole (??? 5 m) is close to that of the conduit (??? 6 m), the cavity has a length of ??? 60 m, and gas presents only a small overpressure between (??? 1.2 ?? 10-3 and 4.5 ?? 10-3 MPa). Such an overpressure is obtained by the partial coalescence of a foam formed by bubbles with a diameter from ??? 2.3 mm at the beginning of the episode towards ??? 0.64 mm very close to the end of the phase. The intermittency between hum events is explained by the ripening of the foam induced by the H2O diffusion through the liquid films. The two extreme values, from 600 to 10 s, correspond to a bubble diameter from 2.2 to 0.3 mm at the beginning and end of the pre-Subplinian phase, respectively. The extremely good agreement between two independent estimates of bubble diameters in the shallow foam reinforces the validity of such an interpretation. The total gas volume lost at the surface during the humming events is at most 5.9 ?? 106 m3. At the very end of the pre-Subplinian phase, there is a single large bubble with an overpressure of ???0.42 MPa. The large overpressure suggests that it comes from significant depth, unlike other bubbles in the pre-Subplinian phase. This deep bubble may be responsible for the entire foam collapse, resulting in the Subplinian phase. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory 2007 Student Field Assistant Program in the Alaska Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marzulla; S. Gasparich; B. Pauk; K. Feaux; M. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    The UNAVCO, Inc. Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program strives to engage students in further study and careers in the Earth Sciences. Student Field Assistants from a variety of educational backgrounds ranging from high school graduates to master's level students spend a three to five month field season working in tandem with UNAVCO regional Field Engineers. The students

  17. Technical-Information Products for a National Volcano Early Warning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Brantley, Steven R.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Nye, Christopher J.; Serafino, George N.; Siebert, Lee; Venezky, Dina Y.; Wald, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Technical outreach - distinct from general-interest and K-12 educational outreach - for volcanic hazards is aimed at providing usable scientific information about potential or ongoing volcanic activity to public officials, businesses, and individuals in support of their response, preparedness, and mitigation efforts. Within the context of a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert et al., 2005), technical outreach is a critical process, transferring the benefits of enhanced monitoring and hazards research to key constituents who have to initiate actions or make policy decisions to lessen the hazardous impact of volcanic activity. This report discusses recommendations of the Technical-Information Products Working Group convened in 2006 as part of the NVEWS planning process. The basic charge to the Working Group was to identify a web-based, volcanological 'product line' for NVEWS to meet the specific hazard-information needs of technical users. Members of the Working Group were: *Marianne Guffanti (Chair), USGS, Reston VA *Steve Brantley, USGS, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory HI *Peter Cervelli, USGS, Alaska Volcano Observatory, Anchorage AK *Chris Nye, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Alaska Volcano Observatory, Fairbanks AK *George Serafino, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs MD *Lee Siebert, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC *Dina Venezky, USGS, Volcano Hazards Team, Menlo Park CA *Lisa Wald, USGS, Earthquake Hazards Program, Golden CO

  18. Real-Time C-Band Radar Observations of 1992 Eruption Clouds from Crater Peak, Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Rose, William I.

    volcanoes was demonstrated at Mount St. Helens (Harris and others 1981; Harris and Rose, 1983). The heightsReal-Time C-Band Radar Observations of 1992 Eruption Clouds from Crater Peak, Mount Spurr Volcano area. Three significant erup- tions from the Crater Peak vent of Mount Spurr vol- cano (about 80 km

  19. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at midlatitude or high-latitude volcanoes; (c) safety factors during unrest, which can limit where new instrumentation can safely be installed (particularly at near-vent sites that can be critical for precursor detection and eruption forecasting); and (d) the remoteness of many U.S. volcanoes (particularly those in the Aleutians and the Marianas Islands), where access is difficult or impossible most of the year. Given these difficulties, it is reasonable to anticipate that ground-based monitoring of eruptions at U.S. volcanoes will likely be performed primarily with instruments installed before unrest begins. 2. Given a growing awareness of previously undetected 2. phenomena that may occur before an eruption begins, at present the types and (or) density of instruments in use at most U.S. volcanoes is insufficient to provide reliable early warning of volcanic eruptions. As shown by the gap analysis of Ewert and others (2005), a number of U.S. volcanoes lack even rudimentary monitoring. At those volcanic systems with monitoring instrumentation in place, only a few types of phenomena can be tracked in near-real time, principally changes in seismicity, deformation, and large-scale changes in thermal flux (through satellite-based remote sensing). Furthermore, researchers employing technologically advanced instrumentation at volcanoes around the world starting in the 1990s have shown that subtle and previously undetectable phenomena can precede or accompany eruptions. Detection of such phenomena would greatly improve the ability of U.S. volcano observatories to provide accurate early warnings of impending eruptions, and is a critical capability particularly at the very high-threat volcanoes identified by Ewert and others (2005). For these two reasons, change from a reactive to a proactive volcano-monitoring strategy is clearly needed at U.S. volcanoes. Monitoring capabilities need to be expanded at virtually every volcanic center, regardless of its current state of

  20. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2009-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.

  1. The Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network (ALISON): Hands-on Experiential K- 12 Learning in the North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K.; Jeffries, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network (ALISON) was initiated by Martin Jeffries (UAF polar scientist), Delena Norris-Tull (UAF education professor) and Ron Reihl (middle school science teacher, Fairbanks North Star Borough School District). The snow and ice measurement protocols were developed in 1999-2000 at the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) by Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska scientists and tested by home school teacher/students in winter 2001-2002 in Fairbanks, AK. The project was launched in 2002 with seven sites around the state (PFRR, Fairbanks, Barrow, Mystic Lake, Nome, Shageluk and Wasilla). The project reached its broadest distribution in 2005-2006 with 22 sites. The schools range from urban (Wasilla) to primarily Alaska native villages (Shageluk). They include public schools, charter schools, home schooled students and parents, informal educators and citizen scientists. The grade levels range from upper elementary to high school. Well over a thousand students have participated in ALISON since its inception. Equipment is provided to the observers at each site. Measurements include ice thickness (with a hot wire ice thickness gauge), snow depth and snow temperature (surface and base). Snow samples are taken and snow density derived. Snow variables are used to calculate the conductive heat flux through the ice and snow cover to the atmosphere. All data are available on the Web site. The students and teachers are scientific partners in the study of lake ice processes, contributing to new scientific knowledge and understanding while also learning science by doing science with familiar and abundant materials. Each autumn, scientists visit each location to work with the teachers and students, helping them to set up the study site, showing them how to make the measurements and enter the data into the computer, and discussing snow, ice and polar environmental change. A number of 'veteran' teachers are now setting up the study sites on their own. Each summer, a workshop in Fairbanks offers the teachers the opportunity to work and learn together, sharing their ALISON field experiences and transfer to the classroom, testing activities and materials, and adding to their content knowledge. This experiential learning project demonstrates that teachers and students can make scientifically valuable measurements when provided with easy-to-use equipment, clear directions and training. The project also shows that when provided with a stimulating learning opportunity, teachers and students find imaginative ways to extend the experience. For example, a number of students have made videos about their ALISON. Lesson plans using ALISON-related science concepts have been generated by ALISON teachers and others. Several ALISON teachers have published articles about the ALISON experience. ALISON teachers have been awarded prestigious Toyota Tapestry grants in support of their activities.

  2. Voluminous ice-rich and water-rich lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Scott, William E.

    2013-06-01

    Redoubt Volcano in south-central Alaska began erupting on March 15, 2009, and by April 4, 2009, had produced at least 20 explosive events that generated multiple plumes of ash and numerous lahars. The 3108-m-high, snow- and ice-clad stratovolcano has an ice-filled summit crater that is breached to the north. The volcano supports about 4 km3 of ice and snow and about 1 km3 of this makes up the Drift glacier on the north side of the volcano. Explosive eruptions between March 23 and April 4, which included the destruction of at least two lava domes, triggered significant lahars in the Drift River valley on March 23 and April 4, and several smaller lahars between March 24 and March 31. Mud-line high-water marks, character of deposits, areas of inundation, and estimates of flow velocity revealed that the lahars on March 23 and April 4 were the largest of the eruption. In the 2-km-wide upper Drift River valley, average flow depths were at least 2-5 m. Average peak-flow velocities were likely between 10 and 15 ms- 1, and peak discharges were on the order of 104-105 m3 s- 1. The area inundated by lahars on March 23 was at least 100 km2 and on April 4 about 125 km2. Two substantial lahars emplaced on March 23 and one on April 4 had volumes on the order of 107-108 m3 and were similar in size to the largest lahar of the 1989-90 eruption. The two principal March 23 lahars were primarily flowing slurries of snow and ice derived from Drift glacier and the Drift River valley where seasonal snow and tabular blocks of river ice were entrained and incorporated into the lahars. Despite morphologic evidence of two lahars, only a single deposit up to 5 m thick was found in most places and it contained about 80-95% of poorly sorted, massive to imbricate assemblages of snow and ice clasts. The deposit was frozen soon after it was emplaced and later eroded and buried by the April 4 lahar. The lahar of April 4, in contrast, was primarily a hyperconcentrated flow, as interpreted from 1- to 6-m-thick deposits of massive to horizontally stratified sand to fine gravel. Rock material in the April 4 lahar deposit is predominantly juvenile andesite, whereas rock material in the March 23 deposit is rare and not obviously juvenile. We infer that the lahars generated on March 23 were initiated by a rapid succession of vent-clearing explosions that blasted through about 50-100 m of crater-filling glacier ice and snow, producing a voluminous release of meltwater from Drift glacier. The resulting surge of water entrained snow, fragments of glacier and river ice, and river water along its flow path. Small-volume pyroclastic flows, possibly associated with destruction of a small dome or minor eruption-column collapses, may have contributed additional meltwater to the March 23 lahars. Meltwater generated by subglacial hydrothermal activity and stored beneath Drift glacier may have been ejected or released rapidly as well. The April 4 lahar was initiated when hot dome-collapse pyroclastic flows entrained and swiftly melted snow and ice on Drift glacier. The resulting meltwater incorporated pyroclastic debris and rock material from Drift glacier to form the largest lahar of the 2009 eruption. The peak discharge of the April 4 lahar was in the range of 60,000-160,000 m3 s- 1. For comparison, the largest lahar of the 1989-90 eruption had a peak discharge of about 80,000 m3 s- 1. Lahars generated by the 2009 eruption led to significant channel aggradation in the lower Drift River valley and caused extensive inundation at an oil storage and transfer facility located there. The April 4, 2009, lahar was 6-30 times larger than the largest meteorological floods known or estimated in the Drift River drainage.

  3. Experimental constraints on the P/T conditions of high silica andesite storage preceding the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henton, S.; Larsen, J. F.; Traxler, N.

    2010-12-01

    We present new experimental results to constrain the P/T storage conditions of the high silica andesite (HSA) prior to the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine Volcano forms a small island located in Alaska’s Cook Inlet, approximately 180 miles southwest of Anchorage. The 2006 eruption began January 11, 2006, and evolved from an initial phase of explosive activity, through continuous and effusive phases, ending approximately mid-March 2006. Lithologies erupted indicate pervasive hybridization between high- (HSA; 62.2-63.3 wt. % SiO2) and low-silica andesite (LSA; 56.6-58.7 wt% SiO2). This study focuses on experiments using the HSA as starting material to constrain magma storage conditions, based on amphibole stability. Experiments were conducted between 100-160 MPa and 800-900 °C, utilzing H2O saturated conditions and fO2 of Re-ReO. Both lightly crushed and sintered HSA were used as starting powders, seeded respectively with 5 wt. % amphibole and a mix of 5 wt. % amphibole and 20 wt. % plagioclase. Experiments with sintered starting material tended toward a bimodal distribution of experimental phenocrysts and microlites, whilst experiments of the lightly crushed material are more phenocryst rich. Preliminary results indicate that amphibole is stable at conditions of 120-140 MPa and 820-840 °C. These pressures correspond with depths of approximately 4.6-5.4 km, which are consistent with prior magma storage models for Augustine 1986 and 2006 magmas, as well as amphiboles found in other arc andesites (e.g., Redoubt and Soufriere Hills volcanoes). Experimental amphiboles are magnesio-hornblendes, which is in keeping with the natural HSA amphiboles. Experimental and natural hornblendes are similar in composition, with the main difference being a small FeO enrichment (2-3 wt%) and MgO depletion (1-2wt%) in the experimental grains. Further work will provide a more complete assessment of amphibole stability and composition, and will be applied towards refining the magma storage model for the Augustine 2006 eruption.

  4. Rapid chemical evolution of tropospheric volcanic emissions from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, based on observations of ozone and halogen-containing gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph; Roberts, Tjarda J.; Lopez, Taryn; Werner, Cynthia; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    We report results from an observational and modeling study of reactive chemistry in the tropospheric plume emitted by Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Our measurements include the first observations of Br and I degassing from an Alaskan volcano, the first study of O3 evolution in a volcanic plume, as well as the first detection of BrO in the plume of a passively degassing Alaskan volcano. This study also represents the first detailed spatially-resolved comparison of measured and modeled O3 depletion in a volcanic plume. The composition of the plume was measured on June 20, 2010 using base-treated filter packs (for F, Cl, Br, I, and S) at the crater rim and by an instrumented fixed-wing aircraft on June 21 and August 19, 2010. The aircraft was used to track the chemical evolution of the plume up to ~ 30 km downwind (2 h plume travel time) from the volcano and was equipped to make in situ observations of O3, water vapor, CO2, SO2, and H2S during both flights plus remote spectroscopic observations of SO2 and BrO on the August 19th flight. The airborne data from June 21 reveal rapid chemical O3 destruction in the plume as well as the strong influence chemical heterogeneity in background air had on plume composition. Spectroscopic retrievals from airborne traverses made under the plume on August 19 show that BrO was present ~ 6 km downwind (20 min plume travel time) and in situ measurements revealed several ppbv of O3 loss near the center of the plume at a similar location downwind. Simulations with the PlumeChem model reproduce the timing and magnitude of the observed O3 deficits and suggest that autocatalytic release of reactive bromine and in-plume formation of BrO were primarily responsible for the observed O3 destruction in the plume. The measurements are therefore in general agreement with recent model studies of reactive halogen formation in volcanic plumes, but also show that field studies must pay close attention to variations in the composition of ambient air entrained into volcanic plumes in order to unambiguously attribute observed O3 anomalies to specific chemical or dynamic processes. Our results suggest that volcanic eruptions in Alaska are sources of reactive halogen species to the subarctic troposphere.

  5. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents calculated earthquake hypocenters and seismic phase arrival data, and details changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2005. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at thirty-two volcanoes within Alaska in 2005 (Figure 1). The network was augmented by two new subnetworks to monitor the Semisopochnoi Island volcanoes and Little Sitkin Volcano. Seismicity at these volcanoes was still being studied at the end of 2005 and has not yet been added to the list of permanently monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. Following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at the Mount Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Korovin Volcano, formal monitoring of these volcanoes began in 2005. AVO located 9,012 earthquakes in 2005. Monitoring highlights in 2005 include: (1) seismicity at Mount Spurr remaining above background, starting in February 2004, through the end of the year and into 2006; (2) an increase in seismicity at Augustine Volcano starting in May 2005, and continuing through the end of the year into 2006; (3) volcanic tremor and seismicity related to low-level strombolian activity at Mount Veniaminof in January to March and September; and (4) a seismic swarm at Tanaga Volcano in October and November. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field in 2005; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2005; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2005.

  6. Seismoacoustic analysis of Ultra-Long-Period Signals Generated in the Atmosphere during the 2009 Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, J. J.; Haney, M. M.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Schwaiger, H. F.; Schneider, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate a novel recording of volcanically-generated atmospheric gravity waves on multiple (proximal) stations during the 2009 eruptive activity of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. From March 23 - April 4, 2009, 16 of the 19 ash-generating explosions reached the stratosphere (>10 km asl.), and a subset of these explosions produced significant ultra-long-period (ULP) seismic signals at periods greater than 250 s. The ULP signals were recorded on a temporary network of seismometers (0.033 - 50 Hz) and a single permanent infrasound sensor (0.1 - 50 Hz) all located within 12 kilometers of the active vent. The ULP signals have delayed arrivals following explosion onsets in both the seismic and infrasound data, indicating that they are generated in the atmosphere. The atmosphere sustains two types of ULP signals: acoustic waves and gravity waves. ULP acoustic waves are mostly controlled by the compressibility of the atmosphere, travel close to the speed of sound, and have a maximum period limited by the acoustic cut-off frequency of about 300 s. Gravity waves are buoyancy-controlled oscillations set up by the disruption of the normal density stratification of the atmosphere, typically have periods greater than 300 s and phase velocities of 10s of m/s. We observe a range in peak ULP energy (300 - 400+ s) that suggests both types of ULP signals were generated by the Redoubt explosions, but that gravity waves dominate for some of the explosions. Moreover, we see moveout velocities of 10s of m/s for some events and acoustic speeds for others since the ULP signals were recorded across the local network. In addition to signals on the vertical components, high amplitude signals are also recorded on the horizontal components. Since we are dealing with signals in the tilt-dominated portion of the seismometer response, the horizontal components are converted to tilt and we observe multiple tilt cycles at periods similar to the ULP signals. These signals indicate tilts of 10s-100s of microradians, which we attribute to oscillatory ground tilting caused by the passing gravity waves. In order to understand observed changes in the ULP signals between explosions (e.g., frequency content, duration, atmosphere-ground partitioning), we investigate the process of ULP transmission from the atmosphere to the ground, the role atmospheric conditions play in generating, modifying, and propagating ULP signals, and how plume dynamics (e.g., mass, thermal energy, ascent rate, particle size) affect ULP signal initiation and characteristics. We integrate Doppler radar observations of individual explosions, and numerical modeling of atmospheric eruption plume dynamics with ULP and broadband explosion characteristics to examine how the observed gravity wave signals relate to physical processes during eruption.

  7. Monitoring and modeling ice-rock avalanches from ice-capped volcanoes: A case study of frequent large avalanches on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggel, C.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Wessels, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Iliamna is an andesitic stratovolcano of the Aleutian arc with regular gas and steam emissions and mantled by several large glaciers. Iliamna Volcano exhibits an unusual combination of frequent and large ice-rock avalanches in the order of 1 ?? 106??m3 to 3 ?? 107??m3 with recent return periods of 2-4??years. We have reconstructed an avalanche event record for the past 45??years that indicates Iliamna avalanches occur at higher frequency at a given magnitude than other mass failures in volcanic and alpine environments. Iliamna Volcano is thus an ideal site to study such mass failures and its relation to volcanic activity. In this study, we present different methods that fit into a concept of (1) long-term monitoring, (2) early warning, and (3) event documentation and analysis of ice-rock avalanches on ice-capped active volcanoes. Long-term monitoring methods include seismic signal analysis, and space-and airborne observations. Landsat and ASTER satellite data was used to study the extent of hydrothermally altered rocks and surface thermal anomalies at the summit region of Iliamna. Subpixel heat source calculation for the summit regions where avalanches initiate yielded temperatures of 307 to 613??K assuming heat source areas of 1000 to 25??m2, respectively, indicating strong convective heat flux processes. Such heat flow causes ice melting conditions and is thus likely to reduce the strength at the base of the glacier. We furthermore demonstrate typical seismic records of Iliamna avalanches with rarely observed precursory signals up to two hours prior to failure, and show how such signals could be used for a multi-stage avalanche warning system in the future. For event analysis and documentation, space- and airborne observations and seismic records in combination with SRTM and ASTER derived terrain data allowed us to reconstruct avalanche dynamics and to identify remarkably similar failure and propagation mechanisms of Iliamna avalanches for the past 45??years. Simple avalanche flow modeling was able to reasonably replicate Iliamna avalanches and can thus be applied for hazard assessments. Hazards at Iliamna Volcano are low due to its remote location; however, we emphasize the transfer potential of the methods presented here to other ice-capped volcanoes with much higher hazards such as those in the Cascades or the Andes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Explosive eruption at Bezymianny Volcano, Russia, captured by satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, A. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Girina, O.

    2007-05-01

    Bezymianny (55.9°N, 160.6°E, ~2900 m elevation) is an active, explosive volcano within the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD), Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Based on information from the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT 2006), an explosive eruption occurred at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia at 09:17 UTC on 24 December 2006. This produced an ash cloud up to ~10 km ASL. We investigate the 24 December 2006 eruption using rapid-response data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), combined with field photographs of the deposit. Furthermore we consider thermal and textural observations on the deposits. Satellite images agreed with aerial photographs taken on 27 December 2006 showing the warm deposit (relative to the snow) concentrated in the south-eastern channel. We present data from rapid response images collected in conjunction to the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and suggest inferences toward future activity.

  9. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained a seismic monitoring program at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. Between 1994 and 1999, the AVO seismic monitoring program underwent significant changes with networks added at new volcanoes during each summer from 1995 through 1999. The existing network at Katmai –Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) was repaired in 1995, and new networks were installed at Makushin (1996), Akutan (1996), Pavlof (1996), Katmai - south (1996), Aniakchak (1997), Shishaldin (1997), Katmai - north (1998), Westdahl, (1998), Great Sitkin (1999) and Kanaga (1999). These networks added to AVO's existing seismograph networks in the Cook Inlet area and increased the number of AVO seismograph stations from 46 sites and 57 components in 1994 to 121 sites and 155 components in 1999. The 1995–1999 seismic network expansion increased the number of volcanoes monitored in real-time from 4 to 22, including Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Mount Snowy, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski volcano, Shisaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl volcano, Akutan volcano, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (see Figures 1-15). The network expansion also increased the number of earthquakes located from about 600 per year in1994 and 1995 to about 3000 per year between 1997 and 1999. Highlights of the catalog period include: 1) a large volcanogenic seismic swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes. This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.

  10. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Haney, Matt; Parker, Tom; Searcy, Cheryl; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2012, the Alaska Volcano Observatory located 4,787 earthquakes, of which 4,211 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by a seismograph network. There was significant seismic activity at Iliamna, Kanaga, and Little Sitkin volcanoes in 2012. Instrumentation highlights for this year include the implementation of the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System hardware and software in February 2012 and the continuation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work in the summer of 2012. The operational highlight was the removal of Mount Wrangell from the list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes hypocenters, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2012 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  11. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi Volcano, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt Volcano. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2008.

  12. Living With Volcanoes: The USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report summarizes the Volcano Hazards Program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Topics include its goals and activities, some key accomplishments, and a plan for future operations. There are also discussions of active and potentially active volcanoes in the U.S., the role of the USGS volcano observatories, prediction of eruptions, and potential danger to aircraft from volcanic plumes.

  13. ASTER Observations of 2000-2007 Thermal Features at Pavlof Volcano and Mt. Hague (Emmons Lake Volcanic Center), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Schneider, D.; Ramsey, M.; Mangan, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) is a 15 km by 30 km area of nested calderas, stratovolcanoes, lava domes, hyaloclastite rings, and cinder cones aligned along the arc axis. Pavlof Volcano is the most active volcano along the ELVC, with more than 40 historic eruptions since 1790. The most recent eruption of Pavlof Volcano began in August 2007 after almost 11 years of quiescence. Mount Hague is a prominent intracaldera vent with no known historical eruptions that lies approximately 7 kilometers to the southwest of Pavlof. The southern crater of Mount Hague commonly fluctuates between a crater-filling lake to a dry crater floor with vigorously steaming fumaroles. Mount Hague has another fumarole field on the southeast flank at nearly the same elevation as the crater floor. To better document the behavior of persistent thermal features at these remote volcanoes, we have compiled temperature and dimension data using a seven-year long time series of satellite data. Over 25 daytime and 40 nighttime clear thermal infrared (TIR) images (90 m resolution) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have recorded variations in the thermal activity at both volcanic vents since July 2000. All cloud-free ASTER TIR observations document persistent low- temperature features at both Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague during this period. The size and temperature of each thermal feature varies throughout the study period. The data show that the 2518 m summit of Pavlof Volcano is occasionally snow-free in early summer whereas neighboring peaks at lower elevations are still snow-clad. FLIR data acquired near the summit of Pavlof in 2004 show that the majority of warm ground was at 20°C to 40°C. These warm areas commonly persist snow-free into the winter. Temperature variations observed at Mt Hague crater usually correlate to the size of the ephemeral crater lake. As the lake grows, the pixel-integrated ASTER TIR temperature increases. Measurements using higher resolution (15 m) daytime ASTER visible-near infrared (VNIR) images show that the crater lake size varies between 0 to 4.5 hectares each year. Combined field and satellite observations from the last seven years suggest that the changes to the lake size can occur within a few weeks each summer. When the lake is absent, the fumarole temperatures in the crater parallel the fumarole temperatures observed on the southeast flank of Mount Hague. Periods of vigorous steaming from the Hague crater may coincide with periods of little or no water filling the crater. Although the final data processing is ongoing, preliminary results show no correlation between the thermal activity at Pavlof Volcano with the activity at Mount Hague.

  14. Supporting Sound Management of Our Coasts and Seas Kasatochi Volcano Alaska is noteworthy as a region of frequent seismic and

    E-print Network

    of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR); therefore of the endangered Steller sea lion. As the photographs of Kasatochi taken in 2008 suggest, life on the island which long-term comparisons will be made. The teams were supported in the field by the U.S. Fish

  15. A volcanic activity alert-level system for aviation: review of its development and application in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2013-01-01

    An alert-level system for communicating volcano hazard information to the aviation industry was devised by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) during the 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. The system uses a simple, color-coded ranking that focuses on volcanic ash emissions: Green—normal background; Yellow—signs of unrest; Orange—precursory unrest or minor ash eruption; Red—major ash eruption imminent or underway. The color code has been successfully applied on a regional scale in Alaska for a sustained period. During 2002–2011, elevated color codes were assigned by AVO to 13 volcanoes, eight of which erupted; for that decade, one or more Alaskan volcanoes were at Yellow on 67 % of days and at Orange or Red on 12 % of days. As evidence of its utility, the color code system is integrated into procedures of agencies responsible for air-traffic management and aviation meteorology in Alaska. Furthermore, it is endorsed as a key part of globally coordinated protocols established by the International Civil Aviation Organization to provide warnings of ash hazards to aviation worldwide. The color code and accompanying structured message (called a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) comprise an effective early-warning message system according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. The aviation color code system currently is used in the United States, Russia, New Zealand, Iceland, and partially in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. Although there are some barriers to implementation, with continued education and outreach to Volcano Observatories worldwide, greater use of the aviation color code system is achievable.

  16. Magmatic inflation at a dormant stratovolcano: 1996-1998 activity at Mount Peulik volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Dzurisin, D.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Thatcher, W.

    2002-01-01

    A series of ERS radar interferograms that collectively span the time interval from July 1992 to August 2000 reveal that a presumed magma body located 6.6 ??? 0.5 km beneath the southwest flank of the Mount Peulik volcano inflated 0.051 ??? 0.005 km3 between October 1996 and September 1998. Peulik has been active only twice during historical time, in 1814 and 1852, and the volcano was otherwise quiescent during the 1990s. The inflation episode spanned at least several months because separate interferograms show that the associated ground deformation was progressive. The average inflation rate of the magma body was ???0.003 km3/month from October 1996 to September 1997, peaked at 0.005 km3/month from 26 June to 9 October 1997, and dropped to ???0.001 km3/month from October 1997 to September 1998. An intense earthquake swarm, including three ML 4.8 - 5.2 events, began on 8 May 1998 near Becharof Lake, ???30 km northwest of Peulik. More than 400 earthquakes with a cumulative moment of 7.15 ?? 1017 N m were recorded in the area through 19 October 1998. Although the inflation and earthquake swarm occured at about the same time, the static stress changes that we calculated in the epicentral area due to inflation beneath Peulik appear too small to provide a causal link. The 1996-1998 inflation episode at Peulik confirms that satellite radar interferometry can be used to detect magma accumulation beneath dormant volcanoes at least several months before other signs of unrest are apparent. This application represents a first step toward understanding the eruption cycle at Peulik and other stratovolcanoes with characteristically long repose periods.

  17. Remote Monitoring of Persistent Thermal Features at Volcanoes: A Survey of Alaskan Volcanoes Using Satellite and Airborne Thermal Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R.; Vaughan, R.; Patrick, M. R.; Ramsey, M.

    2012-12-01

    Repeat thermal imaging of volcanoes is important for describing baseline thermal behavior in order to detect future volcanic unrest or eruption precursors. Over 15,000 ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) day and night thermal infrared (TIR) views of Alaskan volcanoes have been acquired since early 2000 revealing many persistent thermal features. This presentation will report results of our ongoing assessment of TIR data for detecting and measuring small (<100m) and/or low-temperature (30 - 100°C) thermal features on volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors the status of volcanoes throughout Alaska and relies heavily on satellite remote sensing. AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors provide frequent (10-20/day), low-resolution (1 - 8km/pixel) TIR data which are used to detect volcanic emissions and elevated surface temperatures. While these low-resolution data are critical for detecting eruptions and ash clouds, smaller low-temperature features, such as fumaroles, are typically not detected by AVHRR and MODIS TIR. This work augments the existing AVO long-term temperature measurements of background and eruption thermal features observed in low-resolution satellite data by using much higher spatial resolution satellite and ground-based TIR data. ASTER is programmed to acquire several images per year at every volcano on Earth. The ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) provides additional acquisitions via a rapid response system that semi-automates additional volcano views when AVHRR or MODIS detects increased thermal output. ASTER is the only instrument that routinely acquires multiband (5 TIR bands, 8 -12 ?m) high spatial resolution (90-meter) TIR data over volcanic targets. Cloud-free level 2 kinetic temperature products from ASTER acquired from 2000 to 2012 allow us to produce thermal maps and temperature vs. time plots for each target volcano in Alaska. Retrospective analysis of archived ASTER TIR data has revealed subtle, small-scale variations in thermal activity at several Alaskan volcanoes. For example, ASTER TIR data of Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague, 7 km to the west, show patterns of independent thermal activity. Temperatures slowly increased at Pavlof Volcano before the August 2007 eruption, while temperature slowly decreased on average in the intermittently water-filled Mount Hague crater. ASTER TIR of the Redoubt Volcano summit area detects a gradual increase in both the area and temperature of small gaps in the ice beginning nearly 16 months before the 2009 eruption. Thermal features at several other volcanoes persist at a fairly constant temperature within the error of atmospheric effects. While in some cases infrequent ASTER TIR views are able to detect subtle anomalies, robust, automated detection and early identification of thermal precursors at active volcanoes requires better spatial and temporal resolution. Field-based TIR sensors at select volcanoes provide these data and help validate satellite TIR data. However, new high-resolution multispectral TIR satellite sensors with frequent, at least daily, night and day acquisitions are needed to provide a consistent, long-term synoptic thermal view of every volcano and eruptive activity. The multispectral TIR sensor described in NASA's HyspIRI mission concept could provide essential spaceborne TIR that would help to meet this requirement.

  18. A catastrophic flood caused by drainage of a caldera lake at Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska, and implications for volcanic hazards assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Walder, J.S.; McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Aniakchak caldera, located on the Alaska Peninsula of southwest Alaska, formerly contained a large lake (estimated volume 3.7 ?? 109 m3) that rapidly drained as a result of failure of the caldera rim sometime after ca. 3400 yr B.P. The peak discharge of the resulting flood was estimated using three methods: (1) flow-competence equations, (2) step-backwater modeling, and (3) a dam-break model. The results of the dam-break model indicate that the peak discharge at the breach in the caldera rim was at least 7.7 ?? 104 m3 s-1, and the maximum possible discharge was ???1.1 ?? 106 m3 s-1. Flow-competence estimates of discharge, based on the largest boulders transported by the flood, indicate that the peak discharge values, which were a few kilometers downstream of the breach, ranged from 6.4 ?? 105 to 4.8 ?? 106 m3 s-1. Similar but less variable results were obtained by step-backwater modeling. Finally, discharge estimates based on regression equations relating peak discharge to the volume and depth of the impounded water, although limited by constraining assumptions, provide results within the range of values determined by the other methods. The discovery and documentation of a flood, caused by the failure of the caldera rim at Aniakchak caldera, underscore the significance and associated hydrologic hazards of potential large floods at other lake-filled calderas.

  19. Pyroclastic Flows, Lahars, and Mixed Avalanches Generated During the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, K. F.; Vallance, J. W.; Coombs, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Pyroclastic flows, mixed avalanches of pyroclasts and snow, and lahars erupted during three phases of activity at Augustine Volcano between January and April 2006. The activity also produced lava-domes, lava flows, and tephra. Aerial reconnaissance and limited observation during the eruption, and intensive field study later, helped us differentiate and characterize flowage deposits of each phase. A first explosive phase comprised several discrete pyroclastic eruptions that punctuated extrusion of andesitic lavas near the summit in mid- January. The second phase corresponded with rapid growth and pyroclastic collapse of a high-silica andesite dome in late January and early February. The third phase included small block-and-ash flows from steep- sided, andesitic lava flows between early February and April. The first eruptive phase, from January 13 to 17, included seven discrete explosions with durations of up to 11 minutes. These explosions generated the most widespread and widely varied clastic deposits of the eruption. Initial pyroclastic flows of this phase swept across steep, extensively snow-covered slopes around the majority of the volcano to form thin pyroclastic-flow deposits, lahars, and mixed avalanches comprising snow, water, and pyroclastic debris. Later phase-1 pyroclastic flows tended to follow drainages and produce deposits with more classic morphology, including blocky, lobate margins and levees. Phase-1 pyroclastic-flow deposits contain fine to coarse ash and 50 to 70% distinctive, olive-green, scoriaceous, cauliflower-shaped andesite, 15 to 20% light-gray, vesicular, high-silica andesite and 25 to 35% dark-gray, dense, porphyritic andesite. Flow morphologies, lithologies, and depositional contacts indicate that the lahars and mixed avalanches were deposited immediately after the pyroclastic flows that generated them. During the second eruptive phase, especially between January 28 and February 2, a high-silica-andesite dome grew and collapsed repeatedly to produce voluminous block-and-ash-flow deposits that spread over much of the north flank of the volcano. Phase-2 deposits are more voluminous and thicker than those of other phases. Distinctive levees characterize medial flow reaches. In distal areas, deposit margins are blocky and digitate. These block-and-ash flows comprise fine to coarse ash and 75 to 80% light-gray, variably vesicular, high-silica andesite, and 20 to 25% dark- and medium-gray, porphyritic andesite, but lack the olive-green andesite of phase 1. Phase-3 effusion of dark-gray to black, andesite lava flows north and northeast of the summit, from February to April, also generated block-and-ash flows. These deposits overlie those of the earlier phases, but are limited to lava fronts and margins.

  20. Types and Effects of Volcano Hazards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website discusses volcano hazards by type (gas, lahars, landslides, lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and tephra) and by the effect volcanoes have on people and land. This site gives an overview of volcano hazards and links to selected case studies listed by country, volcano, year, and type of hazard. Links to more USGS information about volcanoes, such as a photo glossary, a site index, observatories, and an educator's page are also provided.

  1. Thickness distribution of a cooling pyroclastic flow deposit on Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Optimization using InSAR, FEMs, and an adaptive mesh algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterlark, T.; Lu, Zhiming; Rykhus, R.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery documents the consistent subsidence, during the interval 1992-1999, of a pyroclastic flow deposit (PFD) emplaced during the 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. We construct finite element models (FEMs) that simulate thermoelastic contraction of the PFD to account for the observed subsidence. Three-dimensional problem domains of the FEMs include a thermoelastic PFD embedded in an elastic substrate. The thickness of the PFD is initially determined from the difference between post- and pre-eruption digital elevation models (DEMs). The initial excess temperature of the PFD at the time of deposition, 640 ??C, is estimated from FEM predictions and an InSAR image via standard least-squares inverse methods. Although the FEM predicts the major features of the observed transient deformation, systematic prediction errors (RMSE=2.2 cm) are most likely associated with errors in the a priori PFD thickness distribution estimated from the DEM differences. We combine an InSAR image, FEMs, and an adaptive mesh algorithm to iteratively optimize the geometry of the PFD with respect to a minimized misfit between the predicted thermoelastic deformation and observed deformation. Prediction errors from an FEM, which includes an optimized PFD geometry and the initial excess PFD temperature estimated from the least-squares analysis, are sub-millimeter (RMSE=0.3 mm). The average thickness (9.3 m), maximum thickness (126 m), and volume (2.1 ?? 107 m3) of the PFD, estimated using the adaptive mesh algorithm, are about twice as large as the respective estimations for the a priori PFD geometry. Sensitivity analyses suggest unrealistic PFD thickness distributions are required for initial excess PFD temperatures outside of the range 500-800 ??C. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Three Dimensional Analysis of Mafic Pumice from the 1999 sub-Plinian eruption of Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szramek, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Fragmentation, the transition that occurs from magma with gas to gas with tephra, is thought to be recorded in vesicular pumice. This requires that the vesicularity of the pumice is frozen at the time of fragmentation. In mafic systems, this assumption is likely invalid. The kinetics of a mafic systems should allow for post-fragmentation deformation of the melt. Past studies have shown that mafic pumice from Shishaldin have crystallized post-fragmentation, increasing as much as 50%. Kinetics of crystal growth are slower than the kinetics of vesicle growth, therefore I expect a similar pattern of increase in vesicularity with distance from the rim to be found. This study examines how the vesicularity of mafic pumice varies with distance from the rim. I have excluded any vesicles that connect to the outside of each pumice. CT data has been gathered on 3 mafic pumice from the 1999 sub Plinian eruption of Shishaldin volcano. The size of each vesicle has been determined with BLOB 3D. A freeware program from the UTCT Lab. Determination of the exterior of each pumice was determined via the program Aviso. This exterior information was converted into a distance form rim gray scale distance map. This distance data, along with the size data, will be combined to determine how post-fragmentation deformation of the melt effects the growth a vesicles. I expect to find that the rims of the three pumice have similar vesicle sizes whereas the interior will have larger vesicle sizes. If this is found, it will mean that vesicle information is recording pre/during/post fragmentation information. If the rims of the vesicles are similar, then that suggests they are recording information from the time of fragmentation. This will allow a better understanding of how vesicles form in natural systems. The next phase of this project is too look at how this data is recorded in a two-dimensional sample.

  3. Earthquake triggering at alaskan volcanoes following the 3 November 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; Sanchez, J.J.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake provided an excellent opportunity to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 247-2159 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ???1 hr after the Mw 7.9 arrival time at each network and for significant increases in located earthquakes in the hours after the mainshock. We found compelling evidence for triggering only at the Katmai volcanic cluster (KVC, 720-755 km southwest of the epicenter), where small earthquakes with distinct P and 5 arrivals appeared within the mainshock coda at one station and a small increase in located earthquakes occurred for several hours after the mainshock. Peak dynamic stresses of ???0.1 MPa at Augustine Volcano (560 km southwest of the epicenter) are significantly lower than those recorded in Yellowstone and Utah (>3000 km southeast of the epicenter), suggesting that strong directivity effects were at least partly responsible for the lack of triggering at Alaskan volcanoes. We describe other incidents of earthquake-induced triggering in the KVC, and outline a qualitative magnitude/distance-dependent triggering threshold. We argue that triggering results from the perturbation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the KVC and suggest that the comparative lack of triggering at other Alaskan volcanoes could be a result of differences in the nature of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2010-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2009, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 8,829 earthquakes, of which 7,438 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. Monitoring highlights in 2009 include the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, as well as unrest at Okmok Caldera, Shishaldin Volcano, and Mount Veniaminof. Additionally severe seismograph subnetwork outages resulted in four volcanoes (Aniakchak, Fourpeaked, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being removed from the formal list of monitored volcanoes in late 2009. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2009; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2009; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2009, and a dataless SEED volume for the AVO seismograph network.

  5. Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page consists of two maps of the world, showing how earthquakes define the boundaries of tectonic plates. Volcanoes are also distributed at plate boundaries (the "Ring of Fire" in the Pacific) and at oceanic ridges. It is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory website, which features written material, images, maps, and links to related topics.

  6. Timing, Distribution, and Character of Tephra Fall from the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Neal, C.; McGimsey, G.

    2006-12-01

    The 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced tephra-fall deposits during four eruptive phases. The island setting, deposition of thin, fine-grained fall deposits onto the snowpack, and subsequent reworking by high winds and surface-water flow has removed much of the original proximal fall record. During the late precursory phase (December 2005), small phreatic explosions produced very light, localized tephra fall. Tephra from one such event is composed of altered and fresh, possibly juvenile, glass shards. The greatest volume of tephra fall was produced during the explosive phase (January 11 - 28) when 13 discrete explosive events generated plumes between 3 -14 km ASL during a period of dome building and collapse. Associated strong seismicity lasted 1-11 min (avg 4 min), closely matching the duration of plume generation followed by detachment from the vent and distribution by local winds. On January 11, explosions generated two plumes to ~9 km ASL and deposited trace amounts of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna W and NW of Augustine. Tephra from this event are not well preserved and were likely small in volume, but proximal and distal samples collected during the eruption are composed mainly of older dense dome fragments and crystals with little to no juvenile material. On January 13 and 14, six discrete explosions produced plumes to 9 - 11 km ASL that dispersed to the N-NE and deposited < 1mm of ash on Homer, Seldovia, Nanwelek and Port Graham. Coarse proximal fall deposits are composed mainly of olive- green, scoriaceous, low-silica andesite; subordinate black, dense, porphyritic low-silica andesite; white, variably vesicular high-silica andesite; and accidental lithic fragments. During this time, low-silica andesite dome extrusion was occurring. An explosion on January 17 produced a plume to ~14 km ASL that dispersed to the W-NW and deposited 1 mm of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna. Coarse proximal fall deposits contain the same clast types as the January 13-14 events, with proportionally more white high-silica andesite that ranges to higher vesicularities and only rare accidental lithic clasts. On January 27-28, four explosions produced plumes to 3-9 km ASL, that dispersed to the SE and S-SW leading into the continuous phase (January 28 - February 2), characterized by constant low-level ash emissions punctuated by discrete explosions of tephra to 3-8 km ASL. The plume was dispersed to the S depositing ~1mm of ash on Afognak and Kodiak Islands (January 27-February 2). No correlative proximal coarse-grained fall deposits have been identified. Fine to very fine light gray, massive ash deposits are perhaps the most common fall fraction on the island and likely represent elutriation from pyroclastic flows generated during this time interval (from high-silica andesite dome collapse). The effusive phase (February 2-late March) produced a low-silica andesite lava dome and flows. Very fine, pinkish massive ash deposits on the N, W and E sectors overlie other fall deposits and are likely elutriate from small block and ash flows associated with growth of steep-sided lava flows. No significant tephra plumes occurred during this time, although a small volume tephra deposit of mostly black, dense, low-silica andesite overlies pyroclastic-flow deposits from mid January and likely represents a small explosion which is corroborated by infrasound sensor data during this phase.

  7. Mount St. Helens VolcanoCam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webcam shows a static image of Mount St. Helens taken from the Johnston Ridge Observatory. The Observatory and VolcanoCam are located at an elevation of approximately 4,500 feet, about five miles from the volcano. The observer is looking approximately south-southeast across the North Fork Toutle River Valley. The VolcanoCam image automatically updates approximately every five minutes. Other features include current conditions reports, weather updates, an image achive, and eruption movies. In addition, there are frequently asked questions, and information about using the VolcanoCam image and funding for the VolcanoCam.

  8. Particle aggregation in volcanic clouds from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: Observations of Doppler weather radar, satellite images and tephra-fall deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Wallace, K. L.; Mastin, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    The combined use of weather radar and thermal infrared satellite images provides complementary evidence that can be used to observe and interpret tephra-fall processes. Radar is ideal for characterizing coarse-grained tephra in the eruption column and proximal cloud, while thermal infrared satellite data are better able to characterize the fine-grained distal volcanic cloud. We present observations of radar, satellite images, and character of the tephra-fall deposits from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Accretionary tephra-ice pellets (up to 9 mm in diameter) comprised of fine-grained ash (less than 63 micron diameter) were abundant in the many of the proximal tephra-fall deposits. The eruption column and proximal cloud from seventeen explosive events were observed using the MiniMax-250C (MM-250C) volcano-monitoring Doppler weather radar located 80 km from the vent. Radar reflectivity and radial Doppler velocity measurements were made of the column, every 70-90 seconds at a vertical resolution of about 2 km. Radar reflectivity is highly dependent upon particle size and to a lesser extent, concentration. At 80 km distance, the minimum detectable particle diameter for the MM-250C was about 0.2 mm for a mass concentration of 100 g/m3. Thus, the radar was able to observe the aggregate pellets, and not the fine-grained ash. Most of the explosive events were characterized by high radar reflectivity values of 50-60 dBZ in the central core of the eruption column and proximal cloud, which we interpret to be related to the rapid growth of accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Tephra-fall deposits extended for distances of several hundred kilometers and mapped to a minimum mass density of 10 g/m2. However, the MM-250C radar data were only able to observe the dispersed cloud for tens of kilometers from the source, which was well within the 1000 g/m2 isomass contour. Fine-grained ash was prematurely removed from the eruption cloud in proximal locations due to aggregate formation. The relative lack of fine-grained ash may account for the poor thermal infrared brightness temperature signals observed in satellite images for many of the distal volcanic clouds from the 2009 eruption, and possibly from the 1989-90 eruption as well. Time-series of radial Doppler velocity images documented the transition from turbulent mixing in the column to larger scale entrainment within the proximal cloud. Large scale entrainment begins to develop within minutes of eruption onset. Most of the eruption clouds from the explosive events reached the stratosphere, but the large scale entrainment appears to be better developed in the tropospheric portion of the cloud.

  9. Long-period seismicity at Shishaldin volcano (Alaska) in 2003-2004: Indications of an upward migration of the source before a minor eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusano, P.; Palo, M.; West, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the long-period (LP) seismic activity at Shishaldin volcano (Aleutians Islands, Alaska) in the period October 2003-July 2004, during which a minor eruption took place in May 2004, with ash and steam emissions, thermal anomalies, volcanic tremor and small explosions. We have focused the attention on the time evolution of LP rate, size, spectra and polarization dip angle along the dataset. We find an evolution toward more shallow dip angles in the polarization of the waveforms during the sequence. The dip angle is a manifestation of the source location. Because the LP seismic sources are presumed to reflect the aggregation of gas slug or pockets within the melt, we use the polarization dip at the LP onset as a proxy for the nucleation depth of the seismic events within the conduit. We refer to this parameter as the nucleation dip and the position along the conduit of the gas aggregation as nucleation depth. The nucleation dip changes throughout the dataset. It shows a sharp decrease between the end of December 2003 and the end of January 2004, followed by a gradual increase until the onset of the eruption. At the same time, a general increase of the LP rate occurs. We have associated the dip evolution with a sinking and a subsequent decrease of the nucleation depth, which would quickly migrate up to about 8 km below the crater rim, followed by a slow depth decrease which culminates in the eruption. The change in the nucleation depth reflects either a pressure variation within the plumbing system, which would affect the confining pressure experienced by the gas aggregations. We have imputed such a pressure change to the intrusion of batches of magma from a deeper magma chamber (< 10 km) toward a shallower one (> 5 km). For a cylindric conduit with rigid walls, this leads to a volume of the injected new magma of 105-107 m3, compatible with estimates in other areas, suggesting that the LP process can be considered a good proxy of the thermodynamical conditions of the shallow plumbing system.

  10. A numerical investigation of choked flow dynamics and its application to the triggering mechanism of long-period events at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, M.M.; Chouet, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of transonic flow through a crack to study the dynamics of the formation of shock waves downstream from a nozzle-like constriction inside the crack. The model solves the full set of Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions via an explicit multifield finite difference representation. The crack walls are assumed to be perfectly rigid, and elastic coupling to the solid is not considered. The simulations demonstrate how the behavior of unsteady shock waves near the walls can produce recurring step-like pressure transients in the flow, which in turn induce resonance of the fluid-filled crack. The motion of the shock waves is governed primarily by smooth, low-amplitude pressure fluctuations at the outlet of the crack. The force induced on the walls scales with the amplitude of the shock, which is a function of the magnitude of the inlet pressure, aperture of the constriction, and thickness of the boundary layer. The applied force also scales in proportion to the spatial extent of the shock excursion, which depends on the fluctuation rate of outlet pressure. Using the source parameters of long-period (LP) events at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, as a guide for our simulations, we infer that coupling of the shock to the walls occurs for crack inlet to outlet pressure ratios pipo > 2.31 and that the position of the shock front becomes most sensitive to outlet pressure fluctuations for flow regimes with pipo > 2.48. For such regimes, fluctuations of outlet pressure of up to ??0.5 MPa at rates up to 3 MPa/s are sufficient to induce pressure transients with magnitudes up to 12.5 MPa over 0.1-2.5 m of the walls within ???0.5 s. These flow parameters may be adequate for triggering the LP events in the precursory swarm to the December 14, 1989, eruption of Redoubt. According to the flow model the recurrence rate and amplitudes of LP events are inferred to be a manifestation of the response of a shallow hydrothermal reservoir to the sustained injection of superheated steam from a magma column roofing below this reservoir.

  11. An experiment to detect and locate lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A commercially-available lightning-detection system was temporarily deployed near Cook Inlet, Alaska in an attempt to remotely monitor volcanogenic lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. The system became operational on February 14, 1990; lightning was detected in 11 and located in 9 of the 13 subsequent eruptions. The lightning was generated by ash clouds rising from pyroclastic density currents produced by collapse of a lava dome emplaced near Redoubt's summit. Lightning discharge (flash) location was controlled by topography, which channeled the density currents, and by wind direction. In individual eruptions, early flashes tended to have a negative polarity (negative charge is lowered to ground) while late flashes tended to have a positive polarity (positive charge is lowered to ground), perhaps because the charge-separation process caused coarse, rapid-settling particles to be negatively charged and fine, slow-settling particles to be positively charged. Results indicate that lightning detection and location is a useful adjunct to seismic volcano monitoring, particularly when poor weather or darkness prevents visual observation. The simultaneity of seismicity and lightning near a volcano provides the virtual certainty that an ash cloud is present. This information is crucial for aircraft safety and to warn threatened communities of impending tephra falls. The Alaska Volcano Observatory has now deployed a permanent lightning-detection network around Cook Inlet. ?? 1994.

  12. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  13. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of multiple observation geometries in change detection procedures. Additionally, it will be shown how SAR-based hazard information can be integrated with data from optical satellites, thermal sensors, webcams and models to create near-real time volcano hazard information. We will introduce a prototype monitoring system that integrates SAR-based hazard information into the near real-time volcano hazard monitoring system of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. This prototype system was applied to historic eruptions of the volcanoes Okmok and Augustine, both located in the North Pacific. We will show that for these historic eruptions, the addition of SAR data lead to a significant improvement in activity detection and eruption monitoring, and improved the accuracy and timeliness of eruption alerts.

  14. Operational Monitoring of Volcanoes Using Keyhole Markup Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dehn; J. E. Bailey; P. Webley

    2007-01-01

    Volcanoes are some of the most geologically powerful, dynamic, visually appealing structures on the Earth's landscape. Volcanic eruptions are hard to predict, difficult to quantify and impossible to prevent, making effective monitoring a difficult proposition. In Alaska, volcanoes are an intrinsic part of the culture, with over 100 volcanoes and volcanic fields that have been active in historic time monitored

  15. Lab7: Volcanoes I. --Their Geographic Distribution Introduction

    E-print Network

    Chen, Po

    . Pacuritin Volcano, Mexico Active Volcanoes of the World South Sandwich Islands. Also known as the Scotia arc islands stretching from Alaska to Russia. The chain contains 80 major volcanoes with numerous smaller ones in the arc. Iceland. Sits astride the Mid-Atlantic ridge. The island covers 50,000 km2 and is made almost

  16. Alaska Science Forum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Alaska Science Forum Web site is provided by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The forum consists of articles written about various science subjects by scientists from the Geophysical Institute. Categories include the aurora, earthquakes, fun science facts, historic Alaska, mountains, rocks and geology, volcanoes, weather, and more. One of the latest articles, by Ned Rozell, is titled: Bogs, Permafrost and the Global Carbon Equation. Each of the articles is listed along with the author's name and a direct link to the online publication, most of which are fairly short and geared towards nonscientists making reading easy and interesting. [JAB

  17. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations such as ANSS, Alaska Volcano Observatory, Bradley Lake Dam, Red Dog Mine, The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, and City and State Emergency Managers has helped link vast networks together so that the overall data transition can be varied. This lessens the likelihood of having a single point of failure for an entire network. Robust communication is key to retrieving seismic data. AEIC has gone through growing pains learning how to harden our network and encompassing the many types of telemetry that can be utilized in today's world. Redundant telemetry paths are a goal that is key to retrieving data, however at times this is not feasible with the vast size and terrain in Alaska. We will demonstrate what has worked for us and what our network consists of.

  18. Magnetotelluric Investigations of the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hoversten; G. A. Newman; E. Gasperikova; J. P. Kauahikaua

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Electromagnetic Instruments and the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has undertaken a three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) study of the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The survey objectives are 1): to produce a high quality 3D MT data set over the central caldera and the eastern and southwestern rift zones, 2) to

  19. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet R. Schaefer; William E. Scott; William C. Evans; Janet Jorgenson; Robert G. McGimsey; Bronwen Wang

    2008-01-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8 × 106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic

  20. Galactic Super Volcano Similar to Iceland Volcano - Duration: 2 minutes, 2 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic volcano being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...

  1. Evidence of magma intrusion at Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska in 2006-2007 from a rapid-response seismic network and volcanic gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardine, M.; West, M.; Werner, C.; Doukas, M.

    2011-01-01

    On September 17th, 2006, Fourpeaked volcano had a widely-observed phreatic eruption. At the time, Fourpeaked was an unmonitored volcano with no known Holocene activity, based on limited field work. Airborne gas sampling began within days of the eruption and a modest seismic network was installed in stages. Vigorous steaming continued for months; however, there were no further eruptions similar in scale to the September 17 event. This eruption was followed by several months of sustained seismicity punctuated by vigorous swarms, and SO2 emissions exceeding a thousand tons/day. Based on observations during and after the phreatic eruption, and assuming no recent pre-historical eruptive activity at Fourpeaked, we propose that the activity was caused by a minor injection of new magma at or near 5km depth beneath Fourpeaked, which remained active over several months as this magma equilibrated into the crust. By early 2007 declining seismicity and SO2 emission signaled the end of unrest. Because the Fourpeaked seismic network was installed in stages and the seismicity was punctuated by discrete swarms, we use Fourpeaked to illustrate quantitatively the efficacy and shortcomings of rapid response seismic networks for tracking volcanic earthquakes.

  2. Virtual Volcano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Discovery Channel's website has several interactive features on volcanoes to complement its programs on Pompeii. At the homepage, visitors can explore a virtual volcano, by clicking on "Enter". The virtual volcano has several components. The first is a quickly revolving globe with red triangles and gray lines on it that represent active volcanoes and plate boundaries. Clicking on "Stop Rotation", located next to the globe, will enable a better look. Visitors can also click one of the topics below the globe, to see illustrations of "Tectonic Plates", "Ring of Fire" (no, not the Johnny Cash song), and "Layers Within". Visitors can click on "Build your Own Volcano and Watch it Erupt" on the menu on the left side of the page, where they will be given a brief explanation of two factors that affect the shape and explosiveness of volcanoes: viscosity and gas. Then they must choose, and set, the conditions of their volcano by using the arrows under the viscosity and gas headings, and clicking on "Set Conditions", underneath the arrows. Once done, a description of the type of volcano created will be given, and it's time to "Start Eruption". While the lava flows, and the noise of an eruption sounds, terms describing various features of the volcano are superimposed on the virtual volcano, and can be clicked on for explanations.

  3. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability of coverage by future lava flows.

  4. Redoubt Volcano

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Ascending eruption cloud from Redoubt Volcano as viewed to the west from the Kenai Peninsula. The mushroom-shaped plume rose from avalanches of hot debris (pyroclastic flows) that cascaded down the north flank of the volcano. A smaller, white steam plume rises from the summit crater. ...

  5. Mineral chemistry and U-series geochronology reveal timescales of differentiation for late Pleistocene peraluminous rhyolite erupted from Hayes Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, M. L.; Vazquez, J. A.; Hayden, L. A.; Calvert, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Hayes River ignimbrite is a recently recognized deposit from Hayes volcano, the northernmost and easternmost volcano in the Aleutian-Alaskan arc, with unusual whole-rock composition (peraluminous rhyolite; 74.2?75.5 wt% SiO2, 1.14 to 1.18 ASI) and phenocryst mineralogy (biotite-sanidine-plagioclase-quartz) compared to the Quaternary arc. The accessory minerals zircon, monazite [(LREE)PO4], and xenotime [(Y,HREE)PO4] are also present. We use ion microprobe 238U-230Th ages and trace-element geochemistry of unpolished rims and sectioned interiors of individual zircon and monazite grains to track differentiation of the silicic magma body. Core-to-rim zoning in zircon indicates that the parent melt became progressively enriched with U, HREEs, P, and Sc, and depleted in Th and LREEs due to monazite crystallization. Zircon (238U/232Th) values reach as high as 110 in the most differentiated rims. Monazite rims exhibit similar differentiation trends with lower LREE, higher M-HREEs, and higher U than crystal interiors, which eventually led to co-precipitation of monazite and xenotime. Monazite grains form a curved array on an activity ratio plot, with unpolished rims at the higher end. The unusual abundance of monazite, which can accommodate up to several weight percent Th, in the crystallizing assemblage significantly affected the U-Th ratio of the magma as differentiation progressed. 238U/232Th values ranges from 2.6 for early melt, represented by the whole-rock value, to 7.4 for groundmass glass. Assuming monazite fractionation alone is responsible for this change, it would take ~0.12 wt% monazite crystallization, using partition coefficients of 120 and 1000 for U and Th, respectively. This amount of monazite is consistent with that observed in the samples. An isochron for early melt and low-238U/232Th monazites yields an age of 67.0±2.8 ka, whereas one for late melt and high-238U/232Th monazites yields 42.5±0.9 ka. This younger age is indistinguishable from the laser single crystal 40Ar/39Ar age for sanidine of 41.1±2.3 ka. We interpret the apparent 25 k.y. crystallization interval to represent the assembly and differentiation timescale associated with the Hayes magma body.

  6. Evaluation of gases, condensates, and SO2 emissions from Augustine volcano, Alaska: the degassing of a Cl-rich volcanic system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Gerlach, T.M.; Briggs, P.H.; Harmon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    After the March-April 1986 explosive eruption a comprehensive gas study at Augustine was undertaken in the summers of 1986 and 1987. Airborne COSPEC measurements indicate that passive SO2 emission rates declined exponentially during this period from 380??45 metric tons/day (T/D) on 7/24/86 to 27??6 T/D on 8/24/87. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Augustine magma reservoir has become more degassed as volcanic activity decreased after the spring 1986 eruption. Gas samples collected in 1987 from an 870??C fumarole on the andesitic lava dome show various degrees of disequilibrium due to oxidation of reduced gas species and condensation (and loss) of H2O in the intake tube of the sampling apparatus. Thermochemical restoration of the data permits removal of these effects to infer an equilibrium composition of the gases. Although not conclusive, this restoration is consistent with the idea that the gases were in equilibrium at 870??C with an oxygen fugacity near the Ni-NiO buffer. These restored gas compositions show that, relative to other convergent plate volcanoes, the Augustine gases are very HCl rich (5.3-6.0 mol% HCl), S rich (7.1 mol% total S), and H2O poor (83.9-84.8 mol% H2O). Values of ??D and ??18O suggest that the H2O in the dome gases is a mixture of primary magmatic water (PMW) and local seawater. Part of the Cl in the Augustine volcanic gases probably comes from this shallow seawater source. Additional Cl may come from subducted oceanic crust because data by Johnston (1978) show that Cl-rich glass inclusions in olivine crystals contain hornblende, which is evidence for a deep source (>25km) for part of the Cl. Gas samples collected in 1986 from 390??-642??C fumaroles on a ramp surrounding the inner summit crater have been oxidized so severely that restoration to an equilibrium composition is not possible. H and O isotope data suggest that these gases are variable mixtures of seawater, FMW, and meteoric steam. These samples are much more H2O-rich (92%-97% H2O) than the dome gases, possibly due to a larger meteoric steam component. The 1986 samples also have higher Cl/S, S/C, and F/Cl ratios, which imply that the magmatic component in these gases is from the more degassed 1976 magma. Thus, the 1987 samples from the lava dome are better indicators than the 1986 samples of degassing within the Augustine magma reservoir, even though they were collected a year later and contain a significant seawater component. Future gas studies at Augustine should emphasize fumaroles on active lava domes. Condensates collected from the same lava-dome fumarole have enrichments ot 107-102 in Cl, Br, F, B, Cd, As, S, Bi, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Cu, K, Li, Na, Si, and Ni. Lower-temperature (200??-650??C) fumaroles around the volcano are generally less enriched in highly volatile elements. However, these lower-termperature fumaroles have higher concentration of rock-forming elements, probably derived from the wall rock. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Alaska: A Bird's Eye View

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-07-01

    In this Web-based, interactive story, Tutangiaq (Too-tang-geye-ack - nicknamed 2T), a Canada Goose, flies across Alaska looking for his family. As he flies, he tells students about the 49th state. Students learn several facts about the state, including how Alaska was purchased from the Russians,. They can also compare the size of Alaska to other states. 2T takes a flight across the volcanic chain in Alaska and helps students interactively explore how scientists monitor volcanoes from satellite images in near-real time. At the coast, the bird also meets his Walrus friend who shows him how the sea ice edge has receded and gives an example of an adverse effect on marine life. Finally, 2T arrives in Fairbanks where children use satellite imagery to help him find and unite with his family.

  8. Active Monitoring for Active Volcanoes - A challenge at Sakurajima volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Watanabe, T.; Michishita, T.; Miyamachi, H.; Iguchi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative monitoring of magma transport process is essentially important for understanding the volcanic process and prediction of volcanic eruptions. To realize this monitoring, a project, deployment of an active source called ACROSS in Sakurajima volcano, is being underway. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of the capability of monitoring using ACROSS vibrator system for Sakurajima volcano in terms of detectability of signal and its temporal variation due to reasonable change in volcanic structure. Sakurajima volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, which erupts more than a thousand times in 2010, and has been intensively monitored by a research observatory. We chose Sakurajima volcano as a first test site for volcano monitoring with ACROSS because of its well-deployed seismic network and repeating volcanic eruptions. First we assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the case in which we use the same source as deployed in the Tokai area. The detectability of temporal change in the signal from the source is simply dependent on the SNR at the receivers. As the SNR increases with the length of data-stacking, we estimate the reasonable stacking length and the distance range that ACROSS signal can be recorded with enough SNR. We use a general distance dependent attenuation model including geometrical spreading and internal energy dissipation to estimate the parameters describing source strength and internal energy dissipation. We use a attenuation relation that is estimated by existing ACROSS source in the Tokai area to estimate the source strength. As for the internal energy dissipation we use the data of explosion experiment that was carried out around Sakurajima volcano in 2008. The result shows that the signal of an ACROSS vibrator can be recorded with good SNR for the whole area of Sakurajima island for the staking length of 3 months. Next we assess the effect of attenuation (Q) on the detectability of structure change for the realistic volcano structure. We created a structure model of Sakurajima volcano with existing structure model and calculated the change in spectral signal by a small change of structure model. The result shows that the low-Q nature of volcano has little effect on the ACROSS signal in low frequency band (3.5-7.5Hz). These results will be compared with the actual observation experiment in the coming years. Acknowledgement: We use the data-set of the exploration experiment in Sakurajima volcano which is carried out by Volcano eruption prediction group in 2008.

  9. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, J.R.; Scott, W.E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, J.; McGimsey, R.G.; Wang, B.

    2008-01-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8??106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfurcontent. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetationdamaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic crater lake has important implications for the study of hazards associated with active volcanic crater lakes. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. An overview of the Icelandic Volcano Observatory response to the on-going rifting event at Bárðarbunga (Iceland) and the SO2 emergency associated with the gas-rich eruption in Holuhraun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsotti, Sara; Jonsdottir, Kristin; Roberts, Matthew J.; Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Vögfjord, Kristin; Stefánsdóttir, Gerður; Jónasdóttir, Elin B.

    2015-04-01

    On 16 August, 2014, Bárðarbunga volcano entered a new phase of unrest. Elevated seismicity in the area with up to thousands of earthquakes detected per day and significant deformation was observed around the Bárðarbunga caldera. A dike intrusion was monitored for almost two weeks until a small, short-lived effusive eruption began on 29 August in Holuhraun. Two days later a second, more intense, tremendously gas-rich eruption started that is still (as of writing) ongoing. The Icelandic Volcano Observatory (IVO), within the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), monitors all the volcanoes in Iceland. Responsibilities include evaluating their related hazards, issuing warnings to the public and Civil Protection, and providing information regarding risks to aviation, including a weekly summary of volcanic activity provided to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in London. IVO has monitored the Bárðarbunga unrest phase since its beginning with the support of international colleagues and, in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Environment Agency of Iceland, provides scientific support and interpretation of the ongoing phenomena to the local Civil Protection. The Aviation Color Code, for preventing hazards to aviation due to ash-cloud encounter, has been widely used and changed as soon as new observations and geophysical data from the monitoring network have suggested a potential evolution in the volcanic crisis. Since the onset of the eruption, IVO is monitoring the gas emission by using different and complementary instrumentations aimed at analyzing the plume composition as well as estimating the gaseous fluxes. SO2 rates have been measured with both real-time scanning DOASes and occasional mobile DOAS traveses, near the eruption site and in the far field. During the first month-and-a-half of the eruption, an average flux equal to 400 kg/s was registered, with peaks exceeding 1,000 kg/s. Along with these measurements the dispersal model CALPUFF has been initialized daily and run to provide the dispersal of the SO2 volcanic cloud across the country. Daily 72-hours forecasts of SO2 ground concentration are available on the IMO webpage. If critical concentration are expected in inhabited areas, the meteorologist on duty is in charge to promptly issuing a specific warning on the web. The IMO web-page has also been improved with a registration form, open to the public, for reporting SO2 contamination and poor air quality conditions due to the eruption. A long-term hazard assessment for the high concentrations of SO2 affecting the country has also been requested from IVO (IMO) by the Icelandic Civil Protection. For this purpose two hazard zoning maps, showing the areas potentially affected by specific concentration levels have been produced. The two maps have been constructed for probability of occurrence equaling 50% and 90%, respectively. Based on all these information and advices, the Civil Protection is taking decisions for what concerns precautionary measures like for example the limitation of accessibility to the eruption site, the evacuation of exposed areas, and the issuing of warnings and information for mitigating discomforts to inhabitants and tourists.

  11. Introduction to Augustine Volcano and Overview of the 2006 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    This overview represents the combined efforts of scores of people, including Alaska Volcano Observatory staff from the US Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; additional members of those agencies outside of AVO; and volcanologists from elsewhere. Augustine is a young, and therefore small island volcano in the Cook Inlet region of the eastern Aleutian arc. It is among the most active volcanoes in the arc, with six major historic eruptions, and a vigorous eruptive history going back at least 2,500 years. Eruptions typically begin explosively, and finish with the extrusion of domes and sometimes short, steep lava flows. At least 14 times (most recently in 1883) the -summit has become over-steepened and failed, producing debris avalanches which reached tidewater. Magmas within each of the well-studied eruptions are crystal-rich andesite spanning up to seven weight percent silica. Mixing and mingling are ubiquitous and occur at scales from meters to microns. In general, magmagenesis at Augustine is open, messy, and transcrustal. The 2006 eruption was broadly similar to the 20th century eruptions. Unrest began midway through 2005, with steadily increasing numbers of microearthquakes and continuous inflation of the edifice. By mid-December there were obvious morphological and thermal changes at the summit, as well as phreatic explosions and more passive venting of S-rich gasses. In mid-January 2006 phreatomagmatic explosions gave way to magmatic explosions, producing pyroclastic flows dominated by low-silica andesite, as well as lahars, followed by a small summit dome. In late January the nature of seismicity, eruptive style, and type of erupted magma all changed, and block-and-ash flows of high-silica, crystal-rich andesite were emplaced as the edifice deflated. Re-inflation well below the edifice and low-level effusion continued through February. During the second week in March there was a marked increase in extrusion, resulting in two short, steep lava flows dominantly composed of low-silica andesite. Effusion slowly waned through March and deformation ceased. Previous eruptions have had months-long repose followed be renewed effusion, but this has not yet happened during this eruption. Our ability to describe this eruption is based on a richness of data. The volcano was well instrumented with AVO seismometers and Earthscope/PBO continuous GPS instruments. Additional instruments were added as unrest increased, and substitutes for stations destroyed during initial explosions were deployed. As many as two-dozen AVHRR satellite passes were analyzed each day, providing thermal monitoring and ash-plume tracking. Overflights collected both visual and quantitative IR imagery on a regular basis. Georeferenced imagery acquired by satellite (ASTER) and repeated conventional aerial photography permitted detailed, accurate, mapping of many deposits as an aid to (but not substitute for) field mapping. Web cameras (both visual and near-IR) and conventional time-lapse cameras aided understanding of ongoing processes. Data sets less common to volcano monitoring (infrasound, lightning detection) extended our understanding.

  12. Geomagnetic variation related to Sakurajima volcano eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Geomagnetic field has been studied for measuring precursor signals to understand earthquake events by geoscientists. Furthermore, analysis of geomagnetic data helps detect symptom of volcanic eruption. In this study, we process geomagnetic data for Sakurajima volcano case which erupted on Aug 18, 2013 with a large scale of eruption in Japan. This volcanic activity has an effect on geomagnetic data not only geomagnetic observatory in Japan but also in Korea. This study carries out that the geomagnetic variation has been analyzed using geomagnetic data from Cheongyang observatory in Korea and several geomagnetic observatories in Japan. First, we compared the geomagnetic data directly from each component, then searching the difference by volcanic eruption. Secondly, we execute wavelet based semblance from geomagnetic data in order to confirm the correlation between geomagnetic data and effect from volcano activity. As a result, geomagnetic diurnal variation is generally about 50 nT. However, It hardly shows geomagnetic variation on z component and displays about 15 nT on total component before Sakurajima volcano eruption at Kanoya geomagnetic observatory. Moreover, we could confirm uncorrelated event by wavelet based semblance analysis what estimated to volcano activity. This study conducted to confirm geomagnetic variation related to volcano activity getting meaningful result.

  13. Spreading volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgia, A.; Delaney, P.T.; Denlinger, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  14. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals and current monitoring level; associated hazards; and detailed descriptions of possible eruption scenarios. Where data allows, the likelihood of different eruption scenarios will also be depicted by probabilistic event trees. The chapters are illustrated with a number of figures, interactive maps and photographs.

  15. Volcano Baseball

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-12

    In this game, learners are volcanoes that must complete several steps to erupt. Starting at home plate, learners draw cards until they have enough points to move to first base. This process repeats for each learner at each base, and each base demonstrates a different process in a volcano's eruption. The first learner to make it back to home plate erupts and is the winner. This is a good introduction to volcanoes. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  16. Volcanoes: Local Hazard, Global Issue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this module, students can explore two ways that volcanoes affect Earth: by directly threatening people and the environments adjacent to them, and by ejecting aerosols into the atmosphere. The module consists of three investigations in which they will study the local effects of volcanism using images of Mount St. Helens, examine how the effects of volcanic activity can be remotely sensed and monitored from space using NASA data for Mount Spurr in Alaska, and see how geography and spatial perspective are useful in addressing global issues in the tracking and mapping of aerosol hazards such as the ash cloud emitted by the 1989 eruption on Redoubt Volcano. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.

  17. Mud Volcanoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Yuen Wang; Michael Manga

    \\u000a \\u000a Mud volcanoes\\u000a are surface structures formed by the eruption of mud from the subsurface. Figure 3.1 shows a typical examples. The erupted\\u000a materials are usually fine grained sediment, water, and gases, dominantly CO2 and methane. Fragments of country rock are also sometimes entrained. They range in size from <1 m, typical of mud volcanoes\\u000a formed by liquefaction\\u000a at shallow depths,

  18. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native and minority students into the geosciences. View them as they explore the permafrost tunnel in Fairbanks, sand dunes in Anchorage, Portage Glacier, Matanuska-Susitna Glacier, and the Trans-Alaska pipeline damage from the earthquake of 2002.

  19. Internet Geography: Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on various aspects of volcanoes, including the main features of a volcano, types of volcanoes, the Ring of Fire, locations of volcanoes, volcanic flows, and case studies about specific volcanoes.

  20. Michigan Tech Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Michigan Tech Volcanoes Page encourages collaborative, interdisciplinary work on active volcanos, and links to resources for the Santa Maria Decade Volcano in Guatemala and for Central America's most frequently active volcano, Fuego. Also includes images of Pinatubo Volcano [one nice one taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavor] and some movies of laharic activity.

  1. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

  4. Santorini Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  5. High-Resolution Satellite and Airborne Thermal Infrared Imaging of the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessels, Rick L.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Schneider, David J.; Dehn, Jonathan; Ramsey, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) images provided a timely pre- and syn-eruption record of summit changes, lava flow emplacement, and pyroclastic-flow-deposit distribution during the Alaska Volcano Observatory's (AVO) response to the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano. A series of images from both handheld and helicopter mounted forward looking infrared radiometers (FLIR) captured detailed views during a series of 13 overflights from December 2005 through August 2006. In conjunction with these images, data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provided frequent multispectral synoptic views of the eruption's emissions and deposits. The ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system also facilitated more frequent scheduling and faster data availability during the eruption. Airborne and satellite imaging provided 20 different days of TIR coverage over the 5-month eruptive period, with 4 of those days covered by both FLIR and ASTER. The high-resolution TIR images documented gradual pre-eruption heating of the summit, emplacement of pyroclastic-flow deposits, rapid temperature increase as the lava dome and flows formed, and slow cooling of the volcanic deposits that followed. The high-resolution data uniquely documented segmentation of the lava flows into hot areas of increased flow deformation and cooler, more stable crust on the active flows. In contrast, the satellite TIR data provided synoptic views of the areal distribution of volcanic products at Augustine including the extent and composition of the plumes.

  6. Understanding Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frank Weisel

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the three types of volcanoes: shield, cinder cone, and composite. Students research each type and then make models of each one to learn the distinctive properties of each type. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  7. Electrifying Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinemer

    2009-01-01

    Alaska's diverse systems for electric power include only 4% by private utilities. Large distances and small markets make transmission impractical for the most part. Rates are variable, although the state average is low. Energy sources, except nuclear, are abundant: half the US coal reserves are in Alaska. In addition, it has geothermal, tidal, biomass, solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Energy

  8. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.

  9. One hundred years of volcano monitoring in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauahikaua, J.; Poland, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Klauea volcano (Figure 1)one of the most active volcanoes on Earthhas provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  10. One hundred years of volcano monitoring in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Kilauea volcano (Figure 1)—one of the most active volcanoes on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  11. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawaii

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christina Heliker

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.

  12. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data-sharing facilitatescross-border identification and warnings of ash plumes for aviation. Overall, long-term strategies of data collection and experience-sharing have helped Latin American observatories improve their monitoring and create informed communities cognizant of vulnerabilities inherent in living near volcanoes.

  13. Types of Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This volcano resource introduces the six-type classification system and points out weaknesses of the classic three-type system. The six types of volcanoes are shield volcanoes, strato volcanoes, rhyolite caldera complexes, monogenetic fields, flood basalts, and mid-ocean ridges. For each type of volcano there is a description of both structure and dynamics along with examples of each. You can account for more than ninty percent of all volcanoes with these six types. Additionally, any system will be more useful if you use modifiers from the other potential classification schemes with the morphological types.

  14. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for providing innovative and integrated synoptic measurements of geothermal activity, volcanic eruptions and their subsequent hazards globally.

  15. Armagh Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the news, events, and research of one of the UK and Ireland's leading astronomical research institutes, Armagh Observatory. Users can learn about the Observatory's many research projects in topics including stellar astrophysics, solar physics, and climate and meteorology. The site presents the long history of the observatory and its instruments. Educators can discover the outreach programs available at the Armagh Planetarium. Novices can find information on the objects they observe in the night sky. The site offers abstracts and full papers of many of the Observatory's publications from 1995 to the present.

  16. Slopes of Martian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallianpur, K.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    2001-03-01

    We use MOLA data to derive slope maps of 9 volcanoes on Mars. Tharsis volcanoes have the same shape as Galapagos volcanoes with deep calderas. Alba Patera is very similar to Tyrrhena Patera. Slopes greater than 7 degrees are common on Elysium Mons.

  17. Monitoring Active Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Tilling

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the historic and current monitoring of active volcanoes around the globe. Techniques to measure deviations in pressure and stress induced by subterranean magma movement, as well as other technologies, explain the ways in which researchers monitor and predict volcanoes. Case studies of volcanoes such as Mt. St. Helens, El Chichon, Mauna Loa, and others are discussed.

  18. How Volcanoes Work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational resource describes the science behind volcanoes and volcanic processes. Topics include volcanic environments, volcano landforms, eruption dynamics, eruption products, eruption types, historical eruptions, and planetary volcanism. There are two animations, over 250 images, eight interactive tests, and a volcano crossword puzzle.

  19. GlobVolcano: Earth Observation Services for global monitoring of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, L.; Ratti, R.; Borgström, S.; Seifert, F. M.; Solaro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The GlobVolcano project is part of the Data User Element (DUE) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the project is to demonstrate EO-based (Earth Observation) services able to support the Volcanological Observatories and other mandate users (Civil Protection, scientific communities of volcanoes) in their monitoring activities. The information service is assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of active volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. Users are directly and actively involved in the validation of the Earth Observation products, by comparing them with ground data available at each site. The following EO-based information services have been defined, harmonising the user requirements provided by a worldwide selection of user organizations. - Deformation Mapping - Surface Thermal Anomalies - Volcanic Gas Emission (SO2) - Volcanic Ash Tracking During the first phase of the project (completed in June 2008) a pre-operational information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations (i.e. Piton de la Fournaise in La Reunion Island, Karthala in Comore Islands, Stromboli, Volcano and Etna in Italy, Soufrière Hills in Montserrat Island, Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia). The second phase of the project (currently on-going) concerns the service provision on pre-operational basis. Fifteen volcanic sites located in four continents are regularly monitored and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. Based on user requirements, the GlobVolcano Information System has been developed following system engineering rules and criteria, besides most recent interoperability standards for geospatial data. The GlobVolcano Information System includes two main elements: 1. The GlobVolcano Data Processing System, which consists of seven of EO data processing subsystems located at each respective service centre. 2. The GlobVolcano Information Service, which is the provision infrastructure, including three elements: - GlobVolcano Products Archives, including two main functionalities: WMS (Web Map Service) for products visualization through the GVUI and products delivery. - GlobVolcano Metadata Catalogue, offering CS-W (Catalogue Service for Web) functionality. - GlobVolcano User Interface (GVUI), based on the Virtual Earth platform. Whereas product downloading is allowed to committed user organisations only, the Metadata Catalogue can be publicly accessed, thus providing a powerful tool for scientific interchanges and cooperation among the user organizations and scientific communities of volcanoes.

  20. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Response to the 2006 Augustine Alaskan Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauk, B.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Friesen, B.; Enders, M.; Baldwin, A.; Fournier, K.; Marzulla, A.

    2006-12-01

    During September of 2006, UNAVCO installed five permanent Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations on Augustine Volcano, in the lower Cook Inlet of Alaska. The installations were done at the request of the PBO Magmatic Systems committee in response to the January 11, 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano. Prior to the eruption, PBO installed five permanent GPS stations on Augustine in 2004. The five existing stations on the volcano were instrumental in detecting precursory deformation of the volcano's flanks prior to and during the eruption. During the course of the first explosive phase of the eruption, two existing PBO stations, AV03 and AV05 were subsequently destroyed by separate pyroclastic flows. The existing station AV04 was heavily damaged by a separate pyroclastic flow during the continuous phase of the eruption and was repaired during September as well. Existing stations AV01 and AV02 were not affected or damaged by the eruption and remained operating during the entire eruptive phase and subsequent debris flows. All five new stations, and maintenance on the three remaining existing stations, were completed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by Maritime Helicopters. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all equipment be transported to each site from an established base camp by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and internal loads. Each new and existing station installed on the volcano consists of a standard short braced GPS monument, two solar panels mounted to an inclined structure, and a six foot high Plaschem enclosure with two solar panels mounted to one of the inclined sides. Each Plaschem houses 24 12 volt batteries that power a Trimble NetRS GPS receiver and one or two Intuicom radios and are recharged by the solar panels. Data from each GPS receiver is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the town of Homer that transmits the data over the internet to the UNAVCO data archive at ftp://data-out.unavco.or/pub/PBO_rinex where it is made freely available to the public.

  1. Hayden Planetarium: Virtual Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online Hayden Planetarium resource explains the concept of the Virtual Observatory and contains links to the following eight sites: International Virtual Observatory Alliance, National Virtual Observatory, National Virtual Observatory Education and Outreach, Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, Canadian Virtual Observatory, AstroGrid, SkyView, and Theory in a Virtual Observatory.

  2. NeMO: New Millennium Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) "studies the dynamic interactions between submarine volcanic activity and seafloor hotsprings at an observatory, Axial seamount." The website presents a host of information on the participants, tools, and cruise plans for past, present, and scheduled expeditions. Researchers can learn about the Remote Access Sampler (RAS) and a Bottom Access Pressure Recorder (BPR) which transmits the latest data from the seafloor to the website. Through NeMO explorer, users can explore the seafloor with panorama, fly-throughs, and video clips. The education section offers stimulating curriculum materials where students can learn about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, axial volcanoes, and much more.

  3. Volcano Resources for Educators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides an up-to-date list of textual and video educational materials pertaining to volcanoes. The online pamphlets and books, hardcopy books, rental films and videos cover all levels of interest regarding volcanoes. The site furnishes the information or links to information needed to obtain these materials.

  4. The Evolution of Large Shield Volcanoes on Venus Robert R. Herrick

    E-print Network

    Herrick, Robert R.

    1 The Evolution of Large Shield Volcanoes on Venus Robert R. Herrick Lunar and Planetary Institute Author: Robert R. Herrick Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks 903 Koyukuk Dr. Fairbanks by retrograde subduction and or delamination [Janes et al., 1992; Sandwell and Schubert, 1992; Koch and Manga

  5. Volcano-seismic activity before and after the Maule 2010 Earthquake (Southern Chile): a comparison between Llaima and Villarrica volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Stock, C.; Thorwart, M.; Wunderlich, T.; Bredemeyer, S.; Rabbel, W.

    2012-04-01

    Llaima and Villarrica are two of the most actives volcanoes in the Southern Volcanic Zone in the Chilean Andes, with different type of activity and edifice. Llaima is a close vent volcano with constant seismic activity, while Villarrica is an open vent volcano with lava lake at the summit and constant degassing. The relation between volcano eruptions following a great earthquake has been studied in different cases around the world, and it has been the case for the 1960 Valdivia earthquake in southern Chile, where Llaima and Villarrica presented eruptions on the following months to years. This study is focused on characterizing the volcano-seismic activity in the months before and after the M8.8 Maule earthquake on the 27th February 2010. Time series for tremors, long period and volcano tectonic events were obtained from the catalogue of the Volcanic Observatory of the Southern Andes (OVDAS in Spanish) and from the continuous record of the SFB 574 temporary volcanic network. In Villarrica volcano, peaks of activity of tremor and long period events were observed months prior to and after the earthquake, followed by degassing activity, which is consistent with an increase in the activity related to fluids (gas and magma). While in Llaima volcano, a high increase in the volcano tectonic activity was observed directly after the earthquake, consistent with a possible structural adjustment response. The values for pressure change and normal stress were calculated for the Maule earthquake (M8.8) giving results two orders of magnitude lower in comparison to the ones obtained for Valdivia earthquake (M9.5). Finally, these changes in the seismic behavior had lasted over a year, than it is possible to state that the Maule earthquake affected Llaima and Villarrica in some way due to static stress, but given the location and the insufficient critical state of both edifices, it was not possible to generate a great eruption.

  6. Vehicular Technology Conference Anchorage, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Miller, Jeffrey A.

    Viewing ­ Puffins #12;Wildlife Viewing Polar BearsAlaska Zoo #12;Alaska Wildlife Refuge #12;Aurora Borealis #12;Glacier Cruises #12;Alaska Railroad #12;Alaska Native Heritage Center and Museum #12;Golfing

  7. University of Alaska Graduate Survey

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    University of Alaska Graduate Survey 2012 Prepared for: University of Alaska March 2013 #12;University of Alaska Graduate Survey 2012 Prepared for: University of Alaska Prepared by: Juneau · Anchorage ............................................................................................................................... 60 Survey Instrument

  8. Royal Observatory Edinburgh Royal Observatory, Edinburgh

    E-print Network

    Tittley, Eric

    Royal Observatory Edinburgh Contact Royal Observatory, Edinburgh Blackford Hill Edinburgh EH9 3HJ U.K. Tel: +44 (0) 131 668 8100 Fax: +44 (0) 131 668 8264 www.roe.ac.uk The Royal Observatory Edinburgh Observatory, Edinburgh is unique among UK scientific establishments in that it houses on a single site

  9. Royal Observatory Edinburgh Royal Observatory, Edinburgh

    E-print Network

    Tittley, Eric

    Royal Observatory Edinburgh Contact Royal Observatory, Edinburgh Blackford Hill Edinburgh EH9 3HJ U.K. Tel: +44 (0) 131 668 8100 Fax: +44 (0) 131 668 8264 www.roe.ac.uk The Royal Observatory Edinburgh for Astronomy of the University of Edinburgh and the ROE Visitor Centre. The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh

  10. Vent of Sand Volcano

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Vent of sand volcano produced by liquefaction is about 4 ft across in strawberry field near Watsonville. Strip spanning vent is conduit for drip irrigation system. Furrow spacing is about 1.2 m (4 ft) on center....

  11. Summer 2006, volume 3:2 Alaska Satellite Facility

    E-print Network

    and Uganda/Rwanda, the Kivu Basin is part of the East African Rift System, an area of abundant volcanicSAR Captures Rifting and Volcanism in East Africa by Michael P. Poland, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS such area is the Kivu Basin of East Africa. Located along the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  12. Global synthesis of volcano deformation: Results of the Volcano Deformation Task Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Jay, J.; Biggs, J.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Delgado, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ground deformation in volcanic regions is being observed more frequently -- the number of known deforming volcanoes has increased from 44 in 1997 to more than 210 in 2013 thanks in large part thanks to the availability of satellite InSAR observations. With the launch of new SAR satellites in the coming years devoted to global deformation monitoring, the number of well-studied episodes of volcano deformation will continue to increase. But evaluating the significance of the observed deformation is not always straightforward -- how often do deformation episodes lead to eruption? Are there certain characteristics of the deformation or the volcano that make the linkage between deformation and eruption more robust -- for example the duration or magnitude of the ground deformation and/or the composition and tectonic setting of the volcano? To answer these questions, a global database of volcano deformation events is needed. Recognizing the need for global information on volcano deformation and the opportunity to address it with InSAR and other techniques, we formed the Volcano Deformation Database Task force as part of Global Volcano Model. The three objectives of our organization are: 1) to compile deformation observations of all volcanoes globally into appropriate formats for WOVOdat and the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution. 2) document any relation between deformation events and eruptions for the Global assessment of volcanic hazard and risk report for 2015 (GAR15) for the UN. 3) to better link InSAR and other remote sensing observations to volcano observatories. We present the first results from our global study of the relation between deformation and eruptions, including case studies of particular eruptions. We compile a systematically-observed catalog of >500 volcanoes with observation windows up to 20 years. Of 90 volcanoes showing deformation, 40 erupted. The positive predictive value (PPV = 0.44) linking deformation and eruption on this timescale indicates ';strong' evidential worth. The negative predictive value (NPV = 0.94) linking non-deformation with non-eruption, is even stronger. But, linking individual deformation events to eruptions is unreliable with existing InSAR data that are rarely available in the critical days to weeks before the eruption of a volcano that has been dormant for decades to millenia. For example, while ground deformation was observed before the 2011 eruptions of Cordon Caulle and Cerro Hudson (both in Chile), the observations were too infrequent to see any change in the pattern or rate of deformation before the eruptions. Before 2011, Cordon Caulle and Cerro Hudson both erupted in the 20th century, but the 2008 eruption of Chaiten (also in Chile) was preceded by centuries of dormancy and still had no measured precursory deformation up to two weeks before eruption. New InSAR missions with more frequent observations along with ground observations from tiltmeters and GPS are essential to constrain whether there is a reliable deformation signal before eruption.

  13. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawai?i is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawai?i (Island of Hawai?i) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  14. Alexey Kuznetsov Armagh Observatory

    E-print Network

    Alexey Kuznetsov Armagh Observatory #12;21 September 2012 Armagh Observatory 2 Outline of the talk Armagh Observatory 3 1890: Thomas Edison 1893-1896: Johannes Wilsing & Julius Scheiner (Potsdam Observatory) 1901: Charles Nordmann (Observatory of Nice) 1931-1933: Karl Jansky (Bell Telephone Laboratories

  15. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use of the ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) for natural disaster monitoring and scientific analysis, has expanded the project to other volcanoes around the world and is in progress through 2011. The focus on ASTER data is due to the suitability of the sensor for natural disaster monitoring and the availability of data. The instrument has several unique facets that make it especially attractive for volcanic observations (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). Specifically, ASTER routinely collects data at night, it has the ability to generate digital elevation models using stereo imaging, it can collect data in various gain states to minimize data saturation, it has a cross-track pointing capability for faster targeting, and it collects data up to ±85° latitude for better global coverage. As with any optical imaging-based remote sensing, the viewing conditions can negatively impact the data quality. This impact varies across the optical and thermal infrared wavelengths as well as being a function of the specific atmospheric window within a given wavelength region. Water vapor and cloud formation can obscure surface data in the visible and near infrared (VNIR)/shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due mainly to non-selective scattering of the incident photons. In the longer wavelengths of the thermal infrared (TIR), scattering is less of an issue, but heavy cloud cover can still obscure the ground due to atmospheric absorption. Thin clouds can be optically-transparent in the VNIR and TIR regions, but can cause errors in the extracted surface reflectance or derived surface temperatures. In regions prone to heavy cloud cover, optical remote sensing can be improved through increased temporal resolution. As more images are acquired in a given time period the chances of a clear image improve dramatically. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) routine monitoring, which commonly collects 4-6 images per day of any north Pacific volcano, takes advantage of this fact. The rapid response program described in this chapter also improves the temporal resolution of the AS

  16. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  17. ConcepTest: Oldest Volcano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Examine the diagram below. The lettered objects represent volcanoes formed on an oceanic plate above a hot spot. The arrow illustrates the direction of plate motion. Which volcano is the oldest? a. b. c. d.

  18. Sommers-Bausch Observatory

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    Sommers-Bausch Observatory Handbook Ninth Edition, Fall 2013 DEPARTMENT OF ASTROPHYSICAL alloted for training, Keith Gleason (former observatory manager) decided to augment the learning, the CU Archives, and the High Altitude Observatory for much of the information and photographs

  19. Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers links to current volcanic activity reports, volcanic hazards mitigation, information on Central American volcanoes, remote sensing of volcanoes, volcanologic research in online journals, and more. There are also links to a site with information on becoming a volcanologist, and a comics page of volcano humor.

  20. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  1. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while erosion incises deep river valleys, such as those on the Island of Kaua?i. The edges of the submarine terraces that ring the islands, thus, mark paleocoastlines that are now as much as 2,000 m underwater, many of which are capped by drowned coral reefs.

  2. Haystack Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Radio astronomy programs comprise three very-long-baseline interferometer projects, ten spectral line investigations, one continuum mapping in the 0.8 cm region, and one monitoring of variable sources. A low-noise mixer was used in mapping observations of 3C273 at 31 GHz and in detecting of a new methyl alcohol line at 36,169 MHz in Sgr B2. The new Mark 2 VLBI recording terminal was used in galactic H2O source observations using Haystack and the Crimean Observatory, USSR. One feature in W29 appears to have a diameter of 0.3 millisec of arc and a brightness temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th power K. Geodetic baseline measurements via VLBI between Green Bank and Haystack are mutually consistent within a few meters. Radar investigations of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon have continued. The favorable opposition of Mars and improvements in the radar permit measurements on a number of topographic features with unprecedented accuracy, including scarps and crater walls. The floor of Mare Serenitatis slopes upward towards the northeast and is also the location of a strong gravitational anomaly.

  3. Lowell Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Home of the Clark Telescope, the Lowell Observatory's mission is to pursue the study of astronomy, especially the study of our solar system and its evolution, to conduct pure research in astronomical phenomena, and to maintain quality public education and outreach programs to bring the results of astronomical research to the general public. The Steele Visitor Center, the staging area for all daytime tours and evening programs, also houses the interactive exhibit hall, the Giclas Lecture Hall, and more. Known for its solar system research, Lowell astronomers are conducting investigations of near-Earth asteroids, planetary satellites and ring systems, Centaurs, Kuiper Belt objects, and comets. A decades long study of the photometric stability of the Sun also continues. The Discovery Channel Telescope is Lowell Observatoryâ??s newest project to design and construct a powerful, 4.2-meter telescope. Currently under development, the Discovery Channel Telescope will significantly advance Lowellâ??s scientific research capabilities while providing opportunities for real-time global broadcasting and educational programming about astronomy and science.

  4. Augustine Volcano Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Students climb out of ravine on north flank of Augustine Volcano during descent from sampling the 2006 lava flow during 2010 summer field campaign. From left: Laurel Morrow (junior geology major at CSUF), Matthew Bidwell (Science teacher at South Junior High School in Anaheim, CA), Ashley Melendez (...

  5. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  6. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Plume Heights     View Larger ... among the best constraints for aerosol plume evolution modeling. These data are being used in continuing studies of the ... data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image credit: ...

  7. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 31.2 by 61.1 kilometers (19.3 by 37.9 miles) Location: 52.8 degrees North latitude, 173 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: July 4, 2000

  8. Sommers-Bausch Observatory

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    The Sommers-Bausch Observatory Handbook Eighth Edition, Fall 2012 DEPARTMENT OF ASTROPHYSICAL Altitude Observatory for much of the information and photographs of the early years of SBO. Thanks also Observatory Assistants with whom I've had the pleasure to work with here at the Observatory: Randy Meisner

  9. Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2003 (Financial Year 2003/2004) Prepared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B Armagh Observatory Sta#11; 2003 39 C Refereed Journal Publications 2003 40 D Presentations by Armagh Observatory Sta#11; 2003 42 E Armagh Observatory Seminars 2003 44 F Identi#12;ed Media Mentions

  10. Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2003 (Financial Year 2003/2004) Prepared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B Armagh Observatory Staff 2003 39 C Refereed Journal Publications 2003 40 D Presentations by Armagh Observatory Staff 2003 42 E Armagh Observatory Seminars 2003 44 F Identified Media Mentions 2003

  11. Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2000 Prepared by the Director M.E. Bailey 9 July 7 Conclusion 25 A Armagh Observatory Staff 2000 27 B Refereed Journal Publications 2000 28 C Presentations by Armagh Observatory Staff 2000 30 D Armagh Observatory Seminars 2000 32 E Identified Media

  12. BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY

    E-print Network

    BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY PlaneWave CDK17 Equatorial Mount Telescope OPERATIONS that its new Astronomical Observatory has already welcomed its 4000th visitor. The Observatory of this observatory is that the telescope can be remotely controlled from anywhere in the world. People who have

  13. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  14. Volcano-tectonic deformation at Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, northern California, from GPS: 1996-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Poland, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Owen, S.

    2004-12-01

    Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes are two of the three Cascade volcanoes targeted for dense GPS and strainmeter deployments by the magmatic systems component of Earthscope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). Leveling surveys indicate an average subsidence rate of ˜9 mm/yr at Medicine Lake volcano since at least 1954, which could result from draining of a magma reservoir, cooling/crystallization of a subsurface body of magma or hot rock, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, crustal thinning due to regional extension, or some combination of these mechanisms. Displacements from GPS surveys in 1996 and 1999 revealed regional block rotation and contraction across the summit of the volcano, but the time interval was too short to distinguish between possible mechanisms. On Mount Shasta, a 21-line, 12-km aperture EDM network was measured in 1981, 1982, and 1984 with no significant deformation detected, nor was there significant length change in three EDM lines recovered with GPS in 2000. We present results from GPS surveys completed in June and July 2004 of the region surrounding both Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes. We find regional deformation to be dominated by a block rotation about a pole in southeast Oregon, similar to but generally south of poles determined by other workers using GPS in western Oregon and Washington. No significant residual deformation remains in the four GPS stations located on Mount Shasta, which were previously measured in 2000. In contrast, GPS results from six stations on the upper flanks of Medicine Lake volcano confirm the known subsidence and are consistent with elastic half-space models of volume loss that fit the leveling data. No significant residual regional strain was detected. As a result, we believe that subsidence at Medicine Lake does not likely result from crustal thinning due to regional extension. A more detailed examination of Medicine Lake subsidence sources, Mount Shasta edifice deformation, and possible local and regional temporal deformation changes will be available after installation of continuous GPS stations and strainmeters by the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, we have begun annual microgravity measurements that in the future should help to distinguish between possible deformation mechanisms for Medicine Lake volcano.

  15. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities and observations on active volcanoes. The issue to facilitate the access to this valued source of information is to reshape this fragmented community into a unique infrastructure concerning common technical solutions and data policies. Some of the key actions include the implementation of virtual accesses to geophysical, geochemical, volcanological and environmental raw data and metadata, multidisciplinary volcanic and hazard products, tools for modelling volcanic processes, and transnational access to facilities of volcano observatories. Indeed this implementation will start from the outcomes of the two EC-FP7 projects, Futurevolc and MED-SUV, relevant to three out of four global volcanic Supersites, which are located in Europe and managed by European institutions. This approach will ease the exchange and collaboration among the European volcano community, thus allowing better understanding of the volcanic processes occurring at European volcanoes considered worldwide as natural laboratories.

  16. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  17. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  18. Multiparameter Volcano Surveillance of Villarrica Volcano (South-Central Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, Kristin; Peña, Paola; Dzierma, Yvonne; Hansteen, Thor; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Gil, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and one of the few in the world known to have an active lava lake within its crater. This snow-covered volcano generates frequent strombolian eruptions and lava flows and, at times, the melting of snow can cause massive lahars. Besides this, continuous degassing and high-level seismicity are the most common types of activity recorded at the volcano. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving the persistent degassing and seismic activity at the volcano, we use a multiparameter approach based on the combined study of high time-resolved gas and seismic data. These data are respectively acquired by means of 3 stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS and 7 additional seismometers (short period and broad bands), installed at the volcano since March 2009, that complement the existing OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network. On the basis of the combination of gas and seismological measurements we aim at gaining insight into volcano-magmatic processes, and factors playing a role on onset of volcanic unrest and eruptive activity. Since the gas monitoring network has been installed at the volcano a correlation between SO2 emissions and seismic activity (LP events) has been recognized. A possible role played by regional tectonics on detected changes in volcano degassing and seismicity, and consequently on the volcanic activity, is also investigated.

  19. Application of hot spring gases to the study of active volcanoes in the Changbaishan Mountain region, Northeast China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengzhi Wu; Guoming Liu; Pan Wang

    2009-01-01

    The authors reviewed the history of geochemistry involved in active volcano monitoring and analyzed the relationship between\\u000a variations in volcanic gas composition observed at the Changbaishan Volcano Observatory and volcanic activities. It is concluded\\u000a that both geochemical method and routine gas analysis can provide the information about volcanic activity and earthquake activity,\\u000a and both of them can play an important

  20. Gelatin Volcanoes: Student Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the Student Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside volcanoes by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. The Student Page contains the activity preparation instructions and materials list, key words, and a photograph of the experimental setup. There is also an extension activity question that has students predict what will happen when the experiment is run using an elongated model. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.

  1. Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  2. Volcanoes generate devastating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lockridge, P. (National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

  3. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10.8 and IR 12.0. The GlobVolcano information system and its current experimentation represent a

  4. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  5. Alaska SeaLife Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

  6. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.

  7. Seismically Articulating Kilauea Volcano's Active Conduits, Rift Zones, and Faults through HVO's Second Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, P.; Nakata, J.; Klein, F.; Koyanagi, R.; Thelen, W.

    2011-12-01

    While seismic monitoring of active Hawaiian volcanoes began 100 years ago, the build-up of the U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) seismographic network to its current configuration began in 1955, when Jerry Eaton established remote stations that telemetered data via landline to recorders at HVO. With network expansion through the 1960's, earthquake location and cataloging capabilities have evolved to afford a computer processed seismic catalog now spanning fifty years. Location accuracy and catalog completeness to smaller magnitudes have increased. Research and insights developed using HVO's seismic record have exploited the ability to seismically monitor volcanic activity at depth, to identify active regions within the volcanoes on the basis of computed hypocentral locations, to infer regions of magma storage by recognizing different families of volcanic earthquakes, and to forecast volcanic activity in both short and longer term from seismicity patterns. HVO's seismicity catalog was central to calculations of probabilistic seismic hazards. The ability to develop and implement additional analytical and interpretive capabilities has kept pace with improvements in both field and laboratory hardware and software. While the basic capabilities continue as part of HVO's core monitoring, additional interpretive capabilities now include adding details of volcanic and earthquake source regions, and viewing seismic data in juxtaposition with other observatory data streams. As HVO looks to its next century of volcano studies, research and development continue to shape the future. Broadband seismic recording at HVO has enabled extensive study by Chouet, Dawson, and co-workers of the relationship of very-long-period seismic sources beneath Kilauea's summit caldera to magma supply and transport. Recent upgrades have improved the ability to use these data in seismic cataloging and research. Data processing upgrades have bolstered the ability to assemble and retrieve continuously recorded seismic data. This will greatly facilitate HVO's exploration of the use of ambient seismic noise as a volcano monitoring tool as demonstrated by Brenguier and co-workers at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano on La Reunion. HVO and a number of other seismic networks supported by the USGS, including all networks affiliated with established USGS volcano observatories, have recently begun to use the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS). This system promises considerably expanded real-time and near-real-time functionality. Wider implementation of AQMS offers the possibility if not likelihood that volcano seismic monitoring and research could become more coordinated and collaborative across the USGS volcano observatory partnerships.

  8. Volcano Hazards Assessment for Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Nathenson, Manuel; Champion, Duane E.; Ramsey, David W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ewert, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) is a very large shield-shaped volcano located in northern California where it forms part of the southern Cascade Range of volcanoes. It has erupted hundreds of times during its half-million-year history, including nine times during the past 5,200 years, most recently 950 years ago. This record represents one of the highest eruptive frequencies among Cascade volcanoes and includes a wide variety of different types of lava flows and at least two explosive eruptions that produced widespread fallout. Compared to those of a typical Cascade stratovolcano, eruptive vents at MLV are widely distributed, extending 55 km north-south and 40 km east-west. The total area covered by MLV lavas is >2,000 km2, about 10 times the area of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Judging from its long eruptive history and its frequent eruptions in recent geologic time, MLV will erupt again. Although the probability of an eruption is very small in the next year (one chance in 3,600), the consequences of some types of possible eruptions could be severe. Furthermore, the documented episodic behavior of the volcano indicates that once it becomes active, the volcano could continue to erupt for decades, or even erupt intermittently for centuries, and very likely from multiple vents scattered across the edifice. Owing to its frequent eruptions, explosive nature, and proximity to regional infrastructure, MLV has been designated a 'high threat volcano' by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Volcano Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity, but with only two seismometers located high on the volcano and no other USGS monitoring equipment in place, MLV is at present among the most poorly monitored Cascade volcanoes.

  9. Brooks Astronomical Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Brooks Astronomical Observatory, located at Central Michigan University, was built for research and public use. The website presents the history of the Observatory and its technological capabilities. Users can find a long list of scientific publications based on research performed at the observatory. The numerous astronomical topics researched include asteroids, stellar clusters, occultations, and light pollution. Individuals can view fantastic images of comets, planets, and other space phenomena collected at the Observatory.

  10. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The central caldera is visible in the lower right corner of the center map, outlined by the black dashed line. The caldera collapsed about 75,000 years ago when massive explosions sent volcanic ash as far as the San Francisco Bay area and created a 3,000-ft-deep hole in the center of the volcano. The caldera is now partly refilled by Paulina and East Lakes, and the byproducts from younger eruptions, including Newberry Volcano’s youngest rhyolitic lavas, shown in red and orange. The majority of Newberry Volcano’s many lava flows and cinder cones are blanketed by as much as 5 feet of volcanic ash from the catastrophic eruption of Mount Mazama that created Crater Lake caldera approximately 7,700 years ago. This ash supports abundant tree growth and obscures the youthful appearance of Newberry Volcano. Only the youngest volcanic vents and lava flows are well exposed and unmantled by volcanic ash. More than one hundred of these young volcanic vents and lava flows erupted 7,000 years ago during Newberry Volcano’s northwest rift zone eruption.

  11. Observatory Capital One Field

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    193 193 193 193 1 Regents Drive Garage Union Lane Garage Observatory The Stamp Cole StudentDriv e Garage 1d 2g 6 Terrapin Trail Garage 7 Golf Course Observatory Veterinary Severn Bldg Patapsco Observatory - only after 129 Greenbelt stops running RIDE MapNITE #12;

  12. Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 1998 Prepared by the Director M.E. Bailey This report briefly summarizes research and other activities of the Armagh Observatory during the calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8 Items of Concern 12 A Armagh Observatory Staff, 1998 13 B Refereed Journal Publications, 1998 15

  13. Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2002 (Financial Year 2002/2003) Prepared by the Director M.E. Bailey 12 August 2003 #12; Cover: Visitors to the Armagh Observatory on the occasion A Board of Governors and Management Committee 2002 30 B Armagh Observatory Sta#11; 2002 31 C Refereed

  14. Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2001 (Financial Year 2001/2002) PreparedGimpsey MLA, during his visit to the Armagh Observatory on 14 March 2001 to announce the naming of asteroids (10501) Ardmacha and (10502) Armaghobs for the City of Armagh and Armagh Observatory respectively. Shown

  15. Civil Engineer Traffic Observatory

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    Engineer Inside the Minnesota Traffic Observatory Alumnus Johnson Engineers Recovery in New Orleans Student Keeping Up With Traffic The New Minnesota Traffic Observatory 10 Liu Gets Smart with Traffic Signals the new Minnesota Traffic Observatory. Credit: Hourdos Civil Engineer spring 2007 C O N T E N T S It is my

  16. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) - Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, J. W.; Pallister, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    For 24 years the U.S. Geological Survey and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance have supported a small team of scientists and the monitoring equipment required to respond to volcanic crises at short notice anywhere in the world. This VDAP team was founded following the 1985 tragedy at Nevado del Ruiz, where 23,000 perished following an eruption-triggered lahar that swept through the town of Armero, Colombia. Through its first two decades, VDAP has deployed teams and equipment to assist host-country counterparts in responding to volcanic eruptions and unrest at numerous volcanoes in Central and South America, the Caribbean, the Western Pacific and Africa and the Middle East. VDAP and the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) have a synergistic relationship. VDAP contributes to domestic eruption responses (e.g., Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Marianas Islands (2003-05), Mount St. Helens (2004) and several Alaskan eruptions). In turn, when VDAP lacks sufficient capability, the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program provides a “backstop” of staff and expertise to support its international work. Between crises, VDAP conducts capacity-building projects, including construction of volcano-monitoring networks and education programs in monitoring, hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Major capacity-building projects have focused on Central and South America (1998-present), Papua New Guinea (1998-2000) and Indonesia (2004-present). In all cases, VDAP scientists work in the background, providing support to counterpart agencies and representing the U.S. Government as scientist-diplomats. All VDAP monitoring equipment (whether used in crisis response or in capacity building) is donated to counterpart agencies as a form of U.S. foreign aid. Over the years, VDAP has helped build and sustain volcano observatories and monitoring programs in more than a dozen countries. As observatories, monitoring networks, and the science of volcanology and forecasting have advanced, the role of VDAP has changed. In the early years, VDAP served mainly as a “mobile volcano observatory” to the world. More recently, our role has shifted to include enhancing and modernizing monitoring infrastructure, advancing capabilities in eruption forecasting through experience gained during eruption responses, and sharing this experience through education and training programs. As capabilities of international partner observatories have grown, the traditional VDAP “mobile observatory” response is now reserved mainly for situations in which local capabilities and resources are exceeded. The future promises continued advances in eruption forecasting, emphasizing not only “when” an eruption will take place but also on “how big” it will be. An international focus on this problem, emphasizing both stochastic and deterministic methods, offers the best opportunity for advancement. For VDAP, we expect continued work with observatory partners around the Pacific Rim to improve monitoring, and an expanded role with a variety of agency and university partners to develop new monitoring technologies, as well as hazard assessment and forecasting methods. Overall, our focus will remain on working together with international partners to prevent volcanic crises from becoming volcanic disasters.

  17. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  18. Gelatin Volcanoes: Teacher Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the Teacher Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside volcanoes by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. Activity preparation instructions are on the Student Page, while the Teacher Page has background, preparation, and in-class information. An extension activity has the students repeat the experiment using a square bread pan to simulate the original research that was done using elongate models with triangular cross-sections. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.

  19. Volcanoes, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The island of Java (8.0S, 112.0E), perhaps better than any other, illustrates the volcanic origin of Pacific Island groups. Seen in this single view are at least a dozen once active volcano craters. Alignment of the craters even defines the linear fault line of Java as well as the other some 1500 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Deep blue water of the Indian Ocean to the south contrasts to the sediment laden waters of the Java Sea to the north.

  20. FIRE_CI1_SRB_ALASKA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-06

    FIRE_CI1_SRB_ALASKA Project Title:  FIRE I CIRRUS ... Order Data Guide Documents:  SRB Data Set Guide - Alaska, Canada, So Pole, Switz Readme Files:  Readme SRB Alaska Header SRB Alaska Table of Contents SRB ...

  1. The implementation of a volcano seismic monitoring network in Sete Cidades Volcano, São Miguel, Açores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallenstein, N.; Montalvo, A.; Barata, U.; Ortiz, R.

    2003-04-01

    Sete Cidades is one of the three active central volcanoes of S. Miguel Island, in the Azores archipelago. With a 5 kilometres wide caldera, it has the highest eruptive record in the last 5000 years with 17 intracaldera explosive events (Queiroz, 1997). Only submarine volcanic eruptions occurred in Sete Cidades volcano-tectonic system since the settlement of the island, in the 15th century. Small seismic swarms, some of which were interpreted as being related with magmatic and/or deep hydrothermal origin, characterize the most recent seismo-volcanic activity of Sete Cidades volcano. To complement the regional seismic network, operating since the early 80's, a new local seismic network was designed and installed at Sete Cidades Volcano. It includes 5 digital stations being one 5-seconds three-component station located inside the caldera and four 10-seconds one-component stations placed on the caldera rim. The solution found for the digital telemetry is based on UHF 19,2 Kbps radio modems linking four of the seismic stations to a central point, where the fifth station is installed. At this site, signals are synchronised with a GPS receiver, stored in a PC and re-transmitted to the Azores University Volcanological Observatory by an 115,2 Kbps Spread Spectrum 2.4 Ghz Radio Modem Network. Seismic signal tests carried out in all the area showed that cultural and sea noise, as well as some scattering effects due to the geological nature of the terrain (composed by thick pumice and ash deposits) and the topographic effects are factors that can not be avoidable and will be present in future records. This low cost network with locally developed and assembled components, based on short-period sensors without signal filtering in the field and digital telemetry, will improve the detection and location of low magnitude events in the Sete Cidades volcano area. Future developments of this program will include the installation of a seismic array inside the caldera to identify and characterize LP events and volcanic tremor signals.

  2. Monitoring the Dynamic Properties of an active Mud Volcano in the West Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckmann, W.; Tryon, M. D.; Bialas, J.; Feseker, T.; Lefeldt, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Large numbers of submarine mud volcanoes have been discovered in many different continental margin settings often associated with hydrocarbon provinces. They are characterized by fluid formation and fluidization processes occuring at depths of several kilometers below the seafloor which drive a complex system of interacting geochemical, geological and microbial processes. As mud volcanoes are natural leakages of oil and gas reservoirs, near-surface phenomena can be used for monitoring of processes at great depth. North Alex Mud Volcano (NAMV) in the West Nile Delta, apparently rooted at depths of more than 5 kilometers is the focus of an industry-funded research project using existing and newly developed observatory technologies to better understand and quantify the internal dynamics and its long-term variability in relation to underlying gas reservoirs. As it is known that the activity of mud volcanoes varies significantly over periods of months and weeks, the assessment of the activity of NAMV focuses on proxies of fluid and gas emanations. Since the initiation of the project in 2007 NAMV has arguably become one of the best-instrumented mud volcanoes worldwide with a network of observatories collecting permanent long-term records of chemical fluxes, seismicity, temperature, ground deformation, and methane concentration. We will report on the first results of CAT meter deployments to determine chemical fluxes and relate them to long-term records of temperature, deformation as evident from tiltmeter deployments, and seismicity from a local OBS network.

  3. Volcanoes, Plates, and Chains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students will discover how seamounts in the Axial-Cobb-Eikelberg-Patton chain were formed. They will learn about the processes that form seamounts, describe the movement of tectonic plates in the Gulf of Alaska region and explain the types of volcanic activity that might be associated with these movements, and describe how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in this chain. This hands-on activity uses online data resources and includes: focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, audio/visual materials needed, background information, learning procedures, evaluations, extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

  4. Volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural transitions in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beget, J.; Gardner, C.; Davis, K.

    2008-01-01

    The 1883 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced a tsunami when a debris avalanche traveled into the waters of Cook Inlet. Older debris avalanches and coeval paleotsunami deposits from sites around Cook Inlet record several older volcanic tsunamis. A debris avalanche into the sea on the west side of Augustine Island ca. 450??years ago produced a wave that affected areas 17??m above high tide on Augustine Island. A large volcanic tsunami was generated by a debris avalanche on the east side of Augustine Island ca. 1600??yr BP, and affected areas more than 7??m above high tide at distances of 80??km from the volcano on the Kenai Peninsula. A tsunami deposit dated to ca. 3600??yr BP is tentatively correlated with a southward directed collapse of the summit of Redoubt Volcano, although little is known about the magnitude of the tsunami. The 1600??yr BP tsunami from Augustine Volcano occurred about the same time as the collapse of the well-developed Kachemak culture in the southern Cook Inlet area, suggesting a link between volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural changes in this region of Alaska. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  5. UNIVERSITY of ALASKA ANCHORAGE ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    a number of approaches. It is a method of settling disputes outside of the tra- ditional court litigation or certifica- tion from a state agency depending on the state in which they practice. (Alaska does to as a way of dealing with the crushing case load of the court sys- tem and the rising cost of litigation

  6. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  7. Active submarine volcano sampled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Brian

    On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh olivine basalt were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, from water depths of 400 and 900 m. The shallower dredge site was within one-half mile of the active submarine vent evidenced at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano located on the ‘trench-slope break’ or ‘outer-arc high’ of the New Georgia Group, approximately 35 km seaward of the main volcanic line and only 30 km landward of the base of the trench inner wall. The volcano has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see cover photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978, but in each case it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982.

  8. Elysium Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 4, 1998--the first anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing--Mars Global Surveyor's latest images were radioed to Earth with little fanfare. The images received on July 4, 1998, however, were very exciting because they included a rare crossing of the summit caldera of a major martian volcano. Elysium Mons is located at 25oN, 213oW, in the martian eastern hemisphere. Elysium Mons is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the 'zero' elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.

    Elysium Mons was discovered by Mariner 9 in 1972. It differs in a number of ways from the familiar Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes in the Tharsis region. In particular, there are no obvious lava flows visible on the volcano's flanks. The lack of lava flows was apparent from the Mariner 9 images, but the new MOC high resolution image--obtained at 5.24 meters (17.2 feet) per pixel--illustrates that this is true even when viewed at higher spatial resolution.

    Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera--these most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact. Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to identify from previous Mars spacecraft images. This and other MOC data are being examined closely to better understand the nature and origin of volcanic features on Mars.

    The three MOC images, 40301 (red wide angle), 40302 (blue wide angle), and 40303 (high resolution, narrow angle) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 403rd orbit around the planet around 9:58 - 10:05 p.m. PDT on July 2, 1998. The images were received and processed at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) around 4:00 p.m. PDT on July 4, 1998.

    This image: MOC image 40303, shown at 25% of its original size. North is approximately up, illumination is from the right. Resolution of picture shown here is 21 meters (69 feet) per pixel. Image was received with bright slopes saturated at DN=255.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. Continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes using thermal cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Antolik, L.; Lee, R.; Kamibayashi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal cameras are becoming more common at volcanoes around the world, and have become a powerful tool for observing volcanic activity. Fixed, continuously recording thermal cameras have been installed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in the last two years at four locations on Kilauea Volcano to better monitor its two ongoing eruptions. The summit eruption, which began in March 2008, hosts an active lava lake deep within a fume-filled vent crater. A thermal camera perched on the rim of Halema`uma`u Crater, acquiring an image every five seconds, has now captured about two years of sustained lava lake activity, including frequent lava level fluctuations, small explosions , and several draining events. This thermal camera has been able to "see" through the thick fume in the crater, providing truly 24/7 monitoring that would not be possible with normal webcams. The east rift zone eruption, which began in 1983, has chiefly consisted of effusion through lava tubes onto the surface, but over the past two years has been interrupted by an intrusion, lava fountaining, crater collapse, and perched lava lake growth and draining. The three thermal cameras on the east rift zone, all on Pu`u `O`o cone and acquiring an image every several minutes, have captured many of these changes and are providing an improved means for alerting observatory staff of new activity. Plans are underway to install a thermal camera at the summit of Mauna Loa to monitor and alert to any future changes there. Thermal cameras are more difficult to install, and image acquisition and processing are more complicated than with visual webcams. Our system is based in part on the successful thermal camera installations by Italian volcanologists on Stromboli and Vulcano. Equipment includes custom enclosures with IR transmissive windows, power, and telemetry. Data acquisition is based on ActiveX controls, and data management is done using automated Matlab scripts. Higher-level data processing, also done with Matlab, includes automated measurements of lava lake level and surface crust velocity, tracking temperatures and hot areas in real-time, and alerts which notify users of notable temperature increases via text messaging. Lastly, real-time image and processed data display, which is vital for effective use of the images at the observatory, is done through a custom Web-based environment . Near real-time webcam images are displayed for the public at hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cams. Thermal cameras are costly, but have proven to be an extremely effective monitoring and research tool at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

  10. Volcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala 1111

    E-print Network

    Rose, William I.

    Volcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, GuatemalaVolcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala 11111 Open-File Report 01­431Open-File Report 01

  11. Timing, distribution, and character of tephra fall from the 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Kristi L.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The 2005-6 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced tephra-fall deposits during each of four eruptive phases. Late in the precursory phase (December 2005), small phreatic explosions produced small-volume, localized, mostly nonjuvenile tephra. The greatest volume of tephra was produced during the explosive phase (January 11-28, 2006) when 13 discrete Vulcanian explosions generated ash plumes between 4 and 14 km above mean sea level (asl). A succession of juvenile tephra with compositions from low-silica to high-silica andesite is consistent with the eruption of two distinct magmas, represented also by a low-silica andesite lava dome (January 13-16) followed by a high-silica andesite lave dome (January 17-27). On-island deposits of lapilli to coarse ash originated from discrete vent explosions, whereas fine-grained, massive deposits were elutriated from pyroclastic flows and rock falls. During the continuous phase (January 28-February 10, 2006), steady growth and subsequent collapses of a high-silica andesite lava dome caused continuous low-level ash emissions and resulting fine elutriate ash deposits. The emplacement of a summit lava dome and lava flows of low-silica andesite during the effusive phase (March 3-16, 2006) resulted in localized, fine-grained elutriated ash deposits from small block-and-ash flows off the steep-sided lava flows. Mixing of two end-member magmas (low-silica and high-silica andesite) is evidenced by the overall similarities between tephra-fall and contemporaneous lava-dome and flow lithologies and by the chemical heterogeneity of matrix glass compositions of coarse lapilli and glass shards in the ash-size fraction throughout the 2005-6 eruption. A total mass of 2.2 x 1010 kg of tephra fell (bulk volume of 2.2 x 107 m3 and DRE volume of 8.5 x 106 m3) during the explosive phase, as calculated by extrapolation of mass data from a single Vulcanian blast on January 17. Total tephra-fall volume for the 2005-6 eruption is about an order of magnitude smaller than other historical eruptions from Augustine Volcano. Ash plumes of short duration and small volume caused no more than minor amounts (=1 mm) of ash to fall on villages and towns in the lower Cook Inlet region, and thus little hazard was posed to local communities. The bulk of the ash fell into Cook Inlet. Monitoring by the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the eruption helped to prevent hazardous encounters of ash and aircraft Appendix 2 This appendix is in digital form and is titled Raw Electron Microprobe Geochemical Analyses of Glass from Augustine 2005-2006 Tephra. It consists of Table 6 which is a spreadsheet document provided in several file formats. It contains the data used to derive table 2 and figure 7 after analyses were filtered to eliminate the inclusion of mineral data and other bad data points.

  12. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  13. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 40.5 x 40.5 km (25.1 x 25.1 miles) Location: 16.7 deg. North lat., 62.2 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 29, 2002

  14. Seismic tomography reveals magma chamber location beneath Uturuncu volcano (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukarina, Ekaterina; West, Michael; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Uturuncu volcano belongs to the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex in the central Andes, the product of an ignimbrite ''flare-up''. The region has been the site of large-scale silicic magmatism since 10 Ma, producing 10 major eruptive calderas and edifices, some of which are multiple-eruption resurgent complexes as large as the Yellowstone or Long Valley caldera. Satellite measurements show that the hill has been rising more than half an inch a year for almost 20 years, suggesting that the Uturuncu volcano, which has erupted last time more than 300,000 years ago, is steadily inflating, which makes it fertile ground for study. In 2009 an international multidisciplinary team formed a project called PLUTONS to study Uturuncu. Under this project a 100 km wide seismic network was set around the volcano by seismologists from University of Alaska Fairbanks. Local seismicity is well distributed and provides constraints on the shallow crust. Ray paths from earthquakes in the subducting slab complement this with steep ray paths that sample the deeper crust. Together the shallow and deep earthquakes provide strong 3D coverage of Uturuncu and the surrounding region. To study the deformation source beneath the volcano we performed simultaneous tomographic inversion for the Vp and Vs anomalies and source locations, using the non-linear passive source tomographic code, LOTOS. We estimated both P and S wave velocity structures beneath the entire Uturuncu volcano by using arrival times of P and S waves from more than 600 events registered by 33 stations. To show the reliability of the results, we performed a number of different tests, including checkerboard synthetic tests and tests with odd/even data. Obtained Vp/Vs ratio distribution shows increased values beneath the south Uturuncu, at a depth of about 15 km. We suggest the high ratio anomaly is caused by partial melt, presented in expanding magma chamber, responsible for the volcano inflation. The resulting Vp, Vs and the ratio reveal the paths of the ascending fluids and melts, feeding the magma chamber. This work was partly supported by Project #7.3 of BES RAS and Project #14-05-31176 mola of RFBR.

  15. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  16. Evidence for Large-Scale Slope Failures on Northern Gulf of Alaska Seamounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keller; J. Chaytor; D. Giles; R. Teasdale; P. Walczak

    2004-01-01

    SeaBeam 2100 multibeam bathymetric data from six seamounts in the Kodiak-Bowie seamount chain in the northern Gulf of Alaska collected during August 2004 (R\\/V Atlantis cruise 11-15) illuminate the complex eruptive and post-eruptive morphology of these volcanoes. Prominently expressed on the preliminary maps is evidence for large-scale slope failures on a number of these seamounts. Flank morphology suggests that these

  17. Monitoring Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Don

    Monitoring volcanoes is a surprisingly controversial enterprise. Some volcanologists argue that monitoring promises too much and delivers too little for risk mitigation. They trust only strict land-use measures (and accompanying high insurance premiums in risky zones) and urge that funds be used for public education and awareness rather than for instrumental monitoring. Others claim that monitoring is more akin to Brownian motion than to science: lots of action but little net progress. Still other volcanologists acknowledge the potential value of monitoring for prediction and warning but despair at the difficulty of it all. And, finally, some shy from surveillance, fearing the legal consequences of a failed monitoring effort during these litigious times. They wonder, “Will I be sued if an eruption is not foreseen or if an instrument fails at a critical time?”

  18. Interactions Between Separated Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Kamigaichi, O.

    2002-05-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency installed and operates a network of borehole strainmeters in south-east Honshu. One of these instruments is on Izu-Oshima, a volcanic island at the northern end of the Izu-Bonin arc. That strainmeter recorded large strain changes associated with the 1986 eruption of Miharayama on the island. Miyake-jima, about 70 km south of Izu-Oshima, erupted in 1983. No deformation monitoring was available on Miyake-jima but several changes occurred in the strain record at Izu-Oshima. There was a clear change in the long-term strain rate 2 days before the Miyake eruption. Frequent short period events recorded by the strainmeter showed a marked change in their character. The Izu-Oshima strainmeter showed that, over the period from 1980 to the 1986 eruption, the amplitude of the solid earth tides increased by almost a factor of two. At the time of the Miyake eruption, the rate of increase of the tidal amplitude also changed. While all of these changes were observed on a single instrument, they are very different types of change. From a number of independent checks, we can be sure that the strainmeter did not experience any change in performance at that time. Thus it recorded a change in deformation behavior in three very different frequency bands: over very long term, at tidal periods ( ~ day) and at very short periods (minutes). It appears that the distant eruption in 1984 had an effect on the magmatic system under Izu-Oshima. More recent tomographic and seismic attenuation work in the Tohoku (northern Honshu) area has show the existence of a low velocity, high attenuation horizontally elongated structure under the volcanic front. If such a structure exists in the similar tectonic setting for these volcanoes, it could provide a mechanism for communication between the volcanoes.

  19. A new tectonic model for southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    S Alaska consists of a complex tectonic boundary that is gradational from subduction of Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath N American Plate (NA) in the W to a transform fault between these two plates in the SE. Adding complexity, the Yakutat Plate (YAK) is in between. The YAK is exposed in NE Gulf of Alaska and has been well mapped (Plafker, 1987). It is bound by the NA to the E at the Fairweather fault and by the PAC to the S. Relative to NA, YAK is moving 47 mm/yr N30°W and PAC is moving 51 mm/yr N20°W (Fletcher & Freymueller, 2003). The YAK and deeper PAC extend NW beneath the NA as flat slabs (Brocher et al., 1994). They subduct to the W and NW in Cook Inlet region (Ratchkovsky et al., 1997), resulting in the Cook Inlet volcanic arc. They also subduct farther NNW toward the Denali volcanic gap and fault. The subducted part of the YAK is split by a transform fault exposed at Montana Creek (MC) at 62°06'N to 62°10'N at 150°W. It extends S60°W toward the most N Cook Inlet volcano, Hayes, and extends N60°E beyond Talkeetna Mts. Right-lateral WSW motion and thick fault gauge have been documented by McGee (1978) on MC and a S60°W fault scarp cutting Quaternary deposits has been mapped (Reed & Nelson, 1980). Fuis et al. (2008) seismically recognized 110 km of missing YAP NW of Talkeetna Mts, which he thought was due to a 'tear' in the YAK to the far S. Nikoli Greenstone has been found in the Talkeetna Mts just S of this transform (Schmidt, 2003) that is 70 km SW of any other mapped Nikoli. This fault offset is also shown by 7.8 km/sec Vp depth contours, which represent the YAK (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2006), as 110 km at N60°W. Based on magnetic data (Csejtey & Griscom, 1978; Saltus et al., 2007), the fault is regionally recognized as a 10× km zone on the WSW margin of the large S Alaska magnetic high. The fault zone has narrow WSW magnetic highs and depressions. This fault is also recognized on digital relief (Riehle et al., 1996); but, another pronounced N60°E linear feature also exists 20× km S, which trends into Mt. Spurr volcano. It could be another transform. If the MC transform is taking all the discrepancy between PAC and YAK, the S part of the fault would be moving relatively 9 mm/yr to S60°W. This transform has possibly been active for 12 million years. The Wrangell volcanoes with respect to YAK are associated with a spreading ridge. Yet, with respect to PAC, they are associated with a subduction zone (Stevens et al., 1984). The Totschunda and Fairweather faults are the new westward developing Denali transform. The Castle Mountain fault, located about 65 km to the SE of the MC transform, is oriented N65°E. It has had significant right-lateral offset of at least 30 km based on 7.8 km/sec Vp depth contours and of 26 km by magnetic offsets (Haeussler & Saltus, 2004). This older transform probably corresponds to Tertiary volcanics SW of the Mt Spurr/Hayes volcanic complex. Two active megathrust faults exist in south central Alaska; a 1964 type megathrust between PAC and YAK (Plafker, 1969), and a more continental megathrust between YAK and NA (Reeder, 2012). Based on Knik Arm subsidence events, these two types alternate and the next megathrust should occur in 350× years. This more continental megathrust would result in uplift of the N side of the Castle Mountain fault. It might even correspond to significant right-lateral movement on the seismically quiet MC transform.

  20. Educational Renewal in Rural Alaska: The Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI), which is documenting Alaska Native indigenous knowledge systems and developing pedagogical practices to integrate that knowledge into formal education. Discusses the Alaskan context of rural education; AKRSI's yearly cycle of activities in Alaska's five cultural regions; and activities…

  1. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Alaska Native Teens Help Researchers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2009-01-13

    In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska Native students contribute to research on how their environment is changing as a result of global warming.

  3. Building the Alaska Oil Pipeline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-11-04

    This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE tells the story of how environmentalists, Alaska Native peoples, and engineers concerned about the effects of permafrost challenged plans for the Alaska oil pipeline.

  4. Royal Observatory, Edinburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (ROE) comprises the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (ATC) of the PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY RESEARCH COUNCIL, and the University of Edinburgh's Institute for Astronomy....

  5. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic "eruption" with the galaxy's environment to be very similar to that of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, which forced much of Europe to close its airports earlier this year. With Eyjafjallajokull, pockets of hot gas blasted through the surface of the lava, generating shock waves that can be seen passing through the grey smoke of the volcano. The hot gas then rises up in the atmosphere, dragging the dark ash with it. This process can be seen in a movie of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano where the shock waves propagating in the smoke are followed by the rise of dark ash clouds into the atmosphere. In the analogy with Eyjafjallajokull, the energetic particles produced in the vicinity of the black hole rise through the X-ray emitting atmosphere of the cluster, lifting up the coolest gas near the center of M87 in their wake, much like the hot volcanic gases drag up the clouds of dark ash. And just like the volcano here on Earth, shockwaves can be seen when the black hole pumps energetic particles into the cluster gas. "This analogy shows that even though astronomical phenomena can occur in exotic settings and over vast scales, the physics can be very similar to events on Earth," said co-author Aurora Simionescu also of the Kavli Institute. In M87, the plumes of cooler gas being lifted upwards contain as much mass as all of the gas contained within 12,000 light years of the center of the galaxy cluster. This shows the black hole-powered volcano is very efficient at blasting the galaxy free of the gas that would otherwise cool and form stars. "This gas could have formed hundreds of millions of stars if the black hole had not removed it from the center of the galaxy. That seems like a much worse disruption than what the airline companies on Earth had to put up with earlier this year," said Evan Million, a graduate student at Stanford University and lead-author of the other paper to be published about this deep study of M87. The eruption in M87 that lifted up the cooler gas must have occurred about 150 million years earlie

  6. Observations from a Dense Infrasound Sensor Network on Sakurajima Volcano, Japan: a Benchmark Dataset for the Volcano Acoustics Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Yokoo, A.; Johnson, J. B.; Rowell, C. R.; McKee, K. F.; Matoza, R. S.; Swanson, E.; Iguchi, M.; Nakamichi, H.

    2013-12-01

    In July 2013 a dense infrasound network was deployed for ~8 days at the active Sakurajima Volcano, Japan as part of the IAVCEI workshop, 'Volcano acoustics: from installation to analysis'. This infrasound network was between ~2.5-6 km distance from the active vent and consisted of five Hyperion digital infrasound sensors deployed in a circle around the volcano and two collocated small-aperture 6-element arrays of MEMS-based broad-band pressure transducer sensors. All workshop-related data have been distributed to the workshop participants for future analysis. Two additional infrasound arrays with 4 and 5 sensors were deployed by the University of Bristol and Kyoto University (3.4 and 11.4 km). This infrasound network complements the long-standing multi-parameter monitoring network run by the Sakurajima Volcano Observatory (SVO), including four infrasound stations at 2.3-6.3 km. During this study period Sakurajima exhibited a relatively high level of volcanic unrest, producing numerous ash-rich explosive eruptions per day. In this presentation we provide an overview of this unique infrasound dataset and highlight some of the scientific advances that are possible through a dense infrasound network combined with multiparameter observations. Preliminary analyses of the infrasound data show significant local propagation affects, as evidenced by substantial amplitude and waveform differences between two equidistant sites located on opposite sides of the volcano. Topography and crater morphology appear to play significant roles in local infrasound propagation at Sakurajima. Infrasound waveforms also vary considerably between eruptions, suggesting that the onsets of explosive volcanic eruptions are more complex than previously thought. High-amplitude infrasound was also recorded; with the largest explosion producing a remarkable peak pressure over 500 Pa at 2.5 km distance. Source localization techniques and future research directions in volcano infrasound will also be presented. The geometry and arrangement of infrasound sensors offers the unprecedented opportunity to separate source processes from propagation and site effects. Additionally, the number and density of infrasound stations, full-azimuthal resolution, variety of sensors used, diverse eruptive activity, and extensive history of infrasound recordings by SVO make this a benchmark dataset that will yield abundant insight into volcano acoustics and eruption processes.

  7. Magnetotelluric Investigations of the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoversten, G.; Newman, G. A.; Gasperikova, E.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    A collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Electromagnetic Instruments and the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has undertaken a three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) study of the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The survey objectives are 1): to produce a high quality 3D MT data set over the central caldera and the eastern and southwestern rift zones, 2) to use this data set to drive the continued development of new 3D MT inversion algorithms and 3) to integrate existing gravity, seismic and electrical data with the new MT data to provide an improved understanding of the internal structure of the volcano. Data acquired over the currently active eastern rift zone are compared to that from the now dormant southwest rift zone. The first phase of data collection acquired 6 sites in February 2002 with a second phase acquiring 30 sites in August 2002. The survey was designed to make use of multiple remote reference sites and multi-station robust processing techniques with as many as eight acquisition systems operating simultaneously. Excellent quality data was obtained even in the harshest conditions, such as those encountered on the fresh lava flows of the eastern rift zone, where electrical contact resistances were extremely high. Most sites, which required helicopter access, were recorded with only electric (E) fields to reduce weight and setup time. Certain helicopter sites had magnetic (H) data and were processed with and without local H data demonstrating the validity of using remote H fields with local E fields for impedance calculations. 3-D inversion of the data assuming the data to be local impedance is compared to 3D inversion that explicitly models the locations of the measured E and H fields. Selected two-dimensional (2D) lines of sites are inverted with 2D algorithms and compared to previously obtained electrical structure from transient EM soundings. Early one-dimensional inversion of a site located near the caldera shows a conductor at 5km depth, which is consistent with the depth to magma as shown by seismic monitoring experiments. In addition, a shallower conductor at about 1km depth is indicated and is being investigated as a possible indicator of shallow magma. The site near the caldera was occupied in February and again in August 2002, giving a time-lapse view of the resistivity structure. Three dimensional modeling of the entire island of Hawaii shows that the costal effects of the sea-land interface on the MT data is greatly reduced compared to the effects observed at continental boundaries where the interface is more 2D in nature.

  8. Geologic Map of the Katmai Volcanic Cluster, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2002-01-01

    This digital publication contains all the geologic map information used to publish U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Map Series I-2778 (Hildreth and Fierstein, 2003). This is a geologic map of the Katmai volcanic cluster on the Alaska Peninsula (including Mount Katmai, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Mount Griggs, Snowy Mountain, Alagogshak volcano, and Novarupta volcano), and shows the distribution of ejecta from the great eruption of June, 1912 at Novarupta. Widely scattered erosional remnants of volcanic rocks, unrelated to but in the vicinity of the Katmai cluster, are also mapped. Distribution of glacial deposits, large landslides, debris avalanches, and surficial deposits are a snapshot of an ever-changing landscape.

  9. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  10. The Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A convenient guide to the expected characteristics of the Space Telescope Observatory for astronomers and physicists is presented. An attempt is made to provide enough detail so that a professional scientist, observer or theorist, can plan how the observatory may be used to further his observing programs or to test theoretical models.

  11. Sierra Remote Observatories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Ringwald; G. E. Morgan; F. S. Barnes III; D. S. Goldman; M. R. Helm; P. Mortfield; K. B. Quattrocchi; L. Van Vleet

    2009-01-01

    We report the founding of a new facility for astrophotography and small-telescope science. Sierra Remote Observatories are eight small observatories at 4610' altitude in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The sky brightness during New Moon typically rates 3 on the Bortle scale. Typical seeing is 1.2\\

  12. NASA's Great Observatories Kit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using this kit, students may construct paper models of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Parts sheets for printing, instructions, and a list of other required materials are included. Links to other related sites are also provided.

  13. The Advanced Solar Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur B. C. Walker Jr.; Wayne Bailey; Edward L. Chupp; Hugh S. Hudson; Ronald Moore; William Roberts; Richard B. Hoover

    1990-01-01

    A conceptual plan for the development of a comprehensive long duration solar space observatory, The Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) is described. The ASO is intended to provide solar astronomers with the observational power necessary to address fundamental problems relating to the solar convection zone and activity cycle; the thermal and nonthermal processes that control the transport of energy, mass, and

  14. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  15. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  16. Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

    2002-04-01

    The second in the series of HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORIES was launched by an Atlas-Centaur rocket on 13 November 1978. Soon after its insertion into a 470 km circular orbit inclined at 23.5° to the equator, HEAO-2 was named the Einstein Observatory, in celebration of the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth....

  17. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: Landsat 30 meters (24.6 feet); ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 21, 2003

  18. Collaborative Observatories for ILWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, N.; Bose, P.; Freeland, S.; Slater, G.; Woodward, M.

    The success of the ILWS program depends upon the successful integration of data from a wide variety of sources which span the heliosphere, electromagnetic spectrum and physics. A motion is underway to organize these data into discipline-based "Virtual Observatories" (V0s), which would provide easy, online access to large volumes of data. We extend this idea to include interactions between these VOs,creating collaborative observatories. The Collaborative Sun-Earth Connector (CoSEC) is used as a testbed for this concept. We demonstrate possible interactions between Virtual observatories by integrating the prototype Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and European Grid of SOlar Obseravtions (EGSO) with space science services already incorporated into CoSEC. In addition we present more advanced concepts of how Collaborative Observatories might increase the scientific productivity of the ILWS program. This research has been supported through NASA contract NNH04CC00C.

  19. The Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    The Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2004 (Financial Year 2004/2005) Prepared contact, observed using the projection method at Armagh Observatory with the recently restored 10-inch Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 B Armagh Observatory

  20. Treasure Hunt in Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-02-01

    This is a Web-based story of three children who venture out to find their great-grandfather's treasure box that was lost in the remote state of Alaska. Using simple terminology, the story integrates complex Earth and space science concepts, such as the formation of gold deposits and the operation of satellites. The children model creative thinking, acquire and interpret radar images, plan a treasure hunt, work systematically, and learn about Alaska. They also experience the successes and setbacks of actual research. The story provides opportunities for readers to engage in coloring activities, model building, unit conversions, and math calculations. Additionally, readers can interactively view an image from different heights and compare the size of Alaska to other U.S. states.

  1. Alaska Historical Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This visually arresting site from the Alaska Historical Society is a superb resource for teachers of history and social studies, or for anyone fascinated by the 49th state. Discover Alaskaâ??s History is a great place to start. After perusing the FAQs, readers may wish to look at the subheading, For Teachers and Students, where Alaskan history has been divided into easily digestible categories such as 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964, and Alaska Statehood and Constitutional Convention 1955/1956, with corresponding articles and links. The For Researchers section offers links to helpful resources around the web. The weekly AHS Blog is a well-composed and informative romp through Alaskaâ??s past, with posts covering canneries and gold camps, baseball and boats.

  2. Dynamic Controls of Fluid and Gas Flow at North Alex Mud Volcano, West Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckmann, W.; Bialas, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Lefeldt, M. R.; Hoelz, S.; Feseker, T.

    2010-12-01

    The North Alex Mud Volcano (NAMV) is located at a water depth of 500m above a large deep-seated gas reservoir on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan. It has been the object of an integrated study of fluid and gas flow using existing and newly developed observatory technologies to better constrain and quantify devolatilisation and defluidisation patterns and their long-term variability in relation to underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs. As it is known that the activity of mud volcanoes varies significantly over periods of months and weeks, the assessment of the activity of NAMV focuses on proxies of fluid and gas emanations. Submarine mud volcanoes are usually characterized by fluid formation and fluidization processes occuring at depths of several kilometers below the seafloor, driving a complex system of interacting geochemical, geological and microbial processes. Mud volcanoes are natural leakages of oil and gas reservoirs. Near-surface observations made at such sites can therefore be used to monitor phenomena that occur at greater depth. Since the initiation of the project in 2007, NAMV has arguably become one of the best-instrumented mud volcanoes worldwide with a network of observatories collecting long-term records of chemical fluxes, seismicity, temperature, ground deformation, and methane concentration. In addition five research cruises collected complementary geophysical and geological data and samples. In the summer of 2010 a large number of monitoring systems has been recovered which provide us with a synoptic view of the internal dynamics of an active mud volcano. We will present an integrated analysis based on ship-based and sea-floor observations.

  3. Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten Volcano erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of the daytime acquisition (left image) most of the plume appears dark blue because it is too thick for upwelling ground radiation to penetrate. At the edges it appears orange, indicating the presence of ash and sulfur dioxide. In the nighttime image (right), the plume is orange and red near the source, and becomes more yellow-orange further away from the vent. The possible cause is that ash is settling out of the plume further downwind, revealing the dominant presence of sulfur dioxide.

    The images were acquired May 24, 2008, cover an area of 37 x 26.5 km, and are located near 42.7 degrees south latitude, 72.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Redoubt Volcano Summit Crater During Eruption

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Redoubt Volcano summit crater during eruption. This was taken just after explosive activity at redoubt ceased. There were still significant gas and steam emissions occurring. Iliamna Volcano to the south of Redoubt is visible in the background....

  5. Seismic signals from Lascar Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Lascar, the most active volcano in northern Chile, lies near the center of the region studied during the Proyecto de Investigación Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental 94 (PISCO '94). Its largest historical eruption occurred on 19 April 1993. By the time of the PISCO '94 deployment, its activity consisted mainly of a plume of water vapor and SO 2. In April and May 1994, three short-period, three-component seismometers were placed on the flanks of the volcano, augmenting the broadband seismometer located on the NW flank of the volcano during the entire deployment. In addition to the usual seismic signals recorded at volcanoes, Lascar produced two unique tremor types: Rapid-fire tremor and harmonic tremor. Rapid-fire tremor appears to be a sequence of very similar, but independent, "impulsive" events with a large range of amplitudes. Harmonic tremor, on the other hand, is a continuous, cyclic signal lasting several hours. It is characterized by a spectrum with peaks at a fundamental frequency and its integer multiples. Both types of tremor seem to be generated by movement of fluids in the volcano, most probably water, steam or gas.

  6. W. M. Keck Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The W. M. Keck Observatory, located on the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii, takes advantage of its high altitude and stable atmospheric conditions to engage in advanced research into the deepest regions of the universe. The observatory's website includes information on its two ten-meter telescopes, their revolutionary segmented mirrors, and some of the research programs currently under way. There is also information on the observatory's research communities and their allocations of observing time; how to apply for time, and information for scheduled observing teams. The site's news and outreach page features archived press releases and links to the observatory's newsletter and "Cosmic Matters" magazine. The educational page includes podcasts of the observatory's astronomers discussing recent discoveries, information on field trips and class visits, and information on the family ASTRO program. Photos of the instruments, the observatory site, and a selection of remote images captured by the telescopes are collected in an image gallery, and there is also a bibliography of articles referencing data collected at the observatory.

  7. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its temporary Director.

  8. Venus small volcano classification and description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Aubele

    1993-01-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described

  9. Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  10. North Pole Environmental Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) is a collection of the University of Washington's year-round un-manned scientific platforms in the Central Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Researchers will find images, data, and other information about the three types of measurement systems: Drifting Buoys, Oceanographic Mooring, and Aerial Surveys of Hydrographic Casts. Viewers can find links to the weather and other atmospheric conditions at the observatory. The site also provides links to news coverage pertaining to NPEO. Students can study the circulation patterns of the Freshwater Switchyard of the Arctic Ocean. Everyone can learn about the international research team's yearly expeditions to the observatory.

  11. Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the European Commission and six European organizations discuss the creation of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory Project (AVO) for European astronomy. Visitors can discover the function of a Virtual Observatory (VO) as "an international astronomical community-based initiative" aimed at allowing "global electronic access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories." Users can learn about the current problems associated with combining astronomical data collected all over the world and how a VO can streamline this data. The website supplies numerous images illustrating galactic scenarios, AVO prototypes, and AVO goals.

  12. Digging into Augustine Volcano's Silicic Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Webster, J. D.; Goldoff, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Activity at Augustine Volcano, Alaska, has been marked by intermediate composition domes, flows, and tephras during the Holocene. Erosive lahars associated with the 2006 eruption exposed voluminous rhyolite pumice fall beneath glacial tills. The rhyolite is both petrologically and mineralogically different from more recent eruptions, with abundant amphibole (both calcium-amphiboles and cummingtonite) and quartz, both rare in more recent products. Three distinct lithologies are present, with textural and chemical variations between the three. Fe-Ti oxide equilibria indicate temperatures of ~765°C and oxygen fugacities of NNO +1.5. Melt inclusions indicate that the stratigraphically lowest lithology began crystallizing isobarically at ~260 MPa with the contemporary mixed H2O-CO2 fluid phase becoming progressively H2O-rich. The other lithologies were likely crystallized under more H2O-dominated conditions, as indicated by the presence of cummingtonite. Apatites and melt inclusions have generally lower chlorine contents than more recently erupted material, which is typically high in chlorine. Xenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene in two of the three lithologies contain mafic (basalt to basaltic andesite) melt inclusions that indicate the likelihood of mixing and/or mingling of magmas as an eruption trigger. We interpret the three lithologies as representative of a smaller pumiceous rhyolite eruption, with subsequent extrusion of a rhyodacite banded lava dome or flow. This was followed by a large-scale rhyolitic pumice eruption that entrained portions of the banded flow as lithic inclusions. The unique qualities of this pre-glacial rhyolite and the potential hazards of a similarly large eruption in modern times indicate that further study is warranted.

  13. Training Alaska Pipeline Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The Government, unions, and employers in Alaska are walking a thin line between training enough pipeline workers to meet current demands, and training too many for jobs that may not exist four or five years from now. The article surveys training programs which stress job opportunities for the State's natives. (Author/AJ)

  14. Denali Fault: Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    View south along the Trans Alaska Pipeline in the zone where it was engineered for the Denali fault. The fault trace passes beneath the pipeline between the 2nd and 3rd slider supports at the far end of the zone. A large arc in the pipe can be seen in the pipe on the right, due to shortening of the ...

  15. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  16. Safeguarding Alaska's Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2009-03-13

    In this interactive activity, learn about strategies used in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to help avoid oil spills and to identify and contain environmental contaminants. The activity features videos adapted from the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, KTOO, and NOVA: The Big Spill.

  17. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  18. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  19. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  20. The duration, magnitude, and frequency of subaerial volcano deformation events: New InSAR results from Latin America and a global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Fournier, T.; Riddick, S.; Jay, J.; Henderson, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    We combine new observations of volcano deformation in Latin America with more than 100 previous deformation studies in other areas of the world to constrain the frequency, magnitude, and duration of subaerial volcano deformation events. We discuss implications for eruptive hazards from a given deformation event and the optimum repeat interval for proposed InSAR satellite missions. We use L-band (23.6 cm wavelength) satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to make the first systematic search for deformation in all volcanic arcs of Latin America (including Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and the northern and southern Andes), spanning 2006-2008. We combine L- and C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) InSAR observations over the southern Andes volcanoes to extend the time series from 2002-2008 and assess the capabilities of the different radars -- L-band gives superior results in highly vegetated areas. Our observations reveal 11 areas of volcano deformation, some of them in areas that were thought to be dormant. There is a lack of deformation at several erupting volcanoes, probably due to temporal aliasing. The total number of deforming volcanoes in the central and southern Andes now totals 15, comparable to the Alaska/Aleutian arc. Globally, volcanoes deform across a variety of timescales (from seconds to centuries) often without eruption, and with no apparent critical observation timescale, although observations made every minute are sometimes necessary to see precursors to eruption.

  1. Surfing for Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patty Coe

    This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. In this lesson, students use the Internet to research data on earthquakes and volcanoes and plot locations to determine plate boundaries. Extensions include interpretation of interaction between plate boundaries, causes of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the comparison of the formation of Olympus Mons on Mars and the Hawaiian volcanic chain. There are worksheets, references, assessment ideas, and vocabulary available for educators.

  2. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific refuge regulations...

  3. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific refuge regulations...

  4. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska...

  5. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act...K'oyitl'ots'ina, Limited. The lands are in the vicinity of Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian,...

  6. The Oceanic Microbial Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Oceanic Microbial Observatory is a project run jointly by Dr. Craig Carlson of the University of California-Santa Barbara, and Dr. Stephen Giovannoni of Oregon State University. Centered on the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site, the "goal of this microbial observatory project is to understand the cell biology and biogeochemical activities of the major bacterioplankton groups-SAR11, SAR86, SAR202 and SAR116, marine actinobacteria, SAR324, and SAR406, by applying new high throughput technologies for cell culturing, and studying the metabolism of these organisms in nature and their interactions with organic matter in the oceans." The Microbial Observatory website contains links to downloadable publications, public data sets, and poster presentations. The site also offers links to a number of other microbial observatories; and connects to the Bermuda Biological Station for Research as well.

  7. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.

  8. Using multiplets to track volcanic processes at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Multiplets, or repeating earthquakes, are commonly observed at volcanoes, particularly those exhibiting unrest. At Kilauea, multiplets have been observed as part of long period (LP) earthquake swarms [Battaglia et al., 2003] and as volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes associated with dike intrusion [Rubin et al., 1998]. The focus of most previous studies has been on the precise location of the multiplets based on reviewed absolute locations, a process that can require extensive human intervention and post-processing. Conversely, the detection of multiplets and measurement of multiplet parameters can be done in real-time without human interaction with locations approximated by the stations that best record the multiplet. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is in the process of implementing and testing an algorithm to detect multiplets in near-real time and to analyze certain metrics to provide enhanced interpretive insights into ongoing volcanic processes. Metrics such as multiplet percent of total seismicity, multiplet event recurrence interval, multiplet lifespan, average event amplitude, and multiplet event amplitude variability have been shown to be valuable in understanding volcanic processes at Bezymianny Volcano, Russia and Mount St. Helens, Washington and thus are tracked as part of the algorithm. The near real-time implementation of the algorithm can be triggered from an earthworm subnet trigger or other triggering algorithm and employs a MySQL database to store results, similar to an algorithm implemented by Got et al. [2002]. Initial results using this algorithm to analyze VT earthquakes along Kilauea's Upper East Rift Zone between September 2010 and August 2011 show that periods of summit pressurization coincide with ample multiplet development. Summit pressurization is loosely defined by high rates of seismicity within the summit and Upper East Rift areas, coincident with lava high stands in the Halema`uma`u lava lake. High percentages, up to 100%, of earthquakes occurring during summit pressurization were part of a multiplet. Percentages were particularly high immediately prior to the March 5 Kamoamoa eruption. Interestingly, many multiplets that were present prior to the Kamoamoa eruption were reactivated during summit pressurization occurring in late July 2011. At a correlation coefficient of 0.7, 90% of the multiplets during the study period had populations of 10 or fewer earthquakes. Between periods of summit pressurization, earthquakes that belong to multiplets rarely occur, even though magma is flowing through the Upper East Rift Zone. Battaglia, J., Got, J. L. and Okubo, P., 2003. Location of long-period events below Kilauea Volcano using seismic amplitudes and accurate relative relocation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, v.108 (B12) 2553. Got, J. L., P. Okubo, R. Machenbaum, and W. Tanigawa (2002), A real-time procedure for progressive multiplet relative relocation at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92(5), 2019. Rubin, A. M., D. Gillard, and J. L. Got (1998), A reinterpretation of seismicity associated with the January 1983 dike intrusion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103(B5), 10003.

  9. Volcanoes of México: An Interactive CD-ROM From the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, L.; Kimberly, P.; Calvin, C.; Luhr, J. F.; Kysar, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program is nearing completion of an interactive CD-ROM, the Volcanoes of México. This CD is the second in a series sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies to collate Smithsonian data on Quaternary volcanism as a resource for the geothermal community. It also has utility for those concerned with volcanic hazard and risk mitgation as well as an educational tool for those interested in Mexican volcanism. We acknowledge the significant contributions of many Mexican volcanologists to the eruption reports, data, and images contained in this CD, in particular those contributions of the Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), the Colima Volcano Observatory of the University of Colima, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The Volcanoes of México CD has a format similar to that of an earlier Smithsonian CD, the Volcanoes of Indonesia, but also shows Pleistocene volcanic centers and additional data on geothermal sites. A clickable map of México shows both Holocene and Pleistocene volcanic centers and provides access to individual pages on 67 volcanoes ranging from Cerro Prieto in Baja California to Tacaná on the Guatemalan border. These include geographic and geologic data on individual volcanoes (as well as a brief paragraph summarizing the geologic history) along with tabular eruption chronologies, eruptive characteristics, and eruptive volumes, when known. Volcano data are accessible from both geographical and alphabetical searches. A major component of the CD is more than 400 digitized images illustrating the morphology of volcanic centers and eruption processes and deposits, providing a dramatic visual primer to the country's volcanoes. Images of specific eruptions can be directly linked to from the eruption chronology tables. The Volcanoes of México CD includes monthly reports and associated figures and tables cataloging volcanic activity in México from the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network and its predecessor, the Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, as well as early event-card notices of the Smithsonian's Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. An extensive petrologic database contains major-element analyses and other petrological and geochemical data for 1776 samples. The user also has access to a database of the Global Volcanism Program's map archives. Another option on the CD views earthquake hypocenters and volcanic eruptions from 1960 to the present plotted sequentially on a map of México and Central America. A bibliography of Mexican volcanism and geothermal research includes references cited in the Smithsonian's volcano database as well as those obtained from a search of the Georef bibliographic database. For more advanced queries and searches both the petrologic database and volcanic activity reports can be uploaded from the CD.

  10. Io Volcano Observer (IVO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, N.; Johnson, T.; Christensen, P.; Wurz, P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Shinohara, C.; Girard, T.

    2009-04-01

    In early FY2008, NASA solicited study concepts for Discovery/Scout-class missions that would be enabled by use of 2 Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs). We proposed an Io Volcano Observer (IVO) study concept, because the ASRGs enable pointing flexibility and a high data rate from a low-cost mission in Jupiter orbit. Io presents a rich array of inter-connected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena and is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action. Io is the best place to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. The coupled orbital-tidal evolution of Io and Europa is key to understanding the histories of both worlds. IVO utilizes an elliptical orbit inclined > 45° to Jupiter's orbital plane with repeated fast flybys of Io. Io will have nearly constant illumination at each flyby, which facilitates monitoring of changes over time. The view of Io on approach and departure will be nearly polar, enabling unique measurement and monitoring of polar heat flow (key to tidal heating models), equatorial plumes, and magnetospheric interactions. We expect to collect and return 20 Gbits per flyby via 34-m DSN stations, >1000 times the Io data return of Galileo. The minimal payload we considered included (1) a narrow-angle camera, (2) a thermal mapper, (3) an ion and neutral mass spectrometer, and (4) a pair of fluxgate magnetometers. The camera will acquire global km-scale monitoring and sampling down to 10 m/pixel or better. One key objective is to acquire nearly simultaneous (<0.1 s) multispectral measurements to determine the peak lava temperatures, which in turn constrains the temperature and rheology of Io's mantle and whether or not the heat flow is in equilibrium with tidal heating. The thermal mapper will be similar to THEMIS on Mars Odyssey, but with bandpasses designed to monitor volcanic activity, measure heat flow, and constrain silicate lava compositions. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer, to be contributed by the University of Bern and the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, will determine the composition of Io's escaping species, atmosphere, and volcanic plumes. Two Fluxgate Magnetometers are to be contributed by the Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, to characterize magnetospheric interactions with Io, and perhaps place tighter constraints on whether or not Io has an internally generated magnetosphere. Various science enhancement options are being considered.

  11. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Magma transport in volcanic plumbing systems induces surface deformation, which can be monitored by geodetic techniques, such as GPS and InSAR. These geodetic signals are commonly analyzed through geodetic models in order to constrain the shape of, and the pressure in, magma plumbing systems. These models, however, suffer critical limitations: (1) the modelled magma conduit shapes cannot be compared with the real conduits, so the geodetic models cannot be tested nor validated; (2) the modelled conduits only exhibit shapes that are too simplistic; (3) most geodetic models only account for elasticity of the host rock, whereas substantial plastic deformation is known to occur. To overcome these limitations, one needs to use a physical system, in which (1) both surface deformation and the shape of, and pressure in, the underlying conduit are known, and (2) the mechanical properties of the host material are controlled and well known. In this contribution, we present novel quantitative laboratory results of shallow magma emplacement. Fine-grained silica flour represents the brittle crust, and low viscosity vegetable oil is an analogue for the magma. The melting temperature of the oil is 31°C; the oil solidifies in the models after the end of the experiments. At the time of injection the oil temperature is 50°C. The oil is pumped from a reservoir using a volumetric pump into the silica flour through a circular inlet at the bottom of a 40x40 cm square box. The silica flour is cohesive, such that oil intrudes it by fracturing it, and produces typical sheet intrusions (dykes, cone sheets, etc.). During oil intrusion, the model surface deforms, mostly by doming. These movements are measured by an advanced photogrammetry method, which uses 4 synchronized fixed cameras that periodically image the surface of the model from different angles. We apply particle tracking method to compute the 3D ground deformation pattern through time. After solidification of the oil, the intrusion can be excavated and photographed from several angles to compute its 3D shape with the same photogrammetry method. Then, the surface deformation pattern can be directly compared with the shape of underlying intrusion. This quantitative dataset is essential to quantitatively test and validate classical volcano geodetic models.

  12. Trans-Alaska Pipeline system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline, operated by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., has been completed and is moving crude oil 800 mi (1287 km) from the Prudhoe Bay Field, on the North Slope of Alaska, to Valdez, a year-round ice-free port in the southern coast of Alaska. A discussion covers the establishment of the joint venture by eight U.S. firms in 1968,

  13. Papers about Volcanoes and Tsunamis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven N. Ward

    Steven N Ward, a Earth Sciences professor at UC-Santa Cruz, provides downloadable PDF versions of his numerous publications about volcanoes and tsunamis as a part of his homepage. Topics include tsunamis caused by earthquakes, underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, and asteroid impacts, as well as risk assessment and modeling.

  14. Infrared science of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, William A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, R.C.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs is- suing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  15. Seismic energy releases from volcanoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Yokoyama

    1988-01-01

    Seismic energy release during the precursory, eruptive and declining stages of volcanic activities provides various information about the mechanisms of volcanic eruptions and the temporary developments of their activities. Hitherto the energy release patterns from precursory earthquake swarms were used to predict the eruption times, especially of andesitic or dacitic volcanoes. In this paper the discussion is expanded to quantify

  16. What Happened to Our Volcano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand and…

  17. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Of Rings and Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Fine Images of Saturn and Io with VLT NAOS-CONICA Summary With its new NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory has recently obtained impressive views of the giant planet Saturn and Io, the volcanic moon of Jupiter. They show the two objects with great clarity, unprecedented for a ground-based telescope. The photos were made during the ongoing commissioning of this major VLT instrument, while it is being optimized and prepared for regular observations that will start later this year. PR Photo 04a/02 : VLT NAOS-CONICA photo of the giant planet Saturn (composite H+K band image). PR Photo 04b/02 : The Jovian moon Io (Br-gamma image). PR Photo 04c/02 : The Jovian moon Io (composite Br-gamma + L' image). Commissioning of NAOS-CONICA progresses "First light" for the new NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory was achieved in November 2001, cf. ESO PR 25/01. A second phase of the "commissioning" of the new facility began on January 22, 2002, now involving specialized observing modes and with the aim of trimming it to maximum performance before it is made available to the astronomers later this year. During this demanding and delicate work, more test images have been made of various astronomical objects [1]. Some of these show selected solar system bodies, for which the excellent image sharpness achievable with this new instrument is of special significance. In fact, the VLT photos of the giant planet Saturn and Io, the innermost of Jupiter's four large moons, are among the sharpest ever obtained from the ground . They even compare well with some photos obtained from space, as can be seen via the related weblinks indicated below. The raw NAOS-CONICA data from which these images shown in this Photo Release were produced are now available via the public VLT Science Archive Facility [2]. The NAOS adaptive optics corrector was built, under an ESO contract, by the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) , Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG) and the DESPA and DASGAL laboratories of the Observatoire de Paris in France, in collaboration with ESO. The CONICA infra-red camera was built, under an ESO contract, by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg) and the Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) (Garching) in Germany, in collaboration with ESO. Saturn - Lord of the rings ESO PR Photo 04a/02 ESO PR Photo 04a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 460 x 400 pix - 54k] [Normal - JPEG: 1034 x 800 pix - 200k] Caption : PR Photo 04a/02 shows the giant planet Saturn, as observed with the VLT NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics instrument on December 8, 2001; the distance was 1209 million km. It is a composite of exposures in two near-infrared wavebands (H and K) and displays well the intricate, banded structure of the planetary atmosphere and the rings. Note also the dark spot at the south pole at the bottom of the image. One of the moons, Tethys, is visible as a small point of light below the planet. It was used to guide the telescope and to perform the adaptive optics "refocussing" for this observation. More details in the text. Technical information about this photo is available below. This NAOS/CONICA image of Saturn ( PR Photo 04a/02 ), the second-largest planet in the solar system, was obtained at a time when Saturn was close to summer solstice in the southern hemisphere. At this moment, the tilt of the rings was about as large as it can be, allowing the best possible view of the planet's South Pole. That area was on Saturn's night side in 1982 and could therefore not be photographed during the Voyager encounter. The dark spot close to the South Pole is a remarkable structure that measures approximately 300 km across. It was only recently observed in visible light from the ground with a telescope at the Pic du Midi Observatory in the Pyrenees (France) - this is the first infrared image to show it. The bright spot close to the equator is the remnant

  19. Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

  20. Ejecta and Landslides from Augustine Volcano Before 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    A late Wisconsin volcano erupted onto the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock of Augustine Island in lower Cook Inlet in Alaska. Olivine basalt interacting with water erupted explosively. Rhyolitic eruptive debris then swept down the south volcano flank while late Wisconsin glaciers from mountians on western mainland surrounded the island. Early to middle Holocene deposits probably erupted onto the island but are now largely buried. About 5,200, 3,750, 3,500 and 2,275 yr B.P. Augustine ash fell 70 to 110 km away. Since about 2,300 yr B.P. several large eruptions deposited coarse-pumice fall beds on the volcano flanks; many smaller eruptions dropped sand and silt ash. The steep summit erupting viscous andesite domes has repeatedly collapsed into rocky avalanches that flowed into the sea. After a collapse, new domes rebuilt the summit. One to three avalanches shed east before about 2,100 yr B.P., two large ones swept east and southeast between about 2,100 and 1,700 yr B.P., and one shed east and east-northeast between 1,700 and 1,450 yr B.P. Others swept into the sea on the volcano's south, southwest, and north-northwest between about 1,450 and 1,100 yr B.P., and pyroclastic fans spread southeast and southwest. Pyroclastic flows and surges poured down the west and south flanks and a debris avalanche plowed into the western sea between about 1,000 and 750 yr B.P. A small debris avalanche shed south-southeast between about 750 and 390 yr B.P., and large lithic pyroclastic flows went southeast. From about 390 to 200 yr B.P., three rocky avalanches swept down the west-northwest, north-northwest, and north flanks. The large West Island avalanche reached far beyond a former sea cliff and initiated a tsunami. Augustine's only conspicuous lava flow erupted on the north flank. In October 1883 a debris avalanche plowed into the sea to form Burr Point on the north-northeast; then came ashfall, pyroclastic surge, and pyroclastic flows. Eruptions in 1935 and 1963-64 grew summit lava domes that shed coarse rubbly lithic pyroclastic flows down the southwest and south flanks. Eruptions in 1976 and 1986 grew domes that shed large pyroclastic flows northeast, north, and north-northwest. The largest debris avalanches off Augustine sweep into

  1. Postneonatal mortality among Alaska Native infants - Alaska, 1989-2009.

    PubMed

    2012-01-13

    Alaska's postneonatal mortality rate of 3.4 deaths per 1,000 live births during 2006-2008 was 48% higher than the 2007 U.S. rate of 2.3 per 1,000. Among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) infants, the Alaska rate of 8.0 per 1,000 was 70% higher than the U.S. rate of 4.7. The Alaska Division of Public Health analyzed a linked birth-infant death file for 1989-2009 to examine temporal trends in postneonatal mortality in Alaska, specifically in the Alaska Native (AN) population. Overall and non-Alaska Native (non-AN) rates declined during the entire period, but no significant trends in AN-specific mortality were apparent. Infant mortality review committee findings indicated a decline during 1992-2007 among all postneonatal deaths attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or sudden unexplained infant death (SUID), but not for other causes. Lack of progress in reducing postneonatal mortality, particularly among AN infants, indicates a need for renewed emphasis within the Alaska health-care community. Current initiatives to reduce preventable causes of postneonatal mortality should be evaluated and successful models more widely implemented. PMID:22237028

  2. Page 1 Alaska Justice Forum ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    an impact on offense patterns or inmate behavior. Incidence of Child Abuse According to Gallup polls the congregate survey instrument. Child Abuse Histories of Alaska's Long-term Inmates The survey instrument Self-Reported Child Abuse -- Physical (SRCAP) Scale #12;Alaska Justice Forum Page 2 A BJS Report

  3. Page 1 Alaska Justice Forum ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    , No. 1 A Publication of the Justice Center Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit Please see Hate). · A look at incidents reflecting bias in Anchorage, 1999 (page 3). Hate Crimes: An Overview of Numbers and Statutes The current discussion of hate or bias crimes and hate crime legislation in Alaska seems

  4. Page 1 Alaska Justice Forum ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    in Alaska, page 6 The Brady Act in Alaska Cassie Atwell Gun control--especially keeping hand- guns out, the public has expressed outrage over the perceived inability of law enforce- ment to keep guns out that tougher gun laws are the most effective way to curb the violence, not just in schools but in general

  5. Pulsar virtual observatory

    E-print Network

    M. Keith; B. Harbulot; A. Lyne; J. Brooke

    2007-01-04

    The Pulsar Virtual Observatory will provide a means for scientists in all fields to access and analyze the large data sets stored in pulsar surveys without specific knowledge about the data or the processing mechanisms. This is achieved by moving the data and processing tools to a grid resource where the details of the processing are seen by the users as abstract tasks. By developing intelligent scheduling middle-ware the issues of interconnecting tasks and allocating resources are removed from the user domain. This opens up large sets of radio time-series data to a wider audience, enabling greater cross field astronomy, in line with the virtual observatory concept. Implementation of the Pulsar Virtual Observatory is underway, utilising the UK National Grid Service as the principal grid resource.

  6. US National Virtual Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While obtaining astronomical data can be an expensive endeavor, locating this data online can be a time-consuming task. Fortunately, the US National Virtual Observatory's website makes that process much simpler. The Observatory and the website are funded the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research Program, and seventeen astronomy and computer science organizations in the US and Canada have been involved in its development. Most visitors will want to browse through the FAQ section, which gives specific details on what can be found here. Additionally, visitors will want to look over the "Getting Started" section, as it uses screenshots and annotations to lead users through the operation of five key applications that are available through the Observatory.

  7. NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories provide key data for researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    GREENLAND—Brian Vasel, an admitted “Poley” who has overwintered twice at the South Pole, is drawn to ice sheets. That's a good thing for him: Two of the six atmospheric baseline observatories that he oversees as field operations manager for the Global Monitoring Division of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) are located on ice sheets, one at the South Pole and the other at Summit Station, in central Greenland, atop 3.2 kilometers of ice. All of the NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories (ABOs)—including those at Barrow, Alaska; Trinidad Head, Calif.; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and American Samoa—were strategically selected for their unique locations to conduct a variety of atmospheric and solar measurements. For instance, Summit Station is a high-latitude, high-altitude site that is in the free troposphere, and the site in American Samoa is in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, Vasel noted.

  8. San Salvador Microbial Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tim Steppe

    This web site is home of the San Salvador Microbial Observatory, a project investigating the anhydrophilic, halotolerant microbial mats of San Salvador, Bahamas. This project has been developed to address the influence water availability has on structural diversification, community composition, production, and carbon sequestration in microbial mats. The web site includes general information about the project, a research description plan, an introduction to microbial mats, links to other microbial observatories and interesting sites, and a collection of photos. This is a helpful resource for those investigating microbial mat communities.

  9. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Carter, A. L.; Hollebone, B.; Kessler, D.; Blevis, I.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; DeKok, A.; Farine, J.; Grant, D. R.; Hargrove, C. K.; Laberge, G.; Levine, I.; McFarlane, K.; Mes, H.; Noble, A. T.; Novikov, V. M.; O'Neill, M.; Shatkay, M.; Shewchuk, C.; Sinclair, D.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Deal, R.; Earle, E. D.; Gaudette, E.; Milton, G.; Sur, B.; Bigu, J.; Cowan, J. H. M.; Cluff, D. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Haq, R. U.; Hewett, J.; Hykawy, J. G.; Jonkmans, G.; Michaud, R.; Roberge, A.; Roberts, J.; Saettler, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Seifert, H.; Sweezey, D.; Tafirout, R.; Virtue, C. J.; Beck, D. N.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, X.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Dycus, F. W.; Gonzalez, J.; Isaac, M. C. P.; Kajiyama, Y.; Koehler, G. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Moebus, M. C.; Norman, E. B.; Okada, C. E.; Poon, A. W. P.; Purgalis, P.; Schuelke, A.; Smith, A. R.; Stokstad, R. G.; Turner, S.; Zlimen, I.; Anaya, J. M.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, A. F.; Miller, G. G.; Teasdale, W. A.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Anglin, J. D.; Bercovitch, M.; Davidson, W. F.; Storey, R. S.; Biller, S.; Black, R. A.; Boardman, R. J.; Bowler, M. G.; Cameron, J.; Cleveland, B.; Ferraris, A. P.; Doucas, G.; Heron, H.; Howard, C.; Jelley, N. A.; Knox, A. B.; Lay, M.; Locke, W.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Moorhead, M.; Omori, M.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Barton, J. C.; Trent, P. T.; Kouzes, R.; Lowry, M. M.; Bell, A. L.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.; Dayon, M.; Duncan, F.; Erhardt, L. S.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Ford, R.; Hallin, A.; Hamer, A.; Hart, P. M.; Harvey, P. J.; Haslip, D.; Hearns, C. A. W.; Heaton, R.; Hepburn, J. D.; Jillings, C. J.; Korpach, E. P.; Lee, H. W.; Leslie, J. R.; Liu, M.-Q.; Mak, H. B.; McDonald, A. B.; MacArthur, J. D.; McLatchie, W.; Moffat, B. A.; Noel, S.; Radcliffe, T. J.; Robertson, B. C.; Skensved, P.; Stevenson, R. L.; Zhu, X.; Gil, S.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Komar, R. J.; Nally, C. W.; Ng, H. S.; Waltham, C. E.; Allen, R. C.; Bühler, G.; Chen, H. H.; Aardsma, G.; Andersen, T.; Cameron, K.; Chon, M. C.; Hanson, R. H.; Jagam, P.; Karn, J.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Simpson, J. J.; Tagg, N.; Wang, J.-X.; Alexander, C.; Beier, E. W.; Cook, J. C.; Cowen, D. F.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Keener, P. T.; Klein, J. R.; Mayers, G.; McDonald, D. S.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Pearce, R. J.; de Water, R. G. V.; Berg, R. V.; Wittich, P.; Ahmad, Q. R.; Beck, J. M.; Browne, M. C.; Burritt, T. H.; Doe, P. J.; Duba, C. A.; Elliott, S. R.; Franklin, J. E.; Germani, J. V.; Green, P.; Hamian, A. A.; Heeger, K. M.; Howe, M.; Drees, R. M.; Myers, A.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Wechel, T. V.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2000-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a second-generation water Cherenkov detector designed to determine whether the currently observed solar neutrino deficit is a result of neutrino oscillations. The detector is unique in its use of D2O as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by comparison of the charged- and neutral-current interaction rates. In this paper the physical properties, construction, and preliminary operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are described. Data and predicted operating parameters are provided whenever possible.

  10. Lowell Observatory Research Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site describes Lowell Observatory's Planets, Small Solar System Bodies, Astrophysics, and Comets research programs. Visitors can learn about studies of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io and of Pluto, the planet discovered at Lowell Observatory. The site supplies researchers with Galileo photo polarimeter radiometer (PPR) data as well as an immense amount of asteroid information including plots depicting the position of stars and asteroids within user-specified parameters. Amateur astronomers will find helpful advice from Syuichi Nakano about the equipment to use while making asteroid observations.

  11. National Undergraduate Research Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO) at Northern Arizona University and Lowell Observatory "is a consortium of primarily undergraduate institutions which have joined together to provide hands-on training and research experiences for undergraduate students." While the Key Projects link is under construction, users can find out about past student projects at the Undergraduate Research Experiences link. Researchers and students can request observation time and find planning and observing information. The website offers an image gallery and links to the consortium's member schools.

  12. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  13. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  14. Coal resources of northwest Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Eakins; J. G. Clough; J. E. Callahan; M. M. Menge; A. C. Jr. Banet

    1985-01-01

    Rural areas in Alaska depend almost entirely on expensive imported fuel oil for heat and power generation. Following the drastic price increase in petroleum a few years ago, local governments and state agencies have shown considerable interest in determining the potential for northwest Alaska as an alternative energy source. A compilation of earlier work by the US Geological Survey, Bureau

  15. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  16. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three Sisters area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three Sisters (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three Sisters Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the study of volcanoes to help construct the regional hazard zone.

  17. The Plate Boundary Observatory: Current status and plans for the next five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Meertens, C. M.; Mencin, D.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO currently operates and maintains the NSF-funded Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is the geodetic facility of EarthScope. PBO was designed and built from 2003 to 2008 with $100M investment from the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) Program. UNAVCO operated and maintained PBO under a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF from 2008 to 2013 and will continue PBO O&M for the next five years as part of the new Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility. PBO is largest continuous GPS and borehole geophysical network in the Americas, with 1100 continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) sites, including several with multiple monuments, 79 boreholes, with 75 tensor strainmeters, 78 short-period, 3-component seismometers, and pore pressure sensors at 23 sites. PBO also includes 26 tiltmeters deployed at volcanoes in Alaska, Mt St Helens, and Yellowstone caldera and 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters. Surface meteorological sensors are collocated at 154 GPS sites. UNAVCO provides high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) GPS data streams (RT-GPS) from 382 stations in PBO. UNAVCO has delivered over 62 Tb of geodetic data to the EarthScope community since its PBO's inception in 2004. Over the past year, data return for the cGPS component of PBO is 98%, well above the data return metric of 85% set by the NSF, a result of efforts to upgrade power systems and communications infrastructure. In addition, PBO has set the standard for the design, construction, and operation of other multi-hazard networks across the Americas, including COCONet in the Caribbean region and TLALOCNet in Mexico. Funding to support ongoing PBO O&M has declined from FY2012 CA levels under the new GAGE Facility. The implications for data return and data quality metrics as well as replacement of aging PBO GPS instruments with GNSS-compatible systems are as yet unknown. A process to assess the cost of specific PBO components, data rates, enhanced capabilities, and method of delivery (i.e. continuous streams vs. archived files) relative to their scientific value will be proposed. In addition, options to partner with other federal mission-oriented agencies and possible commercial ventures also will be discussed. 1100 station PBO continuous GPS Network.

  18. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington, Revised 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Walder, J.S.; Driedger, C.L.; Scott, K.M.; Pringle, P.T.; Vallance, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Rainier at 4393 meters (14,410 feet) is the highest peak in the Cascade Range; a dormant volcano having glacier ice that exceeds that of any other mountain in the conterminous United States. This tremendous mass of rock and ice, in combination with great topographic relief, poses a variety of geologic hazards, both during inevitable future eruptions and during the intervening periods of repose. The volcano's past behavior is the best guide to possible future hazards. The written history (about A.D. 1820) of Mount Rainier includes one or two small eruptions, several small debris avalanches, and many small lahars (debris flows originating on a volcano). In addition, prehistoric deposits record the types, magnitudes, and frequencies of other events, and areas that were affected. Mount Rainier deposits produced since the latest ice age (approximately during the past 10,000 years) are well preserved. Studies of these deposits indicate we should anticipate potential hazards in the future. Some phenomena only occur during eruptions such as tephra falls, pyroclastic flows and surges, ballistic projectiles, and lava flows while others may occur without eruptive activity such as debris avalanches, lahars, and floods. The five geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Mount Rainier volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 98-428 (Hoblitt and others, 1998) are included in this data set. Case 1, case 2, and case 3 layers were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various lahar innundation zones around the mountain. Two additional layers delineate areas that may be affected by post-lahar sedimentation (postlahar layer) and pyroclastic flows (pyroclastic layer).

  20. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Camacho; D. A. Novelo-Casanova; A. Tapia; A. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take

  1. Composite Volcanoes, Stratovolcanoes, and Subduction-Zone Volcanoes (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource defines and describes composite volcanoes, stratovolcanoes, subduction-zone volcanoes and composite cones. The information is from different sources and therefore the site gives a broad picture of these forms. The shape of the volcano is described as a function of the type and frequency of eruption and its proximity to plate boundaries.

  2. Sensors for Environmental Observatories

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Michael P.

    will enable longer-term sensing of the environment. However, there are significant limitations to current and sensor systems available for observing systems and on ways to fill current knowledge gaps in sensorSensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF-Sponsored Workshop December 2004 #12

  3. European Southern Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

  4. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Simpson

    2001-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large, underground heavywater Cerenkov detector which has been designed and built primarily to solve the solar neutrino problem, the shortfall in the flux of neutrinos coming from the sun relative to the best solar model predictions. As discussed in previous talks in this symposium, the neutrino flux shortfall occurs in all previous experiments

  5. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  6. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  7. The IT Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kai Iok Tong; Sousa, Antonio C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the IT Observatory, a service of the Macau Productivity and Technology center (CPTTM) that provides information on demand using information technology. The CPTTM is a nonprofit organization funded by the Macau government and private businesses to enhance the productivity of Macau businesses by introducing new technologies and new…

  8. Mount Wilson - America's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrow, Robert; Baliunas, Sallie

    1993-03-01

    New developments at the Mount Wilson Observatory are reviewed. The renovation of the 100-inch Hooker reflector is described, and projects involving interferometry and adaptive optics are examined. Major new programs in support of science education and amateur astronomy are discussed.

  9. Modeling an Active (!!) Explosive Volcano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is an active simulation of an explosive volcanic eruption. The model volcano is a plastic 35 mm film cannister that erupts (the lid blows off) when gas pressure generated by dissolving alka seltzer is sufficiently high. It is realistic in that the timing of the eruption is difficult to predict precisely and in that the eruption occurs when the pressure of the gas exceeds the confining pressure of the lid. The experiment can be modified to show that an eruption will not occur if there is not enough gas pressure generated or if gas is allowed to escape gradually. Students will explain how the build-up of gas from dissolving alka seltzer causes the lid of a film cannister to blow off, explain that build-up of gas pressure causes eruption of explosive volcanoes, and that the pressure comes from heating of dissolved gases in the magma, and they will delineate the similarities and differences between the model and an actual volcano.

  10. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  11. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...FRL-9247-5] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection...to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. On March 22,...

  12. The Geyser Bight geothermal area, Umnak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Juneau, AK (United States)); Nye, C.J. (Alaska Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK (United States) Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.); Turner, D.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs in Alaska, and is the only site in the state with geysers. Heat for the geothermal system is derived from crustal magma associated with Mt. Recheshnoi volcano. Successive injections of magma have probably heated the crust to near its minimum melting point and produced the only high-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites in the oceanic part of the Aleutian arc. At least two hydrothermal reservoirs are postulated to underlie the geothermal area and have temperatures of 165 and 200 C, respectively, as estimated by geothermometry. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometers suggest a deeper reservoir with a temperature of 265 C. The thermal spring waters have relatively low concentrations of Cl (600 ppm) but are rich in B (60 ppm) and As (6 ppm). The As/Cl ratio is among the highest reported for geothermal waters. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. From Chaitén to the Chilean volcano monitoring network Jorge Munoz, Hugo Moreno, Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Chile, jmunoz@sernageomin.cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, J.; Moreno, H.

    2010-12-01

    Chaitén volcano in southern Andes started a plinian to subplinian rhyolitic eruption on May 2008 following a long period of quiescence. A new dome complex grew up at high rates during 2008-2009 inside a 2 kilometers caldera like structure. Pyroclastic, laharic, block and ash flows and ash falls deposits have been affecting the surrounding populations, ground, vegetation, ocean and rivers, such as the laharic flows burying the currently evacuated Chaitén city. The geological, volcanologic and seismic knowledge produced during the eruption and the determination of evolutionary sceneries were properly transferred and consequently taken in account during complex decisions of authorities in charge of the emergency. As a result, no fatalities or major people injuries were produced during this rhyolitic eruption. Mainly as the consequence of the eruption of the Chaitén volcano but also due to the valuable technical advice during the crisis management, evacuation, hazards evolution, volcanic alerts and selection of sites for relocation of the Chaitén city provided by geologist and volcanologist from SERNAGEOMIN, the funding for the National Volcano Monitoring Network (RNVV) was approved during 2008 and it was integrated as a Bicentenary initiative. During the lapse of 5 year, RNVV need to create professional capacity and working teams, improve the current volcano observatory at Temuco and conform three new observatories at Coihaique, Talca and Antofagasta cities to implement volcano monitoring networks at the 43 hazardous volcanoes along the Chilean Andes. Monitoring net is currently conformed by seismic stations in 10 volcanoes or volcanic groups (San Pedro-San Pablo in Central Volcanic Andes and Llaima, Villlarrica, Mocho-Choshuenco, Carrán-Los Venados, Cordón Caulle, Osorno, Calbuco, Chaitén and Melimoyu in the southern volcanic Andes), in addition to gas measure and video camera stations in Llaima, Villarrica and Chaitén volcanoes. In addition, the geologic and volcanologic knowledge is currently transferred to authorities and expose communities in order to improve their preparation and capacity to mitigate effects of volcanic eruptions on people, economy and country structure.

  14. NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

  15. The Green Computing Observatory: from

    E-print Network

    Lefèvre, Laurent

    The Green Computing Observatory: from instrumentation to ontology Cécile Germain-Renaud1, Fredéric a gateway Files in XML format Available from the Grid Observatory portal GreenDays@LyonThe Green Computing Observatory #12;With the support of France Grilles ­ French NGI member of EGI EGI-Inspire (FP7 project

  16. ARMAGH OBSERVATORY Armagh, Northern Ireland

    E-print Network

    ARMAGH OBSERVATORY Armagh, Northern Ireland JOB INFORMATION: EUNAWE PROJECT MANAGER EUNAWE Project; (b) developing an out- reach programme to schools, possibly together with elements of the Observatory and Observatory procedures; and (g) the provision of interim and annual reports and other written outputs

  17. launch of new observatory data

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    March 2002 page 2 launch of new observatory data module page 4 on-line learning group page 8 voting Development Agency (EEDA). The East of England Observatory is a dedicated interactive web site maintained picture of the socio-economic and environmental structure of the East of England. The EEDA Observatory

  18. Berea College Observatory Ramesh Adhikari

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    In the Berea College Observatory Ramesh Adhikari Jimmy Rop William Chase Cole Dr. Tracy Hodge #12;Objectives of the Project: * To check the effectiveness of the instruments in the observatory. * To study is driven by a mechanical motor and a computer attached. Berea College Observatory: #12;S-Big STS camera: -2

  19. The Armagh Observatory Business Plan

    E-print Network

    The Armagh Observatory Business Plan 2009/2010 Business Plan for Period 2009 April 1 to 2010 March The Armagh Observatory is the oldest scientific institution in Northern Ireland, the longest continuously academic visitors, 3 core research and 4.5 core grounds and administrative support staff. The Observatory

  20. Introducing the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory

    E-print Network

    Weinreb, Sander

    Introducing the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory Glenn Jones Jan. 30, 2008 Microwave Group #12;Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory Long duration balloon flight from Antartica: at 120,000 ft higher spatial and spectral resolution Herschel Space Observatory and SOFIA Broader beam able to map much

  1. Universe Awareness meeting Armagh Observatory

    E-print Network

    1 Universe Awareness meeting Armagh Observatory November 22, 2006 ORGANISERS Mark Bailey and Simon Jeffery, Armagh Observatory PRESENT Michael Grehan, Dublin Sean McCabe, Dublin Norbert McCabe, Co. Meath Francey, Armagh Planetarium Paul O'Neill, Armagh Planetarium Mark Bailey, Armagh Observatory Simon Jeffery

  2. The Armagh Observatory and Planetarium

    E-print Network

    The Armagh Observatory and Planetarium Annual Report and Accounts for 2008/2009 Year Ended 31 March-mail: licensing@opsi.x.gsi.gov.uk #12;The Armagh Observatory and Planetarium Annual Report and Accounts for 2008 and Leisure under clause 8 of the Armagh Observatory and Planetarium (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 as amended

  3. The Armagh Observatory Business Plan

    E-print Network

    The Armagh Observatory Business Plan 2007/2008 Business Plan for Period 2007 April 1 to 2008 March. This Business Plan provides brief information on the Armagh Observatory's principal achievements during published in the final audited accounts. 2. The Armagh Observatory is a modern astronomical research

  4. Preparing for Routine Satellite Global Volcano Deformation Observations: The Volcano Deformation Database Task Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Jay, J.; Andrews, B. J.; Cooper, J.; Henderson, S. T.; Delgado, F.; Biggs, J.; Ebmeier, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has greatly expanded the number volcanoes that can be monitored for ground deformation - the number of known deforming volcanoes has increased almost five-fold since 1997 (to more than 213 volcanoes in 2014). However, from 1992-2014, there are still gaps in global volcano surveillance and only a fraction of the 1400 subaerial Holocene volcanoes have frequent observations in this time period. Starting in 2014, near global observations of volcano deformation should begin with the Sentinel satellites from the European Space Agency, ALOS-2 from the Japanese Space Agency, and eventually NISAR from the Indian Space Agency and NASA. With more frequent observations, more volcano deformation episodes are sure to be observed, but evaluating the significance of the observed deformation is not always straightforward -- how can we determine if deformation will lead to eruption? To answer this question, an international task force has been formed to create an inventory of volcano deformation events as part of the Global Volcano Model (http://globalvolcanomodel.org/gvm-task-forces/volcano-deformation-database/). We present the first results from our global study focusing on volcanoes that have few or no previous studies. In some cases, there is a lack of SAR data (for example, volcanoes of the South Sandwich Islands). For others, observations either show an absence of deformation or possible deformation that requires more data to be verified. An example of a deforming volcano that has few past studies is Pagan, an island in the Marianas Arc comprised of 2 stratovolcanoes within calderas. Our new InSAR measurements from both the ALOS and Envisat satellites show deformation near the 1981 May VEI 4 lava flow eruption on North Pagan at 2-3 cm/year between 2004-2010. Another example of a newly observed volcano is Karthala volcano in the Comoros. InSAR observations between 2004-2010 span four eruptions, only one of which is accompanied by deformation.

  5. MT STROMLO OBSERVATORY VISITOR GUIDE & WALK

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    MT STROMLO OBSERVATORY VISITOR GUIDE & WALK RESEARCH SCHOOL OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS MT STROMLO OBSERVATORY Welcome Mt Stromlo Observatory is the headquarters of The Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The University operates two observatories, Mt Stromlo, west

  6. ARMAGH OBSERVATORY AND PLANETARIUM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    ARMAGH OBSERVATORY AND PLANETARIUM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT May 2009 #12;ARMAGH OBSERVATORY Observatory and Planetarium (NI) Order 1995 B. Code of Best Practice for Board Members C. NDPB Accounting Disclosure ("Whistleblowing") #12;Definitions In this Memorandum: "AOP" means The Armagh Observatory

  7. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  8. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W., Jr.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the north to near Boxer Bay on the south. Headlands having rugged cliffs or narrow, boulder-strewn beaches characterize the southwest coastline. The geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island was prepared from published and unpublished field investigations carried out between 1966 and 1971 by W.W. Patton, Jr., Bela Csejtey, Jr., T.P. Miller, J.T. Dutro, Jr., J.M. Hoare, and W.H. Condon (Patton and Csejtey, 1971, 1980) and data from Ormiston and Fehlmann (1969). Fossils collected during these investigations are reported in the Alaska Paleontological Database (www.alaskafossil.org), and mineral resource information is summarized in the online Alaska Resource Data File (Hudson, 1998).

  9. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  10. Building the Alaska Highway

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The most well-documented road-building program in the world may in fact be the construction of the U.S. interstate highway system. However, the most dramatic project may have well been the construction of the Alaska Highway during World War II. As part of the highly celebrated Public Broadcasting System series, "American Experience", this site complements the recent edition of this program that examined this 1,500-mile road. Construction of the road commenced in May 1942, largely because of the very real possibility that Japan might invade Alaska. The highway took eight months to complete, and along the way the soldiers assigned to this project encountered substantial mountain peaks, snow, and primeval forests. After reading a brief synopsis of the film, visitors will want to take a look at the site's special features, which include an online poll, a fun section titled "How to Build a Road", and a virtual "road trip" along the route of the highway. The site is rounded out by a timeline and some bonus interview transcripts from various persons who participated in the construction of the Alaskan Highway.

  11. Strongly gliding harmonic tremor during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotovec, Alicia J.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Vidale, John E.; Gomberg, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, gliding harmonic tremor occurred prominently before six nearly consecutive explosions during the second half of the eruptive sequence. The fundamental frequency repeatedly glided upward from < 1 Hz to as high as 30 Hz in less than 10 min, followed by a relative seismic quiescence of 10 to 60 s immediately prior to explosion. High frequency (5 to 20 Hz) gliding returned during the extrusive phase, and lasted for 20 min to 3 h at a time. Although harmonic tremor is not uncommon at volcanoes, tremor at such high frequencies is a rare observation. These frequencies approach or exceed the plausible upper limits of many models that have been suggested for volcanic tremor. We also analyzed the behavior of a swarm of repeating earthquakes that immediately preceded the first instance of pre-explosion gliding harmonic tremor. We find that these earthquakes share several traits with upward gliding harmonic tremor, and favor the explanation that the gliding harmonic tremor at Redoubt Volcano is created by the superposition of increasingly frequent and regular, repeating stick–slip earthquakes through the Dirac comb effect.

  12. Strongly gliding harmonic tremor during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec, Alicia J.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Vidale, John E.; Gomberg, Joan

    2013-06-01

    During the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, gliding harmonic tremor occurred prominently before six nearly consecutive explosions during the second half of the eruptive sequence. The fundamental frequency repeatedly glided upward from < 1 Hz to as high as 30 Hz in less than 10 min, followed by a relative seismic quiescence of 10 to 60 s immediately prior to explosion. High frequency (5 to 20 Hz) gliding returned during the extrusive phase, and lasted for 20 min to 3 h at a time. Although harmonic tremor is not uncommon at volcanoes, tremor at such high frequencies is a rare observation. These frequencies approach or exceed the plausible upper limits of many models that have been suggested for volcanic tremor. We also analyzed the behavior of a swarm of repeating earthquakes that immediately preceded the first instance of pre-explosion gliding harmonic tremor. We find that these earthquakes share several traits with upward gliding harmonic tremor, and favor the explanation that the gliding harmonic tremor at Redoubt Volcano is created by the superposition of increasingly frequent and regular, repeating stick-slip earthquakes through the Dirac comb effect.

  13. Observatory StampStudent

    E-print Network

    Li, Teng

    HJP Library Union M artin H all G arage Lot 6 Cam bridge Elkton Easton UMUC 1 6 5 3 4 2 K e y FS Sk W Boteler Drive GreenmeadeDr MetzerottRoad Rossborough Drive Fraternity D rive Union Lane Cam pus D r Campus (6483) to request a NITE Ride. Lot 1d, 2g, 6 UMD Golf Course Veterinary Science Complex UMD Observatory

  14. Salt Plains Microbial Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Buchheim

    This site is home of the Salt Plains Microbial Observatory, located in the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge in northern Oklahoma. This area has permitted the first extensive study of a non-marine, terrestrial, hypersaline environment. The web site offers information about the extreme environment, images and video clips of its microbial inhabitants, an image-rich summary of research activities, information about summer courses and research opportunities, a list of publications, and links to other informative resources pertaining to hypersaline environments.

  15. Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The principal projects at Apache Point Observatory at Sunspot, New Mexico, USA, are the 3.5 m telescope, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and New Mexico State University's 1.0 m telescope. The 3.5 m telescope construction incorporates many innovations: compact and lightweight design, thermal control, multiple instruments and remote observing. The SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY is generating a three-dime...

  16. Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory began operating in 1959, and joined the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL in 1970. It became part of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in 1975. The site near Penticton, BC has a 26 m radio telescope, a seven-antenna synthesis telescope on a 600 m baseline and two telescopes dedicated to monitoring the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. This part of the Institu...

  17. Warner and Swasey Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Located at Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas, home of the Warner & Swasey 29 cm refractor. Built in the late 1800s, the telescope was displayed at the 1912 World's Fair, then acquired by Washburn College. Crane Observatory was built on campus to house the telescope. The Warner & Swasey survived a tornado in the 1960s. During telescope refurbishment, which was completed in 1998, all of the ori...

  18. Distributed Observatory Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Godin; J. G. Bellingham

    2006-01-01

    A collection of tools for collaboratively managing a coastal ocean observatory have been developed and used in a multi-institutional, interdisciplinary field experiment. The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network program created these tools to support the Adaptive Sampling and Prediction (ASAP) field experiment that occurred in Monterey Bay in the summer of 2006. ASAP involved the day-to-day participation of a large group

  19. Global Volcano Mortality Risk Distribution Projection: Robinson

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Volcano Mortality Risk Distribution Projection: Robinson Mortality risk is found disasters. The mortality weights are applied to population exposure to obtain mortality risks. The weights and Development/The World Bank and Columbia University. Volcano Mortality Risk Deciles 1 st ­4 th 5 th ­7 th 8 th

  20. Groundwater Flow System of Unzen Volcano, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kazahaya; M. Yasuhara; A. Inamura; T. Sumii; H. Hoshizumi; T. Kohno; S. Ohsawa; Y. Yusa; K. Kitaoka; K. Yamaguchi

    2001-01-01

    Unzen volcano (peak 1486 m) is developed on the western part of Beppu-Shimabara Graben (20 km NS wide and 200 km EW long) located at Kyushu island, SW Japan. We have been studied groundwater system of the volcano using geochemical and hydrological technique in order to estimate flux of magmatic volatiles through the groundwater. We have collected over 150 sample

  1. Automating the hunt for volcanoes on Venus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Burl; U. M. Fayyad; P. Perona; P. Smyth; M. P. Burl

    1994-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a trainable tool for locating patterns of interest in large image databases. Toward this goal we have developed a prototype system, based on classical filtering and statistical pattern recognition techniques, for automatically locating volcanoes in the Magellan SAR database of Venus. Training for the specific volcano-detection task is obtained by synthesizing feature templates (via

  2. VEPP Exercise: Volcanic Activity and Monitoring of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    A 10-week project will be tested during the Fall semester 2010, for a Volcanic Hazards elective course, for undergraduate Geology students of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. This exercise was developed during the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `O`o (VEPP) Workshop, held on the Big Island of Hawaii in July 2010. For the exercise the students will form groups (of 2-4 students), and each group will be assigned a monitoring technique or method, among the following: seismic (RSAM data), deformation (GPS and tilt data), observations (webcam and lava flow maps), gas and thermal monitoring. The project is designed for Geology undergraduates who have a background in introductory geology, types of volcanoes and eruptions, magmatic processes, characteristics of lava flows, and other related topics. It is divided in seven tasks, starting with an introduction and demonstration of the VEPP website and the VALVE3 software, which is used to access monitoring data from the current eruption of Pu`u `O`o, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The students will also familiarize themselves with the history of Kilauea volcano and its current eruption. At least weekly the groups will acquire data (mostly near-real-time) from the different monitoring techniques, in the form of time series, maps, videos, and images, in order to identify trends in the data. The groups will meet biweekly in the computer laboratory to work together in the analysis and interpretation of the data, with the support of the instructor. They will give reports on the progress of the exercise, and will get feedback from the instructor and from the other expert groups. All groups of experts will relate their findings to the recent and current activity of Kilauea volcano, and the importance of their specific type of monitoring. The activity will culminate with a written report and an oral presentation. The last task of the project consists of a wrap-up volcano monitoring exercise, in which the students will participate in a 1-hr discussion and will report on what they think will happen at Kilauea in the near future. Students will be evaluated based on group participation, progress reports and discussions, the written and oral reports, and the final wrap-up exercise. This project can be modified to be based on any 10-week period in the eruption, for which data can be accessed through the VEPP web site. It can also include data from other volcanoes, if data are available from volcano observatories and/or government agencies.

  3. Exposing Middle School Students to Remote Sensing in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.

    2003-12-01

    The need for attracting young minds to scientific research at an early stage is already recognized. Efforts are underway by major organizations to inspire the next generation of scientists. To be effective, there is a need to exploit the potential of the World Wide Web and bring it to a status that printed media have already reached. We find series of theme oriented books for children but websites with such stories are few and scattered. NASA's efforts in generating remote sensing based web stories such as the 'Adventures of Amelia the Pigeon' and 'Echo the Bat' are very good examples and starting points for generating more theme based material for children. 'Alaska: A Bird's Eye View' is a web-based story, specifically designed for grade 5-8 students. The story that is told by a Canada Goose exposes children to the truths of the remote State of Alaska and to the potential of satellite remote sensing. Examples on use remote sensing for monitoring volcanoes and sea ice edge dynamics are related to children in simple and effective ways. The topic of global climate change and its effect on marine animals has also been introduced to children.

  4. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  5. The "Plus Side" of Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page provides a brief guide to the benefits of living with volcanoes. The topics considered are: Fertile Soils; Geothermal Energy with examples from Newberry Caldera in Oregon and in California, The Geysers, Casa Diablo in Long Valley Caldera, and the Salton Sea geothermal field; Mineral Resources including metallic minerals; Industrial Products including construction materials, cleaning agents, and raw materials for many chemical and industrial uses; Business Opportunities; Spas and Resorts; and Recreation and Tourism in America's national parks and monuments. Included among the parks are Yellowstone National Park, Mount Rainier National Park, and Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.

  6. Volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Indonesian island of Java (8.0S, 112.0) has over 35 active volcanoes, some of which are the most explosive in the world, and form an east/west line of peaks the length of the island. Five are in this image and at least one is thought to be currently active. The plume flowing north from Welirang (just east of the central cloud mass) is believed to be steam emissions. Also, the lack of vegetation at the peak indicates volcanic activity.

  7. Wildlife Biologist Delta Junction, Alaska

    E-print Network

    their expertise is responsible to develop project proposals, experimental designs, statistical analysis and restoration, training area clean-up, and wetland permitting. Other responsibilities include assisting conditions, Interior Alaska weather, charter plane schedules, and other unforeseen circumstances. Other

  8. Tectonic Plate Movement in Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-11-04

    In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, learn how tectonic plate movement is responsible for building mountains, such as the Wrangell and St. Elias Mountains.

  9. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  10. The deep structure of Axial Volcano Michael West

    E-print Network

    West, Michael

    available on Web #12;The deep structure of Axial Volcano IV. Magma Reservoir beneath Axial Volcano AxialThe deep structure of Axial Volcano Michael West Thesis defense, June 4, 2001 #12;Motivation What at Axial may be interpreted (NeMO, Neptune) #12;The deep structure of Axial Volcano IV. Magma Reservoir

  11. Density Imaging of Volcanoes with Atmospheric Muons using GRPCs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Density Imaging of Volcanoes with Atmospheric Muons using GRPCs Cristina Cârloganu Clermont of volcanoes with high-resolution tracking detectors. By exploiting Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs of Volcanoes with Atmospheric Muons Cristina Cârloganu 1. Puy de Dôme as a reference site for volcano imaging

  12. Using near-real-time monitoring data from Pu'u '?'? vent at K?lauea Volcano for training and educational purposes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teasdale, Rachel; Kraft, Katrien van der Hoeven; Poland, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Training non-scientists in the use of volcano-monitoring data is critical preparation in advance of a volcanic crisis, but it is currently unclear which methods are most effective for improving the content-knowledge of non-scientists to help bridge communications between volcano experts and non-experts. We measured knowledge gains for beginning-(introductory-level students) and novice-level learners (students with a basic understanding of geologic concepts) engaged in the Volcanoes Exploration Program: Pu‘u ‘?‘? (VEPP) “Monday Morning Meeting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory” classroom activity that incorporates authentic Global Positioning System (GPS), tilt, seismic, and webcam data from the Pu‘u ‘?‘? eruptive vent on K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i (NAGT website, 2010), as a means of exploring methods for effectively advancing non-expert understanding of volcano monitoring. Learner groups consisted of students in introductory and upper-division college geology courses at two different institutions. Changes in their content knowledge and confidence in the use of data were assessed before and after the activity using multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Learning assessments demonstrated that students who took part in the exercise increased their understanding of volcano-monitoring practices and implications, with beginners reaching a novice stage, and novices reaching an advanced level (akin to students who have completed an upper-division university volcanology class). Additionally, participants gained stronger confidence in their ability to understand the data. These findings indicate that training modules like the VEPP: Monday Morning Meeting classroom activity that are designed to prepare non-experts for responding to volcanic activity and interacting with volcano scientists should introduce real monitoring data prior to proceeding with role-paying scenarios that are commonly used in such courses. The learning gains from the combined approach will help improve effective communications between volcano experts and non-experts during times of crisis, thereby reducing the potential for confusion and misinterpretation of data.

  13. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carson, E.C.; Fournelle, J.H.; Miller, T.P.; Mickelson, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425 ?? 350 and 9130 ?? 140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300 ?? 80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200 ?? 75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070 ?? 340 and 3600 ?? 140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk/Fisher ash. Additional tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula and Unimak Island that were collected prior to this study correlate to the tephra horizons identified in the Cold Bay area and identify one additional horizon. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…

  15. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  16. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  17. Distributed Observatory Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, M. A.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    A collection of tools for collaboratively managing a coastal ocean observatory have been developed and used in a multi-institutional, interdisciplinary field experiment. The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network program created these tools to support the Adaptive Sampling and Prediction (ASAP) field experiment that occurred in Monterey Bay in the summer of 2006. ASAP involved the day-to-day participation of a large group of researchers located across North America. The goal of these investigators was to adapt an array of observational assets to optimize data collection and analysis. Achieving the goal required continual interaction, but the long duration of the observatory made sustained co-location of researchers difficult. The ASAP team needed a remote collaboration tool, the capability to add non-standard, interdisciplinary data sets to the overall data collection, and the ability to retrieve standardized data sets from the collection. Over the course of several months and "virtual experiments," the Ocean Observatory Portal (COOP) collaboration tool was created, along with tools for centralizing, cataloging, and converting data sets into common formats, and tools for generating automated plots of the common format data. Accumulating the data in a central location and converting the data to common formats allowed any team member to manipulate any data set quickly, without having to rely heavily on the expertise of data generators to read the data. The common data collection allowed for the development of a wide range of comparison plots and allowed team members to assimilate new data sources into derived outputs such as ocean models quickly. In addition to the standardized outputs, team members were able to produce their own specialized products and link to these through the collaborative portal, which made the experimental process more interdisciplinary and interactive. COOP was used to manage the ASAP vehicle program from its start in July 2006. New summaries were posted to the COOP tool on a daily basis, and updated with announcements on schedule, system status, voting results from previous day, ocean, atmosphere, hardware, adaptive sampling and coordinated control and forecast. The collection of standardized data files was used to generate daily plots of observed and predicted currents, temperature, and salinity. Team members were able to participate from any internet-accessible location using common Internet browsers, and any team member could add to the day's summary, point out trends and discuss observations, and make an adaptation proposal. If a team member submitted a proposal, team-wide discussion and voting followed. All interactions were archived and left publicly accessible so that future experiments could be made more systematic with increased automation. The need for collaboration and data handling tools is important for future ocean observatories, which will require 24-hour per day, 7-day a week interactions over many years. As demonstrated in the ASAP experiment, the COOP tool and associated data handling tools allowed scientists to coherently and collaboratively manage an ocean observatory, without being co-located at the observatory. Lessons learned from operating these collaborative tools during the ASAP experiment provide an important foundation for creating even more capable portals.

  18. On the absence of InSAR-detected volcano deformation spanning the 19951996 and 1999 eruptions of Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska

    E-print Network

    . We used 21 synthetic aperture radar images acquired by ERS-1, ERS-2, JERS-1, and RADARSAT-1 the expected detection capabilities for interferograms generated from C-band ERS 1/2 and RADARSAT-1 synthetic

  19. Scientific verification of High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Antonio; Sparks, Kathryne; Alfaro, Ruben; González, María Magdalena; Patricelli, Barbara; Fraija, Nissim

    2014-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 m close to volcano Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC [1] observatory is an extensive air-shower array composed of 300 optically isolated water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs). Each WCD contains ~200,000 l of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. In Fall 2014, when the HAWC observatory will reach an area of 22,000 m2, the sensitivity will be 15 times higher than its predecessor Milagro [2]. Since September 2012, more than 30 WCDs have been instrumented and taking data. This first commissioning phase has been crucial for the verification of the data acquisition and event reconstruction algorithms. Moreover, with the increasing number of instrumented WCDs, it is important to verify the data taken with different configuration geometries. In this work we present a comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and data recorded by the experiment during 24 h of live time between 14 and 15 April of 2013 when 29 WCDs were active.

  20. Lille Observatory: a university heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienne, A.

    2009-11-01

    Lille observatory was a private research structure from 1909 to 1933, but it was declared "Observatory of Lille University" in 1912. So from the beginning, the actions of the observatory were linked to research observations (measurements of double stars) and to pedagogic activities with students. In 1933, all the astronomical instruments (including the 32.5~cm telescope with a focal length of 6 m) were transfered in Lille and the new observatory became a public structure incorporated into the university. Nowadays, the scientists of Lille observatory are a team of the CNRS/UMR8028 (IMCCE, Paris Observatory, Lille 1, Paris 6), and still use the telescope for science and teaching purposes. In 2009, within the framework of the centenary of the telescope, Lille university leads several actions to promote its heritage (including restorations of the dome and the offices).

  1. A global database of composite volcano morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Pablo; Euillades, Pablo A.; Euillades, Leonardo D.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We present a global database on the subaerial morphometry of composite volcanoes. Data was extracted from the 90-m resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM). The 759 volcanoes included in the database are the composite (i.e., polygenetic) volcanoes listed in the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program (GVP) database that are covered by the SRTM DEM, have a constructional topography and a basal width larger than 2 km. The extent of each volcano edifice was defined using the NETVOLC algorithm, which computes outlines by minimizing a cost function based on breaks in slope around the edifices. Morphometric parameters were then calculated using the MORVOLC algorithm. The parameters characterize and quantify volcano size (basal width, summit width, height, and volume), profile shape (height/basal width and summit width/basal width ratios), plan shape (ellipticity and irregularity indexes), and slopes. In addition, 104 well-defined and relatively large summit craters/calderas were manually delineated and specific parameters were computed. Most parameters show large variation without clear separations, indicating a continuum of volcano morphologies. Large overlap between the main GVP morphologic types highlights the need for a more rigorous quantitative classification of volcano morphology. The database will be maintained and updated through a website under construction.

  2. Legislative Observatory (OEIL)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    European Parliament.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union Parliament has recently introduced the Legislative Observatory, a database which includes status of legislation in progress (procedural files), commentary on parliamentary actions, citations to documents, and selected full text documents. Users can search the database by one single research criterion (by subject, reference, committee, service or state of progress of procedure) or by part-session. Procedural files typically include some identifying information, a history, authorship, statement of progress and forecast, and commentary. Note that, currently, some summaries are available only in French.

  3. Strasbourg Observatory Archives Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    2002-12-01

    Official talks in France and Germany after World War I were generally of hatred and revenge. Strasbourg Observatory had just changed nationality (from Prussian to French) for the first time (this would happen again at the outbreak of WWII and after the conflict). Documents show that astronomers did not share the general attitude. For example the inventory book started in German was continued in French after 1918. It is moving to see those different handwritings in two different languages on the same pages -- making of that book a unique document in various respects, but also reminding us that the native language of the region was in fact Alsacian.

  4. LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FERTILIZING BARE 'LAKE, 'ALASKA

    E-print Network

    LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FERTILIZING BARE 'LAKE, 'ALASKA I By PHILIP R. NELSON and W. T. EDMONDSON, Director LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FERTILIZING BARE LAKE, ALASKA By PHILIP R. NELSON and W. T. EDMONDSON Literature cited_ __________________________________________________ 434 D #12;LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS

  5. Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  6. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ...to The Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface estate in the...Kuskokwim Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Red Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska...

  7. Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

  8. Welcome to the Gemini Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michaud, Peter

    This site covers many aspects of the Gemini Observatory. It discusses where it is located, what it observes, what pictures it takes, and certain issues that pertain to it. In addition, it allows users to take a virtual tour of the campus. In a Quicktime format, a 360 degree picture is taken of the observatory and the surrounding landscape. Users can virtually move about and see the impressive, and the impressively beautiful, landscape. The site also provides links to newsletters, press releases and the clips of the observatory in the news. This is a nice look at the different goals and features of a prominent observatory.

  9. Collapse of waterlogged volcanoes / Collapse of dry volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanoes may hold very different amounts of water, depending on their original construction, alteration and on the climate around them. The water can behave differently depending on the hydrological-hydrothermal conditions. Water also has a very strong influence on the stability of the edifice, and also may have a major role on how any resulting debris avalanche moves and how the avalanche material develops. In the edifice, the water can be variably distributed, depending on the internal structure. Using examples such as Mt Meager, Iriga, Mombacho, Socompa, La Réunion, I construct models of volcano structure and hydrology, and suggest different scenarios for debris avalanches that would develop from the collapse of these edifices. Then, taking the assumed make-up of the collapsing mass and its water content, I speculate on the behaviour of the developing mass in movement. Comparing with some observed field cases I discuss how water is held in the mass and how it may concentrate in parts and develop specific rheologies and behaviours. In particular, I will look at the relationship between the basal layer, the substrate (incorporated or not), hummocks and inter-hummocks, and a possible gloopy surface layer that may develop during or just after flow. It is likely that debris avalanches (dry frictional transport) and debris flows (saturated flow transport) have a complete gradation between them, and that in many cases the distinction is not really useful, as both types of motion probably operate at the same time in one event or may both operate in one mass, depending on the strain rate imposed.

  10. Lava Sampling on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video segment shows how scientists collaborate to collect and chemically analyze samples of molten lava as part of their quest to learn more about how volcanoes work. Working at Kilauea volcano, scientists collect samples of lava before it has a chance to cool so they can study the chemical properties it had when it was deep within Earth's interior. The samples are sent to a laboratory where other scientists determine their chemical compositions. Questions such as whether two volcanoes share a common magma source can be answered through such analyses. The segment is five minutes forty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  11. Sampling microbial communities in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. E.; Parnell, J.; Powell, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform to enable the community to assess impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function at regional and continental scales. The NEON Observatory will collect data on aquatic organisms over 30 years in 36 sites across the United States, including Alaska and Puerto Rico as well as terrestrial organisms at 60 sites including Hawaii. Included in the biological measurements are microbial measurements in terrestrial and aquatic environments, including small, wadeable streams and shallow lakes. Microbial sampling in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats is being planned to coincide with biogeochemical sampling due to similarity of time scale and influence of external drivers. Aquatic sampling is geared toward species diversity and function. Terrestrial sampling aims to collect data on diversity, function, and spatial distribution dynamics. We are in the process of prioritizing data products, so that the most dynamic processes such as enzymatic activity will be measured more frequently and more intensive measures such as metagenome sequence data will be measured on a periodic basis. Here we present our initial microbial sampling strategy and invite the community to provide comment on the design and learn about microbial data products from the Observatory.

  12. The Advanced Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Bailey, Wayne; Chupp, Edward L.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Moore, Ronald; Roberts, William; Hoover, Richard B.

    1990-10-01

    A conceptual plan for the development of a comprehensive long duration solar space observatory, The Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) is described. The ASO is intended to provide solar astronomers with the observational power necessary to address fundamental problems relating to the solar convection zone and activity cycle; the thermal and nonthermal processes that control the transport of energy, mass, and magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere; the generation of the solar wind; and the dynamics of the inner heliosphere. The ASO concept encompasses three proposed Space Station-based instrument ensembles: (1) the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, which includes far ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, and X-ray telescopes; (2) the Pinhole/Occulter Facility, which includes Fourier transform and coded aperture hard X-ray and gamma ray telescopes and occulted ultraviolet and visible light coronagraphs; and (3) the High Energy Facility, which contains neutron, gamma ray, and low frequency radio spectrometers. Two other facilities, the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, and a package of Global Dynamics Instrumentation, will, with the Space Station ensembles, form a comprehensive capability for solar physics. The scientific program of the ASO, current instrument concepts for the Space Station based ASO instrument ensembles, and plans for their accommodation on the Space Station are described.

  13. Relationship between Kamen Volcano and the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (Kamchatka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Ivanov, Boris V.; Wörner, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of rocks from Kamen Volcano (Central Kamchatka Depression) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighbouring active volcanoes. The rocks from Kamen and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes differ systematically in major elemental and mineral compositions and could not have been produced from the same primary melts. The compositional trends of Kamen stratovolcano lavas and dikes are clearly distinct from those of Klyuchevskoy lavas in all major and trace element diagrams as well as in mineral composition. However, lavas of the monogenetic cones on the southwestern slope of Kamen Volcano are similar to the moderately high-Mg basalts from Klyuchevskoy and may have been derived from the same primary melts. This means that the monogenetic cones of Kamen Volcano represent the feeding magma for Klyuchevskoy Volcano. Rocks from Kamen stratovolcano and Bezymianny form a common trend on all major element diagrams, indicating their genetic proximity. This suggests that Bezymianny Volcano inherited the feeding magma system of extinct Kamen Volcano. The observed geochemical diversity of rocks from the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes can be explained as the result of both gradual depletion over time of the mantle N-MORB-type source due to the intense previous magmatic events in this area, and the addition of distinct fluids to this mantle source.

  14. 77 FR 59220 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...surface estate is conveyed to Council Native Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Council, Alaska, and are located in: Lot 1, U.S. Survey No. 9993, Alaska. Containing 129.97 acres. Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 5 S., R. 24 W.,...

  15. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska

  16. Alaska Women's Commission Regional Conferences 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Christine

    This booklet describes the work of the Alaska Women's Commission, a state agency dedicated to the achievement of equal legal, economic, social, and political status for women in Alaska. Since its inception, the Alaska Women's Commission has provided funding for regional women's conferences in rural parts of the state. The document describes four…

  17. University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    99508 Series coordinator: Dr. Darryl Wood ayjust@uaa.alaska.edu Seasonal Use of Marijuana and Cocaine 2005 #12;Seasonal Use of Marijuana and Cocaine by Arrestees in Anchorage, Alaska by Robert;Seasonal Use of Marijuana and Cocaine by Arrestees in Anchorage, Alaska 1 1 Seasonal Use of Marijuana

  18. Alaska Park Science National Park Service

    E-print Network

    Birkedal, Team Leader for Cultural Resources; Alex Carter, Team Manager for Biological Resources Team; Joy Geiselman, Deputy Chief, Biological Science Office USGS Alaska Science Center; Sue Huse, Natural Resources;Alaska Park Science Connections to Natural and Cultural Resource Studies in Alaska's National Parks

  19. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ...below pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). The lands are in the vicinity of Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 7 N., R. 21 E., Secs. 24 and 25. Containing...

  20. Volcanoes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a vent in the Earth's crust. Hot rock, steam, poisonous gases, and ash reach the Earth's ... can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even ...

  1. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Schweitzer; T. T. Melsheimer

    2004-01-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the first community-built E\\/PO observatory that is accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. The observatory will celebrate its fifth anniversary in summer 2004, and we are

  2. Combining Volcano Monitoring Timeseries Analyses with Bayesian Belief Networks to Update Hazard Forecast Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbert, Henry; Hincks, Thea; Aspinall, Willy

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic hazard assessments must combine information about the physical processes of hazardous phenomena with observations that indicate the current state of a volcano. Incorporating both these lines of evidence can inform our belief about the likelihood (probability) and consequences (impact) of possible hazardous scenarios, forming a basis for formal quantitative hazard assessment. However, such evidence is often uncertain, indirect or incomplete. Approaches to volcano monitoring have advanced substantially in recent decades, increasing the variety and resolution of multi-parameter timeseries data recorded at volcanoes. Interpreting these multiple strands of parallel, partial evidence thus becomes increasingly complex. In practice, interpreting many timeseries requires an individual to be familiar with the idiosyncrasies of the volcano, monitoring techniques, configuration of recording instruments, observations from other datasets, and so on. In making such interpretations, an individual must consider how different volcanic processes may manifest as measureable observations, and then infer from the available data what can or cannot be deduced about those processes. We examine how parts of this process may be synthesised algorithmically using Bayesian inference. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) use probability theory to treat and evaluate uncertainties in a rational and auditable scientific manner, but only to the extent warranted by the strength of the available evidence. The concept is a suitable framework for marshalling multiple strands of evidence (e.g. observations, model results and interpretations) and their associated uncertainties in a methodical manner. BBNs are usually implemented in graphical form and could be developed as a tool for near real-time, ongoing use in a volcano observatory, for example. We explore the application of BBNs in analysing volcanic data from the long-lived eruption at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. We show how our method provides a route to formal propagation of uncertainties in hazard models. Such approaches provide an attractive route to developing an interface between volcano monitoring analyses and probabilistic hazard scenario analysis. We discuss the use of BBNs in hazard analysis as a tractable and traceable tool for fast, rational assimilation of complex, multi-parameter data sets in the context of timely volcanic crisis decision support.

  3. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The sides of the volcano are less cratered than the rest of the terrain. Perhaps that means it is younger than the surrounding area and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts. On the other hand, perhaps erosion has scrubbed away the original cratered surfaces. It's a little hard to tell which possibility holds the key to the history of this area. Although most of Terra Cimmeria can look relatively darker (has a low albedo or low 'reflective power') than some other Martian areas, its eastern portions sometimes have an overall lack of contrast as seen in the above image. A layer of dust blankets the surface here, causing it to look muted. Many of the craters in the northern and southern ends of the image also seem subdued, as dust has partly filled in the stark holes they once created. The Cimmerians who give their name to this region were an ancient, little-known people of southern Russia mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions and by Homer.

  4. Observatory response to a volcanic crisis: the Campi Flegrei simulation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, Paolo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In Febraury 2014 a simulation exercise was conducted at Campi Flegrei, Italy, in order to test the scientific response capabilities and the effectiveness of communication with Civil Protection authorities. The simulation was organized in the frame of the EU-VUELCO project, and involved the participation of the Osservatorio Vesuviano of INGV (INGV-OV) corroborated by other INGV scientists involved for their specific competencies; and the Italian Civil Protection, which was supported by an expert team formed by selected experts from the Italian academy and by VUELCO scientists from several EU and Latin American countries. The simulation included a previously appointed group of four volcanologists covering a range of expertise in volcano seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, and with experience both on the Campi Flegrei system and on other volcanic systems and crises in the world. The duty of this 'volcano team' was that of producing consistent sets of signals, that were sent to INGV-OV at the beginning of each simulation phase. In turn, the observatory response was that of i) immediately communicate the relevant observations to the Civil Protection; ii) analyze the synthetic signals and observations and extract a consistent picture and interpretation, including the analysis and quantification of uncertainties; iii) organize all the information produced in a bulletin, that was sent to the Civil Protection at the end of each simulation phase and that contained, according to national established agreements, a) the information available, and b) its interpretation including forecasts on the possible medium-short term evolution. The test included four simulation phases and it was blind, as only the volcano team knew the evolution and the final outcome; the volcano team was located at the INGV buildings in Rome, far from INGV-OV in Naples and the Civil Protection Dept. still in Rome, and with no contacts with any of them for the entire duration of the simulation. In this presentation we shortly review the whole simulation exercise focussing on the observatory response; we discuss the team organization at INGV-OV and the interaction set up between the different technical and scientific components; illustrate the evolution of the crisis commenting on the capability of the observatory to provide consistent interpretation and useful information; discuss the relevant issue of communication with Civil Protection authorities; and comment on the relevance of such exercises in order to optimize and test the response capabilities and the communication procedures at volcano observatories.

  5. Lahar hazards at Mombacho Volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.

    2001-01-01

    Mombacho volcano, at 1,350 meters, is situated on the shores of Lake Nicaragua and about 12 kilometers south of Granada, a city of about 90,000 inhabitants. Many more people live a few kilometers southeast of Granada in 'las Isletas de Granada and the nearby 'Peninsula de Aseses. These areas are formed of deposits of a large debris avalanche (a fast moving avalanche of rock and debris) from Mombacho. Several smaller towns with population, in the range of 5,000 to 12,000 inhabitants are to the northwest and the southwest of Mombacho volcano. Though the volcano has apparently not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce landslides and debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris -- also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. -- Vallance, et.al., 2001

  6. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  7. Investigation of prototype volcano-surveillance network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. P. (principal investigator); Ward, P. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The equipment installed in the volcano surveillance network continues to work quite reliably and earthquakes are being recorded at all sites. A summary of platform receptions per day has been prepared.

  8. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. Kniffen

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments,

  9. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' GeoPDF format to display the location, type, and where applicable, a risk-weighted quantity estimate of energy resources available in a given area or site. The project will be managed and directed by the DNR Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys DGGS over the next five years with a team composed of the Alaska Energy Authority, DNR Division of Forestry, and DNR LRIS.

  10. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  11. Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

  12. NASA Earth Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The focus is on Earth's climate and environmental change. The site is divided into six main sections: Data and Images, Features, News, Reference, Missions, and Experiments. The Data and Images, Features, and Reference sections are each subdivided into sections for Atmosphere, Oceans, Land, Life on Earth, and Heat and Energy. The missions section explains all of the current NASA missions, and the Experiments section contains activities related to the topics covered in the other sections. Information provided in these pages includes text, photographs, animations, maps, and datasets. The site also includes a glossary, "ask a scientist" feature, and links to current news stories.

  13. Chipper Woods Bird Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâ??s Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â?? such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â?? are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

  14. LCOGT network observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach

    2014-08-01

    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  15. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  16. Evolution of large shield volcanoes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Dufek, Josef; McGovern, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the geologic history, topographic expression, and gravity signature of 29 large Venusian shield volcanoes with similar morphologies in Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery. While they appear similar in imagery, 16 have a domical topographic expression and 13 have a central depression. Typical dimensions for the central depression are 150 km wide and 500 m deep. The central depressions are probably not calderas resulting from collapse of a shallow magma chamber but instead are the result of a corona-like sagging of a previously domical volcano. The depressions all have some later volcanic filling. All but one of the central depression volcanoes have been post-dated by geologic features unrelated to the volcano, while most of the domical volcanoes are at the top of the stratigraphic column. Analysis of the gravity signatures in the spatial and spectral domains shows a strong correlation between the absence of post-dating features and the presence of dynamic support by an underlying plume. We infer that the formation of the central depressions occurred as a result of cessation of dynamic support. However, there are some domical volcanoes whose geologic histories and gravity signatures also indicate that they are extinct, so sagging of the central region apparently does not always occur when dynamic support is removed. We suggest that the thickness of the elastic lithosphere may be a factor in determining whether a central depression forms when dynamic support is removed, but the gravity data are of insufficient resolution to test this hypothesis with admittance methods.

  17. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  18. On the frequency distribution of volcanic degassing intensity obtained from scanning-DOAS monitoring at the NOVAC volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, S. R.; Galle, B.; Platt, U.; van Roozendael, M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Hansteen, T. H.; Boudon, G.; Burton, M. R.; Delgado Granados, H.; Muñoz, A.; Duarte, E.; Garzón, G.; Escobar, D.; Yalire, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Sánchez, E.; Molina, L. T.; Carn, S. A.; Inguaggiato, S.; Newhall, C. G.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Gil, F.

    2013-12-01

    The intensity of volcanic degassing of key volatile species such as SO2 is one of the most important variables defining the physical state of an active volcano. Its monitoring may thus provide crucial information about the evolution of an eruptive process, a task that could not be accomplished routinely until the development, during the last decade, of instrumentation capable of tracking plume emission rates permanently and with a time resolution down to minutes or better. In particular, the scanning-DOAS technique has been adopted by an increasing number of volcanological observatories within the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) since 2005. On average, about 40 measurements of the total emission rate of SO2 are obtained daily at the volcanoes of the network, a significant improvement towards real-time gas monitoring at a level of detail comparable to that of other geophysical variables. The database has been analyzed up to 2012 to retrieve SO2 emission rates from the more than 20 volcanoes in NOVAC. We study the statistical distributions of the measured degassing intensities for the most representative volcanoes. By constructing intensity indices and computing their empirical probability distribution functions, we found them to be of alpha-stable type with characteristic exponents between 1 and 2. The retrieved parameters remain remarkably constant for volcanoes exhibiting non-explosive activity and seem to be related to their permeability to degassing, with open systems showing higher exponents than closed systems. We present details of the technique, the data evaluation method, the statistical analysis procedure, and discuss possible physical mechanisms producing the observed distributions, as well as their implications for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting.

  19. When mud volcanoes sleep: Insight from seep geochemistry at the Dashgil mud volcano, Azerbaijan

    E-print Network

    Svensen, Henrik

    When mud volcanoes sleep: Insight from seep geochemistry at the Dashgil mud volcano, Azerbaijan A Petroleum Research, Oslo Research Park, 0349 Oslo, Norway c Geology Institute Azerbaijan, Husein Avenue 29A, Baku, Azerbaijan d Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology, Vorobjevy Gory, Moscow 119992, Russia e

  20. When mud volcanoes sleep: Insight from seep geochemistry at the Dashgil mud volcano, Azerbaijan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mazzini; H. Svensen; S. Planke; I. Guliyev; G. G. Akhmanov; T. Fallik; D. Banks

    2009-01-01

    The worlds >1500 mud volcanoes are normally in a dormant stage due to the short duration of eruptions. Their dormant stage activity is often characterized by vigorous seepage of water, gas, and petroleum. However, the source of the fluids and the fluid–rock interactions within the mud volcano conduit remain poorly understood. In order to investigate this type of activity, we

  1. Volcano-earthquake interaction at Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii Thomas R. Walter1,2

    E-print Network

    Amelung, Falk

    Volcano-earthquake interaction at Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii Thomas R. Walter1,2 and Falk Amelung1 into the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) or into the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) and by large earthquakes at the basal decollement fault. In this paper we examine the historic eruption and earthquake catalogues, and we test

  2. Research paper Living with volcanoes: The sustainable livelihoods approach for volcano-related opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Kelman; Tamsin A. Mather

    Although the negative impacts of volcanism on society are well documented and accepted, many possible benefits from volcanoes are not always fully considered. This paper provides suggestions for understanding and implementing volcanoes' benefits by suggesting further application of existing risk management frameworks to volcanology: living with risk by using the sustainable livelihoods approach at the local level. This paper presents

  3. Living with volcanoes: The sustainable livelihoods approach for volcano-related opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Kelman; Tamsin A. Mather

    2008-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of volcanism on society are well documented and accepted, many possible benefits from volcanoes are not always fully considered. This paper provides suggestions for understanding and implementing volcanoes' benefits by suggesting further application of existing risk management frameworks to volcanology: living with risk by using the sustainable livelihoods approach at the local level. This paper presents

  4. A Cyberinfrastructure for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, D.; Berukoff, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an NSF-funded project designed to provide physical and information infrastructure to support the development of continental-scale, quantitative ecological sciences. The network consists of sixty sites located in the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, each site hosting terrestrial and aquatic sensors and observational apparati that acquire data across multiple ecoclimatic domains. As well, an airborne remote sensing platform provides spectral and LiDAR data, and acquisition of data sets from external agencies allows for land-use studies. Together, this data is ingested, vetted, processed, and curated by a standards-based, provenance-driven, metadata-rich cyberinfrastructure, which will provide not only access to but discovery and manipulation of NEON data, and the construction of integrative data products and inputs for ecological forecasting that address fundamental processual questions in climate change, land use change, and invasive species.

  5. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is going to be, when we know the record of specific earthquakes and the routes they have followed towards the East. For example, to foresee an earthquake in the Mediterranean region, we take starting point earthquakes to Latin America (0°-40°).The aforementioned elements will reach Italy in an average time period of 49 days and Greece in 53 days. The most reliable preceding phenomenon to determine the epicenter of an earthquake is the rise of the crust's temperature at the area where a large quantity of elements is concentrated, among other phenomena that can be detected either by instruments or by our senses. When there is an active volcano along the route between the area where the "starting-point" earthquake occurred and the area where we expect the same elements to cause a new earthquake, it is possible these elements will escape through the volcano's crater, carrying lava with them. We could contribute to that end, nullifying earthquakes that might be triggered by these elements further to the east, by using manmade resources, like adequate quantities of explosives at the right moment.

  6. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  7. Development of Mykolaiv Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhaev, A.; Protsyuk, Yu.

    Results obtained in 2010-2013 on the development of astronomical databases and web services are presented. Mykolaiv Virtual Observatory (MVO) is a part of the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory (UkrVO). At present, MVO consists of three major databases containing data on: astrometric catalogues, photographic plates, CCD observations. The databases facilitate the process of data mining and provide easy access to the textual and graphic information on the results of observations and their reduction obtained during the whole history of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory (NAO).

  8. Astronomical Archive at Tartu Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annuk, K.

    2007-10-01

    Archiving astronomical data is important task not only at large observatories but also at small observatories. Here we describe the astronomical archive at Tartu Observatory. The archive consists of old photographic plate images, photographic spectrograms, CCD direct--images and CCD spectroscopic data. The photographic plate digitizing project was started in 2005. An on-line database (based on MySQL) was created. The database includes CCD data as well photographic data. A PHP-MySQL interface was written for access to all data.

  9. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  10. The Long-term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Schofield; Trisha Bergmann; Paul Bissett; J. Frederick Grassle; Dale B. Haidvogel; Josh Kohut; Mark Moline; Scott M. Glenn

    2002-01-01

    An integrated ocean observatory has been developed and operated in the coastal waters off the central coast of New Jersey, USA. One major goal for the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO) is to develop a real-time capability for rapid environmental assessment and physical\\/biological forecasting in coastal waters. To this end, observational data are collected from satellites, aircrafts, ships, fixed\\/relocatable moorings and

  11. Overview of gas flux measurements from volcanoes of the global Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Conde, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    NOVAC, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, was initiated in 2005 as a 5-years-long project financed by the European Union. Its main purpose is to create a global network for the study of volcanic atmospheric plumes and related geophysical phenomena by using state-of-the-art spectroscopic remote sensing technology. Up to 2014, 67 instruments have been installed at 25 volcanoes in 13 countries of Latin America, Italy, Democratic Republic of Congo, Reunion, Iceland, and Philippines, and efforts are being done to expand the network to other active volcanic zones. NOVAC has been a pioneer initiative in the community of volcanologists and embraces the objectives of the Word Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). In this contribution, we present the results of the measurements of SO2 gas fluxes carried out within NOVAC, which for some volcanoes represent a record of more than 8 years of semi-continuous monitoring. The network comprises some of the most strongly degassing volcanoes in the world, covering a broad range of tectonic settings, levels of unrest, and potential risk. Examples of correlations with seismicity and other geophysical phenomena, environmental impact studies and comparisons with previous global estimates will be discussed as well as the significance of the database for further studies in volcanology and other geosciences.

  12. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on the sea floor in order to get experimental data in geomagnetic coordinates frames. The analysis executed showed that first error source can not be avoided at shallow water experiments but can be easily taken into account. The special methodology and the developed software allowed to solve the second problem. It was shown that it is possible to reduce the magnetometer data collected in randomly oriented coordinate system at arbitrary position on the sea floor to the data in the frame system connected with geomagnetic coordinates. The parameters of LEMI-302 sea bed magnetometer are discussed and the experimental results of its application are presented. The research work in Ukraine was partly supported by INTAS grant 99-1102.

  13. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  14. UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA TRAVEL AUTHORIZATION

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Claiming less than allowable Per Diem Estimated Costs: Transportation: Mode of Travel Air $ Lodging DaysTA No. UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA TRAVEL AUTHORIZATION Traveler's Name : Banner ID : Employee Non Employee Student Volunteer Mailing Address: Reason for Trip: Travel From: Travel To: Date Leaving : Return

  15. PROGRESS REPORT ON ALASKA FISHERY

    E-print Network

    be obtained if proper management methods are to be developed. The Bureau's intensified biological researchPROGRESS REPORT ON ALASKA FISHERY MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH 1958 Marine Biological Laboratory] LIBRARY ''^" 1 5 1959 WOODS HOLE, MASS. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT-FISHERIES No. 294 UNITED STATES

  16. Yukon-Alaska Gold Metallogeny

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    Yukon-Alaska Gold Metallogeny Project Concept MDRU is launching a new collaborative project with industry, building on successes of the recently completed Yukon Gold Project, to provide metallogenic constraints on gold mineraliza- tion in poorly understood portions of the northern Cordillera. This new

  17. Fishery Notes Alaska Plans New

    E-print Network

    near Juneau, Main Bay in Prince William Sound, Ship Creek near Anchorage, and at Kotzebue Sound will produce fish for Alaska's burgeoning sport fishing popu- lation, and will help maintain the commercial salmon industry at a more constant level. Planned expansion of the Ship Creek hatchery complex

  18. The sudbury neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The solar neutrino problem has been the focus of four major experiments during the past several decades. The Homestake Mine, SAGE and GALLEX experiments rely on radiochemical observation of a small number of neutrino generated atoms. Kamiokande revolutionized the observation of solar neutrinos by developing a real-time water Cerenkov detector. Recently, the calibration of the GALLEX experiment by a man-made neutrino source has invigorated interest in this long standing discrepancy between observed neutrino flux and solar models. The next generation of detectors is now under construction. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is 1000 tonne heavy water Cerenkov detector. The siting of the experiment more than 2000 meters below ground, its enhanced event rate, and the unique neutral current sensitivity of its heavy water target provide SNO with an excellent opportunity to detect neutrino flavor changes. Observation of the spectral shape of the charge current reaction may provide crucial information regarding matter-enhanced neutrino oscillations. The construction of SNO is now well underway. First signals are anticipated in 1996. The solar neutrino problem is reviewed and the outlook for SNO is presented.

  19. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. J.

    2001-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large, underground heavywater Cerenkov detector which has been designed and built primarily to solve the solar neutrino problem, the shortfall in the flux of neutrinos coming from the sun relative to the best solar model predictions. As discussed in previous talks in this symposium, the neutrino flux shortfall occurs in all previous experiments which were sensitive to different energy thresholds for solar neutrinos - the gallium experiments, the chlorine experiment, and the water Cerenkov experiments. And furthermore, the shortfall seems to be a result which is independent of physicallyplausible changes in the standard solar model, changes which are consistent with helioseismological results. Because it seems to be impossible to modify the standard solar model to account for all aspects of the neutrino flux shortfall, the explanation would seem to be connected to properties of neutrinos. The favored explanation, discussed previously in this symposium by Bahcall, is neutrino-flavour oscillations; this explanation has already been successfully invoked to explain the results on atmosphere muon neutrinos obtained by Superamiokande (see H. Sobel, this symposium)...

  20. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    E-print Network

    Miao He; for the JUNO collaboration

    2014-12-13

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to precisely measure oscillation parameters by detecting reactor antineutrinos, observe supernova neutrinos, study the atmospheric, solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos, and perform exotic searches, with a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented $3\\%$ energy resolution (at 1 MeV) at 700-meter deep underground and to have other rich scientific possibilities. Currently MC study shows a sensitivity of the mass hierarchy to be $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 11$ and $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 16$ in a relative and an absolute measurement, respectively. JUNO has been approved by Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2013, and an international collaboration was established in 2014. The civil construction is in preparation and the R$\\&$D of the detectors are ongoing. A new offline software framework was developed for the detector simulation, the event reconstruction and the physics analysis. JUNO is planning to start taking data around 2020.

  1. Operation of a telemetered seismic network on the Alaska Peninsula. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    A large aperture network of eleven short period seismic stations is being operated on the Alaska Peninsula and several offshore islands to acquire data for the study of the seismotectonics of a part of the Alaska-Aleutian arc-trench structure. The system operated satisfactorily during the past year and continued to provide seismic coverage at a low magnitude threshold level (M/sub L/ = 2.0). An event detection system, developed under this contract over the past years, has been field installed and is undergoing fine tuning. Focal mechanism studies of intermediate depths Benioff zone earthquakes were continued. Like a previous, smaller set, these mechanisms show predominantly down-dip extension, indicating gravitational sinking of the subducting lithosphere. Analysis of the combined data from our network and a temporary array of Ocean Bottom Seismometers, deployed under a related study, indicate that epicenters of earthquakes in the continental shelf area off Kodiak Island are shifted landward by about 15 km with respect to the epicenters determined from the combined data set. Clusters of shallow seismic activity associated with certain Alaska Peninsula volcanoes, observed over the past years, had previously been interpreted as related to shallow magmatic-geothermal reservoirs. Volcanologic-petrologic field studies conducted last year show that volcanic centers associated with such swarms do indeed have surface manifestations of hydrothermal activity.

  2. Merapi volcano (Java, Indonesia) and Merapi-type Nuée ardente

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bardintzeff

    1984-01-01

    A particular nuée ardente type (Merapi-type avalanche nuée) has been defined at the Merapi volcano because of its prominent role in the recent activity of the volcano: gravity plays a significant role during the eruption.

  3. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed...

  4. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed...

  5. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed...

  6. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed...

  7. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed...

  8. 77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway...of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public...to the Alaska Federal Lands draft Long Range Transportation Plans. The draft...

  9. Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division

    E-print Network

    and Game; Alaska Department of Natural Resources; Alaska Department of Transportation and Public FacilitiesAccomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2006 This report provides highlights of Habitat Conservation Division (HCD) activities in support

  10. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, ... 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per ...

  11. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  12. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M., Jr.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  13. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

  14. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  15. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  16. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  17. The Armagh Observatory Annual Report

    E-print Network

    The Armagh Observatory Annual Report Calendar Year 2004 (Financial Year 2004/2005) Prepared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Review of Financial Year 2004/2005 5 2.1 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Objectives for Financial Year 2005

  18. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  19. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-09-10

    Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.

  20. Alaska Justice Forum 21(4), Winter 2005 1 ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    Alaska Justice Forum 21(4), Winter 2005 1 ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM WWWWWinter 2005inter 2005inter 2005inter 2005inter 2005 UUUUUNIVERSITYNIVERSITYNIVERSITYNIVERSITYNIVERSITY ofofofofof two things in mind. First, most of these reports have been external pro- gram evaluations completed