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Sample records for alberta context tool

  1. Development and assessment of the Alberta Context Tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The context of healthcare organizations such as hospitals is increasingly accepted as having the potential to influence the use of new knowledge. However, the mechanisms by which the organizational context influences evidence-based practices are not well understood. Current measures of organizational context lack a theory-informed approach, lack construct clarity and generally have modest psychometric properties. This paper presents the development and initial psychometric validation of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), an eight dimension measure of organizational context for healthcare settings. Methods Three principles guided the development of the ACT: substantive theory, brevity, and modifiability. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework and related literature were used to guide selection of items in the ACT. The ACT was required to be brief enough to be tolerated in busy and resource stretched work settings and to assess concepts of organizational context that were potentially modifiable. The English version of the ACT was completed by 764 nurses (752 valid responses) working in seven Canadian pediatric care hospitals as part of its initial validation. Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis, analysis of variance, and tests of association were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Results Factor analysis indicated a 13-factor solution (accounting for 59.26% of the variance in 'organizational context'). The composition of the factors was similar to those originally conceptualized. Cronbach's alpha for the 13 factors ranged from .54 to .91 with 4 factors performing below the commonly accepted alpha cut off of .70. Bivariate associations between instrumental research utilization levels (which the ACT was developed to predict) and the ACT's 13 factors were statistically significant at the 5% level for 12 of the 13 factors. Each factor also showed a trend of increasing mean score ranging

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) with Professional Nurses: Findings from a Multi-Study Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Norton, Peter G.; Cummings, Greta G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2015-01-01

    Although organizational context is central to evidence-based practice, underdeveloped measurement hindersitsassessment. The Alberta Context Tool, comprised of 59 items that tap10 modifiable contextual concepts, was developed to address this gap. The purpose of this study to examine the reliability and validity of scores obtained when the Alberta Context Tool is completed by professional nurses across different healthcare settings. Five separate studies (N = 2361 nurses across different care settings) comprised the study sample. Reliability and validity were assessed. Cronbach’s alpha exceeded 0.70 for9/10 Alberta Context Tool concepts. Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standards for 56/59items. Confirmatory Factor Analysescoordinated acceptably with the Alberta Context Tool’s proposed latent structure. The mean values for each Alberta Context Tool concept increased from low to high levels of research utilization(as hypothesized) further supporting its validity. This study provides robust evidence forreliability and validity of scores obtained with the Alberta Context Tool when administered to professional nurses. PMID:26098857

  3. Advancing the argument for validity of the Alberta Context Tool with healthcare aides in residential long-term care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational context has the potential to influence the use of new knowledge. However, despite advances in understanding the theoretical base of organizational context, its measurement has not been adequately addressed, limiting our ability to quantify and assess context in healthcare settings and thus, advance development of contextual interventions to improve patient care. We developed the Alberta Context Tool (the ACT) to address this concern. It consists of 58 items representing 10 modifiable contextual concepts. We reported the initial validation of the ACT in 2009. This paper presents the second stage of the psychometric validation of the ACT. Methods We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to frame our validity assessment. Data from 645 English speaking healthcare aides from 25 urban residential long-term care facilities (nursing homes) in the three Canadian Prairie Provinces were used for this stage of validation. In this stage we focused on: (1) advanced aspects of internal structure (e.g., confirmatory factor analysis) and (2) relations with other variables validity evidence. To assess reliability and validity of scores obtained using the ACT we conducted: Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analysis, analysis of variance, and tests of association. We also assessed the performance of the ACT when individual responses were aggregated to the care unit level, because the instrument was developed to obtain unit-level scores of context. Results Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standards (> 0.3) for the majority of items (51 of 58). We ran three confirmatory factor models. Model 1 (all ACT items) displayed unacceptable fit overall and for five specific items (1 item on adequate space for resident care in the Organizational Slack-Space ACT concept and 4 items on use of electronic resources in the Structural and Electronic Resources ACT concept). This prompted specification of two additional models. Model 2 used

  4. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  5. Principal Leadership: Blending the Historical Perspective with the Current Focus on Competencies in the Alberta Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mombourquette, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of the standards movement on the principalship in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2009 the minister of education approved a set of practice guidelines for school leaders. The "Guidelines" list seven practice standards called leadership competencies. In 2012 a review was conducted to see…

  6. Combining Field and Modeling Tools As an Approach to Assess Cumulative Surface Erosion in Alberta Eastern Slopes and Foothills.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.; Wagner, M. J.; Hirshfield, F.; Howard, M.; Silins, U.; Benda, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is a large province with diverse forested landscapes and heavy industrial, range and recreation use. Hillslopes are generally stable but the cumulative surface erosion from bare areas (e.g. roads, well pad, trails, burns and pipelines) is a major concern for downstream water users, aquatic ecology and stream habitat. Most streams are not exhibiting issues from additional coarse soil (e.g. obvious changes to geomorphology) however, soils with high proportion of fines and phosphorus have been attributed to long lasting aquatic ecology impacts and associated downstream water quality issues. For this project we take a watershed scale approach to determine if we can reduce field effort by using high quality digital terrain data available for most of Alberta combined with tools such as the Geomorphic Road Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) and landscape scale GIS assessment and modeling tools such as NetMap. We examine two contrasting regions of Alberta: (1) a tributary of the Oldman River in southwest Alberta that has steep topography, intense storms and heavy motorized recreation from the neighboring 1.5 Million people, and (2) the Foothills area that has fine lacustrine soil, low topography and extremely heavy industrial activity from energy, mining and forestry. We present the initial results of field data combined with GIS analysis for the eastern slopes as part of a larger project that is assessing these tools in represented end member watersheds for forested areas within the foothills and eastern slopes region (area of Alberta where watersheds have meaningful topography). Initial results suggest that GIS and associated modeling are very useful in providing rapid direction for field campaigns to refine the level of uncertainty, make prescriptive field plans and will likely be platforms that can track changes in predicated watershed scale erosion rates through time.

  7. Airborne wildfire intelligence system: a decision support tool for wildland fire managers in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Doug; Born, Wally G.; Beck, Judi; Bereska, Bill; Frederick, Kurt; Hua, Sun

    2002-03-01

    The Airborne Wildfire Intelligence System (AWIS) defines the state-of-the-art in remotely sensed wildfire intelligence. AWIS is a commercial, automated, intelligence service, delivering GIS integrated fire intelligence, classified interpretive and analysis layers, and higher level decision support products for wildfires in near real time via the Internet. The AWIS effort illustrates flexible and dynamic cooperation between industry and government to combine technology with field knowledge and experience into an effective, optimized end-user tool. In Alberta the Forest Protection Division of the department of Sustainable Resource Development uses AWIS for several applications: holdover and wildfire hotspot detection, fire front and burned area perimeter mapping, strategic and tactical support through 3D visualization, research into the effects of fire and its severity and to document burn patterns across the landscape. A discussion of all of the scientific themes behind the AWIS is outside the scope of this paper, however, the science of sub-element detection will be reviewed. An independent study has been conducted by the Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) to investigate the capability of a variety of thermal infrared remote sensing systems to detect small and subtle hotspots in an effort to identify the strengths and weaknesses thereof. As a result of this work, method suitability guidelines have been established to match appropriate infrared technology with a given wildfire management objective.

  8. An audit of health products and services marketed on chiropractic websites in Alberta and consideration of these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stacey A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Chiropractic’s success as a health care profession is evidenced in part by the rising number of practitioners. Paradoxically, this success may start to cost the profession, as the number of consumers may not be increasing proportionally. Fewer patients mean less income for practitioners. Some chiropractors are responding to these pressures by marketing health products, and services Objectives To describe the extent to which Alberta chiropractors with websites sold health products and the extent to which fee discounts/service inducements were advertised. To consider these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics. Methods Chiropractic websites in the province of Alberta were identified using the online Telus Business Finder and cross-referenced with the Yellow Pages print directories. The websites were searched and an inventory of the health products for sale was recorded. Fee discounts and service inducements were also recorded. Results 56 websites were identified and reviewed. Just under two-thirds of the chiropractic websites surveyed contained information on health products for sale. Orthotics were sold most often (N = 29 practices; 51.8%), followed by pillows and supports (N = 15: 26.8%), vitamins/nutritional supplements (N = 15; 26.8%) and exercise/rehabilitation products (N = 10; 17.9%). Nine practices (16.1%) offered some type of inducement to potential customers. These included discounts on treatment packages (N = 2; 3.6%), free gait/ posture analyses (N = 2; 3.6%) and free general consultations with the chiropractors (N = 3; 5.4%) Conclusions The marketing of health care products and services by chiropractors in Alberta is common. Such practices raise ethical considerations for the profession. Professional guidelines vary on the acceptability of these practices. Consumer and practitioner perspectives and practices regarding retailing need to be further examined. PMID:17657302

  9. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln, 1994;…

  10. Stress Damage in Borehole and Rock Cores; Developing New Tools to Update the Stress Map of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Q.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I. S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of in situ stress enables us to determine the optimum borehole trajectory, predict fluid migration, and plan appropriately for geothermal and hydrocarbon production. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the state of stress in the Earth in order to design and efficiently operate engineered geothermal systems. This need motivates us to develop a new 3D model of stress for Alberta. This project mainly consists of three categories: investigating the impacts of in situ stress on borehole stability, fracture trajectory modelling and determining the stress state over an area in the northern part of Alberta. To date, we have created a MATLAB based program to calculate the stress concentrations for an arbitrarily oriented borehole in an isotropic or an arbitrarily oriented anisotropic medium subject to stress. The input to this model comes from static rock properties provided by measurements on a shale sample in the laboratory of our group. The result helps us to study the effects of rock material anisotropy on stress distribution, and it also shows the direction in which borehole failure is likely to grow. However, as the in situ stress is almost impossible to measure directly, we studied how fracture orientations identified from the borehole image log helps us to constrain in situ stress magnitudes and orientations. Moreover, based on the Mohr-Column criteria, we further assessed the tendency for both borehole tensile failure and compressive failure to occur in an isotropic formation as a function of the upper bound of rock strength and borehole fluid pressure limitations under a variety of stress states. For a given stress state and borehole orientation, tensile fracture can be tracked in the MATLAB program based on the assumption that tensile fractures are formed under pure tension. (This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner

  11. Fostering Innovation in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, the Minister of Alberta Advanced Education initiated a comprehensive exercise to establish a new direction for Alberta's advanced education system. Through the A Learning Alberta review, a new vision and policy outcomes for the advanced education system will be articulated. The process provides an opportunity for government, stakeholders,…

  12. Using the HSE stress indicator tool in a military context.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Dobson, Karen; Davison, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    An assessment of the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) stress indicator tool was conducted to determine whether it was suitable for use with Ministry of Defence (MoD) personnel. A total of 1031 respondents from the Army, Navy, Air Force and MoD civilians completed a questionnaire containing the HSE tool and supplementary measures of work-life balance, engagement, deployment, leave taken and hours of work. Six measures of adverse reaction to the stressors were also reported: perceptions of job stress, job stress and health, psychological strain, fatigue after work, work ability and quality of working life. The stressor scales, particularly the 'demands' and 'relationships' scales, were associated with adverse outcomes as was the work-life balance scale. The HSE tool had some validity when used with MoD personnel, but its content was too narrow. The content validity of the tool can be improved for use in a military context with the addition of a 'work-life balance' scale'. PMID:26225885

  13. Alberta Literacy Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Advanced Education, Calgary.

    This report presents results of a study to identify existing literacy programs and resource centers in Alberta and profile the individuals who hold a stake in Alberta's literacy programming efforts. It begins with highlights of project results related to programs, program administrators, instructors/tutors, and learners (all groups) and a summary…

  14. Development of the writing readiness inventory tool in context (WRITIC).

    PubMed

    van Hartingsveldt, Margo J; de Vries, Liesbeth; Cup, Edith H C; de Groot, Imelda J M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the development of the Writing Readiness Inventory Tool in Context (WRITIC), a measurement evaluating writing readiness in Dutch kindergarten children (5 and 6 years old). Content validity was established through 10 expert evaluations in three rounds. Construct validity was established with 251 children following regular education. To identify scale constructs, factor analysis was performed. Discriminative validity was established by examining contrast groups with good (n = 142) and poor (n = 109) performers in paper-and-pencil tasks. Content validity was high with 94.4% agreement among the experts. Two reliable factors were found in the performance of paper-and-pencil tasks with Cronbach's alphas of 0.82 and 0.69 respectively. The contrast groups differed significantly in two WRITIC subdomains: "Sustained attention" and "Task performance". Our findings indicated that the WRITIC is feasible for use in the classroom. PMID:24666171

  15. Assessment in Alberta: Six Areas of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Nola; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy; Scott, Shelleyann; Runte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report on the Alberta Student Assessment Study describes the context, methodology, and emergent themes. It outlines the purposes and uses of assessment according to the various stakeholder groups. Using both qualitative and quantitative data from students and parents, as well as educators at all levels, there were six areas or themes that…

  16. Alberta Unites on Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Education policy in the province of Alberta is set by Alberta Education, a ministry led by the province's minister of education. There are two key policies or ministerial orders that guide professional learning in Alberta. The Teaching Quality Standard outlines the knowledge, skills, and attributes that teachers are expected to possess. The…

  17. Content Area Vocabulary Videos in Multiple Contexts: A Pedagogical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson

    2015-01-01

    The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at…

  18. The Medicine Wheel: A Versatile Tool for Promoting Positive Change in Diverse Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, David; Kopera-Frye, Karen; Woodard, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes the utility of employing the medicine wheel with university students in both counselling and instructional contexts. A brief description of the medicine wheel, its history, symbolic significance, and use in diverse contexts is discussed. The preliminary data suggest this to be a valuable tool in addressing both the academic…

  19. A Tool for Intersecting Context-Free Grammars and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for intersecting context-free grammars. Since this problem is undecidable the tool follows a refinement-based approach and implements a novel refinement which is complete for regularly separable grammars. We show its effectiveness for safety verification of recursive multi-threaded programs.

  20. A Learning Alberta: Fostering Innovation in Alberta. A Discussion Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Minister has initiated a comprehensive exercise to establish a new direction for Alberta's advanced education system. Through "A Learning Alberta," a new vision and policy outcomes for the advanced education system will be articulated. The process provides an opportunity for government, stakeholders, and the public to consider how the advanced…

  1. The Principal Quality Practice Guideline: Promoting Successful School Leadership in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Principal Quality Practice Guideline (PQPG) represents a first step in a process to develop a framework for quality school leadership in Alberta. It includes a statement on Principal Quality Practice and seven leadership dimensions, with supporting descriptors, reflecting the Alberta context. The PQPG is to be used as a basis for many…

  2. Alberta Education's Computer Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Jim

    This description of activities initiated through the Computer Technology Project of the provincial education ministry in Alberta, Canada, covers the 2-year period beginning with establishment of the project by the Alberta Department of Education in October 1981. Activities described include: (1) the establishment of the Office of Educational…

  3. Context-dependent ‘safekeeping’ of foraging tools in New Caledonian crows

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Barbara C.; van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; St Clair, James J. H.; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Several animal species use tools for foraging, such as sticks to extract embedded arthropods and honey, or stones to crack open nuts and eggs. While providing access to nutritious foods, these behaviours may incur significant costs, such as the time and energy spent searching for, manufacturing and transporting tools. These costs can be reduced by re-using tools, keeping them safe when not needed. We experimentally investigated what New Caledonian crows do with their tools between successive prey extractions, and whether they express tool ‘safekeeping’ behaviours more often when the costs (foraging at height), or likelihood (handling of demanding prey), of tool loss are high. Birds generally took care of their tools (84% of 176 prey extractions, nine subjects), either trapping them underfoot (74%) or storing them in holes (26%)—behaviours we also observed in the wild (19 cases, four subjects). Moreover, tool-handling behaviour was context-dependent, with subjects: keeping their tools safe significantly more often when foraging at height; and storing tools significantly more often in holes when extracting more demanding prey (under these conditions, foot-trapping proved challenging). In arboreal environments, safekeeping can prevent costly tool losses, removing a potentially important constraint on the evolution of habitual and complex tool behaviour. PMID:25994674

  4. Essential Inclusive Education-Related Outcomes for Alberta Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSAs) that Alberta preservice teachers need to develop over the course of their teacher preparation programs in order to work effectively in inclusive classrooms. Inclusive classrooms are those where all students regardless of diversity learn in the same contexts. These KSAs are…

  5. Culture as a Tool: Facilitating Knowledge Construction in the Context of a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge construction is regarded as an effective learning model in practice. When more and more learning communities are organized to promote knowledge construction, it is necessary to know how to use different tools to support knowledge construction in the learning community context. In the literature, few researchers discuss how to construct…

  6. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  7. Investigating the Total Cost of Technology in Schools: Tools and Strategies for Managing Technology Investments. Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhead, Pat

    This document describes total cost of ownership (TCO) as a useful tool in the effective planning of technology use in schools. TCO is an analysis of all the costs of computer technology in a school in comparison with the value derived from the current investment. It also includes an assessment of strategies that can be implemented to reduce costs.…

  8. EFT fitter: a tool for interpreting measurements in the context of effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nuno; Erdmann, Johannes; Grunwald, Cornelius; Kröninger, Kevin; Rosien, Nils-Arne

    2016-08-01

    Over the past years, the interpretation of measurements in the context of effective field theories has attracted much attention in the field of particle physics. We present a tool for interpreting sets of measurements in such models using a Bayesian ansatz by calculating the posterior probabilities of the corresponding free parameters numerically. An example is given, in which top-quark measurements are used to constrain anomalous couplings at the Wtb-vertex.

  9. Satisfaction with Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1998-01-01

    Annual Alberta surveys of parents, high school students, and the public are part of accountability processes and provide public consultation on policy issues and reform efforts. Selected results of the 1995 and 1996 surveys are presented, related to provincial educational objectives, and compared to similar U.S. and Ontario surveys and established…

  10. Bovine Stephanofilarial Dermatitis in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Dies, Ken H.; Pritchard, Jane

    1985-01-01

    The nematode, Stephanofilaria stilesi was recovered from two mature beef cattle in Alberta. The appearance of the skin and the histological lesions are described. The life cycle of the parasite and the development of lesions are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422593

  11. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  12. NFFinder: an online bioinformatics tool for searching similar transcriptomics experiments in the context of drug repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Setoain, Javier; Franch, Mònica; Martínez, Marta; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Sorzano, Carlos O. S.; Bakker, Annette; Gonzalez-Couto, Eduardo; Elvira, Juan; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning, using known drugs for treating conditions different from those the drug was originally designed to treat, is an important drug discovery tool that allows for a faster and cheaper development process by using drugs that are already approved or in an advanced trial stage for another purpose. This is especially relevant for orphan diseases because they affect too few people to make drug research de novo economically viable. In this paper we present NFFinder, a bioinformatics tool for identifying potential useful drugs in the context of orphan diseases. NFFinder uses transcriptomic data to find relationships between drugs, diseases and a phenotype of interest, as well as identifying experts having published on that domain. The application shows in a dashboard a series of graphics and tables designed to help researchers formulate repositioning hypotheses and identify potential biological relationships between drugs and diseases. NFFinder is freely available at http://nffinder.cnb.csic.es. PMID:25940629

  13. Semantic Web Technologies for the Integration of Learning Tools and Context-Aware Educational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeremić, Zoran; Jovanović, Jelena; Gašević, Dragan

    One of the main software engineers' competencies, solving software problems, is most effectively acquired through an active examination of learning resources and work on real-world examples in small development teams. This obviously indicates a need for an integration of several existing learning tools and systems in a common collaborative learning environment, as well as advanced educational services that provide students with right in time advice about learning resources and possible collaboration partners. In this paper, we present how we developed and applied a common ontological foundation for the integration of different existing learning tools and systems in a common learning environment called DEPTHS (Design Patterns Teaching Help System). In addition, we present a set of educational services that leverages semantic rich representation of learning resources and students' interaction data to recommend resource relevant for students' current learning context.

  14. NFFinder: an online bioinformatics tool for searching similar transcriptomics experiments in the context of drug repositioning.

    PubMed

    Setoain, Javier; Franch, Mònica; Martínez, Marta; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Sorzano, Carlos O S; Bakker, Annette; Gonzalez-Couto, Eduardo; Elvira, Juan; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Drug repositioning, using known drugs for treating conditions different from those the drug was originally designed to treat, is an important drug discovery tool that allows for a faster and cheaper development process by using drugs that are already approved or in an advanced trial stage for another purpose. This is especially relevant for orphan diseases because they affect too few people to make drug research de novo economically viable. In this paper we present NFFinder, a bioinformatics tool for identifying potential useful drugs in the context of orphan diseases. NFFinder uses transcriptomic data to find relationships between drugs, diseases and a phenotype of interest, as well as identifying experts having published on that domain. The application shows in a dashboard a series of graphics and tables designed to help researchers formulate repositioning hypotheses and identify potential biological relationships between drugs and diseases. NFFinder is freely available at http://nffinder.cnb.csic.es. PMID:25940629

  15. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) in Alberta: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Wide Area Measurement of Particulates, CO2, and CH4 Emissions from Energy Extraction and Production Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Crowther, B. G.; Valupadas, P.; Fu, L.; Yang, Z.; Huda, Q.; Leung, B.; Chambers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency (AEMERA) in cooperation with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) of Utah State University, have developed a mobile DIAL sensor designed specifically for particle, CO2 and CH4 emissions measurement. Rapid expansion of the oil and gas industry in Alberta, including the oil sands, has challenged the Alberta Government to keep pace in its efforts to monitor and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. The limitations of current monitoring systems has pushed the provincial government to seek out advanced sensing technologies such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to help assess the impact of energy development and industrial operations. This instrument is housed inside a 36' trailer and can be quickly staged and used to characterize source emissions and to locate fugitive leaks. DIAL is capable of measuring concentrations for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at ranges of up to 3 km with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m. DIAL can map both CO2 and CH4, as well as particulate matter (PM) in a linear fashion; by scanning the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation, DIAL can create images of emissions concentrations and ultimately can be used to determine emission factors, locate fugitive leaks, assess plume dispersion and confirm air dispersion modeling. The DIAL system has been deployed at a landfill, a coal-fired power plant, and an oil sands production area. A system overview of the DIAL instrument and recent results will be discussed.

  16. The Alberta Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Ambassador Program: The Development of a Contextually Relevant, Multidisciplinary Clinical Practice Guideline for Non-specific Low Back Pain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Aaron; Taenzer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the development of a contextually relevant multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline (CPG) for non-specific low back pain (LBP) and to discuss its value to the management of LBP and the practice of physiotherapy. Method: To mitigate an identified knowledge gap for Alberta primary-care practitioners in the management of non-specific LBP, a collaborative process was developed to engage multidisciplinary health care providers in designing a primary-care CPG for non-specific LBP. A comprehensive review of published LBP guidelines identified the seven highest-quality CPGs; these were used to inform a multidisciplinary guideline development group (GDG) as they developed the CPG. Results: The GDG constructed a CPG for non-specific LBP along with point-of-care decision-support and patient-education tools. Conclusions: The Ambassador Program on Low Back Pain worked with front-line clinicians from across Alberta to review the best available evidence in developing a CPG responsive to the Alberta context. This CPG is intervention specific and provides a wide range of primary-care practitioners with the best available evidence to inform their clinical decisions in managing non-specific LBP. PMID:22654233

  17. Dendritic Cells in the Context of Human Tumors: Biology and Experimental Tools.

    PubMed

    Volovitz, Ilan; Melzer, Susanne; Amar, Sarah; Bocsi, József; Bloch, Merav; Efroni, Sol; Ram, Zvi; Tárnok, Attila

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. DC have an exceptional ability to comprehend the immune context of a captured antigen based on molecular signals identified from its vicinity. The analyzed information is then conveyed to other immune effector cells. Such capability enables DC to play a pivotal role in mediating either an immunogenic response or immune tolerance towards an acquired antigen. This review summarizes current knowledge on DC in the context of human tumors. It covers the basics of human DC biology, elaborating on the different markers, morphology and function of the different subsets of human DC. Human blood-borne DC are comprised of at least three subsets consisting of one plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and two to three myeloid DC (mDC) subsets. Some tissues have unique DC. Each subset has a different phenotype and function and may induce pro-tumoral or anti-tumoral effects. The review also discusses two methods fundamental to the research of DC on the single-cell level: multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) and image-based cytometry (IC). These methods, along with new genomics and proteomics tools, can provide high-resolution information on specific DC subsets and on immune and tumor cells with which they interact. The different layers of collected biological data may then be integrated using Immune-Cytomics modeling approaches. Such novel integrated approaches may help unravel the complex network of cellular interactions that DC carry out within tumors, and may help harness this complex immunological information into the development of more effective treatments for cancer. PMID:27007190

  18. Environmental management in resource-rich Alberta, Canada: first world jurisdiction, Third World analogue?

    PubMed

    Timoney, K; Lee, P

    2001-12-01

    Economic growth is frequently touted as a cure for environmental ills, particularly for those in Third World countries. Here we examine that paradigm in a case study of Alberta, Canada, a wealthy, resource-rich province within a wealthy nation. Through provincial-scale datasets, we examine the increasing pressures of the forest, petroleum, and agricultural industries upon the ecosystems of Alberta within management, economic, and political contexts. We advance the thesis that economic activity leads to environmental degradation unless ecosystem-based management is integrated into economic decision making. Agricultural lands cover 31.7%, and forest management areas leased to industry cover 33.4% of Alberta; both continue to increase in extent. The rate of logging (focused on old-growth by government policy) continues a decades-long exponential rise. Current Alberta annual petroleum production is 52.5 million m3 crude oil and 117 billion m3 of gas. As of early 1999, there were approximately 199,025 oil and gas wells and a conservative total of approximately 1.5-1.8 million km of seismic lines in Alberta. Fire occurrence data indicate no downward trends in annual area burned by wildfire, which may be characterized as driven by climate and inherently variable. When logging and wildfire are combined, the annual allowable cut in Alberta is unsustainable, even when only timber supply is considered and the effects of expanding agriculture and oil and gas activities are ignored. Ecosystem degradation in Alberta is pervasive and contrasts prominently with a high standard of living. A wealth of ecological data exists that indicates current resource-based economic activities are non-sustainable and destructive of ecosystem health yet these data are not considered within the economic decision making process. Given the complex, compounded, and increasing ecosystem perturbations, a future of unpleasant ecological surprises is likely. We conclude with tentative predictions as to

  19. A Study of Private Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning Services Branch.

    This study was commissioned by Alberta Education to examine the development and organization of private schools in Alberta and to consider future directions. It examines the financial issues related to private schools, the effect of private schools on public school systems and on the education of children, and implications for public school…

  20. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  1. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  2. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  3. Ground-level ozone in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, H.S.

    1999-11-01

    This literature review on ground-level ozone in Alberta begins with introductory sections on the precursors and products of ozone formation, the chemistry and meteorology of ozone, and atmospheric ozone models. The subsequent section reviews ozone data from ambient air quality monitoring stations in Alberta. The final section discusses trends in ozone concentrations in urban and rural areas of Alberta, human and environmental health effects of ozone, proposed national ambient objectives and Canada-wide standards for ground-level ozone, and options for an ozone concentration standard for Alberta. Appendices include an outline of air pollutant monitoring methods used in Alberta, lists of monitoring stations, and tables of monitoring results for nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds at Calgary and Edmonton sites.

  4. Ground-level ozone in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    This literature review on ground-level ozone in Alberta begins with introductory sections on the precursors and products of ozone formation, the chemistry and meteorology of ozone, and atmospheric ozone models. The subsequent section reviews ozone data from ambient air quality monitoring stations in Alberta. The final section discusses trends in ozone concentrations in urban and rural areas of Alberta, human and environmental health effects of ozone, proposed national ambient objectives and Canada-wide standards for ground-level ozone, and options for an ozone concentration standard for Alberta. Appendices include an outline of air pollutant monitoring methods used in Alberta, lists of monitoring stations, and tables of monitoring results for nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds at Calgary and Edmonton sites.

  5. Supporting Small-Group Learning Using Multiple Web 2.0 Tools: A Case Study in the Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laru, Jari; Naykki, Piia; Jarvela, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    In this single-case study, small groups of learners were supported by use of multiple social software tools and face-to-face activities in the context of higher education. The aim of the study was to explore how designed learning activities contribute to students' learning outcomes by studying probabilistic dependencies between the variables.…

  6. Alberta's Acute Care Funding Project.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M; Lave, J R; Glendining, M

    1992-01-01

    Alberta initiated the Acute Care Funding Project (ACFP) in 1988, a new hospital funding system that institutes case mix budgeting adjustments to the global budget so that hospitals can be treated more equitably. The initiative is a significant departure in principle from the former method of funding. The ACFP is summarized and critiqued, and focuses on the inpatient side of the picture. The various elements of the project are discussed, such as the hospital performance index, the hospital performance measure, the Refined Diagnostic Related Group, case weights, typical and outlier cases, and the costing mechanisms. Since its implementation, the ACFP has undergone substantial changes; these are discussed, as well as some of the problems that still need to be addressed. Overall, the system offers incentives to reduce length of stay and to increase the efficiency with which inpatient care is provided. PMID:10121446

  7. Alberta Education's Clearinghouse: Functions and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighton, David

    1984-01-01

    Discusses functions of the Alberta (Canada) Computer Technology Project's courseware clearinghouse, reviews findings on instructional software quality, identifies software development trends, and discusses need for support systems to facilitate the incorporation of computer assisted instruction in Canadian schools. (MBR)

  8. What can management theories offer evidence-based practice? A comparative analysis of measurement tools for organisational context

    PubMed Central

    French, Beverley; Thomas, Lois H; Baker, Paula; Burton, Christopher R; Pennington, Lindsay; Roddam, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    Background Given the current emphasis on networks as vehicles for innovation and change in health service delivery, the ability to conceptualise and measure organisational enablers for the social construction of knowledge merits attention. This study aimed to develop a composite tool to measure the organisational context for evidence-based practice (EBP) in healthcare. Methods A structured search of the major healthcare and management databases for measurement tools from four domains: research utilisation (RU), research activity (RA), knowledge management (KM), and organisational learning (OL). Included studies were reports of the development or use of measurement tools that included organisational factors. Tools were appraised for face and content validity, plus development and testing methods. Measurement tool items were extracted, merged across the four domains, and categorised within a constructed framework describing the absorptive and receptive capacities of organisations. Results Thirty measurement tools were identified and appraised. Eighteen tools from the four domains were selected for item extraction and analysis. The constructed framework consists of seven categories relating to three core organisational attributes of vision, leadership, and a learning culture, and four stages of knowledge need, acquisition of new knowledge, knowledge sharing, and knowledge use. Measurement tools from RA or RU domains had more items relating to the categories of leadership, and acquisition of new knowledge; while tools from KM or learning organisation domains had more items relating to vision, learning culture, knowledge need, and knowledge sharing. There was equal emphasis on knowledge use in the different domains. Conclusion If the translation of evidence into knowledge is viewed as socially mediated, tools to measure the organisational context of EBP in healthcare could be enhanced by consideration of related concepts from the organisational and management sciences

  9. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  10. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A School-Wide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information, strategies, stories from schools and sample tools for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour. This integrated system of school-wide, classroom management, and individual…

  11. Measuring the progress of capacity building in the Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D; Sosa Hernandez, Cristabel; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Reed, Shandy; Montemurro, Genevieve; Lytvyak, Ellina; MacLellan-Wright, Mary-Frances

    2014-07-01

    The Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention (APCCP) represents practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and community organizations working together to coordinate efforts and advocate for policy change to reduce chronic diseases. The aim of this research was to capture changes in the APCCP's capacity to advance its goals over the course of its operation. We adapted the Public Health Agency of Canada's validated Community Capacity-Building Tool to capture policy work. All members of the APCCP were invited to complete the tool in 2010 and 2011. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A group process for reaching consensus provided context to the survey responses and contributed to a participatory analysis. Significant improvement was observed in eight out of nine capacity domains. Lessons learned highlight the importance of balancing volume and diversity of intersectoral representation to ensure effective participation, as well as aligning professional and economic resources. Defining involvement and roles within a coalition can be a challenging activity contingent on the interests of each sector represented. The participatory analysis enabled the group to reflect on progress made and future directions for policy advocacy. PMID:24334541

  12. Response process and test–retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Duong M.; Bergström, Anna; Eriksson, Leif; Selling, Katarina; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Wallin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources, community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment) through 49 items. Objective The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. Designs To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test–retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percent agreement) and dimensions (ICC and Bland–Altman plots). Results In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test–retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5–0.7), demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify some items and to

  13. Storytelling as an Insightful Tool for Understanding Educational Leadership in Indigenous Yukon Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakesley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This article is based upon a 2006 review of the research methodologies identified in the articles of two educational leadership journals. It found the use of narrative and biographical approaches specific to the field of educational leadership appears rare. This article examines the stories told by Yukon school principals in Indigenous contexts to…

  14. Student Comments and Reflections on Business Contexts--A Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabra, Fernando Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge Jose Martins; Costa, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Students of business administration in polytechnic higher education are faced with management content that can present specific difficulties when it refers to organisational contexts with which they are generally unfamiliar. This paper examines the way in which a learning and assessment methodology aimed at promoting "proximity" to subjects and…

  15. Use of Genomic Tools to Improve Cattle Health in the Context of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raszek, Mikolaj M.; Guan, Le L.; Plastow, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Although infectious diseases impose a heavy economic burden on the cattle industry, the etiology of many disorders that affect livestock is not fully elucidated, and effective countermeasures are often lacking. The main tools available until now have been vaccines, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs. Although these have been very successful in some cases, the appearance of parasite and microbial resistance to these treatments is a cause of concern. Next-generation sequencing provides important opportunities to tackle problems associated with pathogenic illnesses. This review describes the rapid gains achieved to track disease progression, identify the pathogens involved, and map pathogen interactions with the host. Use of novel genomic tools subsequently aids in treatment development, as well as successful creation of breeding programs aimed toward less susceptible livestock. These may be important tools for mitigating the long term effects of combating infection and helping reduce the reliance on antibiotic treatment. PMID:27014337

  16. Deweyan Tools for Inquiry and the Epistemological Context of Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Peter; Seaman, Jayson

    2011-01-01

    This article develops the notion of resistance as articulated in the literature of critical pedagogy as being both culturally sponsored and cognitively manifested. To do so, the authors draw upon John Dewey's conception of tools for inquiry. Dewey provides a way to conceptualize student resistance not as a form of willful disputation, but instead…

  17. High School Students' Use of Digital Tools for Learning English Vocabulary in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cojocnean, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Romanian high school students' use of digital tools for learning vocabulary in English. Although students have a wide range of technological affordances at their disposal, little is known about how they make use of them or the extent to which they are aware of how to use them in their vocabulary learning. The study features…

  18. Novice Teacher Learning and Motivation across Contexts: Assessment Tools as Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana S.; Ward, Christopher J.; Childers, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of novice teachers' appropriation, negotiation, and recontextualization of assessment tools and practices. During the four years of the study, we observed and interviewed beginning mathematics and social studies teachers, along with their colleagues, mentors, and supervisors, from their time in a graduate secondary…

  19. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006 contains…

  20. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them. PMID:22360000

  1. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G.; Gesy, Karen M.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids. PMID:23017505

  3. Senior Executive Views on Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meanwell, Richard J.; Barrington, Gail V.

    Interviews were conducted with 60 senior executives in the private sector to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the education system in Alberta, Canada from their perspective. The executives' views were solicited on the following topics: (1) current strengths of the education system; (2) necessary improvements in educational programs and…

  4. A Guide to Native Organizations in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Native Affairs, Edmonton.

    Names, addresses, names of directors, and telephone numbers for 182 organizations formed by or serving Canada Natives in Alberta are presented, grouped by their area of interest. Listed are 17 arts and crafts organizations, 10 business and employment development services, 8 radio stations and newspapers, 12 cultural groups, 19 educational…

  5. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  6. Education in Alberta: Facts and Figures, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    A statistical overview of the educational system in Alberta (Canada) for 1989 is presented. The report includes data and analyses concerning demographics; family and social structure; economy and workforce; early childhood services enrollments and projections; public and separate school enrollments and projections; private school enrollments;…

  7. Alberta Catholic Schools...A Social History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkach, Nicholas

    The purposes of this book are to trace the influence of major social forces on the Alberta, Canada, public and Catholic school systems and to detail the evolution of these two systems. Beginning with a review of "The First People" of the Northwest Territories, chapter I examines political, economic, and sociocultural developments and their impact…

  8. Spaceborne Methane Observations by Airs Over Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from natural (e.g. wetland) and anthropogenic (e.g. oil and gas industry, and waste management) sources contribute to Alberta's GHG emission. The focus of this study is to examine the spatio-temporal variation of total column CH4 over Alberta, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite from 2003 to 2013. Spaceborne measurements by AIRS provide a global view of CH4 distribution in the mid-upper troposphere. This study demonstrates a significant rise of CH4 levels in Alberta in the last ten years. This ascending trend is consistent with the increase of global methane levels in the same time period. Monthly variations indicate a significant increase of CH4 levels in summer with maximum in August, which is probably driven by enhanced convection. Spatial distributions of CH4 reveal a strong west-east gradient with maximum levels in northern regions (55-65 N). The enhanced summer levels over northern and eastern regions suggest possible pathways for CH4 emitted from natural sources (wetlands, lakes and permafrost) in high northern latitude regions and Canadian wetlands (e.g. Hudson Bay wetland). However, the abrupt increase of CH4 concentration coincides with significant change in economic activities during that time period. Since some of the wetland CH4 fluxes are collocated with large anthropogenic source, it is difficult to account for different source contribution. Thus, further studies about CH4 emission and transport over Alberta are recommended to reduce the uncertainties about the natural and anthropogenic contributions of Alberta to Canada's CH4 emissions.

  9. Ischemia detection in the context of a cardiovascular status assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T; Paredes, S; Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Harris, M; Morais, J

    2009-01-01

    In this work a new strategy for ischemic episodes automatic detection is proposed, considering ST segment deviation and T wave and QRS morphology characteristics. A new measure of ST deviation based on time-frequency analysis, and the use of the expansion in Hermite functions technique for T wave and QRS complex morphology characterization, are the key points of the proposed methodology. HeartCycle is a European project that aims to improve life quality of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) patients. Within this project, the Medical Risk Assessment module is responsible for develop models to assess cardiovascular (CV) risk and status of referred patients. The present work was performed under the context of CV status models, where myocardial ischemia plays a central role. For algorithms validation purposes, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) ST-T database was used. A sensitivity of 96.7% and a positive predictivity of 96.2% reveal the capacity of the proposed strategy to perform ischemic episodes identification. PMID:19964975

  10. The Pedometer as a Tool to Enrich Science Learning in a Public Health Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rye, James A.; Zizzi, Samuel J.; Vitullo, Elizabeth A.; Tompkins, Nancy O'hara

    2005-12-01

    The United States is experiencing an obesity epidemic: A science-technology-society public health issue tied to our built environment, which is characterized by heavy dependence on automobiles and reduced opportunities to walk and bicycle for transportation. This presents an informal science education opportunity within "science in personal and social perspectives'' to use pedometer technology for enhancing students' understandings about human energy balance. An exploratory study was conducted with 29 teachers to investigate how pedometers could be used for providing academic enrichment to secondary students participating in after-school Health Sciences and Technology Academy clubs. Frequency analysis revealed that the pedometer activities often investigated kilocalorie expenditure and/or incorporated hypothesis testing/experimenting. Teachers' perspectives on learning outcomes most frequently conveyed that students increased their awareness of the importance of health habits relative to kilocalorie intake and expenditure. Pedometers have considerable merit for the regular science curriculum as they allow for numerous mathematics applications and inquiry learning and target concepts such as energy and equilibrium that cut across the National Science Education Standards. Pedometers and associated resources on human energy balance are important tools that science teachers can employ in helping schools respond to the national call to prevent childhood obesity.

  11. Preserved Tool Knowledge in the Context of Impaired Action Knowledge: Implications for Models of Semantic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, Frank E.; Dombovy, Mary; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have observed that the motor system is activated when processing the semantics of manipulable objects. Such phenomena have been taken as evidence that simulation over motor representations is a necessary and intermediary step in the process of conceptual understanding. Cognitive neuropsychological evaluations of patients with impairments for action knowledge permit a direct test of the necessity of motor simulation in conceptual processing. Here, we report the performance of a 47-year-old male individual (Case AA) and six age-matched control participants on a number of tests probing action and object knowledge. Case AA had a large left-hemisphere frontal-parietal lesion and hemiplegia affecting his right arm and leg. Case AA presented with impairments for object-associated action production, and his conceptual knowledge of actions was severely impaired. In contrast, his knowledge of objects such as tools and other manipulable objects was largely preserved. The dissociation between action and object knowledge is difficult to reconcile with strong forms of the embodied cognition hypothesis. We suggest that these, and other similar findings, point to the need to develop tractable hypotheses about the dynamics of information exchange among sensory, motor and conceptual processes. PMID:23641205

  12. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS. PMID:21804836

  13. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  14. Research Funding at Alberta Universities, 2000-2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Innovation and Science, Edmonton. University Research and Strategic Investments Branch.

    This report presents facts related to the funding of research at Alberta, Canada, universities. Data are provided by the universities, derived from audited financial schedules. Research at Alberta universities is supported in part by the provincial government through a number of programs. Sponsored research funding, funding received outside of…

  15. Research Funding at Alberta Universities. 2001/2002 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Innovation and Science, Edmonton. University Research and Strategic Investments Branch.

    This report summarizes sponsored research revenues at Alberta Universities. Sponsored research revenues are those that are received outside of regular university operating grant and include both research grants and research contracts. Research at Alberta universities is supported in part by the provincial government through a number of programs.…

  16. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  17. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  18. FOIPP and Technology Highlights: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The information in this document is based on a study that Alberta Education commissioned on establishing technology systems that are responsive to the requirements of Alberta's Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FOIPP). This document provides an overview of key issues and suggested strategies in the following areas: (1)…

  19. A Learning Alberta: Dialogue and Direction. The Forum Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Participants in "A Learning Alberta--Dialogue and Direction," the Minister's Forum on Advanced Learning are an important part of a process that has been underway across Alberta since January of 2005. Led by the Honourable Dave Hancock, Minister of Advanced Education, a new vision and policy framework is being developed to guide future directions…

  20. A Retrospective Survey of Diseases of Feedlot Cattle in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Church, T. L.; Radostits, O. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of feedlot managers was used to obtain information on disease occurrence, management practices and preventive techniques employed in feedlots in Alberta. Respiratory diseases were reported to be the most frequent causes of sickness and death. Costs associated with disease occurrence were estimated to be C $15.6 million in feedlots in Alberta annually during the period under study. PMID:7225993

  1. Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

    The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

  2. A Learning Alberta: Dialogue and Direction. Regional Discussions Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "A Learning Alberta: Framing the Challenge" is a comprehensive review of the advanced education system in Alberta. The review brought together thousands of Albertans to talk about and seek answers to the challenges of creating a knowledge-based province. In particular, Albertans were encouraged to comment on a proposed policy framework that will…

  3. The Use of Web 2.0 Tools by Students in Learning and Leisure Contexts: A Study in a Portuguese Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Carolina; Alvelos, Helena; Teixeira, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses and compares the use of Web 2.0 tools by students in both learning and leisure contexts. Data were collected based on a questionnaire applied to 234 students from the University of Aveiro (Portugal) and the results were analysed by using descriptive analysis, paired samples t-tests, cluster analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests.…

  4. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

  5. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  6. Making patient values visible in healthcare: a systematic review of tools to assess patient treatment priorities and preferences in the context of multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, Dee; Stephen, Gaibrie; Bismah, Verdah; Risdon, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify studies of existing instruments available for clinicians to record overall patient preferences and priorities for care, suitable for use in routine primary care practice in patients with multimorbidity. To examine the data for all identified tools with respect to validity, acceptability and effect on health outcomes. Design Systematic Review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, each with a predefined search strategy. Eligibility criteria Citations were included if they reported a tool used to record patient priorities or preferences for treatment, and quantitative or qualitative results following administration of the tool. Results Our search identified 189 potential studies of which 6 original studies and 2 discussion papers were included after screening for relevance. 5 of 6 studies (83%) were of cross-sectional design and of moderate quality. All studies reported on the usability of a tool in order to elicit patient preferences. No studies reported on changes to patient-specific healthcare outcomes as a consequence of recording preferences and priorities. 1 of 6 studies reported on eliciting patient preference in the context of multimorbidity. No studies incorporated patient preferences into an electronic medical record. Conclusions Given the importance of eliciting patient priorities and preferences in providing patient-centred care in the context of multimorbidity and polypharmacy, we found surprisingly few relevant tools. Some aspects of the tools used for single-disease contexts may also be useful in the context of multimorbidity. There is an urgent need to develop ways to make patient priorities explicitly visible in the clinical record and medical decision-making and to test the effect on patient-relevant outcomes. PMID:27288377

  7. Health care delivery for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta: a practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J.R.; Lau, H.; Surgeoner, B.V.; Chua, N.; Dobrovolsky, W.; Dort, J.C.; Kalaydjian, E.; Nesbitt, M.; Scrimger, R.A.; Seikaly, H.; Skarsgard, D.; Webster, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of head-and-neck cancer is complex and requires the involvement of various health care professionals with a wide range of expertise. We describe the process of developing a practice guideline with recommendations about the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta. Methods Outcomes of interest included composition of the health care team, qualification requirements for team members, cancer centre and team member volumes, infrastructure needs, and wait times. A search for existing practice guidelines and a systematic review of the literature addressing the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients were conducted. The search included the Standards and Guidelines Evidence (sage) directory of cancer guidelines and PubMed. Results One practice guideline was identified for adaptation. Three additional practice guidelines provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Members of the Alberta Provincial Head and Neck Tumour Team (consisting of various health professionals from across the province) provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations through an online and in-person review process. Selected experts in head-and-neck cancer from outside the province participated in an external online review. SUMMARY The recommendations outlined in this practice guideline are based on existing guidelines that have been modified to fit the Alberta context. Although specific to Alberta, the recommendations lend credence to similar published guidelines and could be considered for use by groups lacking the resources of appointed guideline panels. The recommendations are meant to be a guide rather than a fixed protocol. The implementation of this practice guideline will depend on many factors, including but not limited to availability of trained personnel, adequate funding of infrastructure, and collaboration with other associations of

  8. Chimpanzees' Context-Dependent Tool Use Provides Evidence for Separable Representations of Hand and Tool Even during Active Use within Peripersonal Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; Reaux, James E.; Frey, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to behaviors in which tools are used to perform actions in extrapersonal space by extending the reach. Evidence suggests that these behaviors result in an expansion of the body schema and peripersonal space. However, humans often use tools to perform tasks within peripersonal space that cannot be…

  9. A New Tool for Assessing Context Conditioning Induced by US-Unpredictability in Humans: The Martians Task Restyled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulders, Ann; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Unpredictability of an unconditioned stimulus (US) typically produces context conditioning in animals and humans. We modified the Martians task--a computer game measuring learning of Pavlovian associations through conditioned suppression--for assessing context conditioning in humans. One between-subjects and one within-subjects study are reported.…

  10. Micro-seismicity in Alberta recorded by the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, R.; Gu, Y. J.

    2012-12-01

    Documented seismicity throughout Alberta, Canada has been relatively low in recent history, with fewer than fifteen events (ML > 3.5) recorded by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) since 1985. The notable lack of seismicity could be partially attributed to limited or intermittent station coverage in the province. For this reason, the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) has been involved in a continued effort to maintain, improve and expand regional seismic networks. Broadband seismic data from the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE) and catalog excerpts from the Canadian National Seismic Network (CNSN) were analyzed. Micro-seismic hypocenters were located using Antelope, a software package from Boulder Real Time Technologies, Inc.. Analysis of data from September, 2006 to June, 2010 shows these events are typically naturally occurring or anthropogenic (e.g., mining blasts, which are not usually part of the earthquake catalogs). More than one hundred and twenty natural earthquakes were located in western and central Alberta, with the majority occurring along the Rocky Mountain foothills. During this period, earthquakes magnitudes (ML) ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 were measured and the magnitude of completeness is ~2.8 for this dataset. The substantial number of unreported events suggests that the existing earthquake catalogs, based exclusively on national seismic network stations, are incomplete. The addition of the CRANE dataset has improved the understanding of background seismicity by providing updated hypocenter locations and waveforms of more than thirty previously unrecorded earthquakes. Future endeavors to incorporate data from additional networks would prove invaluable for the identification of emergent trends or induced events.

  11. Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982

    PubMed Central

    Rosatte, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

  12. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Swayback (Enzootic Ataxia) in Alberta Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Swayback (enzootic ataxia), a disease not previously described in Canada, occurred in newborn lambs in Alberta in 1972. Of 100 lambs born in one flock, over 60 succumbed in the enzootic. The diagnosis was based on the presence of a) gross cavitations and gelatinous lesions of the cerebral white matter in 16 of 24 (66.67%) lambs examined, b) central chromatolysis and hyalinization of neurons of the red and vestibular nuclei and reticular formation and of the lateral and ventral horns of the spinal cord, c) myelin deficiencies of the dorsolateral and sulcomarginal funiculi of the spinal cord and d) low hepatic and serum copper levels in affected lambs and low serum copper levels in the ewes. The feeding of sugar beet-(beta saccharifera) top silage to the ewes during pregnancy, lambing and lactation, and its relationship to the enzootic is discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4274817

  14. The Soft-Spoken Way vs. the Outspoken Way: A Bicultural Approach to Teaching Speech Communication to Native People in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiordo, Richard

    The paper discusses bicultural education from two points of view, the soft-spoken way of Native people and the outspoken way of non-Native people with both groups examined in the context of a teacher training program in the field of education in Alberta. Canada's federal policy toward Native people and biculturalism and problems created by the…

  15. Using Usability Evaluation to Inform Alberta's Personal Health Record Design.

    PubMed

    Price, Morgan; Bellwood, Paule; Davies, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Alberta Health is deploying the Personal Health Portal (PHP) (MyHealth.Alberta.ca) to all people in the province of Alberta, Canada. The PHP will include several components such as a Personal Health Record (PHR) where users can enter and access their own health data. For the first PHR of its kind in Canada, Alberta Health asked the University of Victoria's eHealth Observatory to evaluate the PHP, including the PHR. The evaluation includes pre-design, design, and adoption evaluation. This paper focuses on early usability evaluations of the PHR software. Persona-based usability inspection was combined with usability testing sessions using think aloud. These evaluations found that while people were familiar with the web-based technology, several aspects of the PHR information architecture, content, and presentation could be improved to better support and provide value to the users. The findings could be helpful to others designing and implementing similar PHR software. PMID:25676994

  16. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true

  17. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  18. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: Opportunities and Challenges. Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly, Ed.

    This document describes the outcome of a 1999 symposium that was convened to develop the goal, principles, key considerations, and administrative requirements for a student-improvement program in Alberta. Named the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI), this program is an extension of Alberta's accountability framework that has been in…

  19. A Comparison of Drug Coverage in Alberta Before and After the Introduction of the National Common Drug Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, John-Michael; Eurich, Dean T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The integration of the Common Drug Review (CDR) was a substantial change for Canada's public drug plans. Detailed comparisons of time-to-listing and proportion of medications covered by the province of Alberta's drug plans within the context of the CDR process have not been rigorously conducted. Methods: New drugs approved by Health Canada were identified five years prior to the CDR's first recommendation (May 2004) and five years after. The time-to-listing and proportion of new drugs covered on the Alberta Health and Wellness Drug Benefit List (AHWDBL) was compared between these periods. The level of agreement between CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was calculated using a kappa score. Results: Two hundred and twenty new drugs were identified and met the study eligibility criteria (118 pre-CDR, 102 post-CDR). The median time-to-listing was 312 vs. 524 days in the pre-CDR and post-CDR periods, respectively, with the difference largely driven by time from notice of compliance (NOC) to the CDR recommendation. The level of agreement between 73 drugs with CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was fair (kappa 0.55). Conclusion: Following the implementation of the CDR, the proportion of drugs covered has decreased and overall median time-to-listing of new drugs has increased in the province of Alberta. For drugs listed on the AHWDBL, the proportion of time attributable to the CDR process (NOC to CDR recommendation) was 63% of the overall time-to-listing. PMID:22043227

  20. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    electricity prices is developed, estimated for the pre-restructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the post-restructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would have been likely to have occurred anyway. Information from US jurisdictions is used to account for this endogeneity issue through simulation analyses. Results suggest that for 2001 to 2004, residential electricity prices in Alberta would generally have been lower under continued regulation. Since electricity market restructuring is not necessarily directed only at lowering the electricity price, its impact in Alberta on carbon emissions is also investigated. Specifically, the approach developed in the context of electricity prices is applied to determine counterfactual carbon emissions. While it is found that carbon emissions would have been lower under continued regulation, this result should be viewed cautiously given model estimation issues. However, the approach developed to construct both counterfactual electricity prices and carbon emissions is an improvement to that observed in the literature.

  1. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  2. Hydrogeology of formation waters, northwestern Alberta basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R. )

    1993-10-01

    Generally, temperature seems to be the main controlling factor on salinity distributions. The salinity of formation waters increases in the vicinity of evaporitic beds, and decreases close to the surface because of mixing with fresh meteoric water introduced through local flow systems. The Lower and Middle Devonian pre-Prairie aquifer systems, beneath the regionally extensive Prairie aquiclude, are characterized by regional topographically-driven flow updip to the northeast. The flow of formation waters in the northeastern Alberta played an important role in the formation of the huge Athabasca oil sands deposits. Hydrocarbons that migrated into the area from the west were trapped into local reservoirs, and biodegraded and washed by fresh meteoric water introduced by local flow systems. Environmentally, the subsurface hydrogeology in the area imposes specific constraints on waste disposal in deep formations mostly because of the absence of a thick, continuous regional aquitard and because most aquifers subcrop at shallow depth or crop out and discharge along the valleys of the Athabasca River system and at the basin edge.

  3. Primary Carcinoma of the Liver in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Nett, A. E.; Gilbert, J. A. L.

    1966-01-01

    A survey was made to determine the incidence and to elucidate the manifestations of primary carcinoma of the liver in Alberta. The findings were compared with other reported series. Ninety-six cases were identified: 69 hepatomas, 25 cholangiomas and two cholangiohepatomas. Seventy-four of the patients were male and 22 were female, a male preponderance of greater than 3:1. Ages ranged from 7 days to 92 years, but the majority of the patients (58%) were in the seventh and eighth decades. The incidence of associated cirrhosis (38.5%) was lower than that noted in most series. Hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, weight loss and ascites were the outstanding clinical features. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage was frequent and second only to hepatic failure as the immediate cause of death. An abdominal mass and pleural effusion occurred in higher frequency than that cited in the literature. Associated disorders included peptic ulceration and cholelithiasis. Surgical biopsy was superior to needle biopsy in establishing the diagnosis. Laboratory tests and routine radiographs may be of diagnostic aid. PMID:4287068

  4. Teachers' Views on Digital Educational Tools in English Language Learning: Benefits and Challenges in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Servet; Aytin, Kübra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear benefits provided by digital educational tools, Turkish teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) are often seen as failing to take advantage of computing technologies in the classroom. Deficiencies in terms of teachers' digital literacies are often faulted for this omission. The majority of studies concerning Turkish…

  5. Modified social ecological model: a tool to guide the assessment of the risks and risk contexts of HIV epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social and structural factors are now well accepted as determinants of HIV vulnerabilities. These factors are representative of social, economic, organizational and political inequities. Associated with an improved understanding of multiple levels of HIV risk has been the recognition of the need to implement multi-level HIV prevention strategies. Prevention sciences research and programming aiming to decrease HIV incidence requires epidemiologic studies to collect data on multiple levels of risk to inform combination HIV prevention packages. Discussion Proximal individual-level risks, such as sharing injection devices and unprotected penile-vaginal or penile-anal sex, are necessary in mediating HIV acquisition and transmission. However, higher order social and structural-level risks can facilitate or reduce HIV transmission on population levels. Data characterizing these risks is often far more actionable than characterizing individual-level risks. We propose a modified social ecological model (MSEM) to help visualize multi-level domains of HIV infection risks and guide the development of epidemiologic HIV studies. Such a model may inform research in epidemiology and prevention sciences, particularly for key populations including men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PID), and sex workers. The MSEM builds on existing frameworks by examining multi-level risk contexts for HIV infection and situating individual HIV infection risks within wider network, community, and public policy contexts as well as epidemic stage. The utility of the MSEM is demonstrated with case studies of HIV risk among PID and MSM. Summary The MSEM is a flexible model for guiding epidemiologic studies among key populations at risk for HIV in diverse sociocultural contexts. Successful HIV prevention strategies for key populations require effective integration of evidence-based biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. While the focus of epidemiologic

  6. Variations in treatment of femoral neck fractures in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Marilyn; Yang, Qian; Scharfenberger, Angela; Johnson, David; Carrière, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine, in the province of Alberta, temporal trends, regional variations in treatment options and in-hospital death rates after a femoral neck fracture. Design A retrospective cohort study. Patients Six years’ data were abstracted from the Alberta Morbidity File, the Alberta Health Stakeholder File and the Alberta Health Care Claims File. Patients were included if they were Alberta residents, aged 65 years or older, had sustained a femoral neck fracture and had undergone internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty. Main outcome measures Death rates, arthroplasty rates and hospital stay. Results In-hospital death rates were similar across hospitals, with risks being higher for men, patients aged 80 years or older and those with more comorbid conditions. Arthroplasty rates varied from 58% to 77% among hospitals, and hospital stays associated with arthroplasty were significantly longer than those associated with internal fixation. The chance of undergoing arthroplasty varied from hospital to hospital by gender and by the number of comorbid conditions. Conclusion Regional variations suggest lack of agreement among Alberta’s surgeons as to how best to treat femoral neck fractures. PMID:12174977

  7. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Nancy; Fahy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government's Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern…

  8. Those Who Care: A Report on Approved Family Day Home Providers in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Malcolm; LaGrange, Annette

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of approved family day home providers in Alberta. Family day home agency coordinators from across Alberta completed questionnaires, as did approved providers who contracted with 12 agencies in central Alberta. Typical providers were married, had children, and had lived in their present…

  9. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  10. 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey Employers of Alberta High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey was commissioned by Alberta Education and Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. Data collection for the survey was conducted by CCI Research Inc. between December 1st, 2007 and January 11th, 2008. The objective of the survey was to assess employer satisfaction with recent graduates from Alberta's…

  11. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples). PMID:19350990

  12. Development of an interactive model for planning the care workforce for Alberta: case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In common with other jurisdictions, Alberta faces challenges in ensuring a balance in health worker supply and demand. As the provider organization with province-wide responsibility, Alberta Health Services needed to develop a forecasting tool to inform its position on key workforce parameters, in the first instance focused on modeling the situation for Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses and health care aides. This case study describes the development of the model, highlighting the choices involved in model development. Case description A workforce planning model was developed to test the effect of different assumptions (for instance about vacancy rates or retirement) and different policy choices (for example about the size of intakes into universities and colleges, different composition of the workforce). This case study describes the choices involved in designing the model. The workforce planning model was used as part of a consultation process and to develop six scenarios (based on different policy choices). Discussion and evaluation The model outputs highlighted the problems with continuation of current workforce strategies and the impact of key policy choices on workforce parameters. Conclusions Models which allow for transparency of the underlying assumptions, and the ability to assess the sensitivity of assumptions and the impact of policy choices are required for effective workforce planning. PMID:22905726

  13. Student Street. Students' Union Housing, University of Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, John Morris

    1974-01-01

    The world's longest skylighted galleria (main street for student residents at the University of Alberta) is the lifeline of a 950-foot long complex of apartments and shops sponsored by the student government and architecturally designed to fit over an existing street. (Author/MF)

  14. Principal Quality Practice in Alberta: Education 900 Introduction Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennest, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Alberta's Principal Quality Practice Standard as a framework for the roles and responsibilities of school principals. Methodology: Three principals participated in the study, and each principal had more than 25 years of teaching and school administration experience. Each…

  15. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  16. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  17. FOIPP and Technology: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, R. Peter; Whitemarsh, Judith

    This study provides suggestions and best practices for superintendents, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPP) coordinators and school information technologists in dealing with the impact of Alberta's FOIPP Act on the application of information technologies within their organizations. The study explores the relationship between…

  18. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  19. Educational Quality Indicators: Developing Indicator Systems in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    The Educational Quality Indicators (EQI) initiative, a collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school jurisdictions in the province, is described, and its implications are discussed. The EQIs developed are designed to provide information to assist practitioners in assessing the quality of educational programs and the delivery system by…

  20. Evaluation of the Alberta School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, S. C. T.; Nyberg, V. R.

    The report summarized a formative evaluation of the Alberta (Canada) School for the Deaf (ASD). Data were collected via observations by 12 consultants; interviews; and questionnaires completed by parents, teachers, students, and administrators. The evaluation was designed to focus on such aspects as instruction (including curriculum) and total…

  1. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of individual…

  2. Some Aspects of Leadership in Independent Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoux, Bruce V.; Holdaway, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    A study used interviews, observations, and documents to examine perceptions of principals in eight accredited, independent schools in Alberta (Canada) about major factors affecting their leadership role. Factors included philosophical congruence enhanced by respect and trust, as well as personal relationships, school culture, symbolism, and…

  3. Locating Leadership: The Blind Spot in Alberta's Technology Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Charmaine

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, technology and education policy discourse in Alberta, Canada has been philosophically polarized and dominated by value-neutral ways of thinking about technology (Brooks, 2011). While technology policy implementation has significant ramifications for schools and systems, for much of this time, system leaders, specifically…

  4. Indian Tribes of Alberta. Revised, Expanded, and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Hugh A.

    This book recounts the story of the Indians in Alberta, Canada. Pictures and maps help in the explanation of these facts. The Indians described include the: (1) Blackfoot Nation (Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan Tribes); (2) Sarcee Tribe; (3) Stoney Indians; (4) Plains Cree; (5) Woodland Cree; (6) Chipewyan Indians; (7) Beaver Indians; (8) Slavey Indians;…

  5. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  6. Faculty Salaries in Alberta's Colleges & Institutes, 1993 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    This report outlines changes in salaries earned by full-time, permanent faculty members at Alberta's public colleges and technical institutes between September 1993 and September 2000. The Colleges Act and Technical Institutes Act create academic staff associations at each institution and mandate each institution's Board of Governors to negotiate…

  7. Biology and Life Science Classroom Teaching Environment in Southern Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Julian

    This study provides information about the biology and life science classroom teaching environments in Southern Alberta. Responses (N=53) to questionnaires sent to junior and senior high school teachers in rural and urban settings revealed information regarding school facilities, texts and reference materials, field trips, outdoor education…

  8. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  9. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  10. Documentary analysis of risk-assessment and safety-planning policies and tools in a mental health context.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Agnes; Doyle, Louise; Morrissey, Jean; Downes, Carmel; Gill, Ailish; Bailey, Sive

    2016-08-01

    Despite the articulated need for policies and processes to guide risk assessment and safety planning, limited guidance exists on the processes or procedures to be used to develop such policies, and there is no body of research that examines the quality or content of the risk-management policies developed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the policies of risk and safety management used to guide mental health nursing practice in Ireland. A documentary analysis was performed on 123 documents received from 22 of the 23 directors of nursing contacted. Findings from the analysis revealed a wide variation in how risk, risk assessment, and risk management were defined. Emphasis within the risk documentation submitted was on risk related to self and others, with minimal attention paid to other types of risks. In addition, there was limited evidence of recovery-focused approaches to positive risk taking that involved service users and their families within the risk-related documentation. Many of the risk-assessment tools had not been validated, and lacked consistency or guidance in relation to how they were to be used or applied. The tick-box approach and absence of space for commentary within documentation have the potential to impact severely on the quality of information collected and documented, and subsequent clinical decision-making. Managers, and those tasked with ensuring safety and quality, need to ensure that policies and processes are, where possible, informed by best evidence and are in line with national mental health policy on recovery. PMID:26889653

  11. Microcomputers in Alberta Schools--1985. A Final Report on the Results of a Resource Survey of Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruk, Milton W.

    To determine the number and current use of microcomputers in Alberta's elementary, junior, and senior high schools, a total of 1,509 schools were surveyed. The results, as reported by 1,271 schools (84.2%), showed the total number of microcomputers to be 13,748. To provide more in-depth information, schools were categorized by six instructional…

  12. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Tyler

    . In an effort to discern the overall status of reclamation in the oil sands this study explores several factors essential to policy capacity: work environment, training, employee attitudes, perceived capacity, policy tools, evidence based work, and networking. Data was collected through key informant interviews with senior policy professionals in government and non-government agencies in Alberta. The following are agencies of interest in this research: Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP); Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (AESRD); Alberta Energy Regulator (AER); Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA); Alberta Environment Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Agency (AEMERA); Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA). The aim of this research is to explain how and why reclamation policy is conducted in Alberta's oil sands. This will illuminate government capacity, NGO capacity, and the interaction of these two agency typologies. In addition to answering research questions, another goal of this project is to show interpretive analysis of policy capacity can be used to measure and predict policy effectiveness. The oil sands of Alberta will be the focus of this project, however, future projects could focus on any government policy scenario utilizing evidence-based approaches.

  13. Incorporating natural capital into economy-wide impact analysis: a case study from Alberta.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, Mike N; Alavalapati, Janaki R R; Adamowicz, Wiktor L; White, William A

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, decision-makers have relied on economic impact estimates derived from conventional economy-wide models. Conventional models lack the environmental linkages necessary for examining environmental stewardship and economic sustainability, and in particular the ability to assess the impact of policies on natural capital. This study investigates environmentally extended economic impact estimation on a regional scale using a case study region in the province of Alberta known as the Foothills Model Forest (FMF). Conventional economic impact models are environmentally extended in pursuit of enhancing policy analysis and local decision-making. It is found that the flexibility of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling approach offers potential for environmental extension, with a solid grounding in economic theory. The CGE approach may be the tool of the future for more complete integrated environment and economic impact assessment. PMID:12859004

  14. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  15. Alberta's acute care funding plan: update to December 1994.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M; Plain, R H

    1995-01-01

    From 1990 until 1994 Alberta Health adjusted the acute care portion of hospital budgets based on a case mix index, initially called the Hospital Performance Index (HPI). The HPI formula method was a temporary measure; in November 1993, Alberta Health announced that, commencing in 1994, hospitals would be funded on a prospective basis, although they would still use the core of the HPI in the setting of funding rates. The creation of 17 health regions in June 1994 created the need for a new system of funding which would supplant the modified prospective system. In this paper we review the evolution of the HPI plan and its individual components-patient data, patient classification, funding weights, inpatient costs and adjustment factors. PMID:10144217

  16. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: Report of four Alberta cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ameeta E; Werker, Denise H; Boychuk, Lesia R; Miedzinski, Lilly J

    1995-01-01

    Four Alberta cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are reported. Three cases required intensive care, with one experiencing a fulminant course resulting in death. A fourth case with milder illness was identified after epidemiological investigations. Ribavirin was used in one patient who experienced a successful outcome. A recent open label trial has not supported the efficacy of this drug. The epidemiology of Peromyscus maniculatus, the primary rodent host, and the clinical features of this syndrome are summarized. PMID:22514394

  17. Hospital reimbursement in Alberta: outcomes management is on the way.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, T A; Reynolds, D; Greenaway-Coates, A

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta government has initiated a process to alter fundamentally the way it pays hospitals. As with most provinces, Alberta has been paying hospitals for what they spend. The new Alberta model will initially pay hospitals for what they do and ultimately will pay hospitals for what they ought to do; that is, for the outcomes that should be achieved. This article describes the initial step of what is expected to be a lengthy journey. The principles underlying the model are: it should be a prospective case-based system; there should be performance linkages between types of hospitals; severity should be incorporated into the model; and cost or cost proxies should be used where possible in weight development and clinical concerns, both nursing and medical, should be addressed. For the past two years funding adjustments have been made on the basis of the calculation of a Hospital Performance Index (HPI). The HPI is the average predicted cost per case divided by the unweighted average actual cost per case. The HPI is intended as an interim measure only. Ultimately, the system will evolve into a true prospective case-based system with volume controlled via role statements and linked to clinical outcomes. PMID:10123272

  18. The Depression Intensity Scale Circles (DISCs): a first evaluation of a simple assessment tool for depression in the context of brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, L; Kalmus, M; Hirani, D; Clegg, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the validity, responsiveness, and test–retest reliability of DISCs (Depression Intensity Scale Circles) as a simple screening tool for depression in patients with cognitive or communicative deficits following acquired brain injury. Design: Cohort analysis of consecutive patients entered into an integrated care pathway for screening and management of depression in the context of rehabilitation. Setting: Regional neurological rehabilitation service in the UK. Participants: 114 patients with complex disabilities caused by acquired brain injury (mean (SD) age, 42.8 (14.5) years). Main outcome measures: DISCs (a graphic rating scale depicting six circles with increasing proportion of dark shading), Numbered Graphic Rating Scale (NGRS), Yale single question ("Do you often feel sad or depressed"), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), DSM-IV criteria for depression. Results: At initial assessment the DISCs correlated with total BDI-II scores (Spearman ρ = 0.66, p<0.001), NGRS (ρ = 0.87, p<0.001), and DSM-IV (ρ = 0.59, p<0.001). A DISCs score ⩾2 identified depression (major or minor) according to DSM-IV criteria with 60% sensitivity, 87% specificity, 75% positive predictive value, and 77% negative predictive value. Test–retest reliability after 24 hours (n = 66) showed "excellent" level of agreement (weighted κ = 0.84). In 45 patients who received intervention for depression, the DISCs showed a significant change in response to treatment (Wilcoxon; p<0.001). Conclusions: DISCs had acceptable convergent validity, reliability, and responsiveness as a simple graded tool for screening and assessment of depression in patients with complex disabilities following acquired brain injury. It warrants further investigation in patients with more profound language and cognitive deficits for which it is primarily intended. PMID:16107367

  19. The distribution of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada) and associated aqueous geochemistry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Nightingale, Michael; Becker, Veith; Kingston, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas and coalbed methane has generated some public concern with regard to the protection of groundwater and surface water resources from leakage of stray gas from the deep subsurface. In terms of environmental impact to and risk assessment of shallow groundwater resources, the ultimate challenge is to distinguish: (a) natural in-situ production of biogenic methane, (b) biogenic or thermogenic methane migration into shallow aquifers due to natural causes, and (c) thermogenic methane migration from deep sources due to human activities associated with the exploitation of conventional or unconventional oil and gas resources. We have conducted a NSERC-ANR co-funded baseline study investigating the occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater of Alberta (Canada), a province with a long record of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and sources of methane in shallow groundwaters and to also characterize the hydrochemical environment in which the methane was formed or transformed through redox processes. Ultimately our aim was to determine whether methane was formed in-situ or whether it migrated from deeper formations into shallow aquifers. Combining hydrochemical and dissolved and free geochemical gas data from 372 groundwater samples obtained from 186 monitoring wells of the provincial groundwater observation well network (GOWN) in Alberta, it was found that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater in Alberta and is predominantly of biogenic origin. The highest concentrations of dissolved biogenic methane (> 0.01 mM or > 0.2 mg/L), characterized by δ13CCH4 values < -55‰, occurred in anoxic Na-Cl, Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type groundwater with negligible concentrations of nitrate and sulfate suggesting that methane was formed in-situ under methanogenic conditions consistent with the redox ladder concept. Despite quite variable gas concentrations and a

  20. Perceptions of Healthy Eating in Four Alberta Communities: A Photovoice Project

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brent A.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating are influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. Despite this general acceptance by health practitioners and social scientists, studies suggest that there remains a relative homogeneity around peoples’ perceptions that informs a hegemonic discourse around healthy eating. People often describe healthy eating in terms of learned information from sources that reflect societies’ norms and values, such as the Canada Food Guide and the ubiquitous phrase “fruits and vegetables”. Past research has examined how built environments shape people’s access to healthy living options, such as distribution of grocers versus convenience stores and fast food restaurants. Often overlooked is an in-depth understanding of how social contexts interact with built environments, molding peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating. This paper reports on perceptions of healthy eating in four communities across Alberta, Canada. A photovoice methodology was employed to elicit perceptions of healthy eating with 35 participants. This study illustrates how participants’ photographs and their stories convey multiple meanings about healthy eating within their own lives and communities. Findings suggest that a ‘local’ context is an important part of the discourse centered around the promotion of healthy eating practices in these and potential other communities. PMID:27390390

  1. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  2. Images in Transition. Proceedings of the Annual Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) Conference (3rd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 24-26, 1992) and the Canadian Symposium on Gifted Education (6th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This document presents the conference proceedings of the primary stakeholders in gifted education in Alberta (Canada): "Activities in Math for the Gifted Student" (Ballheim); "The Self Awareness Growth Experiences Approach" (Balogun); "Computer Simulations: An Integrating Tool" (Bilan); "The Portrayal of Gifted Children in Children's Books"…

  3. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  4. Exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites: review of controls.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2013, Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training, and Labour (JSTL) conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica and assess controls to protect workers. Information on exposure results has been previously reported; this article discusses the data collected on workplace controls. Information on work site controls was collected during exposure assessments consisting of qualitative information on controls in place and used by workers at the time of the assessments. Where there was sufficient data, the information was further analyzed to evaluate the impact of a particular control. While many types of controls were observed, they were not always effective or in use. The control available most often was respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Generally, when respirators were used, they were correctly selected for the level of measured exposure. However, not all workers who were potentially overexposed wore respirators at the time of the assessments. When the use of respirators was taken into account, about one-third of workers were still potentially exposed over the Alberta occupational exposure limit. The industries with the highest levels of exposure tended to be those with the most unprotected workers. Issues were identified with the use of improper work practices such as dry cleaning methods, lack of documented work procedures, poor housekeeping, and lack of training which may have contributed to worker exposure levels. There is a wide range in the efficacy of controls, particularly engineering controls. Most of the literature focuses on engineering controls; however administrative controls also play a role in reducing worker exposure. Data collected in this work indicated that simple changes to work procedures and behavior (such as improved housekeeping) may be effective, low-cost ways to reduce workplace exposure. More study is required to evaluate the impact and efficacy of administrative controls such as housekeeping and training. Employers

  5. Crustal Seismic Structure of Central Alberta from Receiver Function Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Dokht, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    It is widely believed that the basement structure of central Alberta represents the tectonic assembly and evolution of several Archean lithospheric fragments. These fragments underwent episodes of rifting, collision, subduction and melting during the Proterozoic, giving rise to a complex network of tectonic domains with considerable differences in the crustal magnetic and seismic signatures. Observational support for these episodes, e.g., the coeval subduction around the Hearne province, has been limited due to the lack of exposed geology and insufficient teleseismic data prior to 2006. Since mid 2007, the establishment of the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE) has greatly improved the broadband seismic data coverage in central and southern Alberta. Based on 5+ years of CRANE data, we systematically analyze crust and shallow mantle shear velocities through simultaneous inversions of low and high frequency receiver functions. P-to-S converted waves from several stations in central Alberta suggest a significant mid crustal low velocity zone (LVZ), where shear velocity could vary by as much as 35 percent in a depth range of 15-35 km. This structure is not required by the receiver functions from stations along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. While LVZ of notable magnitudes have been suggested previously in an overlapped part of the study region and attributed to the presence of serpentine or intrusive sill, the spatial dimensions of the anomaly reported in the current study is significantly larger: this anomaly spans hundreds of kilometers horizontally and is generally thicker than 10 km. The presence of mid/lower crustal LVZ in central Alberta is supported by recent group velocity maps based on noise correlation tomography, and the southeastward orientation of this LVZ is consistent with the proposed direction of the subducted oceanic microplate beneath the northwestern Hearne province during the Proterozoic. Still, the cause of the LVZ remains

  6. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  7. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  8. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective. PMID:20057258

  9. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Applications, Benefits, and Barriers of Alberta's SuperNet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Christiansen, Jo-An

    2007-01-01

    The Alberta SuperNet, a very high speed, broadband network, was built to bring high-speed connectivity to every school, library, and municipal office in Alberta. This CDN $294 million investment was made based on the perceived need for high-speed connectivity to stimulate economic and community development and to enhance government services,…

  10. A Financial Plan for Alberta Colleges and Universities: Recommendations and Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Bernard S.; And Others

    This is the final report of the Financial Plan Project for Colleges and Universities. Its primary purpose is to present proposals on a financial plan for Alberta universities and public colleges. Following a brief review of financing postsecondary education in Canada, it focuses on the last ten years of Alberta practice; the treatment is…

  11. Research and Development Project Behavior Management Services Northwest Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, S.; Stierhoff, K. A.

    The study examines the status of behavioral management services for disabled persons in Alberta, Canada, and offers recommendations regarding alternative service delivery models for the Northwest Region of Alberta. Existing systems are addressed in terms of centralized service models, outreach service models, and combined residential and outreach…

  12. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISA Handbook for Cycle 4. 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) is a bold approach to improving student learning by encouraging teachers, parents, and the community to work collaboratively to introduce innovative projects that address local needs. Initiated in 1999 by the Alberta Government and its partners, AISI provides targeted funding to school…

  13. Government Policy and Postsecondary Education in Alberta: A "Field Theory" Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, David; Wimmer, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    While the landscape of postsecondary education in Alberta continues to expand and diversify, there seems to be very little written about the organization of postsecondary education in the province over the past 15 to 20 years (Wimmer & Schmaus, 2010). This paper provides an analysis of postsecondary education in Alberta over the past 15 to 20…

  14. Visions 2000. A Vision of Educational Technology in Alberta by the Year 2000. A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Arguing that technology should be incorporated into the curriculum so that students learn "about technology,""in technology," and "through technology," the Alberta Technology in Education Committee looks forward to the year 2000 and assesses ways in which technology can be applied both in the classroom and in distance education in Alberta, Canada.…

  15. Maintaining the Momentum. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    Alberta's apprenticeship system offers training in 50 designated trades and 4 designated occupations and includes 40,398 registered apprentices and 11,1984 employers. The main components of Alberta's apprenticeship and training system are as follows: (1) a network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated occupations; (2)…

  16. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  17. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  18. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2003/2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November of 2005, Alberta Advanced Education contracted Insightrix Research Services to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from four Alberta universities, eight university colleges, fifteen public colleges and two technical institutes in the fall of 2003 or the spring of 2004 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed…

  19. The Support Service Approach to University Education for Native Students in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Eyman, Evelyn

    Of the four universities within the Province of Alberta, the University of Calgary has most effectively met the bicultural needs of Native students. Athabasca University's correspondence courses are usually not effective for Native students. The University of Alberta's "Morningstar" program allows teacher certification before completion of degrees…

  20. Satisfaction with Education in Alberta Survey, 2007/08. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Alberta Education conducts a set of annual telephone surveys to obtain feedback from education system stakeholders regarding their perceptions of Alberta's education system. Respondents for the survey include senior high school students, parents of children in the K-12 education system, parents of children with severe special needs, teachers in…

  1. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  2. Deformation analysis of terrestrial monitoring observations on Turtle Mountain, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Axel; Chow, Jacky; Teskey, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    Deformation monitoring has been carried out in two epochs on Turtle Mountain, Alberta, using a high-precision total station and a terrestrial laser scanner. From the total station observations, coordinates have been computed for seven signalized target points in a least-squares network adjustment. Then, a deformation analysis using a Multi-Parameter Transformation has been performed to derive movements between epochs. The two point clouds obtained with the laser scanner were registered using the iterative closest point algorithm. Differences in elevation between the two point clouds were then derived for the entire scene. Results indicate a downward movement of South Peak, and no significant horizontal deformations were found.

  3. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Nguyen X; Ohinmaa, Arto; Yan, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning) in Alberta in 2005. Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years), who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism) and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism), adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses. Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688) in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9) in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624) to 533 (313–753) thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99) to $84 ($49–$119) million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%. Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a significant economic impact in Alberta and that presenteeism plays an important role in asthma

  4. Pesticide and PCB levels in fish from Alberta (Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Chovelon, A.; George, L.; Gulayets, C.; Hoyano, Y.; McGuinness, E.; Moore, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singer, P.; Smiley, K.

    1984-01-01

    Pesticide and PCB analyses were completed on fat and muscle samples of 750 fish collected from 11 major lakes and rivers in Alberta. Although phenoxy and organophosphate residues were always below detectable limits, traces of chlorinated pesticides and their derivatives, particularly DDE, DDD and chlordane, were detected in most fat samples. PCB levels exceeded 25 mg/kg in the fat of several species from the North Saskatchewan River but were generally lower in the other systems. Analysis of 160 sediment samples from the North Saskatchewan River revealed no point source of PCB contamination.

  5. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  6. Selected Alberta science and research success stories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication provides a sampling of the value of science and research to Albertans, to the Alberta economy, and to the global community as revealed in stories of successful science and research activities in the province. Each story includes name of developer, inventor, company, and/or supporter; names of co-operating agencies, if any; contact name and address for further information; and a list of expected or realized benefits. The stories are organized under subject areas relating to agriculture and agri-food, arts and culture, biotechnology, construction, education, energy, environment, forest sector, health and medicine, human and community development, information and communications, manufacturing, mineral sector, tourism, and transportation.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Hailstorms and Hailstone Growth. Part III: Simulation of an Alberta Hailstorm--Natural and Seeded Cases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Richard D.

    1987-07-01

    This paper reports on simulations of a multicellular hailstorm case observed during the 1983 Alberta Hail Project. The field operations on that day concentrated on two successive feeder cells which were subjected to controlled seeding experiments. The fist of these cells received the placebo treatment and the second was seeded with dry ice. The principal tool of this study is a modified version of the two-dimensional, time dependent hail category model described in Part I of this series of papers. It is with this model that hail growth processes are investigated, including the simulated effects of cloud seeding techniques as practiced in Alberta.The model simulation of the natural case produces a very good replication of the observed storm, particularly the placebo feeder cell. This is evidenced, in particular, by the high degree of fidelity of the observed and modeled radar reflectivity in terms of magnitudes, structure, and evolution. The character of the hailfall at the surface and the scale of the storm are captured nicely by the model, although cloud-top heights are generally too high, particularly for the mature storm system.Seeding experiments similar to those conducted in the field have also been simulated. These involve seeding the feeder cell early in its active development phase with dry ice (CO2) or silver iodide (AgI) introduced near cloud top. The model simulations of these seeded cases capture some of the observed seeding signatures detected by radar and aircraft. In these model experiments, CO2 seeding produced a stronger response than AgI seeding relative to inhibiting hail formation. For both seeded cases, production of precipitating ice was initially enhanced by the seeding, but retarded slightly in the later stages, the net result being modest increases in surface rainfall, with hail reduced slightly. In general, the model simulations support several subhypotheses of the operational strategy of the Alberta Research Council regarding the earlier

  8. Literacy, More Than Words: Summary of Input on a Literacy Framework for Alberta. Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes comments from 539 individuals on a literacy framework for Alberta, provided during the Alberta Literacy Forum held in Edmonton from April 14 to 16, 2008. The Forum was Alberta's contribution to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum, which involved all of Canada's…

  9. Peculiar debris-flow event of June 2013 in Livingstone mountain range (Alberta, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martin; Rudaz, Benjamin; Humair, Florian; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Froese, Corey

    2014-05-01

    Heavy precipitations occurred in western Alberta in mid-June 2013, which lead to several floods. In particular, this event produced a lot of debris-flow in the area of Mount Livingstone Alberta, Canada (N50° 8' 24.20", W114° 24' 19.69"). The area is mainly composed of folded Devonian to Jurassic carbonates. The peculiarity of the event is that the initiations of the debris-flows were located high in scree slopes, with reduced contributing area. No debris-flow deposits anterior to that event are visible, which contrasts with the number of simultaneous events (~30) triggered by this specific precipitation period (up to 220 mm in 36 hours). Fieldwork was carried out in July, less than one month after this event. Extensive photographic and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data was acquired. In-line grain-size distribution, fine matrix sampling and cross-sections of the debris flow channel were performed at the initiation zone, the propagation zone and deposition area. Samples are analyzed by sieving as well as using laser diffraction methods for fine materials. Morphologic characterization is performed through pre-event HR-DEM (1m cell size) and TLS point-cloud comparison, along with cross-sections. Volumes can thus be calculated. The pristine debris-flow lobes, levees and source areas allowed the dynamic of the different debris-flow pulses to be reconstructed. Comparison between 2012 and 2013 field photographs emphasize the radical morphologic change caused by this single event on an apparently dormant erosion context. The conditions of initiation of the debris flows are compared with literature values, in term of slope, contributing area and saturation of the scree material. Preliminary analysis indicates that these debris-flows started at unusually low slopes in regard to the contributing area. This reinforces the extreme character of this event, attributed to two identified causes: the accumulation and weathering of rock debris in the scree slopes over time and

  10. Alberta Soil Moisture Analyses using CaLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, S.; Carrera, M. L.; Belair, S.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Husain, S.; Bilodeau, B.; Gauthier, N.

    2012-12-01

    In order to improve soil moisture analyses, used to initialize numerical prediction systems, Environment Canada has developed the new Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS). CaLDAS uses the Global Environment Multi-scale (GEM) off-line land surface model and has been configured to assimilate Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L-band soil moisture brightness temperatures using an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework and the Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform as the radiative transfer forward model. One of the biggest challenges so far has been to correct the systematic dry bias of the off-line land surface model in order to provide an accurate first guess in which to assimilate SMOS brightness temperatures. Using a network of soil moisture stations in Alberta [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development] we have improved and validated parameterizations using the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface scheme. Results will be presented for the off-line model both alone and with the assimilation of bias corrected SMOS brightness temperatures for the summers of 2010 and 2012.

  11. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Caliper Context Annotation Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-30

    To understand the performance of parallel programs, developers need to be able to relate performance measurement data with context information, such as the call path / line numbers or iteration numbers where measurements were taken. Caliper provides a generic way to specify and collect multi-dimensional context information across the software stack, and provide ti to third-party measurement tools or write it into a file or database in the form of context streams.

  13. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  14. Bring Your Own Toy: Socialisation of Two-Year-Olds through Tool-Mediated Activities in an Australian Early Childhood Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultti, Anne; Pramling, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on how young children are socialised in early childhood education practice in activities with and around toys. A premise of this study is the theoretical notion of sociocultural theory that people do things with artefacts and other cultural tools, and tools do things with people. This is captured in the unit of analysis,…

  15. Peer Assessment among Secondary School Students: Introducing a Peer Feedback Tool in the Context of a Computer Supported Inquiry Learning Environment in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsivitanidou, Olia; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Hovardas, Tasos; Nicolaou, Aphrodite

    2012-01-01

    In this study we introduced a peer feedback tool to secondary school students while aiming at investigating whether this tool leads to a feedback dialogue when using a computer supported inquiry learning environment in science. Moreover, we aimed at examining what type of feedback students ask for and receive and whether the students use the…

  16. Geoscience Garden: an outdoor teaching installation at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, J. W.; Locock, A.

    2009-05-01

    Spatial awareness, and the abilities to position observations and inferences on a two-dimensional map and within the three-dimensional environment of the Earth's crust, are some of the the larger challenges facing beginning Earth Science students. Studies have shown that outdoor observations of outcrops are vital in the development of these spatial skills. However, teaching the techniques of field geology to Earth Science students is challenging in many parts of the continental interior, where nearly flat-lying, weakly consolidated, poorly exposed sedimentary rocks may be concealed beneath recent soils and Quaternary sediments. At the University of Alberta, these problems are offset by field courses at distant locations in more varied terrains during the spring and summer, but the distances (~300 km) and climate make fieldwork difficult during a busy teaching year that extends from September to April. The Geoscience Garden will be a unique landscaped area within the University of Alberta campus in which large (1 - 5 m), boulders and rock slabs will be built into oriented, simulated outcrops. These will be arranged in a layout that represents the geology of western and northern Canada in condensed form. The Garden, currently in the process of installation, will provide an artificial field environment in which Earth Science students can develop observational skills, and construct a simple geological map. They will be able to interpret the mapped area in terms of a three-dimensional structure, and make stratigraphic inferences about the order of deposition of the units and the environmental changes that occurred during the geologic history of the simulated area. In addition to more common rock types, the Garden will also display specimens of mineral deposits in geological context, and illustrate their importance to rural and northern communities. A buried boulder that has high magnetic susceptibility will provide a target for introductory geophysical field surveys

  17. The geometry of folds in granitoid rocks of northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Langenberg, C.; Ramsden, John

    1980-06-01

    Granitoid rocks which predominate in the Precambrian shield of northeastern Alberta show large-scale fold structures. A numerical procedure has been used to obtain modal foliation orientations. This procedure results in the smoothing of folded surfaces that show roughness on a detailed scale. Statistical tests are used to divide the study areas into cylindrical domains. Structural sections can be obtained for each domain, and horizontal and vertical sections are used to construct block diagrams. The projections are performed numerically and plotted by computer. This method permits blocks to be viewed from every possible angle. Both perspective and orthographic projections can be produced. The geometries of a dome in the Tulip Lake area and a synform in the Hooker Lake area have been obtained. The domal structure is compared with polyphase deformational interference patterns and with experimental diapiric structures obtained in a centrifuge system. The synform in the Hooker Lake area may be genetically related to the doming in the Tulip Lake area.

  18. Care of the elderly program at the University of Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lesley; Dobbs, Bonnie; Triscott, Jean; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed The population is aging rapidly and there are implications for health care delivery in the face of few physicians specializing in care of the elderly (COE). Objective of program To train physicians wishing to provide COE services. Program description The COE program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton is an enhanced skills diploma program lasting 6 months to 1 year, with core program requirements including geriatric inpatient care, geriatric psychiatry, ambulatory care, continuing care, and outreach. There is a longitudinal clinic component and a research project requirement. The program is designed to cover the 85 core competencies in the CanMEDS– Family Medicine roles. Conclusion There is a need for COE physicians to provide clinical care as well as fill educational, administrative, and research roles to meet the health care needs of medically complex seniors. These physicians require alternative funding and a departmental home within a university if they are to provide an academic service. PMID:25551143

  19. NUANCE: Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In this article, we describe the Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer (NUANCE), a computer program for data exploration and analysis. NUANCE is specialized for finding nonlinear relations between any number of predictors and a dependent value to be predicted. It searches the space of possible relations between the predictors and the dependent value by using natural selection to evolve equations that maximize the correlation between their output and the dependent value. In this article, we introduce the program, describe how to use it, and provide illustrative examples. NUANCE is written in Java, which runs on most computer platforms. We have contributed NUANCE to the archival Web site of the Psychonomic Society (www.psychonomic.org/archive), from which it may be freely downloaded. PMID:16817509

  20. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  1. Nutrition Education Practices and Opinions of Alberta Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, S. Ann; Joffres, Michel R.

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 532 members of the Alberta Chapter of the College of Family Physicians in order to assess the role of physicians in providing nutrition education to their patients. Of the 255 respondents (53% response rate), over 97% agreed that “educating patients about nutrition is an important role for physicians.” Physicians most often gave nutrition information on obesity, constipation, heart disease and hypertension, alcohol, coffee, infant feeding, osteoporosis, and prenatal nutrition. Female physicians gave nutrition information significantly more often than male physicians on four maternal and child health topics. Perceived barriers to nutrition education included lack of reimbursement for physicians (86%), lack of time (48%), and limited access to patient information (42%). Most physicians often informed patients on the seven most common nutrition topics despite these concerns. PMID:21249103

  2. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  3. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  4. New Decision Tool To Evaluate Award Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornley, Richard; Spence, Matthew W.; Taylor, Mark; Magnan, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research initiative to enhance the review process for its training awards using a new tool based on the ProGrid decision-assist software. Implementation resulted in several modifications to the review process in the areas of definition, rationality, fairness, timeliness, and responsiveness; the…

  5. An Examination of the Changes in Science Teaching Orientations and Technology-Enhanced Tools for Student Learning in the Context of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Zuwallack, Rebecca; Longhurst, Max; Shelton, Brett E.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how science teaching orientations and beliefs about technology-enhanced tools change over time in professional development (PD). The primary data sources for this study came from learning journals of 8 eighth grade science teachers at the beginning and conclusion of a year of PD. Based on the analysis completed, Information…

  6. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  7. An Examination of the Changes in Science Teaching Orientations and Technology-Enhanced Tools for Student Learning in the Context of Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Todd; Zuwallack, Rebecca; Longhurst, Max; Shelton, Brett E.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2014-07-01

    This research examines how science teaching orientations and beliefs about technology-enhanced tools change over time in professional development (PD). The primary data sources for this study came from learning journals of 8 eighth grade science teachers at the beginning and conclusion of a year of PD. Based on the analysis completed, Information Transmission (IT) and Struggling with Standards-Based Reform (SSBR) profiles were found at the beginning of the PD, while SSBR and Standards-Based Reform (SBR) profiles were identified at the conclusion of PD. All profiles exhibited Vision I beliefs about the goals and purposes for science education, while only the SBR profile exhibited Vision II goals and purposes for science teaching. The IT profile demonstrated naïve or unrevealed beliefs about the nature of science, while the SSBR and SBR profiles had more sophisticated beliefs in this area. The IT profile was grounded in more teacher-centered beliefs about science teaching and learning as the other two profiles revealed more student-centered beliefs. While no beliefs about technology-enhanced tools were found for the IT profile, these were found for the other two profiles. Our findings suggest promising implications for (a) Roberts' Vision II as a central support for reform efforts, (b) situating technology-enhanced tools within the beliefs about science teaching and learning dimension of science teaching orientations, and (c) revealing how teacher orientations develop as a result of PD.

  8. Searching algorithm for type IV secretion system effectors 1.0: a tool for predicting type IV effectors and exploring their genomic context.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Damien F; Noroy, Christophe; Moumène, Amal; Raffaele, Sylvain; Albina, Emmanuel; Vachiéry, Nathalie

    2013-11-01

    Type IV effectors (T4Es) are proteins produced by pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host cell gene expression and processes, divert the cell machinery for their own profit and circumvent the immune responses. T4Es have been characterized for some bacteria but many remain to be discovered. To help biologists identify putative T4Es from the complete genome of α- and γ-proteobacteria, we developed a Perl-based command line bioinformatics tool called S4TE (searching algorithm for type-IV secretion system effectors). The tool predicts and ranks T4E candidates by using a combination of 13 sequence characteristics, including homology to known effectors, homology to eukaryotic domains, presence of subcellular localization signals or secretion signals, etc. S4TE software is modular, and specific motif searches are run independently before ultimate combination of the outputs to generate a score and sort the strongest T4Es candidates. The user keeps the possibility to adjust various searching parameters such as the weight of each module, the selection threshold or the input databases. The algorithm also provides a GC% and local gene density analysis, which strengthen the selection of T4E candidates. S4TE is a unique predicting tool for T4Es, finding its utility upstream from experimental biology. PMID:23945940

  9. Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: the Alberta Oil Sands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E A; Miyanishi, K

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of oil from the Alberta Oil Sands through surface mining involves the removal of the overburden and oil sand to a depth of up to 100 m and over extremely large areas. While the operation of the bitumen processing plants has serious environmental impacts on downstream habitats, this article focuses on the reclamation of areas from which the oil sands have been removed, processed, and returned. This reclamation following closure of the mines will entail the complete re-creation of landforms and ecosystems at a landscape scale, with the goal of producing suitable habitats for plants, animals, and people. Such projects will require a reasonable understanding of the geophysical and ecological processes that operate at a wide range of scales. Some information is provided on the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and land use (past and current) of the Oil Sands area, situated within the Boreal Plain ecozone, to provide a framework for discussion of issues to be addressed in, and proposed guidelines for, such large-scale reclamation. Although none of the mines has yet closed, numerous consultant reports have been produced with recommendations for various aspects of such reclamation projects (e.g., wetland hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitat). The scientific basis of such reports is found to vary with respect to depth of understanding of the relevant processes. PMID:18566092

  10. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  11. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  12. Combined Tree-Ring Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes to infer past atmospheric deposition in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America is significantly younger than the emitting activities themselves. Attention should be placed on SOx and NOx emissions as they have been increasing over the last 15 years in western Canada. In Northeastern Alberta in particular, two distinct diffuse pollution contexts deserve attention: the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands (OS) district (north of Fort McMurray), and the coal fired power plant (CFPP) area (west of Edmonton). The NOx and SO2 emissions started in 1967 and 1956, but the direct air quality monitoring has been initiated in 1997 and 1985, in these respective contexts. In an attempt to address the gap in emission and deposition monitoring, we explored the δ13C and δ15N patterns of spruce trees (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) growing in four stands in the OS district and one stand, in the CFPP area. Tree-ring series collected from these five sites all covering the 1880-2010 period were analyzed and their δ13C and δ15N values examined along with the climatic parameters and SOx and NOx emission proxies. For two stands in the OS district where soil drainage was poor δ15N series did not vary significantly, but the intermediate and long-term δ13C and δ15N trends inversely correlate in the three other studied stands. For these three sites statistical analyses for the pre-operation calibration periods (1910-1961 and 1900-1951) allowed developing transfer functions and predicting the natural δ13C and δ15N responses to climatic conditions for the operation periods. The measured series all depart from the modeled natural trends, depicting anomalies. Interestingly, the anomalies in the two regions can be nicely reproduced by multiple-regression models combining local climatic parameters with acidifying emissions. Notwithstanding the significant inverse correlations between the δ13C and δ15N series for the three well drained sites and their link to acidifying emissions, it is too early to

  13. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  14. Aerosol Characterisitics Over Alberta Using Modis and OMI Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first detailed analysis of optical aerosol characterization over Alberta based on satellite data analysis. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm for 11 years (2003-2013), derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard NASA's Aqua satellite, was analyzed. Additionally, UV aerosol index (AI) data for 9 years (2005-2013) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite was used to examine absorbing aerosols. Comparing AERONET to MODIS 3 km and 10 km products indicated a stronger correlation (r=0.9 for the latter vs 0.7 for the former) thus 10 km product has been utilized for this study. Overall, gridded seasonal maps (0.1 deg.) of the 11 yr averaged AOD illustrate the highest AOD during summer, followed by spring, with the lowest observed values during fall (there is no enough valid MODIS data in winter due to cloud cover). Aerosol optical properties exhibited large spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the summer with mean AOD of 0.25, followed by spring, while the fall had less variability with mean AOD below 0.1 for the entire region. However, the spatial analysis indicated hot spots around Edmonton and Calgary cities even in the fall when AODs are very low (close to background). All of the datasets showed interannual variability with no significant trend. The AI values ranged from 0.5 during winter to as high as 5 during summer suggesting mid- and long range transport of boreal fire emissions. Map correlation between AOD and UV AI showed large variability (0.2 to 0.7) indicating presence of different types of aerosols. These low correlations imply the presence of non-absorbing particles (e.g. sulfate) that comprise a relatively large mass fraction of AOD and/or low altitude particles.

  15. Sour-gas potential in Devonian of western Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Podruski, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada is presently conducting an assessment of the undiscovered gas resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin using the exploration play analysis technique. The first system being examined is the Devonian, which as been divided into four exploration districts based on differences in depositional and tectonic histories, hydrocarbon compositions, and exploration practices. The western Alberta sour gas district contains most of the Devonian gas reserves (10 trillion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas) and potential in 12 exploration plays. Production in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills, Leduc, and Nisku formations is from the updip (northeast), basinward termination of carbonate shelves or large reef complexes and their associated patch and pinnacle reefs. Mapping the reef or shelf carbonate transition to basinal shale and carbonate delineates the play areas in these formations. Production in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Formation is from stratigraphic traps at shelf carbonate/shelf evaporite transitions and in structural-stratigraphic traps in dolomitized shelf carbonate. Pools in these plays typically contain from 50 to 500 billion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas, have 10-30% H/sub 2/S, and occur at depths from 8000 to 15,000 ft. Potential in most plays is large, considering that between 90 and 99% of the play areas are unexplored. Present exploration is still concentrating on the conventional shelf margin or reef traps, such as in the area of the recent Caroline discovery. Subtle intrashelf traps are only beginning to be explored and could constitute a major resource target of the future, provided that economic conditions and improvements in seismic technology and geologic understanding will sustain the exploration effort in this district.

  16. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  17. Preliminary rock physics analysis on Grosmont carbonate formation, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, D.; Keehm, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Grosmont formation in Canada is a bitumen-saturated carbonate reservoir and draw increasing attention as a possible future unconventional oil field. However, the characterization of the formation is not easy due to high geological complexity. In this paper, we report our preliminary results of rock physics modeling effort using log data from seven wells in the T85R19W4 township, Alberta, Canada. Since the acoustic and shear velocity data are not very common, we use three logging properties: gamma ray; neutron-density porosity; and resistivity. The bitumen saturation is obtained from core measurement data. From the preliminary analysis, Grosmont formation can be divided into two groups by resistivity and porosity. The lower group matches with Grosmont A and B from previous studies and upper group with Grosmont C and D. The lower group mainly consists of limestone with different clay contents. The upper group was under dolomitization and karstification during Mesozoic, and is composed of fractured dolomite and karst breccia. The two groups can be divided by 15% porosity and 100 ohm-m resistivity values. The upper group has higher porosity and higher resistivity, which indicates high bitumen saturation and better reservoir quality. In porosity-resistivity domain, some wells shows typical trend; resistivity increases as porosity decrease; however, wells from the north-eastern part does not show any consistent trends. We believe that north-eastern part of our study area has more dolomitization and karstification, thus higher heterogeneity. We report basic trends for porosity vs. resistivity using Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for upper and lower group at each well. We also plan to obtain velocity data and perform quantitative analysis on porosity-velocity relations and velocity sensitivity to bitumen saturation. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of KETEP (Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning), Grant No

  18. Bringing together hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users through the WebGIS tool SPIDER in the context of the SIRIUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Jesús; Osann, Anna; Calera, Alfonso; Moreno-Rivera, Juan Manuel; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Fernández, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Scientific expertise on irrigated agriculture or hydrological modelling has achieved advance models with tested results. However, real connexions between this knowledge and its applications, and water end-users (either water managers on the field, or water policy makers) need a meeting point. According with the main aim of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) in order to provide global, timely and easily accessible information in applications like land and water management, the EU-project SIRIUS (Sustainable Irrigation water management and River-basin governance: Implementing User-driven Services, www.sirius-gmes.es), is linking hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users, through the webGIS tool SPIDER (System of Participatory Information, Decision support and Expert knowledge for River basin water management). The models employed are AQUATOOL (http://www.upv.es/aquatool/) and HidroMORE+® (http://www.hidromore.es/). AQUATOOL is a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of the water resources in a river basin which integrates in a comprehensive way all relevant water elements and its interactions, in order to provide different scenarios that incorporate water offers and demands. On the other hand, HidroMORE+® computes spatially distributed water balance components remote sensing driven, in large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution. Mainly applied to irrigation practices, HidroMORE+® is aimed to monitories the crop evolutions and water demands. Either AQUATOOL products such scenario reports, or HidroMORE+® products such time series of the water balance components can be integrated in SPIDER, which has been designed to display all these types of products. However, a general feature of models is that they often provide too many parameters, which makes it very difficult for non-experts to understand. Then, it is needed to select among the output variables those that provide maximum useful information, according

  19. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups. PMID:27245134

  20. Alberta Grade 12 Examination Study. A study commissioned by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA). Condensed Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Fred J.

    In 1973, compulsory province-wide grade 12 examinations, administered in Alberta since 1906, were dropped; teachers were given the responsibility of assigning final grades. Mandated by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in 1976, this study by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA) surveyed education professionals,…

  1. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  2. The Socioeconomic Benefits Generated by 16 Community Colleges and Technical Institutes in Alberta. Executive Summary [and] Volume 1: Main Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Kjell A.; Robison, M. Henry

    This document contains an executive summary and main report that examine the ways in which the Alberta, Canada, economy benefits from the presence of the 16 community and technical colleges in the province. The colleges served an unduplicated headcount of 241,992 students in fiscal year 2001. The Alberta community colleges employed 8,374 full-time…

  3. Herbert T. Coutts and the Origins, Early Development, and Possible Future Directions of the Alberta Journal of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    1994-01-01

    Herbert Coutts, dean of the University of Alberta faculty of education when the "Alberta Journal of Educational Research" was established in 1955, recalls the origins of the journal and early struggles to maintain its scholarly orientation. The journal filled a need for a Canadian-based scholarly journal devoted to educational research, and…

  4. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  5. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  6. A subtle diagenetic trap in the Cretaceous Glauconite Sandstone of Southwest Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meshri, I.D.; Comer, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the long history of research which documents many studies involving extensive diagenesis, there are a few examples of a fully documented diagenetic trap. In the context of this paper, a trap is a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with a seal; because a reservoir without a seal acts as a carrier bed. The difficulty in the proper documentation of diagenetic traps is often due to the lack of: (a) extensive field records on the perforation and production histories, which assist in providing the depth of separation between hydrocarbon production and non-hydrocarbon or water production; and (b) the simultaneous availability of core data from these intervals, which could be studied for the extent and nature of diagenesis. This paper provides documentation for the existence of a diagenetic trap, based on perforation depths, production histories and petrologic data from the cored intervals, in the context of the geologic and stratigraphic setting. Cores from 15 wells and SP logs from 45 wells were carefully correlated and the data on perforated intervals was also acquired. Extensive petrographic work on the collected cores led to the elucidation of a diagenetic trap that separates water overlying and updip from gas downdip. Amoco's Berrymore-Lobstick-Bigoray fields, located near the northeastern edge of the Alberta Basin, are prolific gas producers. The gas is produced from reservoir rock consisting of delta platform deposits formed by coalescing distributary mouth bars. The overlying rock unit is composed of younger distributary channels; although it has a good reservoir quality, it contains and produces water only. The total thickness of the upper, water-bearing and lower gas-bearing sandstone is about 40 ft. The diagenetic seal is composed of a zone 2 to 6 ft thick, located at the base of distributary channels. This zone is cemented with 20-30% ankerite cement, which formed the gas migration and is also relatively early compared to other cements formed in the water

  7. Analysis and adaption of tools for water system management of the Lièvre River watershed, Quebec, Canada, to the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, R.; Trudel, M.; Krau, S.; Côté, P.

    2012-04-01

    The basin of the Lièvre River (9542 km2), Quebec, Canada, has a water system consisting of three high-capacity reservoirs. During floods, the reservoir management gives priority to flood control and hydropower generation but also tries to respect constraints associated with environmental issues. Nevertheless, the basin is subject to floods, raising the need for improved water system management tools. Since these reservoirs are also part of the Ottawa River system, the main tributary of the St. Lawrence River, reservoirs of the Lièvre River also impact floods and low flows in the Montreal Archipel, through their influence on streamflows in the Mille-Îles and Des Prairies Rivers. Low flow is an important issue in this area since a large population relies on the streamflow of the Mille-Îles River for freshwater. The effect of an anticipated increase of extreme meteorological events as a result of climate change makes the evaluation of water system capacity of the Lièvre River even more important to reduce the impacts of such hydrometeorological events. This kind of optimization problem has been studied in the past and there are many approaches to obtain, or at least to find an optimal solution, such as linear programming, nonlinear programming and dynamic programming. The later is widely used, but difficult to apply to systems with more than three reservoirs since computational time exponentially increases as the number of state variables increases. One of the goals of this study is to eventually extend the water system management to the entire Ottawa River watershed, which includes more than 40 reservoirs. A nonlinear programming approach using an interior-point algorithm has therefore been chosen for the Lievre reservoir system. Constraints related to the Montreal Archipel constitute a further challenge as the many reservoirs on the Ottawa River watershed upstream from the Lièvre River are managed by various owners. It is therefore difficult to know with

  8. The economic adaptation of Vietnamese refugees in Alberta: 1979-84.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, R

    1987-01-01

    During 1979 and 1980, about 7500 South East Asian refugees entered Alberta. The number has been steadily rising since 1982 due to the sponsoring of family and relatives by those who came earlier; by mid-1984, there were an estimated 15,000 South East Asian immigrants in Alberta, 92% from Vietnam. Montgomery explores the situation of the Vietnamese in Alberta by administering a survey consisting of a structured interview schedule containing 249 questions. The actual field work took from mid-November 1983 to March 31, 1984. A quota of 500 was targeted; it was decided to apportion the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers were able to interview 148 of all the non-Edmonton Vietnamese; 389 interviews were conducted in Edmonton. All of the dependent variables used in the survey were cross-tabulated or correlated with English skill on arrival, current English skill, progress in English, education or training level on arrival, current marital status, escape trauma (where applicable), gender, age, population of municipality in which currently residing, ethnicity, level of involvement in ethnic social network, type of sponsorship, and length of residence in Canada. Montgomery compares Richmond's 1981 summary generalization from the 25 studies he reviewed of immigrant economic adaptation to Canada to his own study. Montgomery's findings are almost completely congruent with Richmond's. Richmond found that immigrants from the developing countries experienced the highest unemployment rates and the slowest economic integration; this is because they must contend with more, and more severe, obstacles than do other immigrants. This is precisely what has happened to the Vietnamese in Alberta. Richmond found that after 3 years, at least 1/3 of newcomers had not reached their intended occupations. In the present study, the Vietnamese had only hazy notions of what kinds of work

  9. The hydrological effects of harvesting at Boreal Plain, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyani, Ghasemali; Yew Gan, Thian; Devito, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Unique hydrological characteristics of Boreal Plain environment such as sub-humid climate, deep glacial deposits, and significant heterogeneity in soil and vegetation type creates a complicated hydrology in the region. The study of hydrological effects of harvesting in Boreal Plain, which is occurring at an unprecedented rate for oil and gas exploration and timber harvesting, is necessary for a sustainable forest management. However there are a few previous studies addressing the hydrological effects of harvesting on quantity and quality of water in Boreal Plain. This paper reports on an on-going paired catchments experimental study at Alpac Catchment Experiment (ACE: 55N 112W) area near Lac La Biche, Alberta started in early 2005. A 2-km2 catchment (H2) was harvested almost 70% in winter 2006. Later, the harvesting occurred sequentially within the bigger catchment (H1, 10 km2) i.e. 29% in 2007 and 19% in 2008 totally account for about 80% of aspen forest. Finally, the smallest catchments was harvested approximately 90% in summer 2008. The collected pre- and post harvest data have been used to assess the effect of harvesting on the catchment overall responses and soil moisture. The pre-harvest streamflow data collected at H1 and its reference catchment R1 show that unit area runoff of both catchments are matched fairly good, and may be used to assess changes in streamflow after harvesting. An increase in soil moisture and soil temperature after harvesting was observed in H2, but little to no change in streamflow response. This suggests the dominance of soil moisture in the catchment, which might be a promising indicator for tracking the effect of harvesting. The field data is then used to drive the hydrological model MISBA to simulate the water and energy cycling in the Boreal Plain. By adding a reservoir to MISBA to simulate the significant soil storage characteristic of the Boreal Plain, and by applying different catchment discretization schemes based on soil

  10. Cultural Competence in Alberta Schools: Perceptions of ESL Families in Four Major School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Hieu V.

    2012-01-01

    Complex linguistic, acculturative, and social needs of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners challenge the K-12 education system to develop cultural competence in working with culturally diverse families. This study surveyed 242 self-identified ESL students and their parents from four of Alberta's major school boards. Results of the survey…

  11. The Alberta K-9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Alberta K-9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators" has been derived from "The Common Curriculum Framework for K-9 Mathematics: Western and Northern Canadian Protocol," May 2006 (the Common Curriculum Framework). The program of studies incorporates the conceptual framework for Kindergarten to Grade 9 Mathematics and the…

  12. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  13. RACOL Project Delivers Distance Education to Rural Alberta Schools through Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Fort Vermilion School Division (FVSD) covers an area twice the size of Vermont, yet the school system only has 3,600 students. This region of northwestern Alberta, Canada, is a mixture of agriculture and oil exploration, with most towns having fewer than 5,000 people. The mandate of the school district is to provide the best possible education…

  14. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy; Martin, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the…

  15. "Fellow Travellers" and "True Believers": A Case Study of Religion and Politics in Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2001-01-01

    In Canada, the United States, and England, educational policies favoring greater parental choice have renewed interest in religion's place in public schools; conversely, religious parents' lobbying for school choice has influenced educational policy. This paper explores change dynamics in Alberta, Canada, focusing on micropolitical program and…

  16. The Required School Physical Education Program in Alberta. Planning and Research Study 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassford, R. G.; And Others

    Data obtained from a province-wide survey of compulsory physical education programs in Alberta, Canada, is presented (1) describing current parent and student perceptions of required physical education, (2) identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the program as it exists, (3) assessing areas of expressed or implied concerns, and (4) making…

  17. A Review of Counselling Services within Alberta Career Development and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vellacott, John; Brandon, Bill

    A review of counseling services within Alberta Career Development and Employment is presented in this document. Strategic issues were identified, most of which occur in other vocational counseling organizations. The issues include: (1) adapting to organizational changes; (2) increasing linkages between counseling services; (3) re-defining…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Role in Educational Marketing: Insights from the Case of Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2006-01-01

    Based on semi-structured interviews with high school teachers in Edmonton, Alberta, the reported study examined teachers' attitudes towards their roles and responsibilities in marketing their school, and the perceived impact of educational markets upon teachers' well-being. The teachers define marketing negatively and narrowly, resist any…

  19. Manufacturing (Il)Literacy in Alberta's Classrooms: The Case of an Oil-Dependent State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines involvement of education-business "partnerships" presently occurring in the province of Alberta, Canada. Specific attention is paid to the promotion and sponsorship by oil multinational corporations (MNCs) of corporate propaganda masquerading as energy and environmental literacy programs targeted for the K-12 school system. The…

  20. The Alberta Strategy for Educational Reform: Balancing Inputs, Processes, and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatko, Gary

    A results-based educational approach focuses on the outcomes of processes and inputs into the educational system and stresses results, such as student achievement, rather than process. The results-based educational reform initiatives undertaken in Alberta from 1982-1990 are described in this paper, with a focus on interrelated results-oriented…

  1. Those Who Care: A Report on Child Caregivers in Alberta Daycare Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of child care personnel employed by 80 day care centers throughout Alberta. Findings indicated that, on average, child care staff had higher levels of education than the general adult population in the province. Considerable mobility within the child care field was found. Staff with…

  2. Computing Services Planning, Downsizing, and Organization at the University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrametti, Monica

    1993-01-01

    In a six-month period, the University of Alberta (Canada) campus computing services department formulated a strategic plan, and downsized and reorganized to meet financial constraints and respond to changing technology, especially distributed computing. The new department is organized to react more effectively to trends in technology and user…

  3. Difficulties Associated with the Coding and Categorization of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Jahnukainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, there is a recent trend toward non-categorization of services of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities (EBD). Yet in Alberta, the coding of students with EBD provides opportunities to diagnose students' learning difficulties but is hindered in this process, in large part, by being tied into special needs funding. Current…

  4. Neo-Conservatism and Child Care Services in Alberta: A Case Study. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline

    The development and delivery of child care services in Canada has never been without controversy. This case study examines the development of the child care system in Alberta, Canada, showing how the role of the government proceeded through four distinct phases, each determining a different outcome for child care stakeholders. Power mechanisms and…

  5. Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

  6. Responding to a Strong Economy. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    In 2001-2002, the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board continued its collaboration with industry, government, and educators to maintain high standards of training and improve access to technical training. The board continued to strengthen the network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees, occupational committees, and…

  7. Effects of Changes in the Recapture Provision on Equity of Education Funding: Evidence from Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhav, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Shows how reducing the recapture provision in a property-tax-dependent education-funding formula adversely affected fiscal equality in Alberta, Canada, from 1974 through 1992. An alternative plan would have recaptured .77 percent more of the funds in 1992. Another plan (full tax-base recapture) would ensure equitable distribution, compared to full…

  8. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  9. Knowledge, Power, and Social Policy: John M. MacEachran and Alberta's 1928 Sexual Sterilization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how academic knowledge and power have shaped the discourse on human classification and how political authorities use academic knowledge producers to legitimize public policy. Specifically, the article draws on the role of John M. MacEachran, a former academic at the University of Alberta, in the implementation of the Alberta…

  10. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of a…

  11. Supporting Democratic Discourses of Teacher Professionalism: The Case of the Alberta Teachers' Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond-Johnson, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores understandings related to teacher professionalism amongst a sample of highly engaged members of the Alberta Teacher's Association (ATA). Highlighting the many ways in which the Association supported members in their bid to embody roles as leaders, learners, advocates, and policy actors, I argue that the ATA serves as a platform…

  12. Complementary Social Sciences Courses in the Alberta High School Curriculum: A Conceptual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staszenski, Donna; Smits, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with Alberta Education's goals and responsibilities to develop and evaluate curriculum and to set standards and assess outcomes, the Ministry is reviewing the status and purpose of social sciences courses as part of the high school curriculum. The present social sciences curriculum was revised in 1985. As part of the social sciences…

  13. Access and Funding for International Students in Alberta: Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta classrooms are a microcosm of the world, with students representing a diversity of language and cultural groups. Some students are Canadian born or have adopted Canadian citizenship, while others are permanent residents, children of temporary foreign workers, refugees or students who have come to Canada specifically to study. Given this…

  14. The People: A Historical Guide to the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Donald

    This book focuses on the history and culture of the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Canada). An introductory chapter briefly overviews the history of the First Nations, based on evidence found at archaeological sites in the plains and subarctic areas within the three provinces. Although there were many notable differences…

  15. Alberta Career Events: A Planning Guide and Workbook for Counsellors and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    Information on planning career events in Alberta, Canada, is presented in this guide. Information is divided into these 10 areas: (1) establishing a realistic timeline; (2) setting goals and clarifying one's purpose; (3) establishing support and selling the idea; (4) setting the budget and anticipating expenses with a sample budget; (5)…

  16. Congenital Abnormalities in Children Born in Alberta During 1961: A Survey and a Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    le Vann, L. J.

    1963-01-01

    In Alberta, the provincial average for neonatal congenital physical abnormalities discovered at birth increased from 7.9 per 1000 births in 1959 to 13.8 per 1000 births in 1961. Drugs taken by mothers during pregnancy were tabulated, including the antiemetic and tranquillizer agents, but no relationship was demonstrated between their use and damage to the fetus. A significant relation was apparent, however, between the incidence of congenital malformations and the extent of precipitation in the area concerned. In Northern Alberta, where precipitation is highest, 15.5 per 1000 children born in 1961 showed physical defects. In Southern Alberta, where precipitation is lowest, 11.9 children per 1000 births were born with physical defects. Increases of radioactive dust containing cesium-137, cerium-144 and strontium-90 were associated with above-ground Soviet thermonuclear Arctic explosions during recent years. The hypothesis is advanced that children born in Alberta in 1962 will show a greater incidence of physical deformities than those born in 1961, owing to greater rainfall during 1961 and 1962. PMID:20327618

  17. Corporate Competencies for Executive Women in Alberta: Oh, the Places You'll Go!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocchio, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to develop consensus opinion on the core competencies required to succeed as a female executive in the C-Suites of Alberta, Canada. The study was prompted by the significant under-representation of women in Canadian corporate executive positions and by a post-secondary institution's interest in determining whether a market exists…

  18. Access to Opportunity, 1905-80. The Development of Post-Secondary Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghofer, Desmond E.; Vladicka, Alan S.

    The history of postsecondary education in the province of Alberta (Canada) since its beginning in 1905 is chronicled, including its transformation from an agriculturally-based frontier society to a modern industrial state. Although little emphasis is placed on historical narrative, a number of time periods are identified to illustrate certain…

  19. The History of Post-Secondary Finance in Alberta - An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Calvin P.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2005-01-01

    Post-secondary systems throughout Canada and the United States have struggled with funding issues during most of the last decade of the 20th Century, and the new millennium did not open with great enthusiasm for change. This article examines the impact of post-secondary education funding changes in Alberta, Canada, by tracing the historical…

  20. WiFi in Schools, Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Phones: Alberta Health Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Wireless devices and the networks that support them are becoming more common in Alberta schools. WiFi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. Typically the signal is carried by radio waves over an area of up to 100 meters. Through the implementation of a WiFi network,…

  1. Rural Alberta Home-Based Businesses: A Profile of Workshop Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capjack, M. Linda; Fetterman, Nelma I.

    1992-01-01

    Of 252 rural Alberta attendees of home-based business workshops, 60 were in business. Of these, 65 percent produced sewing, textile, or food-related products; 73 percent contributed less than 5 percent of family income; 72 percent worked at home because a hobby became profitable; and the majority were married women over 40. (SK)

  2. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  3. DETAILED ENDOCRINE ASSESSMENTS IN WILD FISH DOWNSTREAM OF PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    2001. Detailed Endocrine Assessments in Wild Fish Downstream of Pulp and Paper Mills in Northern Alberta, Canada (Abstract). In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, N...

  4. The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

    In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

  5. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  6. Housing and Living Arrangements of South Asian Immigrant Seniors in Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Cheuk Fan; Northcott, Herbert C.; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian population is aging and becoming more ethnically diverse. This paper focuses on South Asian immigrant seniors and examines differences in housing and living arrangements among seniors who immigrated at different life stages. We interviewed a convenience sample of 161 immigrant seniors of South Asian descent in Edmonton, Alberta, to…

  7. Mapping the Continuing Professional Development Jungle: The University of Alberta Amazon Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.; Einsiedel, Albert A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    At the University of Alberta (Canada), the Amazon Project is identifying and mapping continuing-professional-development activities and resources available through the University. The project has met challenges related to definitions of terms, lack of relevant information and statistics, and faculty suspicion and resistance. (SV)

  8. The Atlee School Question: The Effects of School Consolidation in Rural Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, a bitter dispute broke out between parents in the Atlee-Jenner School District in Southern Alberta Canada, and the Medicine Hat School Board over the bussing of children for the first time to a new school a long distance away. The move was precipitated by the consolidation of several smaller school districts and the subsequent…

  9. Physical Education Student Cost Analysis in Alberta Schools: Planning and Research Study 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, D. M.; And Others

    Hidden tuition costs associated with the operation of school physical education programs were researched in a study of all public schools of Calgary and a random sample of all schools in Alberta. Findings indicate that: (1) all schools in this study impose additional charges for student participation in physical education programs; (2) it was not…

  10. A Demographic Overview of the Native Populations in Alberta. Background Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Native Affairs, Edmonton.

    Data from the 1981 Census of Canada were used to gain an overview of the demographic and social characteristics of the aboriginal populations in Alberta and to compare the situations of aboriginal and non-aboriginal peoples with regard to age and geographical distribution, educational attainment, labor force activity, and income. Census figures…

  11. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  12. Financing Schooling in Alberta. Summary Report of the Minister's Task Force on School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    In this report the 1982 Alberta Task Force summarizes its conclusions and presents 19 recommendations under 4 priorities. The first prioriity includes recommendations in the following areas having general impact and/or involving substantial general funding: local shares of costs, assessment distribution, supplementary requisitions, supplementary…

  13. Availability of Non-Nutritious Foods in Alberta Schools. Research Bulletin 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    School authorities in a total of 68 Alberta school jurisdictions (representing 82 percent of the student population of the province) responded to a request for details about the availability in schools of nonnutritious foods--defined as food that contains minimal nutrients in proportion to number of calories. Foods that are commonly consumed at…

  14. Special Report of the Ombudsman for Alberta Re: Complaints of the Lubicon Lake Indian Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Office of the Ombudsman, Edmonton.

    The Ombudsman for Alberta investigated five allegations raised by the Lubicon Lake Indian Band: (1) that provincial officials had deliberately allowed fires in the Band's traditional area to rage unchecked; (2) that provincial and oil company workers had been instructed to bulldoze deliberately Indian traplines and to scare game out of the area by…

  15. Quetiapine use in adults in the community: a population-based study in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Diane; Cooke, Lara; Symonds, Chris; Gardner, David; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in prescribing of the second-generation antipsychotic medication quetiapine to adults in the province of Alberta from 2008 to 2013 through examination of dispensed prescriptions, and diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine in 2013. Methods We analysed administrative data from Alberta Health; the Alberta Pharmaceutical Information Network (PIN) Dispenses health data set, the Practitioner Payments (Fee-For-Service claims) health data set and the Population Registry health data set. These data sets allowed us to identify discrete quetiapine recipients for each calendar year from 2008 to 2013. To evaluate diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine, we evaluated diagnostic codes used by physicians in billings claims in 2013. Results Quetiapine use increased over the 6-year time period studied. In 2008, there were 16 087 unique quetiapine recipients in Alberta (7.2 per 1000). By 2013, there were 35 314 unique quetiapine recipients (13.3 per 1000). Use by women was higher than men at all time points. Depression was most common diagnosis associated with quetiapine recipients, which was present in 56% of users of quetiapine. Other common diagnoses associated with quetiapine use included neurotic disorders, bipolar disorder and sleep disturbances. Conclusions The current study of quetiapine use in the province of Alberta provides confirmatory data of the increasing use of quetiapine for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Safe and rational prescribing practices must be encouraged in light of the modest advantages of quetiapine over no treatment as an adjunctive treatment of major depression, and the known harms of this medication. PMID:27000788

  16. Watershed-scale response of groundwater recharge to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in precipitation (Alberta, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Farrow, Christopher R.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge sets a constraint on aquifer water balance in the context of water management. Historical data on groundwater and other relevant hydrological processes can be used to understand the effects of climatic variability on recharge, but such data sets are rare. The climate of the Canadian prairies is characterized by large inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in precipitation, which provides opportunities to examine the response of groundwater recharge to changes in meteorological conditions. A decadal study was conducted in a small (250 km2) prairie watershed in Alberta, Canada. Relative magnitude of annual recharge, indicated by water-level rise, was significantly correlated with a combination of growing-season precipitation and snowmelt runoff, which drives depression-focussed infiltration of meltwater. Annual precipitation was greater than vapour flux at an experimental site in some years and smaller in other years. On average precipitation minus vapour flux was 10 mm y-1, which was comparable to the magnitude of watershed-scale groundwater recharge estimated from creek baseflow. Average baseflow showed a distinct shift from a low value (4 mm y-1) in 1982-1995 to a high value (15 mm y-1) in 2003-2013, indicating the sensitivity of groundwater recharge to a decadal-scale variability of meteorological conditions.

  17. Supporting the Literacy Learner: Promising Literacy Strategies in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Literacy has become much more than just the ability to read: recent literature related to literacy instruction suggests that an essential goal is to develop in students the ability to think deeply about what they read and to express themselves accurately and expressively in all contexts. There is a growing acceptance of the importance of lifelong…

  18. The economic impacts of chronic wasting disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in alberta and the rest of Canada.

    PubMed

    Petigara, Milap; Dridi, Chokri; Unterschultz, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Input-output analysis was used to calculate the economic impacts from potential prion diseases outbreaks in Alberta and the rest of Canada. Both chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have the capacity not only to affect the farmed cervid and cattle industries, but also to impact all industries with direct and indirect links to these sectors. Cervid sector shocks yield small spillover effects on the economies of Alberta as well as that of all of Canada. In contrast, the cattle sector generates larger multiplier effects in both specifically Alberta region and all of Canada. The industries that consistently experience the largest impacts from prion disease outbreaks in both Alberta and remainder of Canada economic regions are agricultural sectors, mining and energy sectors, and industries dedicated to trade, transportation, and warehousing. PMID:22043917

  19. Motorcycle-related trauma in Alberta: a sad and expensive story

    PubMed Central

    Monk, John P.; Buckley, Richard; Dyer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma caused by motorcycle-related injuries is extensive, expensive and increasing. Recent American literature reported that in 2004 the chance of a motorcyclist dying was 34 times greater than that for someone using any other motor vehicle for every mile travelled. In the United Kingdom a motorcyclist is killed or seriously injured every 665 894 km, compared with 18 661 626 km for cars. If this pattern is repeated in Canada, then this information should be in the public domain to support initiatives for injury prevention. Methods We gathered and analyzed retrospective population data on the injury patterns of adult motorcyclists and other adult motor vehicle drivers and passengers across Alberta from Apr. 1, 1995, to Mar. 31, 2006. We collected data from 3 Alberta sources: the Alberta Trauma Registry, the Alberta Office of the Chief Medical Examiners and the Government of Alberta Department of Infrastructure and Transportation. We compared the numbers and causes of crashes, injuries and deaths, as well as the acute care costs on the roads, and specifically compared motorcycle-related injuries to all other motor vehicle–related injuries. Results There were 70 605 registered motorcycles and 2 748 204 other registered motor vehicles in Alberta during the study period. During these 11 years, there were 286 motorcyclists killed and 712 were severely injured, representing a total of 998 injuries and deaths. There was 5386 deaths related to other motor vehicles and 6239 severe injuries, for a total of 11 625 injuries and deaths. This represents a percentage of 1.4% of all registered motorcycles and 0.4% of all other registered motor vehicles (3.5 times more motorcyclist injuries). The impact on the health care system can be measured in several ways. During the period of this study, motorcyclists accounted for 10 760 bed days. Assuming the patient was not admitted to intensive care, each admission cost Can$9200 (average in 2008). Conclusion Analysis of the

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  2. Congenital limb deficiencies in Alberta-a review of 33 years (1980-2012) from the Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (ACASS).

    PubMed

    Bedard, Tanya; Lowry, Robert Brian; Sibbald, Barbara; Kiefer, Gerhard N; Metcalfe, Amy

    2015-11-01

    The birth prevalence of limb deficiencies in Alberta has been fluctuating. The objectives were to examine patterns and temporal trends of congenital limb deficiencies in Alberta and compare rates with those of other jurisdictions. The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System data on live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) occurring between 1980 through 2012 with the ICD-10 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Adaptations codes Q71-Q73 (limb reduction defects), Q79.80 (congenital constriction bands), and Q87.24 (sirenomelia syndrome) were reviewed. Cases were classified as having amelia, transverse, longitudinal (preaxial, postaxial, central, or mixed), intercalary, split hand/split foot, complex, or other type of limb deficiency. Phenotypes were classified as associated, which included cases with a known etiology and cases with at least one other type of anomaly, or isolated. From 1980 through 2012, 795 cases were ascertained from 1,411,652 live births and stillbirths, giving a prevalence of 5.6/10,000 total births. Mixed longitudinal deficiencies were the most common (22.4%). The upper limbs (63.9%) were affected more often than the lower limbs (25.3%). Isolated limb deficiencies occurred in 43.6% of cases, 28.4% had Mendelian or other known conditions, 21.9% had multiple congenital anomalies, 5.4% had chromosome abnormalities and 0.6% were due to teratogens. The associated group, showed a significant increasing trend (P =  0.023). While the overall limb deficiency rates show very little differences across diverse populations and differing time periods, comparisons of subgroups should be made with caution, because variations in terminology and classification contribute to reported differences. PMID:26171959

  3. Computer Network Security: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This paper provides a snapshot of the computer network security industry and addresses specific issues related to network security in public education. The following topics are covered: (1) security policy, including reasons for establishing a policy, risk assessment, areas to consider, audit tools; (2) workstations, including physical security,…

  4. Recent Progress in Low-Temperature Research from the Davis Lab at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John P.; Rojas, Xavier; Yang, Yikai; Duh, Andrej; Popowich, Greg

    2013-03-01

    In this talk I will briefly describe our recent progress towards new low-temperature experiments at the University of Alberta in the Davis Lab. We are currently setting up two nuclear demagnetization fridges - one new cryostat that has two independent 9 T magnets (the second magnet being useful for a double demag stage or combined high field and low temperature experiments). The other fridge is an older unit that is extensively refurbished, with all new pumping systems. We are planning numerous experiments at the intersection of low-temperature physics and nanoscience, including quantum properties of nanomechancial resonators and quantum fluids in confined geometries. Concerning the latter, we have fabricated high quality microfluidic devices suitable for low-temperature research. We will discuss our progress towards quantum fluids measurements using these devices. Generous support from the University of Alberta, Faculty of Science, CFI, NSERC, nanoBridge, CIFAR, and CSEE.

  5. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  6. Mid-Wisconsinan vertebrates and their environment from January Cave, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James A.

    1991-01-01

    January Cave, in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, has yielded vertebrate remains from a coprocenosis of mid-Wisconsinan-age. Taphonomic analysis indicates accumulation by raptors, mostly owls, and mammalian carnivores. The vertebrate record, together with pollen analysis, indicates that cool, dry conditions prevailed in an extensive tundra-like environment, with prairie elements in the valleys below. Thirty-four mammalian taxa have been recovered from January Cave. Today, some of these species (e.g., Lemmus sibiricus and Dicrostonyx torquatus) do not coexist with others (e.g., Cynomys sp., Mustela nigripes, Vulpes velox, and Lagurus curtatus). Therefore, the January Cave local fauna represents a "nonanalog" mammalian community characteristic of the late Pleistocene. It suggests that the region enjoyed an equable climate, with reduced climatic extremes but still cool, further supporting a mid-Wisconsinan age estimate for the fauna. It is the first major, small vertebrate fauna of its age to be reported from Alberta.

  7. [Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta]. Annual report 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    In 1996, the Province of Alberta transferred the operations and responsibilities for tire recycling from the Tire Recycling Management Board to the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta. This Association is a not-for-profit association incorporated under the Societies Act, and is a Delegated Administrative Organization (DOA). As a DOA, the Association is a legal entity separate from government. The Association`s vision is to be a model for innovation, responsible solutions to manage solid waste resources, and to responsibly steward scrap tire resources for the best interests of Albertans. This annual report provides highlights of the past year, a business plan, a list of the board of directors and committees, and finally, an auditor`s report and financial statements.

  8. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  9. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L.; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H.; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  10. Evolving 50–50% bilingual pedagogy in Alberta: what does the research say?

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rahat; Schmidt, Elaine; Krickhan, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the provincial frameworks that define the Spanish bilingual program in Alberta, Canada, provides an historical overview of its pedagogic constraints and evolution, and proposes a framework for bilingual pedagogy. The framework is conceptualized from the research evidence of three local case studies, and is based on the centrality of cross-linguistic transfer, in relation to linguistic interdependence and bilingual learning. PMID:24987378

  11. Epidemiology of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in Alberta, Canada, from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Alhhazmi, Areej; Hurteau, Donna; Tyrrell, Gregory J

    2016-07-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) cause severe invasive disease in both neonates and adults. Understanding the epidemiology of GBS provides information that can include determining disease prevalence rates in defined populations and geographic regions, documenting the success of GBS screening programs, and understanding antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. In Alberta, only neonatal invasive GBS (iGBS) disease is notifiable to health authorities. We performed a surveillance study of iGBS in Alberta, Canada, from 2003 to 2013. Over the 11-year period, the disease incidence rate increased from a low of 3.92 cases/100,000 population to a high of 5.99 cases/100,000 population. The capsular polysaccharide serotypes (CPSs) found were CPS III (20.3%), CPS V (19.1%), CPS Ia (18.9%), CPS Ib (12.7%), CPS II (11.1%), CPS IV (6.3%), and nontypeable GBS (9.4%). Rates of early-onset disease (0 to 7 days) increased from 0.15 cases/1,000 live births (in 2003) to 0.34 cases/1,000 live births (in 2013). Rates of late-onset disease (>7 to 90 days) also rose, from 0.15 cases/1,000 live births (in 2003) to 0.39 cases/1,000 live births (in 2013). Alberta also experienced an increase in CPS IV isolates, from 2 cases (in 2003) to 24 cases (in 2013), of which the majority were hvgA positive (86.6%). The predominant sequence type (ST) in 2013 was ST459. Erythromycin resistance rose from 23.6% to 43.9% (in 2013). Clindamycin resistance also increased, from 12.2% to 32.5%. In summary, Alberta, Canada, has experienced an increase in GBS disease; the increase includes both neonatal and adult disease. CPS IV cases also notably increased during the surveillance period, as did resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. PMID:27098960

  12. Evidence for Early Pleistocene Glaciation obtained from borecores collected in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Andriashek, L. D.; Jackson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Borecores collected from the east-central region of Alberta, Canada have recently been sub-sampled and studied for paleomagnetic remanence characteristics. A preliminary magnetostratigraphy has been established for sediments previously assumed to represent multiple continental (Laurentide) glaciations, but for which no geochronology was available for the pre-late Wisconsin units. Comprised primarily of tills and lesser thicknesses of interbedded glacio-lacustrine and outwash sediments, the record is extensive, reaching to thicknesses of 300 metres within buried valleys. Most of the sampled units are not accessible from outcrop, and their sedimentology and stratigraphy is derived from core data only. The lowermost tills are reversely magnetized in the majority of borecores sampled to date. These tills are underlain by Empress Formation sediments and/or Colorado Group shales, and overlain by normally magnetized sediments. Both tills contain substantial weathering horizons at their surface, suggesting that interglacial or nonglacial conditions persisted for some time after each period of till deposition. Whether these tills represent a single Early Pleistocene glaciation, or perhaps two, will require additional borecore measurements. This new record of Early Pleistocene glaciation(s) in east-central Alberta places the westernmost extent of earliest Laurentide ice some 300 km farther westward from its previously established limit in the Saskatoon to Regina region of the western Canadian prairies, but still well short of the all-time limit and elevation reached during the Late Wisconsin (Late Pleistocene) in the foothills of the Alberta and Montana Rocky Mountains. Key Words: East-Central Alberta glacial history, Early Pleistocene (Laurentide) glaciation, till magnetostratigraphy, Quaternary history of Western Canadian Prairies, continental glaciations of North America.

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population. PMID:26837668

  14. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. PMID:26476065

  15. Exploration potential of the Mesozoic section in the outer Foothills, Waterton area, southwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, D.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Waterton Foothills (T1-8, R27W4-3W5M) indicates that the Alberta and lower Blairmore Groups hold hydrocarrbon potential near the south of the international border. Prospective units are sublitharenites-litharenties and lithic pebble conglomerates that range in thickness from 5 to 25 m. Thrust faults duplicate all or part of these units and can account for up to six repetitions of sandstone and conglomerate at one locality. Surface geological mapping at a scale of 1:50,000 formed the basis for the subsurface study. Subsurface information included 150 well logs, eight cores, and chip sampels from 18 wells. These data were used in a structural interpretation along with projected surface data and seismic. Structural geometires are shown by two balanced and palinspastically restored structural cross sections. Units within the Alberta and Blairmore groups have tested/showed oil, condensate, and gas throughout the study area. When put into a structural and stratigraphic framework, potential areas for hydrocarbon exploration can be delineated in the footwall of the Harland Lakes/Livingstone thrust where the Cardium sandstone has been shown to be well developed. Key hydrocarbon shows are confined to the same structural level in the Blairmore and Alberta groups (including the Beaver Mines, Cardium, and Blacksone formations and possibly the Cadomin Formation).

  16. Leptospiral Antibodies in Cattle in Alberta and Evidence of an Emerging Serovar

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo and pomona were present in 8.3% and 0.5% of sera respectively, from adult female cattle in Alberta surveyed in 1984-85. Criterion for a positive serum sample was 50% agglutination at 1/100 dilution in the microscopic agglutination test. A positive herd contained one or more cows with positive serum. Prevalences were calculated on sample sizes that would give 80-95% reliability. Hardjo antibody prevalences and hardjo-positive herd prevalences were 0-53.9% and 0-83.3%, respectively, among 65 municipalities surveyed. Pomona prevalences by comparison were 0-3.4% and 0-11.7% respectively. Hardjo had increased significantly since 1980-82, and antibodies were found throughout the province. Pomona occurred mainly in southeastern Alberta, where it was isolated from cattle, swine and skunks. Hardjo was isolated only from cattle and it was found in many areas. Antibodies to icterohaemorrhagiae were present in 0.4% of sera from parts of Alberta surveyed in 1980; evidence of the presence of leptospires related to this serovar in bovine and porcine urinary tracts was obtained by immunofluorescence. ImagesFigure 3. PMID:17423101

  17. Off-grid in a cold city: The Alberta sustainable home

    SciTech Connect

    Rieger, T.; Byrne, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Alberta Sustainable Home is a new suburban three-bedroom house and office that will soon be independent of the sewer, electric, and water systems. Located in the cold, dry, sunny climate of Calgary, AB, the home is now demonstrating the feasibility of environmentally sustainable, cost-saving devices-from Eco-studs in the framework to graywater heat recovery devices. Although it was built for about the same price as a comparable conventional home, the Alberta Sustainable Home has received a preferential mortgage rate, is expected to have an unusually high resale value, and will cost about $1,500 per year (Canadian) less for utilities. The Alberta Sustainable Home was built privately by Autonomous and Sustainable Housing Incorporated (ASH), in partnership with some 215 companies worldwide. Construction began in September 1993, and the designers and builders have lived and worked in the building since April 1994. Topics include the following: space and water heating; airtight construction; insulation; windows; refrigeration; saving water; low embodied energy; retrofitting; pollutant control; less power.

  18. Development, testing and implementation of an emergency services methodology in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Eliasoph, H; Ashdown, C

    1995-01-01

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to mandate reporting of hospital-based emergency services. This reporting is based on a workload measurement system that groups emergency visits into five discreet workload levels/classes driven by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Other related workload measurement variables are incorporated, including admissions, transfers, maintenance monitoring, nursing and non-nursing patient support activities, trips, staff replacement, and personal fatigue and delay. The methodology used to design the reporting system has been subjected to extensive testing, auditing and refinement. The results of one year of province-wide data collection yielded approximately 1.5 million emergency visits. These data reveal consistent patterns/trends of workload that vary by hospital size and type. Although this information can assist in utilization management efforts to predict and compare workload and staffing levels, the impetus for establishing this system derived from its potential for funding hospital-based emergency services. This would be the first time that such services would be funded on a systemic, system-wide basis whereby hospitals would be reimbursed in relation to workload. This proposed funding system would distribute available funding in a consistent, fair and equitable manner across all hospitals providing a similar set of services, thus achieving one of the key goals of the Alberta Acute Care Funding Plan. Ultimately, this proposed funding methodology would be integrated into a broader Ambulatory Care Funding system currently being developed in Alberta. PMID:10142620

  19. Statistical Analysis of Drought Indices and Drought Monitoring for Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Dai, Q.; Yin, H.; Howard, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation discusses a statistical analysis of six drought indices for monitoring Alberta drought events from 1901 to 2000. The data used are the interpolated daily precipitation data on the 149 ecodistrict polygons over Alberta. The analyzed indices are standardized precipitation index, rainfall anomaly index, rainfall decile index, standardized anomaly index, principal component index, and optimal index. The historically documented drought records of five sites (Beaver Lodge, Lacombe, Lethbridge, Vegreville, and Swift Current [in Saskatchwan]) are classified into drought categories D4, D3, ?, D0, and wet categories D1, -D2, and D3. The thresholds of the drought categories for different indices are calculated. The wheat drought of Canada's Palliser Triangle was used as a validation analysis of the drought indices. The transitional probability of drought categories from one week to the next is calculated. Some discussions on the theory of calculating SPI are included. It has been found that the while all the drought indices are highly correlated with precipitation, the PCI has the highest correlation. The transitional probability analysis for the south Alberta agricultural region shows that the chance of transition from normal to extremely dry is highest in the mid May, hence this region's spring seeding is extremely vulnerable to precipitation and an effective irrigation system is of great importance to the early stages of crop development.

  20. Stories from the trenches: Experiences of Alberta pharmacists in obtaining additional prescribing authority

    PubMed Central

    Charrois, Theresa; Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmacists in Alberta can apply to the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to obtain the designation of additional prescriber. This designation uniquely allows them to initiate therapy, in addition to other medication-related activities. Our objective was to examine specific experiences of pharmacists regarding the decision to apply and the application itself, and use this information to help inform other pharmacists who are considering additional prescribing. Methods: All pharmacists involved in a randomized, controlled trial being conducted in rural Alberta who had received their additional prescribing authorization (APA) were invited to participate. Pharmacists were contacted via e-mail and asked to respond to questions regarding their experiences in applying for APA. Responses were analyzed using content analysis and the identites of all respondents were kept anonymous. Results: Fourteen pharmacists were invited to participate. Review and examination of the responses revealed 3 main themes: motivation, hurdles and outcomes. Motivation can be understood as the reasons why they applied for their APA. Hurdles include any problems encountered of a personal, environmental or professional nature. Outcomes refer to how this designation has changed their practice. Discussion: Pharmacists had to address many factors that were unexpected during the application process; however, the eventual outcome of obtaining APA was deemed beneficial, both professionally and with regard to patient care. Conclusion: The information shared from these pharmacists will help other pharmacists, regardless of jurisdiction, overcome some of the challenges associated with obtaining advanced prescribing privileges. PMID:23509485

  1. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  2. Do “Virtual” and “Outpatient” Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard; Heffernan, Courtney; Gao, Zhiwei; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Talbot, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB) elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a “virtual” model is attractive. However, whether “virtual” clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the “virtual” and “outpatient” public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population. Methods In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators. Findings In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively. Conclusions Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise

  3. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  4. Subsurface Geophysical Characterization of the Crystalline Canadian Shield in NE Alberta: Implications to Geothermal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lee, M. D.; Moeck, I. S.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of a deep borehole offers an unprecedented opportunity to correlate surface seismic data to borehole measurements in the metamorphic rocks of northeastern Alberta, Canada. As part of the feasibility study for the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in Alberta under the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), this project provides a detailed subsurface characterization of the basement rocks by integrating the existing deep surface seismic profile with the borehole seismic and log measurements that were mostly acquired in July 2011. The purpose of geothermal energy research in Alberta is to implement alternative energy resources for water heating in oil sands processing toward minimizing greenhouse gas emissions in the province. Existing thermal gradient studies suggested that deep drilling into the crystalline basement rocks is needed to reach the desired temperature for the development of geothermal energy in northeastern Alberta. Crystalline basement rocks are known for their low porosity but the presence of highly-fractured rocks still provides an ideal environment for the development of any geothermal systems. As such, physical discontinuities including cracks, voids and joint systems, and major faults and fractures are features to target for geothermal exploration. The focus of this project is on identifying any geological features including zones of fractures in the basement rocks that could act as indicators of enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. By integrating the results from a comprehensive suite of geophysical borehole logs, seismic reflection surveys, zero-offset and walk-away vertical seismic profiles, the final results provide useful information on the in-situ physical properties of the rocks, depths to fracture zones and seismic reflectors, types of fractures, stress directions, and the acoustic responses of rock properties. Significant P-wave velocity anisotropy is also

  5. De-agglomeration Effect of the US Pharmacopeia and Alberta Throats on Carrier-Based Powders in Commercial Inhalation Products.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Tong, Zhenbo; Leung, Cassandra; Decharaksa, Janwit; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-11-01

    The US pharmacopeia (USP) and Alberta throats were recently reported to cause further de-agglomeration of carrier-free powders emitted from some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). This study assessed if they have similar influences on commercially available carrier-based DPIs. A straight tube, a USP throat, and an Alberta throat (non-coated and coated) were used for cascade impaction testing. Aerosol fine particle fraction (FPF ≤ 5 μm) was computed to evaluate throat-induced de-agglomeration. Computational fluid dynamics are employed to simulate airflow patterns and particle trajectories inside the USP and Alberta throats. For all tested products, no significant differences in the in vitro aerosol performance were observed between the USP throat and the straight tube. Using fine lactose carriers (<10 μm), Symbicort(®) and Oxis(™) showed minimal impaction inside the Alberta throat and resulted in similar FPF among all induction ports. For products using coarse lactose carriers (>10 μm), impaction frequency and energy inside the Alberta throat were significant. Further de-agglomeration was noted inside the non-coated Alberta throat for Seretide(®) and Spiriva(®), but agglomerates emitted from Relenza(®), Ventolin(®), and Foradil(®) did not further break up into smaller fractions. The coated Alberta throat considerably reduced the FPF values of these products due to the high throat retention, but they generally agreed better with the in vivo data. In conclusion, depending on the powder formulation (including carrier particle size), the inhaler, and the induction port, further de-agglomeration could happen ex-inhaler and create differences in the in vitro measurements. PMID:26201967

  6. A Comprehensive Land-Use/Hydrological Modeling System for Scenario Simulations in the Elbow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J.

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km2 and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  7. Use of Seismic and Magnetic Surveys in a Regional Geophysical Study for Geothermal Exploration in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I.

    2012-12-01

    NE Alberta hosts many producing oil sand projects. These projects require large amounts of thermal energy to produce most of which is currently provided by burning natural gas; and this increases the greenhouse gas footprint to producing such hydrocarbons. One possible solution is to instead use geothermal heat directly with hot fluids produced using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). Geothermal exploration always starts with broad geological structure reconnaissance of the area. Unfortunately, the larger geological context particularly beneath those relatively shallow depths (typically less than 400 m) of interest to hydrocarbon exploration, is still poorly understood. As such, we have selected a rectangular area of 22000 km2 extending across 56.25 to 57.12N and 111.92 to 113.52W that we refer to as the Athabasca region. . The main two categories of data which are in used consist of over 600 km seismic reflection profiles and 22,000 km2 high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. Also there is a large amount of available well-logs from 1,000 boreholes in this area that have a key role in interpretation of seismic profiles. These integrated data sets are used for outlining sedimentary basin, mapping geological formation tops, locating fault zones and other structural lineaments, finding true depth of metamorphic basement and Curie point, and finally building a geological model of the region. To date all the formation tops are mapped through the area and picked on the seismic profiles. HRAM data is gridded using minimum curvature method. Some structural lineaments are picked on the HRAM data including a great NE-SW fault zone which is in agreement with seismic and well-logs. Additionally, the region hosts interesting geological features such as channels, pinnacle reefs and unconformities that are distinguishable on seismic profiles. Any of these findings help us to get a better view of the region for geothermal exploration.

  8. Demand-supply dynamics in tourism systems: A spatio-temporal GIS analysis. The Alberta ski industry case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertazzon, Stefania

    The present research focuses on the interaction of supply and demand of down-hill ski tourism in the province of Alberta. The main hypothesis is that the demand for skiing depends on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the population living in the province and outside it. A second, consequent hypothesis is that the development of ski resorts (supply) is a response to the demand for skiing. From the latter derives the hypothesis of a dynamic interaction between supply (ski resorts) and demand (skiers). Such interaction occurs in space, within a range determined by physical distance and the means available to overcome it. The above hypotheses implicitly define interactions that take place in space and evolve over time. The hypotheses are tested by temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal regression models, using the best available data and the latest commercially available software. The main purpose of this research is to explore analytical techniques to model spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal dynamics in the context of regional science. The completion of the present research has produced more significant contributions than was originally expected. Many of the unexpected contributions resulted from theoretical and applied needs arising from the application of spatial regression models. Spatial regression models are a new and largely under-applied technique. The models are fairly complex and a considerable amount of preparatory work is needed, prior to their specification and estimation. Most of this work is specific to the field of application. The originality of the solutions devised is increased by the lack of applications in the field of tourism. The scarcity of applications in other fields adds to their value for other applications. The estimation of spatio-temporal models has been only partially attained in the present research. This apparent limitation is due to the novelty and complexity of the analytical methods applied. This opens new

  9. Use of pre-industrial floodplain lake sediments to establish baseline river metal concentrations downstream of Alberta oil sands: a new approach for detecting pollution of rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Johan A.; Hall, Roland I.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Edwards, Thomas WD; Farwell, Andrea J.; Dixon, D. George

    2014-12-01

    In the Alberta oil sands region, insufficient knowledge of pre-disturbance reference conditions has undermined the ability of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) to detect pollution of the Athabasca River, because sampling began three decades after the industry started and the river naturally erodes oil-bearing strata. Here, we apply a novel approach to characterize pre-industrial reference metal concentrations in river sediment downstream of Alberta oil sands development by analyzing metal concentrations in sediments deposited in floodplain lakes of the Athabasca Delta during 1700-1916, when they were strongly influenced by Athabasca River floodwaters. We compared results to metal concentrations in surficial bottom sediments sampled by RAMP (2010-2013) at downstream sites of the Athabasca River and distributaries. When normalized to lithium content, concentrations of vanadium (a metal of concern in the oil sands region) and other priority pollutants (Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in nearly all of the RAMP river sediment samples lie below the upper 95% prediction interval linearly extrapolated from the river-derived lake sediments. Assuming the RAMP protocols obtained recently deposited sediment, this indicates that the metal concentrations in downstream Athabasca River sediment have not increased above pre-disturbance levels. Reference conditions derived from the lake sediment data were used to develop profiles of metal residual concentrations versus time for the RAMP river sediment data, which provides an excellent tool for decision-makers to identify and quantify levels of metal pollution for any given sample, and to monitor for future trends. We recommend that the approach be applied to resurrect the utility of RAMP data at other river sampling locations closer to the development, and for ongoing risk assessment. The approach is also readily transferable to other rivers where insufficient pre-disturbance reference data impairs an ability to determine

  10. Cattle and the oil and gas industry in Alberta: A literature review with recommendations for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to bring together a review of published information on the potential effects of upstream oil and gas industry operations on the cattle industry in Alberta, some indication of the probability of occurrence of these effects, and recommendations on how they might be avoided or mitigated. Based on reviews of scientific papers and industry good-practice manuals, the report describes: The sources and quantities of environmental contaminants generated by Alberta`s oil and gas industry, including normal operations, accidental releases, and the effects of aging infrastructure; the chemical composition of the products, materials, and wastes associated with the industry; the fate and transport of the contaminants through air, water, and soil; cattle operations in Alberta; the toxicology of oil and gas industry contaminants in cattle; and selected Alberta case studies of accidental releases and planned experiments. Conclusions and recommendations deal with critical information gaps and strategies for the sustainable management of cattle and oil/gas operations in the province.

  11. The upper Bow Island (Blackleaf) Formation of southwestern Alberta: Geological aspects and exploration approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.; Christensen, S.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The upper parts of the Bow Island Formation (Albian) of southwestern Alberta are significant gas reservoirs. The main westernmost reservoir zone is part of a complex package of interbedded lenticular sandstones, mudstones, and localized chert pebble conglomerates. The depositional setting for these sediments comprised a wave-dominated shoreline with conglomerates found proximal to drowned river mouths. The coarse nature of the upper Bow Island is related to tectonic movements associated with Crowsnest (Vaughn) volcanism. Conglomerates form the most impressive Bow Island reservoirs because of their thickness (up to 25 m) and petrophysical properties (17% porosity, 24 d permeability). Diagenesis dominantly comprises compaction features within grain-supported conglomerates. Increasing quartz content is related to decreasing grain size and is associated with porosity occlusion by quartz overgrowths. Bow Island reservoirs in southwestern Alberta are cool (under 50C) and significantly underpressured (0.2 psi). The high permeabilities and low pressures at depths of 1,000 to 1,500 m suggest the potential for formation damage is high, and many wells in the region were targeted for deeper, high-pressure zones. In spite of the low pressures, however, many Bow Island wells are capable of excellent gas deliveries with individual well recoveries of up to 10 bcf. All significant Bow Island porosity in the deepest, undisturbed parts of southwestern Alberta is gas saturated with updip aquifers flanking the gas. Seismic definition of the thickest Bow Island targets is feasible but has been hampered, in part, by difficult surface conditions and a prior emphasis on deeper targets.

  12. Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

    1999-01-01

    Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

  13. The Alberta Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team (HEART) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nationally, symptomatic heart failure affects 1.5-2% of Canadians, incurs $3 billion in hospital costs annually and the global burden is expected to double in the next 1–2 decades. The current one-year mortality rate after diagnosis of heart failure remains high at >25%. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed for this debilitating condition. Methods/Design The objective of the Alberta HEART program (http://albertaheartresearch.ca) is to develop novel diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We hypothesize that novel imaging techniques and biomarkers will aid in describing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, the development of new diagnostic criteria will allow us to: 1) better define risk factors associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 2) elucidate clinical, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved with the development and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 3) design and test new therapeutic strategies for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Additionally, Alberta HEART provides training and education for enhancing translational medicine, knowledge translation and clinical practice in heart failure. This is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with, or at risk for, heart failure. Patients will have sequential testing including quality of life and clinical outcomes over 12 months. After that time, study participants will be passively followed via linkage to external administrative databases. Clinical outcomes of interest include death, hospitalization, emergency department visits, physician resource use and/or heart transplant. Patients will be followed for a total of 5 years. Discussion Alberta HEART has the primary objective to define new diagnostic criteria for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. New criteria

  14. Mapping groundwater storage variations with GRACE: a case study in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Rivera, Alfonso; Palombi, Dan; Smerdon, Brian

    2016-05-01

    The applicability of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to adequately represent broad-scale patterns of groundwater storage (GWS) variations and observed trends in groundwater-monitoring well levels (GWWL) is examined in the Canadian province of Alberta. GWS variations are derived over Alberta for the period 2002-2014 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models. Twelve mean monthly GWS variation maps are generated from the 139 monthly GWS variation grids to characterize the annual GWS variation pattern. These maps show that, overall, GWS increases from February to June, and decreases from July to October, and slightly increases from November to December. For 2002-2014, the GWS showed a positive trend which increases from west to east with a mean value of 12 mm/year over the province. The resulting GWS variations are validated using GWWLs in the province. For the purpose of validation, a GRACE total water storage (TWS)-based correlation criterion is introduced to identify groundwater wells which adequately represent the regional GWS variations. GWWLs at 36 wells were found to correlate with both the GRACE TWS and GWS variations. A factor f is defined to up-scale the GWWL variations at the identified wells to the GRACE-scale GWS variations. It is concluded that the GWS variations can be mapped by GRACE and the GLDAS models in some situations, thus demonstrating the conditions where GWS variations can be detected by GRACE in Alberta.

  15. A Hybrid Ground-Motion Prediction Equation for Earthquakes in Western Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spriggs, N.; Yenier, E.; Law, A.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of ground-motion amplitudes that may be produced by future earthquakes constitutes the foundation of seismic hazard assessment and earthquake-resistant structural design. This is typically done by using a prediction equation that quantifies amplitudes as a function of key seismological variables such as magnitude, distance and site condition. In this study, we develop a hybrid empirical prediction equation for earthquakes in western Alberta, where evaluation of seismic hazard associated with induced seismicity is of particular interest. We use peak ground motions and response spectra from recorded seismic events to model the regional source and attenuation attributes. The available empirical data is limited in the magnitude range of engineering interest (M>4). Therefore, we combine empirical data with a simulation-based model in order to obtain seismologically informed predictions for moderate-to-large magnitude events. The methodology is two-fold. First, we investigate the shape of geometrical spreading in Alberta. We supplement the seismic data with ground motions obtained from mining/quarry blasts, in order to gain insights into the regional attenuation over a wide distance range. A comparison of ground-motion amplitudes for earthquakes and mining/quarry blasts show that both event types decay at similar rates with distance and demonstrate a significant Moho-bounce effect. In the second stage, we calibrate the source and attenuation parameters of a simulation-based prediction equation to match the available amplitude data from seismic events. We model the geometrical spreading using a trilinear function with attenuation rates obtained from the first stage, and calculate coefficients of anelastic attenuation and site amplification via regression analysis. This provides a hybrid ground-motion prediction equation that is calibrated for observed motions in western Alberta and is applicable to moderate-to-large magnitude events.

  16. Short-Term Influence of Revised Provincial Accreditation Standards on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Weight Status in Alberta, Canada Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, revised Alberta child care accreditation standards were released by the Alberta Government in Canada that included a new standard for physical activity and sedentary behavior in accredited child care settings. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the new accreditation standard in increasing physical…

  17. Risk factors for mortality from diarrhea in beef calves in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, F J; Townsend, H G; Naylor, J M

    1990-01-01

    A case-study involving 56 randomly selected beef herds in Alberta was conducted to assess the association of a number of suspected risk factors upon the odds of a high mortality from diarrhea among calves less than 30 days of age. Using stepwise logistic regression it was found that an increased percentage of heifers calving in the herd, poor drainage in the nursing area, providing limited shelter in the nursing area, a large calving area, and wintering cows and heifers on the same ground were conditionally associated with an increase in the odds of high mortality from neonatal diarrhea. PMID:2379116

  18. Probable Ankylosaur Ossicles from the Middle Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of Northwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michael E.; Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    A sample of six probable fragmentary ankylosaur ossicles, collected from Cenomanian deposits of the Dunvegan Formation along the Peace River, represent one of the first dinosaurian skeletal fossils reported from pre-Santonian deposits in Alberta. Specimens were identified as ankylosaur by means of a palaeohistological analysis. The primary tissue is composed of zonal interwoven structural fibre bundles with irregularly-shaped lacunae, unlike the elongate lacunae of the secondary lamellar bone. The locality represents the most northerly Cenomanian occurrence of ankylosaur skeletal remains. Further fieldwork in under-examined areas of the province carries potential for additional finds. PMID:24816807

  19. Review of the screening history of Alberta women with invasive cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, G C; McGregor, S E; Duggan, M A; Nation, J G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a failure analysis of cervical cancer screening among women with invasive cervical cancer in Alberta. DESIGN: Descriptive study. Review of demographic, staging and treatment information from cancer registry records; generation of documented screening history from Alberta Health billing records and self-reported history from subjects who agreed to be interviewed; and comparison of findings in initial cytology reports with those from subsequent review by at least 2 pathologists of all cytology slides for each patient for the 5 years before diagnosis. Cases were assigned to 1 of 6 categories of identified screening failure. SETTING: Alberta. SUBJECTS: All women with diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer reported to a population-based provincial cancer registry from January 1990 to December 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, staging and treatment information; documented and self-reported screening histories; correlation of test results in initial cytology report with those generated from slide review; category of identified screening failure. RESULTS: Of the 246 women identified with invasive cancer of the cervix, 37 (15.0%) had stage IA disease; 195 (79.3%) had squamous-cell carcinoma, and 35 (14.2%) had adenocarcinoma. According to the categories of screening failure, 74 women (30.1%) had never been screened, 38 (15.4% had not been screened within 3 years before diagnosis, 42 (17.1%) had had a false-negative cytology result, and 20 (8.1%) had been managed outside of conventional protocols. Of the 23 women (9.3%) who had been screened appropriately and had true-negative results, 19 had smears that were considered technically limited. It was not possible to classify 49 (19.9%) of the cases. Agreement between the documented and the self-reported screening histories was exact for only 39 (36.1%) of the 108 women interviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread use of opportunistic cervical screening, many women in Alberta are still not being screened

  20. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

  1. New insights into halocarbon emissions in boreal regions: Forest fires and Alberta oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Marrero, J.; Rowland, F. S.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Boreal forest fires and Alberta oil sands represent two major co-located trace gas emission sources within the boreal ecosystem. During the airborne ARCTAS mission in summer 2008, UC-Irvine performed the most comprehensive characterization of halocarbon emissions from boreal forest fires to date. In summer 2008 and 2010 we also performed the first independent characterizations of halocarbon emissions from Alberta's oil sands industry. In both cases the measurements were made using whole air sampling followed by gas chromatography analysis using electron capture detection and mass spectrometer detection. In the case of boreal forest fires, of 26 speciated halocarbons that were measured, only the simplest halocarbons were emitted from the fires (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I, 1,2-C2H4Cl2, C2H5Cl and CH2Br2) (Simpson et al., 2011). These compounds were released in relatively small quantities and together they represented <0.3% of the total carbon released from boreal forest fires in the form of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Even though CH3Cl was the most abundantly emitted halocarbon, its average global emission from boreal forest fires (0.011 ± 0.003 Tg yr-1) was very small compared to its global source budget. The poly-chlorinated compounds CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CH3CCl3 were not released from the fires. In the case of the Alberta oil sands, based on airborne measurements during the ARCTAS mission, 15 of 26 measured halocarbons were statistically enhanced over the oil sands compared to local background values (Simpson et al., 2010). The short-lived solvents C2HCl3, C2Cl4, C2H5Cl and CHCl3 were the most strongly enhanced halocarbons, with maximum values that were 1.5-34× the local background. A subsequent ground-based study in 2010 detected even stronger halocarbon enhancements downwind of upgraders and tailings sand at the oil sands surface mining sites. For example C2HCl3 and CHBrCl2 mixing ratios were up to 60-85× the local background values. Long

  2. STS-45 Earth observation of the Rocky Mountains in Montana and Alberta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Earth observation taken onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of the Rocky Mountains in northern Montana and southern Alberta. Glacier National Park is in the center of the snow-covered Front Range. Beyond and to the left, Flathead Lake, surrounded by dark forest, can barely be made out within the light-colored valley. This view extends across the Columbia River Basin in Oregon to the eastern Cascades. Fallow wheat land on the northern High Plains is visible in the foreground.

  3. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

  4. Performance management tools motivate change at the frontlines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher; Christiansen, Tanya; Dick, Don; Howden, Jane Squire; Wasylak, Tracy; Werle, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Performance management tools commonly used in business, such as incentives and the balanced scorecard, can be effectively applied in the public healthcare sector to improve quality of care. The province of Alberta applied these tools with the Institute for Health Improvement Learning Collaborative method to accelerate adoption of a clinical care pathway for hip and knee replacements. The results showed measurable improvements in all quality dimensions, including shorter hospital stays and wait times, higher bed utilization, earlier patient ambulation, and better patient outcomes. PMID:25109132

  5. Tool use as adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Dora; Haslam, Michael; Rutz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Tool use is a vital component of the human behavioural repertoire. The benefits of tool use have often been assumed to be self-evident: by extending control over our environment, we have increased energetic returns and buffered ourselves from potentially harmful influences. In recent decades, however, the study of tool use in both humans and non-human animals has expanded the way we think about the role of tools in the natural world. This Theme Issue is aimed at bringing together this developing body of knowledge, gathered across multiple species and from multiple research perspectives, to chart the wider evolutionary context of this phylogenetically rare behaviour. PMID:24101619

  6. Belly River Formation of western Alberta, Canada: anatomy of an emerging deep basin oil play

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.

    1989-03-01

    The Campanian Belly River Formation of western Alberta appears to form a largely bypassed deep basin type of oil play. In this setting hydrocarbons are found in lenticular fluvial reservoirs located upon folds or intersected by northwest-striking thrust faults and northeast-striking fractures. In the western fold and thrust belt, primary porosity is preserved within relatively thick and widespread grain-supported conglomerates. To the east, secondary porosity predominates in sandy lithofacies, and the best developed porosity is found proximal to fractures which enhanced fluid migration and grain dissolution. To the west, the unit exhibits progressive underpressuring, which reflects postorogenic sediment stripping combined with westward ground-water flow. A manifestation of the hydrodynamic regime is that many wells appear to have damaged Belly River zones because historically most exploration has been focused on deeper targets which require heavier mud weights. This style of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Belly River zone appears to cover several thousand square kilometers. The prior emphasis on deeper targets has also inhibited seismic delineation of Belly River reservoirs. Seismic acquisition must be designed to account for the relatively shallow depth and complex geometry of potential targets. Shear wave data appear to be a promising source of information in locating the distribution of reservoirs relative to fractures. The structural, depositional, diagenetic, and hydrodynamic development of the Belly River in western Alberta is similar to other clastic wedges formed during Laramide orogenic events. Thus, hydrocarbon accumulations may be anticipated in these other areas as well.

  7. Overview of enhanced oil recovery in Alberta and new government policies

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, D.

    1983-01-01

    Alberta has a history of employing methods of fluid displacement to improve oil recovery that covers 3 decades. From this early beginning, which saw an emphasis on the research and application of waterflooding stimulus, the industry in this province turned to the development of technology that would enable tertiary, or third stage, additional oil recovery. The Alberta government undertook to provide a fiscal regime that would foster these efforts. This led to the adoption, in 1977, of an amendment to the Petroleum Royalty Regulations under which the costs of these expensive recovery techniques could be applied against the revenues from an oil pool prior to assessment of royalty liability. With this additional stimulus, the industry was able to both continue with and develop new projects for the miscible displacement of residual oil, primarily by hydrocarbon injection. The original relief mechanism was revised in 1982 to allow higher allowances for capital write-offs and operating costs, a reduced discount on the injected materials that form the initial miscible slug, and a cost allowance for the remaining pressure maintenance material that attempts to stabilize cash flow and, at the same time, provide for expenditure recovery.

  8. The impact of mandatory versus voluntary participation in the Alberta ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R; Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S

    2003-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that participation in an interlock program significantly reduces the likelihood of subsequent driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions at least so long as the interlock device is installed in the vehicle. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that allow interlock programs and the demonstrated success of these programs, the proportion of DWI offenders who actually have the device installed is minimal. In an effort to increase the proportion of offenders using interlocks, some jurisdictions require offenders to install an interlock as a condition of license reinstatement whereas others merely offer offenders a reduction in the period of hard suspension if they voluntarily participate in an interlock program. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which voluntary interlock participants are more or less successful in terms of subsequent recidivism than those for whom interlock program participation has been mandated. The issue was addressed using data from the interlock program in Alberta, Canada, which provides for both mandatory and voluntary participation. The recidivism experience of voluntary and mandatory interlock participants was examined both during and after the period of interlock installation. Cox regression revealed that, after controlling for (or equating) the number of prior DWI offenses, the survival rates of DWI offenders who were ordered to participate in the interlock program did not differ from those of voluntary participants. These results suggest that further use of mandatory interlock programs should be just as successful as voluntary programs when offenders share characteristics with those studied in Alberta. PMID:14522643

  9. The impact of mandatory versus voluntary participation in the Alberta ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R; Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S

    2003-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that participation in an interlock program significantly reduces the likelihood of subsequent driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions at least so long as the interlock device is installed in the vehicle. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that allow interlock programs and the demonstrated success of these programs, the proportion of DWI offenders who actually have the device installed is minimal. In an effort to increase the proportion of offenders using interlocks, some jurisdictions require offenders to install an interlock as a condition of license reinstatement whereas others merely offer offenders a reduction in the period of hard suspension if they voluntarily participate in an interlock program. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which voluntary interlock participants are more or less successful in terms of subsequent recidivism than those for whom interlock program participation has been mandated. The issue was addressed using data from the interlock program in Alberta, Canada, which provides for both mandatory and voluntary participation. The recidivism experience of voluntary and mandatory interlock participants was examined both during and after the period of interlock installation. Cox regression revealed that, after controlling for (or equating) the number of prior DWI offenses, the survival rates of DWI offenders who were ordered to participate in the interlock program did not differ from those of voluntary participants. These results suggest that further use of mandatory interlock programs should be just as successful as voluntary programs when offenders share characteristics with those studied in Alberta. PMID:16801126

  10. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients’ examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Methods: Total number of patients’ charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Results: Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries. PMID:27398104

  11. InSAR Monitoring of Surface Deformation in Alberta's Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Shipman, T.; Froese, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Alberta's oil sands are among the world's largest deposits of crude oil, and more than 80% of it is too deep to mine, so unconventional in-situ methods are used for extraction. Most in situ extraction techniques, such as Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), use steam injection to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen, allowing it to flow into wells to be pumped to the surface. As part of the oil sands safety and environmental monitoring program, the energy regulator uses satellite radar to monitor surface deformation associated with in-situ oil extraction. The dense vegetation and sparse infrastructure in the boreal forest of northern Alberta make InSAR monitoring a challenge; however, we have found that surface heave associated with steam injection can be detected using traditional differential InSAR. Infrastructure and installed corner reflectors also allow us to use persistent scatterer methods to obtain time histories of deformation at individual sites. We have collected and processed several tracks of RADARSAT-2 data over a broad area of the oil sands, and have detected surface deformation signals of approximately 2-3 cm per year, with time series that correlate strongly with monthly SAGD steam injection volumes.

  12. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005-2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers' specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  13. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  14. The Importance of Communicating Uncertainty to the 3D Geological Framework Model of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCormack, Kelsey

    2015-04-01

    The Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) has been tasked with developing a 3-dimensional (3D) geological framework for Alberta (660,000 km2). Our goal is to develop 'The Framework' as a sophisticated platform, capable of integrating a variety of data types from multiple sources enabling the development of multi-scale, interdisciplinary models with built-in feedback mechanisms, allowing the individual components of the model to adapt and evolve over time as our knowledge and understanding of the subsurface increases. The geoscience information within these models is often taken at face value and assumed that the attribute accuracy is equivalent to the digital accuracy recorded by the computer, which can lead to overconfidence in the model results. We need to make sure that decision makers understand that models are simply versions of reality and all contain a certain amount of error and uncertainty. More importantly, it is necessary to convey that error and uncertainty are not bad, and should be quantified and understood rather than ignored. This presentation will focus on how the AGS is quantifying and communicating uncertainty within the Geologic Framework to decision makers and the general public, as well as utilizing uncertainty results to strategically prioritize future work.

  15. The CADET Project: Computer Assisted Distance Education Telecommunication for Post Secondary Education in Alberta. A Report to the Program Planning and Development Branch, Alberta Department of Advanced Education, Program Services Division, February 28, 1985. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.; Goldberg, Jack

    Since its inception in 1984, the CADET (Computer-Assisted Distance Education Telecommunications), a micro to mainframe computer program developed by the University of Oklahoma but modified for use at the University of Alberta in Canada, has achieved major results. Its successful use in delivering a distance education graduate course in which both…

  16. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  17. Information on the Child Welfare Act (Alberta) & the Young Offenders Act (Canada) for Educators, Parents and Students. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This document provides information on two pieces of legislation which affect children and adolescents in Canada. The introduction to "A Guide to the Young Offenders Act in Alberta" briefly reviews the development of the Young Offenders Act and examines the definition of a young person, offenses covered by the act, and amendments to the act. The…

  18. The Impact of Wildland and Structure Fire Smoke on Ambient Pollution Levels in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    An unprecedented wildfire impacted the northern Alberta city of Fort McMurray in May 2016 causing a mandatory evacuation of all residents and resulted in the loss of over 2,400 homes and businesses. An estimated two hectare wildfire was first discovered on May 1 by a fire patrol...

  19. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  20. Service Needs of Community and Institution-Based Older Persons with a Developmental Handicap in Alberta, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badry, D. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study of 742 older persons (above age 45) with a developmental handicap residing in either community or institutional settings in Alberta, Canada, found those residing in congregate care settings had significantly higher frequencies of health impairments. Persons residing in the community had significantly better independent living skills and…

  1. Do You Mean What We Mean? A Catholic School Lexicon of Words Which Describe Christian Education in Alberta's Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, Richard L.

    An evolving vocabulary has introduced new words and new meanings for old words into the vocabulary of Alberta's Catholic Schools. The following thirty words and phrases considered to be prime examples are discussed: blueprints, Catholic school, Christian, Christian morality, Christian values, church teachings, difference, ecumenism, faith…

  2. Mind the Gap: How a Project in Alberta Attempted to Narrow the Gap between Classroom Teachers and Language Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…

  3. Use of micronutrient supplements among pregnant women in Alberta: results from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Mariel Fajer; Field, Catherine J; Olstad, Dana Lee; Loehr, Sarah; Ramage, Stephanie; McCargar, Linda J

    2015-10-01

    Maternal nutrient intake in the prenatal period is an important determinant of fetal growth and development and supports maternal health. Many women, however, fail to meet their prenatal nutrient requirements through diet alone and are therefore advised to consume nutrient supplements. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of natural health products (NHP) by pregnant women in each trimester of pregnancy. Women (n = 599) participating in the first cohort of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study completed an interviewer-administered supplement intake questionnaire during each trimester of pregnancy. NHP use was high, with >90% taking multivitamin/mineral supplements, and nearly half taking at least one additional single-nutrient supplement. Compliance with supplementation guidelines was high for folic acid (>90%), vitamin D (∼70%) and calcium (∼80%), but low for iron (<30%) and for all four nutrients together (≤11%). On average, women met or exceeded the recommended dietary allowance for folic acid, vitamin D and iron from NHPs alone, with median daily intakes of 1000 μg, 400 IU and 27 mg, respectively. The median calcium intake was 250 mg d(-1) . Up to 26% of women exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for folic acid and up to 19% did so for iron at some point of their pregnancy. Findings highlight the need to consider both dietary and supplemental sources of micronutrients when assessing the nutrient intakes of pregnant women. PMID:23557540

  4. Evaluation of air quality indicators in Alberta, Canada - An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada and an overall increase in economic activity in the province in recent years. An evaluation of the state of air quality was conducted in four Alberta locations - urban centers of Calgary and Edmonton, and smaller communities of Fort McKay and Fort McMurray in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). Concentration trends, diurnal hourly and monthly average concentration profiles, and exceedances of provincial, national and international air quality guidelines were assessed for several criteria air pollutants over the period 1998 to 2014. Two methods were used to evaluate trends. Parametric analysis of annual median 1h concentrations and non-parametric analysis of annual geometric mean 1h concentrations showed consistent decreasing trends for NO2 and SO2 (<1ppb per year), CO (<0.1ppm per year) at all stations, decreasing for THC (<0.1ppm per year) and increasing for O3 (≤0.52ppb per year) at most stations and unchanged for PM2.5 at all stations in Edmonton and Calgary over a 17-year period. Little consistency in trends was observed among the methods for the same air pollutants other than for THC (increasing in Fort McKay <0.1ppm per year and no trend in Fort McMurray), PM2.5 in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray (no trend) and CO (decreasing <0.1ppm per year in Fort McMurray) over the same period. Levels of air quality indicators at the four locations were compared with other Canadian and international urban areas to judge the current state of air quality. Median and annual average concentrations for Alberta locations tended to be the smallest in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray. Other than for PM2.5, Calgary and Edmonton tended to have median and annual average concentrations comparable to and/or below that of larger populated Canadian and U.S. cities, depending upon the air pollutant. PMID:27071052

  5. Geomorphology and sedimentology of hummocky terrain, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    The landscape in south-central Alberta, Canada, is dominated by a suite of landforms that formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This thesis explores the origins of those landforms, specifically hummocky terrain. Sediments in the hummocks, hummock form, and associations with other landforms are examined to determine hummock genesis. Sediment was examined from over one hundred exposures through the "Buffalo Lake Moraine" at Travers Reservoir, McGregor Reservoir, and the Little Bow River. This belt of hummocky terrain (like most hummocky terrain regions) is traditionally interpreted as forming at, or near, the stagnating margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by supraglacial letdown. However, hummocks in south-central Alberta contain a complex variety of sediments and materials atypical of supraglacial letdown: in situ bedrock, thrust bedrock, lodgement till, melt-out till, sorted sand and gravel, rippled sand, rhythmically-bedded sand, silt, and clay, and pervasively sheared beds. All sediment types and deformation structures were deposited, or formed, subglacially. Also, the deposits make up in situ stratigraphies that record the history of initial Laurentide Ice Sheet advance into the area (lodgment till and thrust bedrock), the extensive accumulation of water at the bed (glaciolacustrine beds), and ice stagnation (melt-out till). Regardless of the genesis of sediments in hummocks, sedimentary units and structures are abruptly truncated by the surface that represents the hummock and trough morphology, demonstrating that the hummocks are erosional forms and that they represent a landscape unconformity. Subglacial sediments predating the erosion and subglacial eskers overlying the erosion surface strongly suggest that hummock erosion was subglacial. Also, hummock morphology, lithostratigraphy correlated from hummock to hummock, abrupt truncation at the land surface, and widespread boulder lags support meltwater erosion for hummocky terrain in the region. Well

  6. Deaths from exposure to paramethoxymethamphetamine in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Yarema, Mark C.; Jones, Graham R.; Martz, Walter; Purssell, Roy A.; MacDonald, Judy C.; Wishart, Ian; Durigon, Monica; Tzemis, Despina; Buxton, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine similar in structure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”), but substantially more toxic. We describe the clinical features of fatal exposures in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series on deaths in Alberta and BC between June 2011 and April 2012 for which forensic toxicologic analysis was positive for PMMA and the drug was implicated as the primary toxic agent. Data collected included patient demographics, exposure history, clinical features, investigations, therapy provided and postmortem toxicologic findings. Results A total of 27 PMMA-associated deaths (20 in Alberta, 7 in BC) were reported in the 11-month period. The median age was 24 (range 14–52) years, and 22 (81%) were male. Ten patients were pronounced dead at the scene, and 17 died in hospital. The median time from exposure to death was 17 (range 5–264) hours. The median first-recorded vital signs (and ranges) were: heart rate 160 (86–201) beats/min, blood pressure 89/43 (69/30–162/83) mm Hg, respiratory rate 40 (26–48) breaths/min, oxygen saturation 81% (68%–100%) and temperature 39.4°C (34–43.8°C). Sixteen of the 17 people who died in hospital presented with clinical features consistent with serotonin syndrome. End-organ dysfunction included hepatic (30%) and acute kidney injury (85%), rhabdomyolysis (54%), coagulopathy (61%) and cardiac ischemia (15%). Other drugs identified on toxicologic analysis were MDMA (n = 27), cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine (n = 14) and methamphetamine (n = 12). Interpretation Exposure to PMMA was characterized by multiorgan dysfunction and serotonin syndrome, followed by cardiovascular collapse. In addition to PMMA, multiple synthetic amphetamines were present on toxicologic analysis. When evaluating patients suspected of exposure to sympathomimetic drugs of abuse, clinicians must

  7. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  8. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  9. Estimates of dark ecosystem respiration of CO 2 from the city of Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahey, D. M.; Hansen, M. C.

    Carbon dioxide flux can be used as a criterion of the metabolism of terrestrial communities. A method has been developed to estimate this flux from urban areas during nocturnal periods characterized by stable air. The method assumes that biogenic and anthropogenic CO 2 emissions are proportional to one another. This assumption appears to be acceptable for average conditions in Calgary, Alberta, which is an "urban forest" situated in a prairie setting. Application of the method for estimating the CO 2 flux from Calgary's terrestrial ecosystem shows that dark respiration is absent during autumn and winter seasons. It is twice as great in summer as in spring. Its summer level is less than half that observed for an oak—pine forest in New York state. The lesser value is explainable in terms of Calgary's colder climate and the fact that a significant portion of the city is occupied by streets, houses, high-rise buildings and parking lots.

  10. Ozone trends estimated from Umkehr observations made at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Hare, E. W.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    A Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer has been in service at the Canadian ozone monitoring station at Stony Plain (53.55 deg N, 114.10 deg W), near Edmonton, Alberta, since 1984. During that time, the instrument has been operated in a fully automated mode that includes the collection of morning and evening Umkehr observations. Some 197 Umkehr observations have been analyzed to make an estimate of the temporal trend in ozone amount at high altitude over the station during the last 8 years. This work has shown that at 40 km the trend in the ozone concentration has been observed to be 0.14 plus or minus 0.10 percent per year.

  11. Bereavement Programs and Services in the Province of Alberta: A Mapping Report.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Playfair, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    This 2014 mapping exercise sought to identify and describe all bereavement support programs and services in the province of Alberta, and compare these to those available four years previously. Bereavement is a common life experience, especially among older persons, with support often needed to assist recovery. We sought program and service information through systematic searches and the snowball technique to identify providers and interview them. Although considerable (330%) growth, and more diversity in providers, programs, and services was evident, bereavement programs were no longer publicly funded. Instead, programs and services were now grassroots in origin, with individuals and community groups largely designing and providing bereavement support services. Bereavement programs are important, particularly for elderly persons who may be the most impacted by the death of a loved one. Whether governments should fund and/or provide these programs is a question that also needs to be addressed. PMID:27098597

  12. 20 °C, 9 GHz CW-EPR saturation measurements of five selected Alberta coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudynska, J.; Buckmaster, H. A.; Duczmal, T.

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports the first determination of the spin-lattice (T_1) and spin-spin (T_2) relaxation times at 20 °C for two subbituminous and three hv bituminous selected Alberta coals using 9 GHz CW-EPR saturation measurements. Argand diagrammatic techniques were used to verify that the lineshapes were Lorentzian since the deviation was less than 4%. Consequently, it was assumed that the CW-EPR spectral resonances could be approximated to homogeneously broadened lineshapes and saturation techniques could be used to determine these relaxation times. The T_1 and T_2 relaxation times are in good agreement with values reported in the literature using saturation measurements, but two orders of magnitude shorter than those obtained using ESE because coal EPR spectral resonances are the unresolved superposition of comparatively narrow homogeneous resonances.

  13. Stress drop estimates and hypocenter relocations of induced seismicity near Crooked Lake, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Fiona; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    We use a sequence of induced earthquakes near Crooked Lake, Alberta, to investigate the physical differences between induced and tectonic earthquakes. Starting with the Natural Resources Canada earthquake catalogue, we use a spectral ratio method to calculate the static stress drops of a group of relocated earthquakes ranging from December 2013 to June 2015. We find that stress drops fall within the high side of the typical reported range of tectonic events and show no correlation with earthquake magnitude, depth, or distance from the well. The stress drops appear roughly constant for events with Mw 3 to 4. Relocated hypocenters cluster both spatially and temporally around corresponding injection wells and appear to migrate deeper with increasing time from injection. Fine-scale lineations apparent in relocated hypocenters could indicate the presence and orientation of fault planes, consistent with the published focal mechanism solutions of M 4+ events in the area.

  14. Composition, Diversity, and Stability of Microbial Assemblages in Seasonal Lake Ice, Miquelon Lake, Central Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, Anna; Han, Sukkyun; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The most familiar icy environments, seasonal lake and stream ice, have received little microbiological study. Bacteria and Eukarya dominated the microbial assemblage within the seasonal ice of Miquelon Lake, a shallow saline lake in Alberta, Canada. The bacterial assemblages were moderately diverse and did not vary with either ice depth or time. The closest relatives of the bacterial sequences from the ice included Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Cyanobacteria. The eukaryotic assemblages were less conserved and had very low diversity. Green algae relatives dominated the eukaryotic gene sequences; however, a copepod and cercozoan were also identified, possibly indicating the presence of complete microbial loop. The persistence of a chlorophyll a peak at 25–30 cm below the ice surface, despite ice migration and brine flushing, indicated possible biological activity within the ice. This is the first study of the composition, diversity, and stability of seasonal lake ice. PMID:24832796

  15. Source analysis of a potential hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquake near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Schultz, Ryan; Kim, Ahyi; Atkinson, Gail

    2016-01-01

    An earthquake with a reported magnitude of 4.4 (ML) was detected on 13 June 2015 in western central Alberta, Canada. This event was the third felt earthquake this year near Fox Creek, a shale gas exploration region. Our results from full moment tensor inversions of regional broadband data show a strong strike-slip mechanism with near-vertical fault plane solutions. The decomposition of the moment tensor solution is overwhelmingly double couple, while only a modest (˜20%) contribution is attributed to compensated-linear-vector-dipole. The depth of this earthquake is 3-4 km, near the base of the sedimentary layer, and the moment magnitude (M = 3.9) of this event is considerably smaller than the initial reported ML value. The hypocenter location, depth, and mechanism are favorable to a possible association between this earthquake and hydraulic fracturing operations within the Duvernay shale.

  16. "Our power to remodel civilization": the development of eugenic feminism in Alberta, 1909-1921.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race." As "mothers of the race," women in Alberta were responsible for the physical and moral betterment of the nation, and were directly engaged in concepts of intelligent motherhood, healthy childhood, and an overarching moral philosophy that was politically driven. PMID:24909021

  17. Enigmatic Post-Glacial Degradation and Aggradation of Rivers on the Alberta Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowany, K. S.; osborn, G.; Wu, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers flowing eastward from the Canadian Rockies across the Alberta plains are situated in narrow flat-bottomed valleys on the order of 50 to 100 m below the plains surface. Post-Laurentide Ice Sheet river history is characterized by (a) incision into the general plains surface following deglaciation, (b) aggradation, soon thereafter, in which up to 25 m of alluvial fill was deposited in the new valleys, and (c) Holocene reincision into the fill, down to depths at least as great as those of the pre-fill valleys. This complicated history probably results from an interplay of (a) isostatic depression/ rebound, which is considered here using a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model that incorporates the RF2 and RF3 earth models described by Wang et al. (2008) with the ICE4G deglaciation model of Peltier (1994), and (b) variations in sediment flux. The initial incision post-dates the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet eastward across Alberta, ca. 14 ka, and pre-dates the ca. 11 ka alluvial fill. Incision cannot have resulted from general uplift provided by post-glacial isostatic rebound, because rebound was and is generally greater downstream where ice was thicker. Hence river gradients have generally decreased because of rebound. Incision more likely resulted from increased gradients provided by isostatic depression under the center of the ice sheet, relative to the plains gradient that would exist without ice effects. Temporary increased gradients on particular reaches of rivers were provided by the passage across Alberta of the slope of a peripheral bulge on the margin of the isostatic depression. However, some reaches of the rivers have orientations that preclude an obvious connection to bulge gradients. The switch from degradation to aggradation in early post-glacial time was proposed to be a result of decreasing river gradients due to rebound, by Kellerhals and Shaw (1982), but later considered to be a result of influx of paraglacial sediments from the Canadian

  18. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  19. Autoerotic asphyxial deaths: analysis of nineteen fatalities in Alberta, 1978 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Tough, S C; Butt, J C; Sanders, G L

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents an unusual form of sexual (masturbatory) activity and brings this unusual cause of death to wider medical attention and understanding. All 19 cases of autoerotic asphyxial death that occurred between 1978 and 1989 in the province of Alberta, Canada were reviewed. The fatal victim of autoerotic asphyxia is typically a single male aged 15 to 29 years. Autoerotic sexual activity is typically performed in isolation; often there is evidence of repetitive practice. The accidental death usually results when the "safety" mechanism designed to alleviate neck compression fails. Often the first sign of the activity (usually a surprise to family and friends) is death itself. Physicians who are alert to the practice may suggest counselling when patients present with sexual concerns, unusual marks around the neck or evidence of abrasions to limbs suggesting bondage or other masochistic practices. PMID:8033021

  20. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  1. Analysis of Biomass Feedstock Availability and Variability for the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, Jamie; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Sowlati, T.; Kloeck, T.; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Biorefineries or other biomass-dependent facilities require a predictable, dependable feedstock supplied over many years to justify capital investments. Determining inter-year variability in biomass availability is essential to quantifying the feedstock supply risk. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and historic crop yield data, average production was estimated for 10 sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Four high-yielding potential sites were investigated for variability over a 20 year time-frame (1980 2000). The range of availability was large, from double the average in maximum years to nothing in minimum years. Biomass availability is a function of grain yield, the biomass to grain ratio, the cropping frequency, and residue retention rate to ensure future crop productivity. Storage strategies must be implemented and alternate feedstock sources identified to supply biomass processing facilities in low-yield years.

  2. Skull Ecomorphology of Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6–8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4–7 million km2) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which–dietary niche partitioning–forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  3. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  4. The Impact of Roads on the Demography of Grizzly Bears in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species. PMID:25532035

  5. Spoil hydrology and hydrochemistry at the Battle River site in the plains of Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, M.R.; Moran, S.R.

    1982-12-01

    The planned expansion of coal strip mining activities in Alberta has prompted research into the hydrogeology and groundwater chemical evolution of reclaimed lands. In the Battle River area of central Alberta, where coal beds occur in the Upper Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation, the spoil areas of two mines have been intensely instrumented as part of this research. The cast overburden at the Diplomat Mine is derived from calcareous till; at the Vesta Mine the overburden which forms the spoil is a mixture of sodic shale, siltstone and sandstone. Recharge to the spoil at both mines is occurring by leakage from surface ponds and vertical infiltration through the spoil. At Diplomat Mine lateral inflow from the adjacent unmined coal is also contributing to the resaturation of the spoil. Groundwater flow at Diplomat Mine is controlled by a valley that developed during the mining process, and which is acting as a subsurface drain. At Vesta Mine a groundwater mound has developed in the spoil causing migration of spoil water into adjacent unmined areas. In both settings high water table conditions appear to be directly related to the presence of surface ponds in the reclaimed landscape. The chemical makeup of groundwater in the spoil at both mines is characterized by levels of Na/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup =/ and total dissolved solids that are several times higher than in the unmined coal. In spoil groundwater total dissolved solids concentration up to 12,300 mg/l and SO/sub 4//sup =/ concentration up to 8400 mg/l have been detected.

  6. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species. PMID:25532035

  7. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from poultry in Alberta.

    PubMed

    St Amand, Joan A; Otto, Simon J G; Cassis, Rashed; Annett Christianson, Colleen B

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is one of the top three serovars implicated in human infections in Canada. In 2003, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance reported antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S. Heidelberg in Canada. The study objective was to investigate the AMR of S. Heidelberg isolated from poultry in Alberta. We examined 951 S. Heidelberg poultry isolates obtained during 1996 to 2010 and tested against 18 antibiotics using the Sensititre AVIAN1F system. Temporal resistance patterns were analysed using single-level logistic regression models. Continuous variables were included in the multivariable models. Multivariable models were built and variables and interactions were included in these final models. Data were analysed using Stata 11 Intercooled. Ceftiofur resistance ranged annually from 0 to 10.5% and gentamicin resistance ranged annually from 0 to 33.3%; no isolates were enrofloxacin resistant. Resistance to amoxicillin (annual range 0 to 42.6%) varied significantly by time and interaction with commodity type. Meat turkey S. Heidelberg isolates had higher ceftiofur resistance compared with chickens: layers plus layer breeders (odds ratio = 22.6, P < 0.01) and broiler breeders (odds ratio = 9.1, P < 0.01). Gentamicin resistance decreased significantly over the study period (odds ratio = 0.72 per year, P < 0.01). Tetracycline (TET) resistance changed significantly over time (annual range 0 to 39.6%), interacting with poultry commodity type. Meat turkey isolate TET resistance, higher overall than that of chicken, increased throughout the study. All turkey breeder isolates were resistant to TET. In conclusion, this study provides AMR data for S. Heidelberg isolates from the Alberta poultry industry and demonstrated significant trends in resistance, both temporal and between poultry commodities. PMID:23815674

  9. Tectonic history of Sweetgrass Arch, Montana and Alberta-key to finding new hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W. Shepard, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Sweetgrass arch of northwestern Montana and southern Alberta is a major ancient structural feature. Initial anticlinal emplacement occurred during the early Paleozoic and was parallel with the cratonic margin. Strong uplift followed by peneplanation occurred during the Late Jurassic and basal Cretaceous during the westward drifting of the North American plate following the breakup of Pangea. During Cretaceous and early Tertiary times, the Sweetgrass arch was quiescent, but was rejuvenated in mid to late Tertiary, upwarped by a basement flexure to its present structural configuration: a 200 mi (322 km) long, north-plunging anticline showing 10,000 ft (350 m) of structural relief. Midway down its plunge, the anticline is offset 30 mi (48 km) by a right-lateral transcurrent fault. During Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, plutonic uplifts were emplaced on the east flank, forming traps for oil then migrating updip from the Williston and Alberta basins. Oil and gas accumulated in Mississippian, Jurassic, and basal Cretaceous reservoirs in structural and stratigraphic traps around these plutonic uplifts. Subsequent late Tertiary doming of the Sweetgrass arch tilted the earlier structural traps and drained them, resulting in remigration of much of the oil and gas to the crest of the arch. The tilting failed to destroy many of the stratigraphic traps. As a result, down the flanks of the Sweetgrass arch are many frozen stratigraphic traps including Cut Bank field, the largest single-pay stratigraphic trap in the north Rockies. On the crest are large structure accumulations of remigrated oil at Kevin Sunburst and Pondera. Evidence of remigration is recorded by live oil show tracks in the reservoirs and remnant gas caps throughout the area of earlier accumulations. A potential exists for finding new frozen traps on the flanks and remigrated oil accumulations on or near the crest of the Sweetgrass arch.

  10. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Hammond, H.E. James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated. PMID:27199584

  11. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Nation, P N; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T L

    1999-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. PMID:10065319

  12. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P N; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T L

    1999-01-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. PMID:10065319

  13. The Influence of Rotation, Tillage and Row Spacing on Near-Surface Soil Temperature for Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Larney, F. J.; Ren, Tennis L.; McGinn, Sean M.; Lindwall, C W.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-02-01

    The influence of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface soil temperature for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Rotation, tillage and row spacing and their effects on surface residue levels can modify soil temperature. Our study investigated the effect of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface (0.025 m) soil temperature under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 1993-94 and 1994-95.

  14. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  15. Euoplocephalus tutus and the Diversity of Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus. PMID:23690940

  16. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, J. M.; Sauchyn, D.; Luckman, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with 1) a generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow, and 2) a 900-year tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record.

  17. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    PubMed Central

    Sauchyn, David J.; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world’s third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record. PMID:26392554

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  19. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers. PMID:23863703

  20. Can Decommissioned Oil Pads in Boreal Alberta BE Reclaimed to Carbon Accumulating Peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    In northern Alberta where peatland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature, construction of oil drilling pads and access roads is a major disturbance. Reclamation of decommissioned oil pads has been hampered by the lack of research. At two decommissioned oil pads at Shell Oil’s Peace River Complex (northeastern Alberta), initially constructed in a bog/fen complex, we established a field experiment to assess reclamation approaches that could lead to a system reflecting undisturbed peatland structure (vegetation composition) and function (net carbon accumulation). In the fall of 2007, mineral soil was removed from two decommissioned pads in areas approximately 100-m x 30-m creating a mineral surface at or near the surrounding bog water table level. We established the following treatments: pad (fertilized vs. unfertilized); water table position (at and 5-cm above the surrounding bog water level); texture (tilling soil amendments into the mineral soil or not); amendment (controls; commercial peat, peat that had been stockpiled in a farmer’s field; landscape fabric; slough hay (native species hay from harvested from local farms), aspen wood chips); planting (in 1-m x 1-m subplots within 2-m x 2-m amendment plots: no planting, 9 Carex aquatilis plants, 5 C. aquatilis and 4 Salix lutea plants; 3 C. aquatilis, 3 S. lutea and 3 Larix laricina seedlings). Treatments were nested (planting within amendment, within texture, within water table level, within pad), with 6 replicate 2-m x 2-m plots of each amendment within each pad x texture x water level combination. Net CO2 exchange was quantified under a range of PAR conditions from full sunlight to complete darkness in each 1-m x 1-m planting subplot repeatedly during the summers of 2008, 2009 and 2010 using closed chambers and infrared gas analyzers. Both dark respiration and maximum net ecosystem production (NEPSAT; net CO2 sequestration when PAR>1000 μmol m-2 s-1) exhibited year x planting interactions (p<0.0001 and

  1. Melting phase relations of a mica-clinopyroxenite from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2013-08-01

    Melting experiments were conducted on a mica-clinopyroxenite xenolith brought up in a minette dyke in southern Alberta, Canada, near Milk River. Both the minettes and mica-clinopyroxenite xenoliths were studied by Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37:1629-1650, 2000), who hypothesized that the minettes formed by partial melting of a mantle source containing clinopyroxene + phlogopite ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. In liquidus experiments performed on the most primitive minette in our previous study (Funk and Luth in Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:999-1009, 2012), we found a multiple saturation point where olivine and orthopyroxene coexisted with liquid at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C. We argued that the minette originally formed by partial melting of clinopyroxene + phlogopite, but had re-equilibrated with a harzburgite during ascent. In the current study, we wanted to test both the source region hypothesis of Buhlmann et al. and our re-equilibration hypothesis by studying the near-solidus phase equilibria of a mica + clinopyroxene assemblage. We found the solidus for our xenolith has a steep slope in P-T space and lies at temperatures above those of a normal cratonic geotherm, implying that this mica-clinopyroxenite is stable in the cratonic mantle. Melting could occur at greater depths, where the solidus is extrapolated to cross the geotherm or must be induced either by raising the temperatures of the surrounding rocks or by introducing hydrous fluids into the source. Our melts are in equilibrium with clinopyroxene and olivine. The compositions of the liquids derived from melting this xenolith are similar to madupitic lamproites from the Leucite Hills, Wyoming, studied by Carmichael (Contrib Mineral Petrol 15:24-66, 1967) and Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:41-49, 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979). Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979) proposed that the madupitic lamproites may have come from a source containing mica

  2. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  3. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  4. Incidence and Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Aboriginal Peoples in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B.; Voaklander, Don; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Stickland, Michael K.; King, Malcolm; Harris, Andrew W.; Rowe, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major respiratory disorder, largely caused by smoking that has been linked with large health inequalities worldwide. There are important gaps in our knowledge about how COPD affects Aboriginal peoples. This retrospective cohort study assessed the epidemiology of COPD in a cohort of Aboriginal peoples relative to a non-Aboriginal cohort. Methods We used linkage of administrative health databases in Alberta (Canada) from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2010 to compare the annual prevalence, and the incidence rates of COPD between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cohorts aged 35 years and older. Poisson regression models adjusted the analysis for important sociodemographic factors. Results Compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort, prevalence estimates of COPD from 2002 to 2010 were 2.3 to 2.4 times greater among Registered First Nations peoples, followed by the Inuit (1.86 to 2.10 times higher) and the Métis (1.59 to 1.67 times higher). All Aboriginal peoples had significantly higher COPD incidence rates than the non-Aboriginal group (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97, 2.27). COPD incidence rates were higher in First Nation peoples (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 2.19, 2.56) followed by Inuit (IRR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.64, 2.25) and Métis (IRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.69) groups. Conclusions We found a high burden of COPD among Aboriginal peoples living in Alberta; a province with the third largest Aboriginal population in Canada. Altogether, the three Aboriginal peoples groups have higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort. The condition affects the three Aboriginal groups differently; Registered First Nations and Inuit have the highest burden of COPD. Reasons for these differences should be further explored within a framework of social determinants of health to help designing interventions that effectively influence modifiable COPD risk factors in each of the

  5. Shifting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.P.; Welch, W.R.

    1984-03-13

    An improved shifting tool connectable in a well tool string and useful to engage and position a slidable sleeve in a sliding sleeve device in a well flow conductor. The selectively profiled shifting tool keys provide better fit with and more contact area between keys and slidable sleeves. When the engaged slidable sleeve cannot be moved up and the shifting tool is not automatically disengaged, emergency disengagement means may be utilized by applying upward force to the shifting tool sufficient to shear pins and cause all keys to be cammed inwardly at both ends to completely disengage for removal of the shifting tool from the sliding sleeve device.

  6. Estimation of Source and Attenuation Parameters from Ground Motion Observations for Induced Seismicity in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, M.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use a generalized inversion to solve for site response, regional source and attenuation parameters, in order to define a region-specific ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) from ground motion observations in Alberta, following the method of Atkinson et al. (2015 BSSA). The database is compiled from over 200 small to moderate seismic events (M 1 to 4.2) recorded at ~50 regional stations (distances from 30 to 500 km), over the last few years; almost all of the events have been identified as being induced by oil and gas activity. We remove magnitude scaling and geometric spreading functions from observed ground motions and invert for stress parameter, regional attenuation and site amplification. Resolving these parameters allows for the derivation of a regionally-calibrated GMPE that can be used to accurately predict amplitudes across the region in real time, which is useful for ground-motion-based alerting systems and traffic light protocols. The derived GMPE has further applications for the evaluation of hazards from induced seismicity.

  7. A stochastic assessment of climate change impacts on precipitation and potential evaporation in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchyshyn, I.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K.

    2012-12-01

    In many climate change investigations, changes in precipitation are projected under various scenarios; however, changes in evaporation have received relatively less attention. For irrigation and water resources management, the difference between potential evaporation and precipitation can provide better quantification of local water availability and drought conditions. Therefore, projecting joint variations in precipitation and potential evaporation can provide better information for climate change adaptation. A stochastic approach based on a Generalised Linear Model (GLM) framework is proposed to study these together at a station scale. Eight stations in Alberta are selected for which historical pan evaporation records and up-to-date meteorological information are available. Results show that potential evaporation estimated from Global Circulation Models directly can be unreliable. The evaporation ensemble simulated by the GLM approach can represent observed evaporation more realistically and provide better uncertainty quantification. If only simulated precipitation is considered, the projected drought conditions in the 2080s are likely to be less severe than that in the 2000s. However, the projected difference between precipitation and evaporation (water deficit) shows that the future drought conditions may be higher or lower, varying between the stations. Implications of the results and further development of the proposed approach to address spatial dependence between stations are also discussed.

  8. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles. PMID:26313740

  9. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility. PMID:26168055

  10. Characterization and distribution of metal and nonmetal elements in the Alberta oil sands region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Yang, Lingling; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the characterization and distribution of metals and nonmetals in the Alberta oil sands region (AOSR) of Canada. The development of the oil sands industry has resulted in the release of organic, metal and nonmetal contaminants via air and water to the AOSR. For air, studies have found that atmospheric deposition of metals in the AOSR decreased exponentially with distance from the industrial emission sources. For water, toxic metal concentrations often exceeded safe levels leading to the potential for negative impacts to the receiving aquatic environments. Interestingly, although atmospheric deposition, surface waters, fish tissues, and aquatic bird eggs exhibited increasing level of metals in the AOSR, reported results from river sediments showed no increases over time. This could be attributed to physical and/or chemical dynamics of the river system to transport metals to downstream. The monitoring of the airborne emissions of relevant nonmetals (nitrogen and sulphur species) was also considered over the AOSR. These species were found to be increasing along with the oil sands developments with the resultant depositions contributing to nitrogen and sulphur accumulations resulting in ecosystem acidification and eutrophication impacts. In addition to direct monitoring of metals/nonmetals, tracing of air emissions using isotopes was also discussed. Further investigation and characterization of metals/nonmetals emissions in the AOSR are needed to determine their impacts to the ecosystem and to assess the need for further treatment measures to limit their continued output into the receiving environments. PMID:26766359

  11. Drilling of three horizontal hole pattern Fort McMurray, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Between Oct. 1980 and Feb. 1981, Texaco Canada Resources Ltd. drilled 3 horizontal holes in soft, shallow, unconsolidated Athabasca tar sands at their Fort McMurray Pilot Plant, Alberta, Can. Objectives of the project were to produce bitumen at very shallow depths with minimum drilling cost, lease cost, and environmental impact. The accomplishment is believed unique in that all 3 wells were drilled from the same drilling pad, each well being spudded in at a vertical angle of 45, and a horizontal attitude was achieved at a true vertical depth from surface of ca 125 m (410 ft). Over 350 m (1,000 ft) of horizontal hole was drilled to complete each well. A new, innovative, hydraulically operated drilling rig was built for this project with a 110,000 kg. (240,000 lb) hoist and 22,700 kg (50,000 lb) push-down capacity. New techniques were developed to drill, enlarge, and underream the horizontal hole up to 368.3 mm (14-1/2 in.) diameter. Mud motors were used to power the bit and the force on the bit was accomplished by pushing down on the drill pipe.

  12. Reservoir sedimentology of the M. Triassic Halfway Fm. , Wembley field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Middle Triassic Halfway Formation of west-central Alberta is interpreted as a prograding barrier island shoreline deposit. A detailed sedimentological study based on 130 cored sequences and 300 well logs in the Wembley area (Townships 72-73, Ranges 7-9, West of Sixth Meridian) has enabled the author to delineate the geometry of reservoir units, interpreted as tidal inlet fill, upper shoreface, and flood-tidal delta sandstones. Complete shoreface sequences average 15 m in thickness and form mappable trends tens of kilometers along depositional strike, but are only continuous for a few kilometers across dip, with the intervening areas having been reworked by one or more migrating tidal inlets. The strike-elongate inlet-fill sequences cover more than 50% of the field area. They are typically 10 m thick and exhibit the best porosities due to leaching of bioclastic material in the lower part of the fill, but the down-cutting of successive inlets makes the reservoir sands laterally discontinuous. Inlet sands extend up-dip into flood-tidal delta sandbodies that average 4 m in thickness and pinch out in lagoonal muds. Although showing much greater lateral continuity than the other reservoir units, the upper shoreface sandstones do not exhibit biomoldic porosity and are a less productive unit. Such an understanding of the architecture of the various reservoir components present in a barrier island shoreline system is essential when planning a secondary recovery program.

  13. Structural characterization of Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) and impact on rock slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Epard, Jean-Luc; Froese, Corey R.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a structural investigation of the Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) to better understand the role of the different tectonic features on the development of both local and large scale rock slope instabilities occurring in Turtle Mountain. The study area is investigated by combining remote methods with detailed field surveys. In particular, the benefit of Terrestrial Laser Scanning for ductile and brittle tectonic structure interpretations is illustrated. The proposed tectonic interpretation allows the characterization of the fracturing pattern, the fold geometry and the role of these tectonic features in rock slope instability development. Ten discontinuity sets are identified in the study area, their local variations permitting the differentiation of the study zone into 20 homogenous structural domains. The anticline is described as an eastern verging fold that displays considerable geometry differences along its axis and developed by both flexural slip and tangential longitudinal strain folding mechanisms. Moreover, the origins of the discontinuity sets are determined according to the tectonic phases affecting the region (pre-folding, folding, post-folding). The localization and interpretation of kinematics of the different instabilities revealed the importance of considering the discrete brittle planes of weakness, which largely control the kinematic release of the local instabilities, and also the rock mass damage induced by large tectonic structures (fold hinge, thrust).

  14. InSAR Observations and Modeling of Anthropogenic Surface Deformation in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations over northern Alberta, Canada show persistent surface uplift occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/year, localized at several sites where the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technique is currently being used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use numerical reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion.

  15. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies. PMID:16838719

  16. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Braid, Andrew C. R.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility. PMID:26168055

  17. Full genome analysis of enterovirus D-68 strains circulating in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Drews, Steven J; Tipples, Graham; Tellier, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    A widespread outbreak of enterovirus (EV)-D68 that started in the summer of 2014 has been reported in the USA and Canada. During the course of this outbreak, EV-D68 was identified as a possible cause of acute, unexplained severe respiratory illness and a temporal association was observed between acute flaccid paralysis with anterior myelitis and EV-D68 detection in the upper respiratory tract. In this study, four nasopharyngeal samples collected from patients in Alberta, Canada with a laboratory diagnosis of EV-D68 were used to determine the near full-length genome sequence directly from the specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to study the genotypes and pathogenesis of the circulating strains. Our results support the contention that mutations in the VP1 gene and other regions of the genome causing altered antigenicity, as well as lack of immunity in the younger population, may be responsible for the increased severe respiratory disease outbreaks of EV-D68 worldwide. PMID:26643129

  18. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in snow, snowmelt, and runoff at Bow Lake, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Melissa J; Blais, Jules M; Sharp, Martin J; Schindler, David W

    2006-08-15

    We present analyses of the concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants (including organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in snow, snowmelt, and runoff in glacier and snowmelt fed streams at Bow Lake, Alberta in two contrasting hydrological years (1997 and 1998). The study investigates the variability in OC burdens in snow across the catchment, the elution of OCs from the snowpack, and the relationship between OC concentrations in streams and the annual snowpack. Snowpacks in forested sites were thinner and had lower OC concentrations than snowpacks in open or sparsely vegetated sites. The first snowmelt samples exhibited very high contaminant concentrations relative to the snowpack, and even the more hydrophobic compounds (Dieldrin, DDTs, and PCBs) were highly concentrated in meltwater. Interannual changes in the mean OC concentrations in streams did not reflect year-to-year changes in the snowpack contaminant concentrations. The results indicate that the extent of glacial ice melt may be more important than mean snowpack burdens as a control on OC concentrations in runoff in glacial catchments. PMID:16955885

  19. An experimental study of a minette from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37: 1629-1650, 2000) studied the minettes and xenoliths from the Milk River area of southern Alberta, Canada. Based on previous work, they hypothesized that the minettes were derived from a source containing phlogopite + clinopyroxene ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. To test this hypothesis, liquidus experiments were performed on a primitive minette between 1.33 and 2.21 GPa and between 1,300 and 1,400 °C to constrain the mineralogy of its source region. We found a multiple saturation point along the liquidus at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C, where the liquid coexists with orthopyroxene and olivine. Neither phlogopite nor clinopyroxene were found to be liquidus phases, which is inconsistent with Buhlmann et al.'s hypothesis. We suggest that our minette is not primary, but had re-equilibrated with harzburgitic mantle subsequent to formation. In such a scenario, partial melting of a veined source containing mica and clinopyroxene occurred at or near the base of the Wyoming craton (~200 km). Minimal heating or the introduction of hydrous fluids into the source would be required to induce partial melting. Rapid ascent rates, coupled with slow cooling rates, of the "primary minette magma" would preserve the high temperature observed in our experiments. At ~58 km, our "primary minette magma" likely stalled and re-equilibrated with the harzburgite surroundings.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from finishing swine and the environment of 60 Alberta swine farms.

    PubMed

    Rajić, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E; Deckert, Anne E; Reid-Smith, Richard; Manninen, Ken; Poppe, Cornelius; Dewey, Catherine E; McEwen, Scott A

    2004-12-01

    The study objective was to describe and evaluate antimicrobial resistance profiles in Salmonella isolated from Alberta swine finishing farms. Salmonella isolates (n = 322) were obtained from 192 fecal and 84 environmental samples of the 60 Salmonella-positive swine finishing farms. Isolates were classified susceptible, intermediate or resistant based on NCCLS guidelines. More than half of the isolates (53.4%) were susceptible to all of the 18 antimicrobials in the testing panel. No resistance was observed to amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or nalidixic acid. Less than 1% of isolates were resistant to apramycin, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Higher frequencies of resistance were observed for chloramphenicol (4.7%), ampicillin (7.8%), kanamycin (11.8%), sulfamethoxazole (21.1%), streptomycin (25.5%) and tetracycline (38.8%). Eleven Salmonella serovars had isolates with resistance to > or =3 antimicrobials. The most frequently resistant serovar was Salmonella Derby, with 27 (38.0%) isolates resistant to > or =3 antimicrobials, including resistance to five and six antimicrobials. An absence of resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquniolones and a low proportion of isolates resistant to amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, apramycin, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are encouraging findings from public health and animal health perspectives. Frequent resistance observed for ampicillin, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline, antimicrobials commonly used in veterinary medicine for decades, indicates an urgent need to utilize these antimicrobials more prudently if their benefits are to be preserved. PMID:15564027

  1. Pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in Western Alberta: does transmission route matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In southwestern Alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. To assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (indirect fecal-oral transmission), Neospora caninum (indirect transmission with definitive host). We assessed the occurrence of these pathogens in 28 cow-calf operations exposed or non-exposed to elk, and in 10 elk herds exposed or not to cattle. We characterized the effect of species commingling as a risk factor of pathogen exposure and documented the perceived risk of pathogen transmission at this wildlife-livestock interface in the rural community. Herpesviruses found in elk were elk-specific gamma-herpesviruses unrelated to cattle viruses. Pestivirus exposure in elk could not be ascertained to be of livestock origin. Evidence of MAP circulation was found in both elk and cattle, but there was no statistical effect of the species commingling. Finally, N. caninum was more frequently detected in elk exposed to cattle and this association was still significant after adjustment for herd and sampling year clustering, and individual elk age and sex. Only indirectly transmitted pathogens co-occurred in cattle and elk, indicating the potential importance of the transmission route in assessing the risk of pathogen transmission in multi-species grazing systems. PMID:24517283

  2. Initial seismic observations from a deep borehole drilled into the Canadian Shield in northeast Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of a deep borehole in northeastern Alberta provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the in situ metamorphic craton rocks. This borehole reaches a depth of 2.4 km, with 1.8 km in the crystalline rocks, and is the only known borehole allowing access into the deeper rocks of the metamorphic Canadian Shield. In 2011, a zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired to assist in the interpretation of seismic reflection data and geophysical logs. Three sets of upgoing tube waves interpreted from the raw profile correspond to the small-scale fluctuations in the borehole diameters and fracture zone in the crystalline rocks. A comparison between sonic log velocities and VSP velocities reveals a zone with increased velocity that could be due to the change in rock composition and texture in the basement rocks. The final processed profile is used to generate corridor stacks for differentiating between primary reflections and multiples in the seismic reflection profile. Analysis of the zero-offset VSP verifies existing log interpretation on the presence of fractures and the possible lithological changes in the metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield.

  3. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Ruff, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA

  4. Influenza and tetanus immunization. Are adults up-to-date in rural Alberta?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To discover what proportion of adults residing within the boundaries of a rural health district were up-to-date with influenza and tetanus vaccinations. METHODS: A directory-seeded, random digit dial telephone survey of health knowledge, attitudes, and practices was conducted in summer 1993. Eligible subjects were aged 16 or older, lived within health district boundaries, and spoke English. RESULTS: Just over half (57.5%) of people aged 65 and older had received influenza vaccine in the previous 12 months, and 55.4% of people 16 years and older had received tetanus vaccine in the last 10 years (93% of people aged 16 to 24 were covered, but only 20.5% of people aged 65 or older). Most (89.8%) of those 65 and older knew that influenza vaccine was recommended for people their age. Only 59% of respondents knew that influenza vaccine was recommended for people with chronic health conditions, regardless of age. CONCLUSION: Among adults, coverage with influenza and tetanus vaccines varies with age, but is generally unsatisfactory. Rates in this rural area of Alberta were similar to Canadian rates for tetanus vaccine coverage but higher for influenza vaccine coverage. PMID:9626423

  5. Changes in utilization of dental services of Alberta's universal dental plan for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G W; Lewis, D W

    1994-05-01

    Since 1973, Alberta's dental plan for the elderly has made government-sponsored, premium-free comprehensive care by dentists and denturists available to all residents of the province over age 64. Details on the numbers and types of different services provided were previously unavailable from the annual reports. However, an examination of the plan's six-million records, covering nearly 260,000 different patients from 1978 to 1992, has now made it possible, for the first time, to conduct a detailed analysis of these dental services. Many time-related changes have occurred in the types of services provided. The number of removable prosthodontic services declined from 14 per cent of all services offered by dentists in 1978-79 to five per cent of these services in 1991-1992, but the services provided by denturists increased by a factor of four. The relative number of surgical and restorative dentistry services offered by dentists also declined. Preventive services grew modestly, but periodontal services grew dramatically from three per cent of all services provided by dentists to 22 per cent. These shifts in services from prosthodontics, restorative dentistry and oral surgery to preventive and periodontic services have important implications for the planning and administration of dental plans for the elderly. PMID:8004517

  6. The Bow City structure, southern Alberta, Canada: The deep roots of a complex impact structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombick, Paul; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Xie, Wei; Bown, Todd; Hathway, Ben; Banks, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence is presented for a newly discovered, probable remnant complex impact structure. The structure, located near Bow City, southern Alberta, has no obvious morphological expression at surface. The geometry of the structure in the shallow subsurface, mapped using downhole geophysical well logs, is a semicircular structural depression approximately 8 km in diameter with a semicircular uplifted central region. Detailed subsurface mapping revealed evidence of localized duplication of stratigraphic section in the central uplift area and omission of strata within the surrounding annular region. Field mapping of outcrop confirmed an inlier of older rocks present within the center of the structure. Evidence of deformation along the eastern margin of the central uplift includes thrust faulting, folding, and steeply dipping bedding. Normal faults were mapped along the northern margin of the annular region. Isopach maps reveal that structural thickening and thinning were accommodated primarily within the Belly River Group. Evidence from legacy 2-D seismic data is consistent with the subsurface mapping and reveals additional insight into the geometry of the structure, including a series of listric normal faults in the annular region and complex faulting within the central uplift. The absence of any ejecta blanket, breccia, suevite, or melt sheet (based on available data) is consistent with the Bow City structure being the remnant of a deeply eroded, complex impact structure. Accordingly, the Bow City structure may provide rare access and insight into zones of deformation remaining beneath an excavated transient crater in stratified siliciclastic target rocks.

  7. A case study of pipeline route selection and design through discontinuous permafrost terrain in northwestern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Wiechnik, C.; Boivin, R.; Henderson, J.; Bowman, M.

    1996-12-31

    As the natural gas pipeline system in Western Canada expands northward, it traverses the discontinuous permafrost zone. As the ground temperature of the frozen soil in this zone is just below freezing, it can be expected that within the design life of a pipeline the permafrost adjacent to it will melt due to the disturbance of the insulating cover by construction activities. Differential settlement at the thawing frozen/unfrozen soil interfaces gives rise to pipeline strain. Based on the calculated settlement and resulting strain level, a cost effective mechanical or civil design solution can be selected to mitigate the differential settlement problem. Since these design solutions can be costly, it is desirable to combine them with a pipeline route that traverses the least amount of discontinuous permafrost terrain while minimizing the overall length of the pipeline. This paper will detail the framework utilized to select the routing for a package of pipeline projects in northwestern Alberta. It is believed that the increased front end effort will result in lower operating costs and an overall reduced life-cycle cost. This basic design methodology can be applied to any project that traverses discontinuous permafrost terrain.

  8. The development of the ''Sleeping Giant'' deep basin natural gas, Alberta Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    During the past seven years attention has been focused on ''mega'' projects and the frontier areas for continental energy self sufficiency. However, a giant conventional resource project has been developing without fanfare. This project has potential impact on the well being of Canada and the North American energy scene. This ''Sleeping Giant'', which delivered its initial sales gas on November 1, 1979 is the Alberta (Elmworth) Deep Basin. The project area covers 67,400 square km (26,000 square miles) and contains potentially hydrocarbon bearing sediments over a thickness of 4,572 meters (15,000 feet). This basin is best equated in terms of size and reserves to the famous San Juan Basin. Since its discovery in 1976 approximately 1,000 multi-zoned gas wells have been drilled and reserves in the order of 140,000 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/ (5 trillion cubic feet) have been recognized by gas purchasers. Ten gas plants have been constructed with capacity of roughly 28,174 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ (1 billion cubic feet) per day. This paper documents the development of these reserves and the stages in the construction of field facilities.

  9. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  10. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages. PMID:18815827

  11. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  12. Thermally Released Arsenic in Porewater from Sediments in the Cold Lake Area of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) in aquifers in close proximity to in situ oil sands extraction in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada is attributed to high temperature steam (~200 °C) injected into oil sands deposits to liquefy bitumen. Heat propagated from hot injection wells alters physicochemical properties of the surrounding sediments and associated porewater. Seven sediments from four different cores drilled up to ~300 m depth collected from different locations in the area were used to study the thermal effect (~200 °C) on As distribution in the sediments and its release into porewater. Sediments were moistened with synthetic aquifer or deionized water according to the moisture regimes present in aquitard, aquifer and fractured zones. Heat application greatly released As in the porewater (500-5200 and 1200-6600 μg L(-1)) from aquifer and fractured sediments, respectively. Mass balance of As chemical fractionation showed that ~89-100% of As in porewater was released from exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As in the sediments. Heat application also altered As distribution in the sediments releasing As from exchange surfaces and amorphous Fe oxides to soluble As fraction. The results provide great insight into As release mechanisms warranting development of strategies to mitigate groundwater As contamination during industrial operation. PMID:26839972

  13. Tertiary recovery potential of CO2 flooding in Joffre Viking pool, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, S.C.M.; Stanton, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant tertiary oil recovery by CO2 flooding in a watered-out Joffre Viking sand unit in central Alberta, as determined in a preliminary feasibility study, prompted further detailed evaluation of the CO2 process. Consequently, reservoir simulation models are used in the study to further investigate the technical feasibility and prediction of CO2 flood performance. Using a Black Oil simulator (BETA II), history matching of primary and waterflood production performance on a selected portion of the Joffre Viking Pool involving 85 wells was undertaken. This step provided for proper initialization of fluid and pressure distribution and a reservoir description for the miscible CO2 flood model (COMP II). Sensitivity analysis and process optimization using a typical pattern approach were conducted to optimize the tertiary CO2 flood performance. Simulation results indicated that in the presence of a trapped oil saturation due to water blocking oil from contact by the injected CO2, a larger CO2 slug and/or a smaller water slug are required in a water-alternating-with-gas process for more efficient displacements. 13 references.

  14. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine field trial in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A feedlot trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in reducing fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in 218 pens of feedlot cattle in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Pens of cattle were vaccinated once at arrival processing and again at reimplanting with either the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a placebo. The E. coli O157:H7 vaccine included 50 μg of type III secreted proteins. Fecal samples were collected from 30 fresh manure patties within each feedlot pen at arrival processing, revaccination at reimplanting, and within 2 wk of slaughter. The mean pen prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was 5.0%; ranging in pens from 0% to 90%, and varying signif icantly (P < 0.001) among feedlots. There was no signif icant association (P > 0.20) between vaccination and pen prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 following initial vaccination, at reimplanting, or prior to slaughter. PMID:16187717

  15. Family physician practice visits arising from the Alberta Physician Achievement Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Licensed physicians in Alberta are required to participate in the Physician Achievement Review (PAR) program every 5 years, comprising multi-source feedback questionnaires with confidential feedback, and practice visits for a minority of physicians. We wished to identify and classify issues requiring change or improvement from the family practice visits, and the responses to advice. Methods Retrospective analysis of narrative practice visit reports data using a mixed methods design to study records of visits to 51 family physicians and general practitioners who participated in PAR during the period 2010 to 2011, and whose ratings in one or more major assessment domains were significantly lower than their peer group. Results Reports from visits to the practices of family physicians and general practitioners confirmed opportunities for change and improvement, with two main groupings – practice environment and physician performance. For 40/51 physicians (78%) suggested actions were discussed with physicians and changes were confirmed. Areas of particular concern included problems arising from practice isolation and diagnostic conclusions being reached with incomplete clinical evidence. Conclusion This study provides additional evidence for the construct validity of a regulatory authority educational program in which multi-source performance feedback identifies areas for practice quality improvement, and change is encouraged by supplementary contact for selected physicians. PMID:24010980

  16. A Comparison of AgI and CO2 Seeding Effects in Alberta Cumulus Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Marianne; Marwitz, John D.

    1981-05-01

    Three convective clouds extending above a stratocumulus layer were identified as being seedable on one day and were then seeded in a random sequence with CO2 pellets, a placebo and droppable AgI flares. The radar and microphysical seeding effects were observed with the Alberta Hail Project S-band radar and with the University of Wyoming Queen Air aircraft. Distinct seeding effects were observed in both seeded clouds by both data systems. The CO2 seeded cloud developed a single curtain of precipitation particles 18 min after seeding which reached the ground 20 min after seeding and ceased precipitating 10 min later. The placebo cloud failed to develop any precipitation-sized particles or radar echo and dissipated after 30 min. The AgI seeded cloud developed its first echo 8 min after seeding near the threshold temperature for AgI (7°C), produced precipitation at the ground 20 min after seeding, and continued to develop a new echo near the 7°C level and precipitate for 1 h. A natural echoing storm which occurred nearby was examined by radar and found to develop and evolve in a manner quite unlike the seeded clouds. It is plausible that the AgI continued to generate ice crystals in such a manner as to first initiate and then prolong the lifetime of precipitation while the curtain of CO2 pellets failed to initiate more than a single precipitation curtain.

  17. Evaluation of cattle bedding and grazing BMPs in an agricultural watershed in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Olson, Barry M; Kalischuk, Andrea R; Casson, Janna P; Phelan, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental impacts of implementing beneficial management practices to address cattle bedding and direct access to the creek in a study watershed in southern Alberta, Canada. Approximately 35 cow-calf pairs grazed 194 ha of grass forage and had direct access to the creek in the spring and summer. During winter, the cattle were fed adjacent to the creek at an old bedding site. The practice changes included off-stream watering, bedding site relocation and fencing for rotational grazing. The cost was $15,225 and 60 h of labour. Four years of data were used in a before-and-after experimental design to evaluate the practice changes. After two years of post-implementation monitoring, riparian assessments showed an increase in plant diversity, but no change in the percent cover of the riparian species Salix exigua and Juncus balitus and a decrease in Carex sp. (P < 0.05). Water quality monitoring showed a decrease in the difference between upstream and downstream concentrations of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and Escherichia coli (P < 0.10). These results showed that improved environmental changes in riparian and water quality can be measured following the implementation of beneficial management practices for cattle bedding and grazing. PMID:22097003

  18. Role of Suspended Sediment in Irrigation Return Flow Chemistry, Southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Helen C.; Ongley, Edwin D.

    1986-05-01

    Chemical impact of irrigation return flows upon receiving waters has historically focussed on salt and sediment production. Transport of other agricultural pollutants which are preferentially associated with suspended sediment is largely unknown in western Canada and poorly addressed elsewhere because of the traditional emphasis upon whole and filtered water chemistry. This study examines the role of suspended sediment in the flux of phosphorus and metals from large-scale irrigation in semiarid southern Alberta. It establishes temporal patterns of chemical flux over the irrigation season, identifies the chemical species of phosphorus and metals, and assesses the potential for phosphorus and heavy metal impact from irrigation return flows upon receiving riverine systems. Whole and filtered water chemistry is found to be not especially useful in determining either chemical enrichment of return flows nor for evaluating impact upon receiving waters. Suspended sediment plays a major role in transport of phosphorus and heavy metals. Evidence from parent materials, prairie soils, chemical speciation, statistical relationships for metals and for phosphorus, and comparative data for suspended sediment during spring high flow in receiving rivers when sediments originate from eroding diffuse sources, all indicate that sediment-associated phosphorus and metals in irrigation return flows are not anthropogenically enriched and do not represent an impact beyond that which is naturally occurring in receiving rivers.

  19. FORTRAN tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presser, L.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

  20. Percussion tool

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  1. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur

    2007-10-15

    The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

  2. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  3. The Functional and Palaeoecological Implications of Tooth Morphology and Wear for the Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  4. Source mechanism characterization and integrated interpretation of microseismic data monitoring two hydraulic stimulations in pouce coupe field, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Garrison J.

    The study of the Pouce Coupe Field is a joint effort between the Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) and Talisman Energy Inc. My study focuses on the hydraulic stimulation of two horizontal wells within the Montney Formation located in north-western Alberta. The Montney is an example of a modern-day tight, engineering-driven play in which recent advances in drilling of horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing have made shale gas exploitation economical. The wells were completed in December 2008 and were part of a science driven project in which a multitude of data were collected including multicomponent seismic, microseismic, and production logs. Since this time, a number of studies have been performed by students at Colorado School of Mines to better understand the effects the completions have had on the reservoir. This thesis utilizes the microseismic data that were recorded during the stimulation of the two horizontal wells in order to understand the origin of the microseismic events themselves. The data are then used to understand and correlate to the well production. To gain insight into the source of the microseismic events, amplitude ratios of recorded seismic modes (P, Sh and Sv) for the microseismic events are studied. By fitting trends of simple end member source mechanisms (strike-slip, dip-slip, and tensile) to groups of amplitude ratio data, the events are found to be of strike-slip nature. By comparing the focal mechanisms to other independent natural fracture determination techniques (shear-wave splitting analysis, FMI log), it is shown that the source of recorded microseismic events is likely to be a portion of the shear slip along existing weak planes (fractures) within a reservoir. The technique described in this work is one that is occasionally but increasingly used but offers the opportunity to draw further information from microseismic data using results that are already part of a typical processing workflow. The microseismic events are

  5. Structural analysis of Turtle Mountain (Alberta) using digital elevation model: Toward a progressive failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Couture, Réjean; Locat, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In 1903, the eastern slope of Turtle Mountain (Alberta) was affected by a 30 M m 3-rockslide named Frank Slide that resulted in more than 70 casualties. Assuming that the main discontinuity sets, including bedding, control part of the slope morphology, the structural features of Turtle Mountain were investigated using a digital elevation model (DEM). Using new landscape analysis techniques, we have identified three main joint and fault sets. These results are in agreement with those sets identified through field observations. Landscape analysis techniques, using a DEM, confirm and refine the most recent geology model of the Frank Slide. The rockslide was initiated along bedding and a fault at the base of the slope and propagated up slope by a regressive process following a surface composed of pre-existing discontinuities. The DEM analysis also permits the identification of important geological structures along the 1903 slide scar. Based on the so called Sloping Local Base Level (SLBL) an estimation was made of the present unstable volumes in the main scar delimited by the cracks, and around the south area of the scar (South Peak). The SLBL is a method permitting a geometric interpretation of the failure surface based on a DEM. Finally we propose a failure mechanism permitting the progressive failure of the rock mass that considers gentle dipping wedges (30°). The prisms or wedges defined by two discontinuity sets permit the creation of a failure surface by progressive failure. Such structures are more commonly observed in recent rockslides. This method is efficient and is recommended as a preliminary analysis prior to field investigation.

  6. Airborne Measurements of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in the Oil Sands Region of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Hayden, K.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S. G.; Staebler, R. M.; Gordon, M.; O'brien, J.; Li, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands (OS) region represents a strategic natural resource and is a key driver of economic development. Its rapid expansion has led to a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the associated potential cumulative environmental impacts. In summer 2013, airborne measurements of various gaseous and particulate substances were made in the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and Sept 7, 2013. In particular, organic aerosol mass and composition measurements were performed with a High Resolution Time of flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) supported by gaseous measurements of organic aerosol precursors with Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and Chemical Ionization (CI) mass spectrometers. These measurement data on selected flights were used to estimate the potential for local anthropogenic OS emissions to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) downwind of precursor sources, and to investigate the importance of the surrounding biogenic emissions to the overall SOA burden in the region. The results of several flights conducted to investigate these transformations demonstrate that multiple distinct plumes were present downwind of OS industrial sources, each with differing abilities to form SOA depending upon factors such as NOx level, precursor VOC composition, and oxidant concentration. The results indicate that approximately 100 km downwind of an OS industrial source most of the measured organic aerosol (OA) was secondary in nature, forming at rates of ~6.4 to 13.6 μgm-3hr-1. Positive matrix factor (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data suggests that the SOA was highly oxidized (O/C~0.6) resulting in a measured ΔOA (difference above regional background OA) of approximately 2.5 - 3 despite being 100 km away from sources. The relative contribution of biogenic SOA to the total SOA and the factors affecting SOA formation during a number of flights in the OS region will be described.

  7. Historical trends in greenhouse gas emissions of the Alberta oil sands (1970-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englander, Jacob G.; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Brandt, Adam R.

    2013-12-01

    There has been increased scrutiny of the Alberta oil sands due to their high carbon intensity (CI) relative to conventional crude oil. Relying entirely on public and peer-reviewed data sources, we examine historical trends in the CI of oil sands extraction, upgrading, and refining. Monthly data were collected and interpolated from 1970 to 2010 (inclusive) for each oil sands project. Results show a reduction in oil sands CI over time, with industry-average full-fuel cycle (well-to-wheels, WTW) CI declining from 165 gCO2e MJ-1 higher heating value (HHV) of reformulated gasoline (RFG) to 105 (-12, +9) gCO2e MJ-1 HHV RFG. 2010 averages by production pathways are 102 gCO2e MJ-1 for Mining and 111 gCO2e MJ-1 for in situ. The CI of mining-based projects has declined due to upgrader efficiency improvements and a shift away from coke to natural gas as a process fuel. In situ projects have benefitted from substantial reductions in fugitive emissions from bitumen batteries. Both mining and in situ projects have benefitted from improved refining efficiencies. However, despite these improvements, the CI of oil sands production (on a pathway-average basis) ranges from 12 to 24% higher than CI values from conventional oil production. Due to growing output, total emissions from the oil sands continue to increase despite improved efficiency: total upstream emissions were roughly 65 MtCO2e in 2010, or 9% of Canada’s emissions.

  8. Large-scale underpressuring in the Mississippian-Cretaceous succession, Southwestern Alberta Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The hydrodynamic regime of formation waters in the post-Devonian sedimentary succession was studied for an area of about 120,000 km{sup 2} in southwestern Alberta using approximately 15,000 drill-stem tests and 13,000 formation-water analyses. The salinity of formation waters generally increases both northward and with depth from 5000 mg/L to more than 100,000 mg/L. Based on flow characteristics and driving mechanisms, the sedimentary succession can be divided into two megahydro-stratigraphic groups overlain by an unconfined aquifer at the top. The Mississippian-to-Mannville (Cretaceous) hydrostratigraphic group is basically an open hydrodynamic system dominated by aquifers. The flow of formation waters is driven by basin-scale topography, and part of a basin-scale flow system with recharge at high elevations in the south and southwest and discharge at low elevations in the north-northeast. The Cretaceous Colorado-to-Edmonton hydrostratigraphic group is largely a closed hydrodynamic system dominated by aquitards. The flow in aquifers is driven west-ward downdip, toward the thrust and fold belt, by large-scale underpressuring caused by erosional rebound in thick shales. In places, pressures reach lower values than those corresponding to the lowest basin elevation located far to the north. This flow system is in a transient state of mechanical and hydrodynamic adjustment to the present topography. The different flow pattern in the two megahydrostratigraphic successions has consequences for hydrocarbon exploration in terms of secondary migration paths and possible hydrodynamic entrapment of hydrocarbons.

  9. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  10. Investigation of the 2013 Alberta flood from weather and climate perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Diro, G. T.; Whan, K.; Milrad, S. M.; Jeong, D. I.; Ganji, A.; Huziy, O.; Winger, K.; Gyakum, J. R.; de Elia, R.; Zwiers, F. W.; Sushama, L.

    2016-06-01

    During 19-21 June 2013 a heavy precipitation event affected southern Alberta and adjoining regions, leading to severe flood damage in numerous communities and resulting in the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This flood was caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrological factors, which are investigated from weather and climate perspectives with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model. Results show that the contribution of orographic ascent to precipitation was important, exceeding 30 % over the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Another contributing factor was evapotranspiration from the land surface, which is found to have acted as an important moisture source and was likely enhanced by antecedent rainfall that increased soil moisture over the northern Great Plains. Event attribution analysis suggests that human induced greenhouse gas increases may also have contributed by causing evapotranspiration rates to be higher than they would have been under pre-industrial conditions. Frozen and snow-covered soils at high elevations are likely to have played an important role in generating record streamflows. Results point to a doubling of surface runoff due to the frozen conditions, while 25 % of the modelled runoff originated from snowmelt. The estimated return time of the 3-day precipitation event exceeds 50 years over a large region, and an increase in the occurrence of similar extreme precipitation events is projected by the end of the 21st century. Event attribution analysis suggests that greenhouse gas increases may have increased 1-day and 3-day return levels of May-June precipitation with respect to pre-industrial climate conditions. However, no anthropogenic influence can be detected for 1-day and 3-day surface runoff, as increases in extreme precipitation in the present-day climate are offset by decreased snow cover and lower frozen water content in soils during the May-June transition months, compared to pre

  11. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  12. Fine particulate air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, and systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Smargiassi, Audrey; Johnson, Markey; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Barnabe, Cheryl; Svenson, Larry; Brand, Allan; Bertazzon, Stefania; Hudson, Marie; Clarke, Ann E; Fortin, Paul; Edworthy, Steven; Bélisle, Patrick; Joseph, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between fine particulate (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution and systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). Methods Associations between ambient air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and SARDs were assessed using land-use regression models for Calgary, Alberta and administrative health data (1993-2007). SARD case definitions were based on ≥2 physician claims, or ≥1 rheumatology billing code; or ≥1 hospitalization code (for systemic lupus, Sjogren's Syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or undifferentiated connective tissue disease). Bayesian hierarchical latent class regression models estimated the probability that each resident was a SARD case, based on these case definitions. The sum of individual level probabilities provided the estimated number of cases in each area. The latent class model included terms for age, sex, and an interaction term between age and sex. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for NO2 and PM2.5. pollutant models, adjusting for neighborhood income, age, sex, and an interaction between age and sex. We also examined models stratified for First-Nations (FN) and non-FN subgroups. Results Residents that were female and/or aged > 45 had a greater probability of being a SARD case, with the highest OR estimates for older females. Independently, the odds of being a SARDs case increased with PM2.5 levels, but the results were inconclusive for NO2. The results stratified by FN and Non-FN groups were not distinctly different. Conclusion In this urban Canadian sample, adjusting for demographics, exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of SARDs. The results for NO2 were inconclusive. PMID:25988990

  13. Carbon Isotope Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting Gas From Domestic Water Wells From petroleum Fields of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, K.; Tilley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sixty years of petroleum development has resulted in over 500,000 petroleum wells drilled in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, many in agricultural areas that rely on groundwater (GW). The impact on GW quality by petroleum development is increasingly becoming a societal and regulatory concern triggered by intensive, recent CBM development. To protect GW the production tubing of a resource well is encased by a larger diameter surface casing (SCV) that is set deeper than the depth of potable water. Because of poor cementing the SCVs and soils near the wells often contain gas heightening concern for integrity of GW. Carbon isotope analyses of thousands of SCV gases shows them only rarely to be sourced from the target zone of the resource well, but rather from an intermediate depth. It has long been known that many water wells produce methane and traces of ethane and it needs to be determined if the water wells have been impacted. Alberta now requires all water wells to be tested prior to drilling of nearby resource wells. Carbon isotope analyses are mandated on a proportion of all gases produced by water wells and many hundreds of gas analyses will be placed in a public data base. Carbon isotope values of gases vary within the basin and can be used to quantify natural gas contamination of GW. Two case studies will be presented where landowners have filed complaints about gas contamination of their water wells. Attributing specific contaminant sources to a given resource well has proven to be difficult in areas where there is ongoing CBM development. However, in one area, the problem gas can be attributed to previous conventional petroleum development rather than the current CBM drilling and production. Carbon isotope analyses of water wells in another area suggest a few per cent of CBM contamination in water wells. Unfortunately, lack of pre-drilling background water data prevents reliable quantification of the contamination.

  14. Measurements of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the oil sands region of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Li, S. M.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K. L.; Wang, D. K.; Staebler, R. M.; Liu, P.; O'Brien, J.; Mittermeier, R.; Liggio, J.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and represent an important fraction of volatile organic compounds. Additionally some OVOC species may pose health risks. OVOCs can affect the oxidative and radiative budget of the atmosphere since they are precursors to ground level ozone, hydroxyl radicals and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). OVOCs such as methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, crotonaldehyde, methylvinylketone (MVK), methylethylketone (MEK) and acrolein can be emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Additionally, they are the secondary products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons (biogenic and anthropogenic). Understanding the magnitude of these sources is a prerequisite for accurate representations of radical cycling, ozone production and SOA formation in air quality models. The sources of OVOCs in the Alberta Oil Sands (OS) region have not previously been well characterized. In the summer of 2013, airborne measurements of various OVOCs were made in the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, crotonaldehyde, MVK, MEK, acrolein as well as other hydrocarbons. Emission ratios (ER) for several OVOCs (relative to carbon monoxide; CO) were used to estimate direct anthropogenic emissions from OS industrial sources, while the calculated OH radical exposures were used to estimate the production and removal of secondary anthropogenic OVOCs. The results indicate that OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and MVK have both primary and secondary anthropogenic and biogenic sources. However, species such as methanol and acrolein are from biogenic and anthropogenic sources, respectively. The results of this work will help to characterize sources of OVOCs and the factors influencing their atmospheric fate in the Oil Sands region.

  15. Small mammals as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants and health effects in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of bitumen in areas of northeastern Alberta (Canada) has been associated with the release of complex mixtures of metals, metalloids, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. To mitigate effects on ecosystems, Canadian legislation mandates that disturbed areas be reclaimed to an ecologically sustainable state after active operations. However, as part of reclamation activities, exposure to, and effects on wildlife living in these areas is not generally assessed. To support successful reclamation, the development of efficient methods to assess exposure and health effects in potentially exposed wildlife is required. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of two native mammalian species (deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, and meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus) as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants by examining biomarkers of exposure and indicators of biological costs. Tissue residues of 31 metals and metalloids in kidneys and muscle, activity of the hepatic detoxification enzyme EROD (as a biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants), body condition, and the relative mass of liver, kidney, spleen, and testes were compared in animals from one reclaimed area and a reference site. Deer mice from the reclaimed site had higher renal levels of Co, Se and Tl compared to animals from the reference site, which was associated with reduced body condition. Lower testis mass was another feature that distinguished mice from the reclaimed site in comparison to those from the reference site. One mouse and one vole from the reclaimed site also showed increased hepatic EROD activity. In marked contrast, no changes were evident for these variables in meadow voles. Our results show that deer mouse is a sensitive sentinel species and that the biomarkers and indicators used here are efficient means to detect local contamination and associated biological effects in native mammals inhabiting reclaimed areas on active oil sands mine

  16. Elastic Anisotropy of a Metamorphic Rock Sample of the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fractures and textures cause metamorphic rock masses to be seismically anisotropic. Neglect of this anisotropy in the processing of field seismic data causes problems in the final reflection images both in terms of their quality and in the true positioning of subsurface features. To quantify the degree of seismic anisotropy in the subsurface, one method is to estimate the anisotropic parameters from the elastic stiffnesses of a rock sample. Using the ultrasonic pulse transmission method, measurements of the compressional and shear wave phase velocities as a function of confining pressure are used to calculate the elastic stiffnesses of a metamorphic granite core sample from the Precambrian basement in northeastern Alberta. Velocities are measured parallel, normal and oblique to an identified foliation plane of the sample assumed to be a transversely isotropic medium. The compressional wave velocities are measured to be in the range of 5,352-6,019 m/s along the foliation plane and 4,752-5,396 m/s normal to the foliation plane over the range of confining pressures from 0 to 60 MPa. Besides providing valuable in situ velocity information for the velocity models, the results also confirm the anisotropic behavior of the metamorphic rock with the estimated compressional and shear wave anisotropy valued at 12 and 8 %, respectively. Such degree of seismic anisotropy should be taken into consideration at the seismic scale when working with three-dimensional geophysical models of the Precambrian basement to minimize any out-of-plane anomalies in the final seismic sections.

  17. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada’s largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world’s largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s−1 in background air to 62 s−1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994–2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene. PMID:25685050

  18. Rainfall-Runoff Dynamics Following Wildfire in Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Alberta, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.; Anderson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Severe wildfire has been shown to increase the magnitude and advance the timing of rainfall-generated stormflows across a range of hydro-climate regions. Loss of canopy and forest floor interception results in increased net precipitation which, along with the removal of forest organic layers and increased shorter-term water repellency, can result in strongly increased surface flow pathways and efficient routing of precipitation to streams. These abrupt changes have the potential to exacerbate flood impacts and alter the timing of runoff delivery to streams. However, while these effects are well documented in drier temperate mountain regions, changes in post-fire rainfall-runoff processes are less well understood in colder, more northern, snowfall dominated regimes. The objectives of this study are to explore longer term precipitation and runoff dynamics of burned and unburned (reference) watersheds from the Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the front-range Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada. Streamflow and precipitation were measured in 5 watersheds (3.7 - 10.4 km2) for 10 years following the wildfire (2005-2014). Measurements were collected from a dense network of meteorological and hydrometric stations. Stormflow volume, peak flow, time to peak flow, and total annual streamflow were compared between burned and reference streams. Event-based data were separated into 3 post-fire periods to detect changes in rainfall-runoff dynamics as vegetation regenerated. Despite large increases in post-fire snowpacks and net summer rainfall, rainfall-generated runoff from fire-affected watersheds was not large in comparison to that reported from more temperate snowfall-dominated Rocky Mountain hydrologic settings. High proportions of groundwater contribution to annual runoff regimes (as opposed to surface flow pathways) and groundwater storage were likely contributors to greater watershed resistance to wildfire effects

  19. Fifteen-year trends in criteria air pollutants in oil sands communities of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of ambient air quality was undertaken at three communities within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada (Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, and Fort Chipewyan). Daily and seasonal patterns and 15-year trends were investigated for several criteria air pollutants over the period of 1998 to 2012. A parametric trend detection method using percentiles from frequency distributions of 1h concentrations for a pollutant during each year was used. Variables representing 50th, 65th, 80th, 90th, 95th and 98th percentile concentrations each year were identified from frequency distributions and used for trend analysis. Small increasing concentration trends were observed for nitrogen dioxide (<1ppb/year) at Fort McKay and Fort McMurray over the period consistent with increasing emissions of oxides of nitrogen (ca. 1000tons/year) from industrial developments. Emissions from all oil sands facilities appear to be contributing to the trend at Fort McKay, whereas both emissions from within the community (vehicles and commercial) and oil sands facility emissions appear to be contributing to the trend at Fort McMurray. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from industrial developments in the AOSR were unchanged during the period (101,000±7000tons/year; mean±standard deviation) and no meaningful trends were judged to be occurring at all community stations. No meaningful trends occurred for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at all community stations and carbon monoxide at one station in Fort McMurray. Air quality in Fort Chipewyan was much better and quite separate in terms of absence of factors influencing criteria air pollutant concentrations at the other community stations. PMID:25454237

  20. Sedimentology of paleochannels on foreland coastal plain, Judith River Formation (upper Cretaceous), southeast Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    The upper 90 m (295 ft) of the sub-Bearpaw Judith River Formation, continuously exposed in the badlands along the Red Deer River 185 km (115 mi) east of Calgary, is famous for the unrivaled assemblage of dinosaur fossils. Dinosaur Provincial Park presents are a rare opportunity to view the architecture of a foreland coastal-plain sequence as well as to clarify the origin and distribution of subbituminous coal zones and gas reservoirs associated with this formation across southeast Alberta. The distal reaches of paleodrainage from the developing Cordillera to the Western Interior seaway are being examined by north-south traversed across the badlands. Sharp-based paleochannel units, enclosed by rooted, olive-gray mudstone sequences that are commonly 4-6 m (13-20 ft) thick, vary between 2 end members. The first contains laterally accreted sand-mud couplets with abundant macrofloral debris, and represents cyclical, low-energy growth of point bars, possible with an estuarine influence. The second, mainly comprising cosets of large trough cross-beds with mudstone intraclasts, was formed by episodic aggradation of high-energy systems. An intermediate composite type displays evidence for an energy increase as channel sinuosity decreased. This variation in paleochannel type is attributed to alternating alluviation/rejuvenation associated with an unstable base level. Coal zones and potential reservoirs appear to be associated with the transgressive and regressive phases, respectively, of the Bearpaw coast. Amalgamation of paleochannels - marked by laterally extensive horizons of bone fragments, lithic and intraclastic gravel - is more common seaward over the axial region of the Sweetgrass arch.

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047). Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes than those who

  2. The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a wildfire impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by wildfire on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on regional scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 wildfire including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of wildfire and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane regions where forest

  3. Factors predicting mortality in invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Marrie, Thomas James; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Garg, Sipi; Vanderkooi, Otto G

    2011-05-01

    To define the factors associated with 30-day mortality among adult patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), we conducted a retrospective review of all cases of IPD in Alberta from 2000 to 2004. We hypothesized that multiple factors would be predictive of such mortality. We also examined the factors predictive of early (within 5 days of admission) mortality. We identified 1154 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 163 (14.1%) of whom died within 30 days. Over half (62.6%) of the deaths occurred within 5 days of admission. Ten factors were independently associated with increased 30-day mortality: 3 comorbidity factors-cancer within 5 years of diagnosis of IPD, diabetes, and cirrhosis; 4 complications-requirement for supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, alteration of mental status, and cardiac arrest; 2 microorganism-related factors-infection with high- or infection with intermediate-mortality serotypes; and 1 treatment-related factor-treatment with a single antibiotic. Age 18-40 years and treatment with 2 antibiotics concurrently were associated with lower 30-day mortality. Comorbid illnesses were not contributory to early mortality (within 5 days of admission); instead, complications (alteration of mental status, requirement for supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and cardiac arrest) as well as infection with high-mortality serotypes and treatment with a single antibiotic were important. Age 18-40 years, infection with serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine, and treatment with 2 or more than 2 antibiotics were associated with decreased early mortality. Early mortality accounted for 62.6% of the deaths. In conclusion, we found that mortality in IPD is multifactorial, the factors differ for 5- and 30-day mortality, and mortality is associated with host (age and complications), microorganism (pneumococcal serotypes), and therapeutic factors. Our data indicate that treatment with 2 or more antibiotics effective against Streptococcus

  4. Bacteria and Composite Particles in the Glacier-Fed Systems of British Columbia and Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, D. C.; Hodder, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    In controlled environments, bacteria and suspended sediment particles are linked via the creation of a composite structure ("bacteria-sediment associations"; BSA), with associated effects on size, density and hydrodynamics. However, the presence of these particles, and their corresponding effect on sedimentary processes is not well documented in many environments. Here, we compile field data from 20 glacier-fed systems in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, to illustrate: 1) the presence, and (quantity) of bacteria-sediment associations; 2) the presence of in-situ composite particles and their associated settling velocities; 3) the simulated impact of bacteria-sediment associations on settling velocity via controlled manipulation in the laboratory. In general, a significant portion of the fine suspended sediment typical of these systems was associated with bacteria and/or present in a composite-form -- not as primary, individual particles. Four key findings include: 1) Along a 80 kilometre river transect, up to 40% of bacteria were associated with sediment particles; 2) Manipulation of bacteria concentration in the laboratory has revealed a positive relationship between sediment settling velocity, creation of composite particles and bacteria concentration; 3) Composite particles dominated the suspended sediment load among all 20 systems, especially for larger particles; and 4) Measurements reveal these composite particles are settling at rates significantly below that predicted by Stokes Law. The formation of composite particles is especially important in lakes where laminated sediments are used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction (varved), as bacteria can modulate the rate at which some of this sediment reaches the lake floor. These results highlight the importance of bacteria in Earth surface processes and, more specifically, the sediment dynamics within glacier-fed systems.

  5. Has the Alberta daily physical activity initiative been successfully implemented in Calgary schools?

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine Diane; Cantell, Marja; Dewey, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In September 2005, the Alberta government introduced the daily physical activity (DPA) initiative, which requires that students from grades 1 to 9 be physically active in school for a minimum of 30 min per day. OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on whether and how the DPA initiative has been implemented in Calgary schools. METHODS: Information was obtained through a descriptive survey. Principals and vice-principals from elementary schools participated in an interview, in which they were asked questions about the DPA initiative, their definition of physical activity, the types of activities that fulfilled the DPA requirement, and barriers to increasing physical activity and physical education. RESULTS: 98.2% of respondents reported being aware of the DPA initiative; 100% of respondents reported it being successfully implemented. The leading responses to the question, “How do you define physical activity?” were “moving/movement” (43.5%), “increasing the heart rate” (32.7%) and “being active” (29%). 78.2% of participants responded that physical education was the only type of activity that fulfilled the DPA requirement; the other participants reported that recess, intramurals and DPA periods organized by the teacher also counted. 69.1% and 61.1% of respondents, respectively, stated that there were barriers to increasing physical education and physical activity. A lack of time in the curriculum, a lack of space and a lack of funding were the most frequently reported barriers. CONCLUSION: According to principal and vice-principal reports, the DPA initiative has been successfully implemented in elementary schools in Calgary. This suggests that government initiatives directed at increasing physical activity at school could result in increasing the actual amount of physical activity that children participate in. However, prospective longitudinal research directly measuring the amount of physical activity that children engage in is needed to

  6. Linking evapotranspiration to stormwater reduction and attenuation in green roofs in Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breach, P. A.; Robinson, C. E.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green roofs have been used for centuries to insulate buildings and beautify urban environments. European countries, especially Germany, have adopted green roofs use in modern buildings, helping raise awareness of their many potential benefits. Green roofs have been shown to: effectively reduce and filter stormwater thereby decreasing the burden on urban sewer systems; provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load and reduced sensible heat flux to the urban atmosphere; and to extend the life of a roof by decreasing the temperature fluctuations which cause roof damage. Given that green buildings can mitigate against the negative impacts of storm water runoff and reduce the heating and cooling demands, use of green roofs in Canada might prove extremely beneficial due to our intense climate. However, the implementation of green roofs in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines that are supported by scientific understanding of their performance in North American climates. The capacity of a green roof installation to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the rooting medium at the start of the rainfall event which in turn is constrained by roof loading. The influence of medium depth is investigated through comparison to 15 cm and 10cm deep planting modules. Storage capacity has a finite limit, making rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss essential to restore the retardation of a subsequent storm. Sustaining live plant cover requires avoidance of saturated conditions and retention of minimum soil moisture levels. These limits constrain the design options with distinctive climatic stresses. Here the performance of experimental green roof modules is investigated under particularly high climatic stressing at Calgary Alberta Canada. 10 cm modules show rapid drying to unacceptably low residual moisture content, whereas 15

  7. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-12-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada's largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world's largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s-1 in background air to 62 s-1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994-2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

  8. Cost impact analysis of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program implementation in Alberta colon cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, G.; Kiyang, L.N.; Chuck, A.; Thanh, N.X.; Gramlich, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (eras) colorectal guideline has been implemented widely across Alberta. Our study examined the clinical and cost impacts of eras on colon cancer patients across the province. Methods We first used both summary statistics and multivariate regression methods to compare, before and after guideline implementation, clinical outcomes (length of stay, complications, readmissions) in consecutive elective colorectal patients 18 or more years of age and in colon cancer and non-cancer patients treated at the Peter Lougheed Centre and the Grey Nuns Hospital between February 2013 and December 2014. We then used the differences in clinical outcomes for colon cancer patients, together with the average cost per hospital day, to estimate cost impacts. Results The analysis considered 790 patients (398 cancer and 392 non-cancer patients). Mean guideline compliance increased to 60% in cancer patients and 57% in non-cancer patients after eras implementation from 37% overall before eras implementation. From pre- to post-eras, mean length of stay declined to 8.4 ± 5 days from 9.5 ± 7 days in cancer patients, and to 6.4 ± 4 days from 8.8 ± 5.5 days in non-cancer patients (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0041 respectively). Complications declined significantly in the renal, hepatic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal groups (difference in proportions: 13% in cancer patients; p < 0.05). No significant change in the risk of readmission was observed. The net cost savings attributable to eras implementation ranged from $1,096 to $2,771 per cancer patient and from $3,388 to $7,103 per non-cancer patient. Conclusions Implementation of eras not only resulted in clinical outcome improvements, but also had a significant beneficial impact on scarce health system resources. The effect for cancer patients was different from that for non-cancer patients, representing an opportunity for further refinement and study. PMID:27330358

  9. Soil respiration in four different land use systems in north central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, Carmela B. M.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Chang, Scott X.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Sidders, Derek

    2010-03-01

    This study compares soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components in four land use types: agriculture, 2 and 9 year old hybrid poplar plantations, grassland, and a native aspen stand in north central Alberta, Canada, over a period of two growing seasons (2006 and 2007). The differences were examined with respect to substrate quality and quantity, fine root biomass, and nutrient availability, in addition to soil temperature and soil water content. Cumulative soil C loss via soil respiration averaged over the two growing seasons was (in decreasing order) 781, 551, 523, 502, and 428 g C m-2 for native aspen stand, 9 year old hybrid poplar plantation, grassland, agriculture and 2 year old hybrid poplar plantation, respectively. We found that ˜75% of soil respiration in the native aspen stand originated from the top 7.5-10 cm litter-fibric-humus layer. Seasonal heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration among the land uses ranged from 97 to 272 and 333 to 560 g C m-2, respectively, contributing up to 35% and 83% of total soil respiration, respectively. The variability in soil respiration across different land uses was explained mainly by site differences in soil temperature (88-94%). Soil respiration followed a pronounced seasonal trend: increasing during the growing season and converging to a minimum in the fall. Soil respiration under different land uses was influenced by (1) ecosystem C stock, (2) temperature sensitivity (Q10) of organic matter present, and (3) organic matter decomposability as indicated by the natural abundance of δ13C. Heterotrophic respiration was influenced by soil temperature, while autotrophic respiration was influenced by fine root biomass and nutrient (NO3- and P) availability. These results are useful in estimating potential responses of soil respiration and its components to future land management and climate change.

  10. Space-Time Modeling of Climate Change Effects on the Water Balance of Southwestern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutulu, P.; Blais, J.

    2005-12-01

    Changes and variabilities in space and time characteristics of hydro-climatic processes play a major role in the water balance of a watershed. Formulating suitable spatio-temporal models for interactive behavior of such processes is crucial in understanding and investigating potential climate change effects on hydrology of a watershed. Historical climatic and hydrologic data are herein used to calibrate a conceptual stochastic monthly water balance for southwestern Alberta watersheds in Canada for the present day climate. The inputs to the model are monthly precipitation, evapotranspiration and temperature time series and the outputs are monthly soil moisture storages and streamflow. To account for vegetation influence on the precipitation-runoff transformation, a moisture index parameter based on the Jansen-Haise formulation and HDF-EOS data is incorporated into the hydrologic model. An adaptive technique is used to describe time evolution and uncertainties in the moisture index parameter. To simulate the effects of global warming due to the doubling of CO2, outputs from the Canadian Global Coupled Model 1 (CGCM1) are used to provide inputs that are downscaled to drive the hydrologic model. Spatial estimation of unknown data are performed using a modified Kriging approach combined with Canonical Correlation analysis. Preliminary results indicate that the formulated model is statistically adequate for estimating monthly streamflow at the 95% level. It is also shown that a temperature based approach can be used to estimate the evapotranspiration time series as an immediate process when data for the latter are either unavailable or insufficient. This result is attractive in the sense that only temperature and precipitation are needed to drive the hydrologic model. Finally, the sensitivity of moisture index and streamflow to potential climate changes is briefly discussed.

  11. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-01-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels. PMID:11326630

  12. Situating Cognition: Knowledge and Power in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    Although adult education as a field has shown interest in theories of situated cognition, it has misappropriated some of its central concepts. Proponents of situated cognition posit that learning is not something that happens in independent isolation, or just inside the head, but instead is shaped by the context, culture, and tools of the learning…

  13. Tool Using

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn A.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of tool use in children has often emphasized the cognitive bases of this achievement, focusing on the choice of an artifact, but has largely neglected its motor foundations. However, research across diverse fields, from evolutionary anthropology to cognitive neuroscience, converges on the idea that the actions that embody tool use are also critical for understanding its ontogenesis and phylogenesis. In this article, we highlight findings across these fields to show how a deeper examination of the act of tool using can inform developmental accounts and illuminate what makes human tool use unique. PMID:25400691

  14. Potential causes of differences between ground and surface air temperature warming across different ecozones in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1997-10-01

    Analysis and modelling of temperature anomalies from 25 selected deep wells in Alberta show that the differences between GST (ground surface temperature) warming for the northern Boreal Forest ecozone and the combined Prairie Grassland ecozone and Aspen Parkland transition region to the south occur during the latter half of this century. This corresponds with recent changes in surface albedo resulting from permanent land development in the northern areas and also to increases in natural forest fires in the past 20 years. Differences between GST and SAT (surface air temperature) warming are much higher in the Boreal Forest ecozone than in the Prairie Grassland ecozone and Aspen Parkland transition region. Various hypotheses which could account for the existing differences between the GST and SAT warming in the different ecozones of Alberta, and western Canada in general, are tested. Analysis of existing data on soil temperature, hydrological piezometric surfaces, snowfall and moisture patterns, and land clearing and forest fires, indicate that large areas of Alberta, characterised by anomalous GST warming, have experienced widespread changes to the surface landscape in this century. It is postulated that this has resulted in a lower surface albedo with a subsequent increase in the absorption of solar energy. Heat flow modelling shows that, after climatic SAT warming, permanent clearing of the land is the most effective and likely cause of the observed changes in the GST warming. The greater GST warming in the Boreal Forest ecozone in the latter half of this century is related to landscape change due to land development and increasing forest fire activity. It appears to account for a portion of the observed SAT warming in this region through a positive feedback loop with the overlying air. The anthropogenic effect on regional climatic warming through 20th century land clearing and landscape alteration requires further study. In future, more accurate quantification of

  15. Travel-related carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria in Alberta, Canada: the first 3 years.

    PubMed

    Peirano, Gisele; Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Fuller, Jeff; Rubin, Joseph E; Pitout, Johann D D

    2014-05-01

    We describe here the characteristics of Alberta, Canada, patients with infections or colonizations with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during 2010 to 2013 that were linked to recent travel outside Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution, and isolates were characterized using PCR, sequencing, and multilocus sequencing typing. A broth mating study was used to assess the transferability of resistance plasmids, which were subsequently characterized. All the patients (n=12) included in our study had contact with a health care system while abroad. Most of the patients presented with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and were admitted to hospitals within weeks after their return to Alberta. Secondary spread occurred in 1 case, resulting in the death of another patient. The carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n=17) consisted of Escherichia coli (sequence type 101 [ST101], ST365, ST405, and ST410) with NDM-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST147, ST258, ST340, ST512, and ST972) with NDM-1, OXA-181, KPC-2, and KPC-3, Acinetobacter baumannii with OXA-23, Providencia rettgeri with NDM-1, Enterobacter cloacae with KPC-2, and Citrobacter freundii with NDM-1. The blaNDM-1 gene was associated with various narrow- (i.e., IncF) and broad- (i.e., IncA/C and IncL/M) host-range plasmids with different addiction factors. Our results show that NDM-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to a variety of sequence types with different plasmid scaffolds, are regularly imported from India into Alberta. Clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant in detecting bacteria with carbapenemases. PMID:24599977

  16. Travel-Related Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Alberta, Canada: the First 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Fuller, Jeff; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the characteristics of Alberta, Canada, patients with infections or colonizations with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during 2010 to 2013 that were linked to recent travel outside Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution, and isolates were characterized using PCR, sequencing, and multilocus sequencing typing. A broth mating study was used to assess the transferability of resistance plasmids, which were subsequently characterized. All the patients (n = 12) included in our study had contact with a health care system while abroad. Most of the patients presented with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and were admitted to hospitals within weeks after their return to Alberta. Secondary spread occurred in 1 case, resulting in the death of another patient. The carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n = 17) consisted of Escherichia coli (sequence type 101 [ST101], ST365, ST405, and ST410) with NDM-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST147, ST258, ST340, ST512, and ST972) with NDM-1, OXA-181, KPC-2, and KPC-3, Acinetobacter baumannii with OXA-23, Providencia rettgeri with NDM-1, Enterobacter cloacae with KPC-2, and Citrobacter freundii with NDM-1. The blaNDM-1 gene was associated with various narrow- (i.e., IncF) and broad- (i.e., IncA/C and IncL/M) host-range plasmids with different addiction factors. Our results show that NDM-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to a variety of sequence types with different plasmid scaffolds, are regularly imported from India into Alberta. Clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant in detecting bacteria with carbapenemases. PMID:24599977

  17. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  18. Empirical Estimation of R0 for Unknown Transmission Functions: The Case of Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Alex; Merrill, Evelyn; Pybus, Margo; Lewis, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the basic reproduction number R0 from data on prevalence dynamics at the beginning of a disease outbreak. We derive discrete and continuous time models, some coefficients of which are to be fitted from data. We show that prevalence of the disease is sufficient to determine R0. We apply this method to chronic wasting disease spread in Alberta determining a range of possible R0 and their sensitivity to the probability of deer annual survival. PMID:26452231

  19. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  20. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  1. Incest in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman, Stan

    1984-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive view of the societal, cultural, familial, and personality factors that form the context of people at risk for incest and associated problems. Summarizes the consequences and the causal context of incest and describes an ecosystems approach to intervention. (Author/LLL)

  2. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  3. GRIPPING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, R.J.

    1961-12-12

    A self-actuated gripping tool is described for transferring fuel elements and the like into reactors and other inaccessible locations. The tool will grasp or release the load only when properly positioned for this purpose. In addition, the load cannot be released except when unsupported by the tool, so that jarring or contact will not bring about accidental release of the load. The gripping members or jaws of the device are cam-actuated by an axially slidable shaft which has two lockable positions. A spring urges the shaft into one position and a solenoid is provided to overcome the spring and move it into the other position. The weight of the tool operates a sleeve to lock the shaft in its existing position. Only when the cable supporting the tool is slack is the device capable of being actuated either to grasp or release its load. (AEC)

  4. Quantificational logic of context

    SciTech Connect

    Buvac, Sasa

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.

  5. Omics Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Schaumberg, Andrew

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not contain Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args

  6. Omics Tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not containmore » Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args« less

  7. Approach to Assessing the Effects of Aerial Deposition on Water Quality in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Dayyani, Shadi; Daly, Gillian; Vandenberg, Jerry

    2016-02-01

    Snow cover forms a porous medium that acts as a receptor for aerially deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The snowpack, acting as a temporary storage reservoir, releases contaminants accumulating over the winter during a relatively short melt period. This process could result in elevated concentrations of contaminants in melt water. Recent studies in the Alberta oil sands region have documented increases in snowpack and lake sediment concentrations; however, no studies have addressed the fate and transport of contaminants during the snowmelt period. This study describes modelling approaches that were developed to assess potential effects of aerially deposited PAHs and metals to snowpack and snowmelt water concentrations. The contribution of snowmelt to freshwater PAH concentrations is assessed using a dynamic, multi-compartmental fate model, and the contribution to metal concentrations is estimated using a mass-balance approach. The modelling approaches described herein were applied to two watersheds in the Alberta oil sands region for two planned oil sands developments. Accumulation of PAHs in a lake within the deposition zone was also modelled for comparison to observed concentrations. PMID:26803105

  8. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  9. A case study in Gantt charts as historiophoty: A century of psychology at the University of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael R W

    2013-05-01

    History is typically presented as historiography, where historians communicate via the written word. However, some historians have suggested alternative formats for communicating and thinking about historical information. One such format is known as historiophoty, which involves using a variety of visual images to represent history. The current article proposes that a particular type of graph, known as a Gantt chart, is well suited for conducting historiophoty. When used to represent history, Gantt charts provide a tremendous amount of information. Furthermore, the spatial nature of Gantt charts permits other kinds of spatial operations to be performed on them. This is illustrated with a case study of the history of a particular psychology department. The academic year 2009-2010 marked the centennial of psychology at the University of Alberta. This centennial was marked by compiling a list of its full-time faculty members for each year of its history. This historiography was converted into historiophoty by using it as the source for the creation of a Gantt chart. The current article shows how the history of psychology at the University of Alberta is revealed by examining this Gantt chart in a variety of different ways. This includes computing simple descriptive statistics from the chart, creating smaller versions of the Gantt to explore departmental demographics, and using image processing methods to provide measures of departmental stability throughout its history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23527536

  10. Comparing the epidemiology of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone groups in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, S; Bush, K; Leal, J; Kim, J; Vickers, D M; Rusk, A; Fathima, S; Li, V; Chui, L; Louie, M; Henderson, E

    2016-07-01

    Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones, which were traditionally seen in the community setting (USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10), are often identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections using Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance definitions. This study examined the demographics and healthcare risk factors of patients with HA-MRSA to help understand if community MRSA clones are from a source internal or external to the hospital setting. Despite USA300/CMRSA10 being the predominant clone in Alberta, hospital clones (USA100/CMRSA2) still dominated in the acute care setting. In the Alberta hospitalized population, patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, and a greater proportion had none or ambulatory care-only healthcare exposure. These findings suggest that there are two distinct populations of HA-MRSA patients, and the patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones identified in hospital more greatly resemble patients affected by those clones in the community. It is possible that epidemiological assessment overidentifies HA acquisition of MRSA in patients unscreened for MRSA on admission to acute care. PMID:26947456

  11. Genetic structure of invasive earthworms Dendrobaena octaedra in the boreal forest of Alberta: insights into introduction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Bayne, Erin M; Coltman, David W

    2008-03-01

    Population genetic studies can help to determine whether invasive species are established via single vs. multiple introduction events and also to distinguish among various colonization scenarios. We used this approach to investigate the introduction of Dendrobaena octaedra, a non-native earthworm species, to the boreal forest of northern Alberta. The spread of non-native earthworms in forested systems is not well understood, although bait abandonment and vehicular transport are believed to be important. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed that multiple introductions of this species have occurred in northern Alberta, although individual populations may have been established by either single or multiple invaders introduced on one or more occasions. There was no relationship between genetic distances and either geographical distances or distances along road networks, suggesting that human-mediated jump dispersal is more common than diffusive spread via road networks or via active dispersal. As well, genetic diversity was significantly greater at boat launches than roads, indicating that multiple introductions may be more likely to occur at those locations. Focusing management efforts on areas where multiple introductions are likely to occur may help to reduce invasive species' potential for adaptive evolution and subsequent rapid spread. PMID:18179429

  12. Factors associated with participation of Alberta dairy farmers in a voluntary, management-based Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Kwong, G P S; Wolf, R; Pickel, C; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Mason, S; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Jansen, J; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2015-11-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a voluntary, management-based prevention and control program for Johne's disease (JD), a wasting disease in ruminants that causes substantial economic losses to the cattle industry. Despite extensive communication about the program's benefits and low cost to participating producers, approximately 35% of Alberta dairy farmers have not enrolled in the AJDI. Therefore, the objective was to identify differences between AJDI nonparticipants and participants that may influence enrollment. Standardized questionnaires were conducted in person on 163 farms not participating and 61 farms participating in the AJDI. Data collected included demographic characteristics, internal factors (e.g., attitudes and beliefs of the farmer toward JD and the AJDI), external factors (e.g., farmers' JD knowledge and on-farm goals and constraints), as well as farmers' use and influence of various information sources. Nonparticipants and participants differed in at least some aspects of all studied categories. Based on logistic regression, participating farms had larger herds, higher self-assessed knowledge of JD, better understanding of AJDI details before participation, and used their veterinarian more often to get information about new management practices and technologies when compared with nonparticipants. In contrast, nonparticipants indicated that time was a major on-farm constraint and that participation in the AJDI would take too much time. They also indicated that they preferred to wait and see how the program worked on other farms before they participated. PMID:26342983

  13. Potholes in the information highway: the use of health service utilization data by Alberta health care managers.

    PubMed

    Casebeer, A; Johnson, D

    2000-01-01

    Reviews and consultations with regional health authority decision makers have indicated that both data quality and access can limit effective use of health services information when assessing outcomes, planning changes, testing solutions and making decisions. To further a more system-wide understanding of these data utilization issues, we asked senior managers, board members and information analysts in Alberta regional health authorities (n = 111) about the availability of, organizational supports for and barriers to the use of health service utilization data. Eighty percent of respondents stated that the lack of data impeded problem resolution, and 83 percent of managers stated that health service data alerted them to new problems. Examples of useful data related to good standardization and linkage of data sets, or to capacity for valid comparison and trending. Given the limitations highlighted in relation to meeting even the simplest needs of standardization, linkage, comparison and trending, Alberta health care managers indicate frustration in trying to use health service data as currently construed and distributed, particularly within their current frameworks and fast-paced timelines for decision making. PMID:11182922

  14. Oil Sands Operations in Alberta, Canada: A large source of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Hayden, K.; Taha, Y. M.; Stroud, C.; Darlington, A. L.; Drollette, B.; Gordon, M.; Lee, P.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S.; Wang, D.; O'Brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Staebler, R. M.; Han, Y.; Tokarek, T. W.; Osthoff, H. D.; Makar, P.; Zhang, J.; Plata, D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the reaction products of emissions to the atmosphere from extraction of oil from unconventional sources in the oil sands (OS) region of Alberta, Canada. This study examines these reaction products, and in particular, the extent to which they form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which can significantly contribute to regional particulate matter formation. An aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. A broad suite of measurements were made during 22 flights, including organic aerosol mass and composition with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and organic aerosol gas-phase precursors by Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and off-line gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Large concentrations of organic aerosol were measured downwind of the OS region, which we show to be entirely secondary in nature. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that bitumen (the mined product) contains semi-volatile vapours in the C12-C18 range that will be emitted at ambient temperatures. When oxidized, these vapours form SOA with highly similar HR-ToF-AMS spectra to the SOA measured in the flights. Box modelling of the OS plume evolution indicated that the measured levels of traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not capable of accounting for the amount of SOA formed in OS plumes. This discrepancy is only reconciled in the model by including bitumen vapours along with their oxidation and condensation into the model. The concentration of bitumen vapours required to produce SOA matching observations is similar to that of traditional VOC precursors of SOA. It was further estimated that the cumulative SOA mass formation approximately 100 km downwind of the OS during these flights, and under these meteorological conditions was up to 82 tonnes/day. The combination of airborne measurements, laboratory experiments and box modelling indicated that semi

  15. Simulation modelling of a hypothetical introduction of foot-and-mouth disease into Alberta.

    PubMed

    Sanson, R L; Dubé, C; Cork, S C; Frederickson, R; Morley, C

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the use of simulation modelling to evaluate the predicted benefits of an effective livestock traceability system in responding to a hypothetical introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in to the province of Alberta, Canada, and whether or not the implementation of emergency ring vaccination in addition to a standard stamping-out (SO) strategy would lead to smaller and shorter epidemics. Three introduction scenarios were defined, with the primary case in either an intensive beef feedlot operation, an extensive cow-calf operation or in a swine operation. Disease spread was simulated using, three levels of tracing effectiveness, five types of vaccination zone, three different vaccination start times, three lengths of vaccination campaigns, two levels of culling resource and using FMD strains with two different virulence levels. Using standard SO procedures (without vaccination), improving traceability effectiveness from a level whereby only 65% of movements were traced within 5-7 days, to a capability whereby all movements were traced within 1 day, led to a reduction in the number of infected premises (IPs) between 18.7 and 64.5%, an average saving of CAN$29,000,000 in livestock compensation costs alone, and a reduction in the length of epidemics ranging from 1 to 22 days. The implementation of emergency vaccination also led to a reduction in the number of IPs and a shortening of epidemics. The effects were more pronounced when the higher virulence settings were used, with a predicted reduction in IPs of 16.6-68.7% (mean=48.6%) and epidemics shortened by up to 37 days. Multi-variable analyses showed these effects were highly significant, after accounting for the incursion location, virulence of virus and time of first detection. The results clearly demonstrated the benefits of having effective traceability systems with rapid query and reporting functionality. The results also supported the value of early vaccination as an adjunct to SO in

  16. Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document current commercial practices during long haul transport (≥400 km) of cattle in Alberta through surveys delivered to truck drivers (6,152 journeys that transported 290,362 animals). The live beef export industry to the United States (89% of all journeys) had a large influence on long haul transport. This was particularly true for fat cattle going to slaughter (82%) and backgrounded feeders going to feed yards (15%). Most drivers had either limited (31% with < 2 yr) or extensive (35% > 10 yr) experience hauling cattle. The type of tractors and trailers used most frequently were those with more number of axles (quad-axle trailers pulled with push tractors) because they can accommodate extra weight. Mean (± SD) distance travelled was 1,081 ± 343 km (maximum of 2,560 km) whereas time animals spent on truck averaged 15.9 ± 6.3 h with a maximum of 45 h. However, only 5% of all journeys were greater than 30 h. The most frequent cause of delay was at the Canada-United States border crossing due to paperwork and veterinary inspections. Border delays occurred on 77% of all journeys which had a mean of 1.3 ± 1.9 h and up to 15-h long. Driver rest stops and waiting to unload cattle at destination were the second most frequent and longest cause of delay. Ambient temperature across all journeys ranged from -42 to 45°C with a mean value of 18 ± 11.8°C while temperature variation within a journey was from 0 to 46°C with mean value of 15 ± 6.6°C. The proportion of dead, non-ambulatory, and lame cattle for all journeys was 0.011, 0.022, and 0.011%, respectively. The cattle transport industry showed compliance with federal regulations and to a lesser extent with recommendations. Findings showed extreme values and very large variability in transport conditions however further research is needed to assess their impact on animal welfare outcomes. Delays within the journey as a result of border crossing, weather conditions

  17. Temporal Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter spp. from Beef Cattle in Alberta Feedlots†

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. D.; Morck, D. W.; McAllister, T. A.; Entz, T.; Olson, M. E.; Yanke, L. J.; Read, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (≤4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  18. Measurements of HONO in a Forested Region of Alberta Impacted by Oil Sands Processing Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, R.; Nikelski, K.; Lobo, A.; Davis, Z.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer of 2013, measurements of NO2, SO2 and HONO were made at a ground site in a rural forested region of Alberta known to be impacted by several oil sands processing facilities. Such sources are known to be the main sources of NOx and SOx emissions in the region. Nitrous acid (HONO) can be emitted directly from combustion sources in addition to being formed from the heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2 on moist surfaces. The measurements were made both day and night by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) along a 2.304 km optical return path through the forest canopy using a 30-corner cube reflector. Nitrous acid (HONO) is of particular relevance to atmospheric chemistry as it can contribute to photochemical production of the OH radical, the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere, which was estimated to exceed 2•107 molec cm-3 on several days during the study, giving rise to rapid aerosol formation. Typically in urban areas HONO mixing ratios accumulate during the night, and are lost the next morning due to photolysis (HONO + hv→ OH + NO2). During this study however, HONO mixing ratios were found to be quite low with a median nightime mixing ratio of ~ 200 ppt. This is attributed to the very low nighttime NO2 precursor levels, perhaps in combination with a high surface area for deposition on the coniferous canopy. The low nighttime mixing ratios of NO2 and SO2 were driven by limited nocturnal mixing of elevated plumes down to the surface, while high daytime levels of NO2 and SO2 were episodic and frequently driven by daytime fumigation of the elevated plumes to the surface with additional contribution from surface sources of NOx. Daytime mixing ratios of HONO persisted longer than expected with median noontime mixing ratios of >50ppt. While this can imply an additional daytime source of HONO as has been observed by many others, it may also result from reduced photolysis rates below the canopy. This issue is being pursued more

  19. Methane stable isotope distribution at a Carex dominated fen in North Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Trevor J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.; Grant, Nick

    1999-12-01

    The methane stable isotope distribution was characterized at a Carex dominated fen in boreal Alberta, Canada, over three growing seasons to examine methane production, oxidation, and transport to the atmosphere; processes which are strongly tied to emergent vegetation and the influence of the rhizosphere (upper 20 cm of peat in this system]. At times when standing floodwater was present, δ13C values of emitted methane averaged -63.6 ± 2.3, -66.3 ± 1.6, and -65.4 ± 1.3‰ for the 1994, 1995, and 1996 seasons, respectively. These emissions were significantly 13C depleted relative to the belowground methane dissolved in rhizospheric pore waters, indicating that gas transport in Carex is dominated by passive diffusion. The rhizosphere was 13CH4 enriched relative to depths below the rhizosphere, consistent with the occurrence of root associated methane oxidation, preferential mobilization of 13CH4, and a relatively greater role of acetate fermentation type methane production. Dual isotope tracers, δ13C and δD, help qualify the role of each of these processes and aid in describing the distribution of production pathways, CO2 reduction, and acetate fermentation. Inverse trends in δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 depth profiles are consistent with an interpretation suggesting an evolution toward methane production by CO2 reduction with increasing depth. A shift in production mechanisms appears to be the dominate process affecting the stable isotope distribution below 10 cm in the peat column, while oxidation and transport isotope effects are dominant above 10 cm. To test several hypotheses regarding the effects of transport, oxidation, and production on methane isotope distributions, we also present measurements from sites fertilized and sites devegetated (continually clipped) over the 3 year period. Removal of vegetation quickly halted rhizospheric methane oxidation and gas transport while gradually increasing the relative role of CO2 reduction in net methane production as

  20. Application of reservoir geology of enhanced oil recovery from upper Devonian Nisku Reefs, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, N.R. ); Coppold, M.P. , Calgary, Alberta ); Douglas, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Devonian West Pembina reef trend of west-central Alberta contains recoverable reserves of over 79 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (500 million bbl) of oil and 1.4 x 10[sup 10] m[sup 3] (500 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas within approximately 50 pinnacle reefs in the Nisku Formation. Although the oil is saturated with gas at original reservoir pressure, primary depletion would soon lower the reservoir pressure below the bubble point, decreasing recovery. Thus, pressure maintenance is applied early in the producing life of the pools through waterflood or miscible flood schemes. Selection of the appropriate enhanced recovery scheme depends upon the internal flow-unit geometry of the reefs. The Bigoray Nisku C pool and the Pembina Nisku L pool form end members of the reservoir spectrum. They can be used as flow-unit models in the geological input for reservoir simulation studies. The Bigoray Nisku C pool is dominantly limestone. The primary textures, well perserved in this reef, provide the key to interpreting the relict textures in fully dolomitized reefs. Due to the presence of horizontal permeability barriers associated with the limestone lithology, the pool is developed with a waterflood displacement scheme. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be on the order of 0.55 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (3.5 million bbl) or 46% or original oil in place (OOIP). The Pembina Nisku L pool is a completely dolomitized reef. In contrast to the Bigoray Nisku C pool, the complete dolomitization reduces the number of generic reservoir flow units observed in the L pool reef from six to three. Due to the excellent reservoir quality and absence of horizontal permeability barriers, it is being exploited by a vertical miscible flood. The Nisku L pool is one of the largest pinnacle reefs discovered in the Nisku reef fairway and contains an estimated 5 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (31 million bbl) OOIP. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be approximately 4.1 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (25.8 million bbl) or 82% of OOIP.

  1. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, M; Kutz, S; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. Significant impacts of MAP and NC have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western Canadian cow-calf herds. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MAP and NC infection in southwest Alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for NC were identified, and the reproductive impacts of the two pathogens were assessed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 840 cows on 28 cow-calf operations. Individual cow and herd management information was collected by self-administered questionnaires and one-on-one interviews. Bayesian estimates of the true prevalence of MAP and NC were computed, and bivariable and multivariable statistical analysis were done to assess the association between the NC serological status and ranch management risk factors, and the clinical effects of the two pathogens. Bayesian estimates of true prevalence indicated that 20% (95% probability interval: 8-38%) of herds had at least one MAP-positive cow, with a within-herd prevalence in positive herds of 22% (8-45%). From the Bayesian posterior distributions of NC prevalence, the median herd-level prevalence was 66% (33-95%) with 10% (4-21%) cow-level prevalence in positive herds. Multivariable analysis indicated that introducing purchased animals in the herd might increase the risk of NC. The negative association of NC with proper carcass disposal and presence of horses on ranch (possibly in relation to herd monitoring and guarding activities), may suggest the importance of wild carnivores in the dynamics of this pathogen in the study area. We also observed an association between MAP and NC serological status and the number of abortions. Additional studies should be done to further examine specific risk factors for MAP and NC, assess the

  2. Atmospheric dry deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fenn, Mark E; Percy, Kevin E

    2016-10-15

    Due to the potential ecological effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, this study was implemented to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs. Passive samplers were used to measure ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid/nitrous acid (HNO3/HONO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the AOSR. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in winter were higher than those in summer, while seasonal differences of NH3 and HNO3/HONO showed an opposite trend, with higher values in summer. Concentrations of NH3, NO2 and SO2 were high close to the emission sources (oil sands operations and urban areas). NH3 concentrations were also elevated in the southern portion of the domain indicating possible agricultural and urban emission sources to the southwest. HNO3, an oxidation endpoint, showed wider ranges of concentrations and a larger spatial extent. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3/HONO and SO2 from passive measurements and their monthly deposition velocities calculated by a multi-layer inference model (MLM) were used to calculate dry deposition of N and S. NH3 contributed the largest fraction of deposited N across the network, ranging between 0.70-1.25kgNha(-1)yr(-1), HNO3/HONO deposition ranged between 0.30-0.90kgNha(-1)yr(-1), and NO2 deposition between 0.03-0.70kgNha(-1)yr(-1). During the modeled period, average dry deposition of the inorganic gaseous N species ranged between 1.03 and 2.85kgNha(-1)yr(-1) and SO4-S deposition ranged between 0.26 and 2.04kgha(-1)yr(-1). Comparisons with co-measured ion exchange resin throughfall data (8.51kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) indicate that modeled dry deposition combined with measured wet deposition (1.37kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) underestimated S deposition. Gas phase NH3 (71%) and HNO3 plus NO2 (79%) dry deposition fluxes dominated the total deposition of NH4-N and NO3-N, respectively. PMID:27295600

  3. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-01

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  4. Tracing industrial ammonium in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Proemse, B. C.; Fenn, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The expanding industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about increasing nitrogen (N) emissions from oil sands operations and their potential effects on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stable isotope techniques may help to trace industrial emissions provided that they are isotopically distinct from background isotope ratios of atmospheric N compounds. Ammonium deposition rates (NH4-N) typically exceed nitrate deposition rates (NO3-N) in the AOSR (Proemse et al., 2013), suggesting that emissions of reduced nitrogen compounds play a significant role for the atmospheric nitrogen budget in the AOSR. We collected atmospheric ammonium in open field bulk deposition and throughfall using ion exchange resins over ~6 months time periods from summer 2007 to summer 2011 located at distances between 3 to 113 km to one of the major oil sands developments in the AOSR. Ammonium deposition rates and δ15N-NH4 values were determined using ion chromatography and the ammonium diffusion method (Sebilo et al., 2004) on resin extracts. Atmospheric ammonium deposition rates in open field bulk collectors and throughfall collectors ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, and from 1.0 to 18.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, respectively. δ15N-NH4 values varied from -6.3 to +14.8‰ with the highest δ15N values typically associated with elevated NH4-N deposition rates. δ15N-NH4 values of up to +20.1‰ were observed for industrially emitted NH4 in particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (Proemse et al., 2012) suggesting that industrial NH3 and NH4 emissions are associated with elevated δ15N values providing a potential tracer. Applying a two-end-member mixing analysis using a background δ15N-NH4 value of -3.6‰ for summer and -3.2‰ for winter periods revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to

  5. Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

    2014-03-01

    A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate

  6. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 μm and a 1 μm mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume

  7. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  8. Putting concepts into context.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2016-08-01

    At first glance, conceptual representations (e.g., our internal notion of the object "lemon") seem static; we have the impression that there is something that the concept lemon "means" (a sour, yellow, football-shaped citrus fruit) and that this meaning does not vary. Research in semantic memory has traditionally taken this "static" perspective. Consequently, only effects demonstrated across a variety of contexts have typically been considered informative regarding the architecture of the semantic system. In this review, we take the opposite approach: We review instances of context-dependent conceptual activation at many different timescales-from long-term experience, to recent experience, to the current task goals, to the unfolding process of conceptual activation itself-and suggest that the pervasive effects of context across all of these timescales indicate that rather than being static, conceptual representations are constantly changing and are inextricably linked to their contexts. PMID:27282993

  9. Paleomagnetic studies of volcanic rocks in Siberia and sedimentary rocks in Southern Alberta: From long-term geomagnetic field variations to age determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Acuna, Dunia

    Paleomagnetism is a fundamental tool to understand the ancient variations of Earth's magnetic field through time. Important applications to geochronology and paleography come from interpreting the variations of the planetary magnetic vector. This dissertation explores the different applications of paleomagnetism to uncover important characteristics of the paleointensity magnetic field during the Permo-Triassic boundary and the nature of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Siberia, and to create geochronological frameworks for kimberlites in the Siberian platform and for sediments at the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Detailed absolute paleointensity measurements from Permo-Triassic sills at the Siberian platform are studied to determine the existence of a low dipole field, which has been previously reported in the area. We found a mean virtual dipolar moment value of 6.01 +/- 1.45 x 1022 Am 2 which is over 50% higher than the results previously obtained by other authors. Diamondiferous kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. The age of the magmatic activity cannot be clearly determined from isotopic age data---this is the reason why new paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes are obtained to study their paleomagnetic age. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian APWP, we estimate the age of the kimberlite magmatism. The acquired paleomagnetic ages span from the Early Silurian to the Middle Late Jurassic. Magnetostratigraphic analysis is used as a dating tool on three deep drilling cores that penetrate Santonian-Campanian strata in southern Alberta, Canada. Chrons 34n and 33r are clearly identified from the studied sections---providing a high-resolution age boundary that creates new age boundaries between adjacent stratigraphic units. In addition, normal polarity zones are observed within C33r, previously described as reverse polarity over its entire length. Siberian APWP contains long unresolved

  10. Authoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  11. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  12. The Cadet Project: Computer Assisted Distance Education Telecommunication for Post Secondary Education in Alberta. Report #1, June 15, 1983, and Report #2, June 18, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.; Goldberg, Jack

    Two reports discuss pilot projects using the Computer Assisted Distance Education Telecommunication Project (CADET) in Edmonton, Alberta. The first describes two studies that investigated the feasibility of telephone communication between two or more microcomputer (Apple) operators using an Amdahl mainframe computer as an intermediary. The results…

  13. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  14. Evaluation of the CAPE and CORE Programs for Sensory-Impaired Multi-Handicapped Children in the Province of Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland Consulting Group Ltd.

    The report presents summaries of evaluations of the Coordinated Assessment and Program Planning for Education (CAPE) Program and the Coordinated Rehabilitation and Education (CORE) program for multi-handicapped sensory impaired and/or communication and behavior disordered children and their families in Alberta, Canada. Each program is evaluated…

  15. Management Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  16. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  17. Tools for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  18. Aligning Capabilities of Interactive Educational Tools to Learner Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauwers, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about a design process for creating "educationally relevant" tools. I submit that the key to creating tools that are educationally relevant is to focus on ensuring a high degree of alignment between the designed tool and the broader educational context into which the tool will be integrated. The thesis presents methods and processes…

  19. Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Gizaw, Mesgana

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events in the Oldman (ORB), Bow, (BRB) and Red Deer (RRB) River Basins of southern Alberta, Canada, was assessed using six extreme climate indices for the rainy period of May-August (MJJA), and 9-km resolution Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and A1B climate scenarios of four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Models (GCMs) dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model, MM5. R95p of the three study sites showed an increase of 4% for the 2050s (2041-2070) and 10% for the 2080s (2071-2100) period, whereas R99p increased by 39% (2050s) and 42% (2080s) which suggest a projected increase in the volume of precipitation expected in future very wet and particularly extremely wet days. Similarly, R20mm, P30yr, RX1day and RX5day are also projected to increase by about 15% by the mid- and late 21st century in the three study sites. However, compared to BRB and RRB, ORB located in the southernmost part of the study site is projected to undergo a relatively higher increase in both temperature and precipitation intensity, which is assessed in terms of indices such as P30yr, RX1day and RX5day. On the other hand, RRB and BRB are projected to experience higher increase in R20mm, which suggest a relatively higher increase in the number of very heavy precipitation days projected for these two basins. Overall, these results suggest that in the 2050s and 2080s, southern Alberta will be expected to experience more frequent and severe intensive storm events in the MJJA season that could potentially increase the risk of future flooding in this region. Ref: Gizaw, M., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta, Int. Journal Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.4338

  20. Joint Geophysical Assessments of Geothermal Potential from a Deep Borehole in the Canadian Shield Rocks of NE Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kueck, J.; Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Part of the feasibility study for geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of investigating the presence of subsurface fluid pathways in the crystalline basement rocks. The deepest borehole drilled in Northeastern Alberta has a depth of 2350 m and offers substantial depth coverage to study the basement rocks. Due to the limited cores available for this deep borehole, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs and borehole seismic methods are used to provide subsurface characterization of the basement in addition to the existing surface seismic reflection data. Interpretation of the geophysical logs indicate potential fracture zones at different depths that could serve as zones with enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. Fractures within the subsurface tend to be aligned by the deviatoric stress in the subsurface and their orientations can be imaged using the Formation MicroImager (FMI) log. Two sets of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired in the deep borehole in July 2011. First, a high resolution zero-offset VSP was acquired to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. Upgoing tube waves can be identified and attributed to fracture zones interpreted from the geophysical logs. Since VSP data contains higher frequency content, the final corridor stack from the zero-offset VSP offers greater resolution in correlating seismic reflections with the primary reflectors and multiples interpreted from the surface seismic reflection data. The second set of VSP data is a multi-azimuth, multi-depth walk-away VSP acquired using three-component receivers placed at depths of 800 and 1780 m. The degree of seismic anisotropy in the crystalline basement can be revealed by analyzing the first arrivals at different geophone depths. Using an assumption that the presence of fractures causes P-wave reflection anisotropy, interpretation from the walk-away VSP can be used as a method for gross fracture detection

  1. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative

  2. Culture, context, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David

    2007-12-01

    In this article I propose a model that posits three major sources of influence on behavior-basic human nature (via universal psychological processes), culture (via social roles), and personality (via individual role identities) and argue that individual behaviors are the products of the interaction between the three. I discuss how culture emerges from the interaction of basic human nature and the ecological contexts in which groups exist, and how social roles are determined by culture-specific psychological meanings attributed to situational contexts. The model further suggests that situational context moderates the relative contributions of the three sources in influencing behavior. I provide examples of apparent contradictory findings in the study of emotion that can be explained by the model proposed. PMID:17995466

  3. Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Mason, S; Pajor, E A; LeBlanc, S J; Orsel, K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot lesions and associated cow- and herd-level risk factors in dairy cows in Alberta, Canada. Foot lesion data were recorded electronically by 7 hoof trimmers on 28,607 cows in 156 dairy farms from June 2009 to November 2012. Foot lesion prevalence estimates differed between farms that had the whole herd trimmed at once (≥80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=69 farms and 8,020 cows) and farms on which part of the herd was trimmed (selection of cows was determined by farmer and <80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=87 and 20,587 cows). Estimates were consistently higher for the latter likely because farmers presumably prioritized lame cows in partial-herd trims. On farms with whole-herd trims, digital dermatitis was the most common lesion among all housing types, present in 15% of cows and 94% of herds. Sole ulcers and white line disease were detected in 6 and 4% of the cows and 92 and 93% of herds, respectively. Other infectious and claw horn lesions each affected 1 to 2% of cows and 62 to 78% of herds. Intraclass correlation coefficients for hoof trimmers ranged from 0.01 to 0.20 for all lesions, indicating some clustering of recorded lesions by trimmer. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including hoof trimmer as fixed and farm as random effects) for the 3 most frequently identified lesions. Prevalence of digital dermatitis decreased with increasing parity, but this effect interacted with days in milk (DIM); primiparous cows had higher odds of digital dermatitis in mid lactation (100-199 DIM) and late lactation (≥200 DIM) compared with cows at other stages of lactation. In contrast, prevalence of sole ulcers and white line disease increased with increasing parity; compared with cows in parity 1, those in parity 4 had 5 or 7 times higher odds of having these lesions, respectively. Cows in mid lactation and late lactation had higher

  4. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the

  5. Chemical evolution of groundwater in a drainage basin of Holocene age, east-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallick, E. I.

    1981-12-01

    Chemical evolution of groundwater in a small drainage basin of glacial origin (10,250 yr. B.P., based on radiocarbon age dating of gyttja from a closed saline lake in the basin) was studied in order to understand the generation of salts in surface-mined areas on the interior plains of Alberta. The basin was considered to be a natural analogue of a surface-disturbed area because of the large volumes of rock that had been redistributed by glaciers with the resulting change in topography and drainage. The distributions of hydraulic head, total dissolved solids (TDS), and environmental isotopes essentially reflect the superimposition of groundwater flow systems associated with the post-glacial topography upon a regional bedrock flow system of older but undertermined age. In the glacial drift aquifers and aquitards (sands and till), the groundwater composition was typically Ca-Mg-bicarbonate type at depths less than 30 m, but at depths of 30-100 m, the composition was Na-bicarbonate-sulfate type. In the deeper bedrock aquifers (> 100 m), Nabicarbonate-sulfate and Na-bicarbonate-chloride types were present. TDS was as low as 400 mg/l in the shallow drift aquifer, generally constant at ˜1000 mg/l in the deep drift and shallow bedrock aquifer, and over 1700 mg/l in the deep bedrock aquifer system. Chemical evolution of groundwater in the area appears to be dominated by two depth zones having different types of water-rock interaction. In the shallow drift zone, the dissolution of soil CO 2 in infiltrating groundwater, oxidation of organic carbon, sulfur and pyrite result in the formation of carbonic and sulfuric acids that attack carbonate and silicate minerals. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, these minerals were calcite, dolomite, plagioclase feldspar, and smectite clays. However, in the deep regional bedrock aquifer, conditions are reducing (presence of methane), groundwater is alkaline (pH 8.6-10.3), and the Na-bicarbonate-chloride composition of groundwater

  6. Meaning in Context.

    PubMed

    Gerrig, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    People often encounter language in contexts that provide meanings that go beyond previous experience. For example, people recover metaphorical meanings that displace literal meanings for the same words. For such cases, researchers have addressed the question of whether contextual support allows people to truncate or eliminate consideration of meanings that precede specific contexts. The article reviews 3 domains in which this question has prompted research: recovery of metaphorical meanings, understanding of noun-noun combinations, and assimilation of actions within fantastic narrative worlds. PMID:26255435

  7. Document d'accompagnement du programme d'education de maternelle: Francais langue premiere (Manual in Support of the French as a First Language Kindergarten Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This document is designed for use by teachers of French-as-a-first-language kindergarten programs in Alberta. It outlines the vision, elements, and goals of the program, explains the context of the francophone environment in Alberta, and provides practical tools for the implementation of the program in consideration of the specific needs of the…

  8. Image Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.A.; Gardner, S.D.; Rogers, M.L.; Sanders, F.; Tunnell, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    ImageTool is a software package developed at Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos Operations. This team has developed a set of analysis tools, in the form of image processing software used to evaluate camera calibration data. Performance measures are used to identify capabilities and limitations of a camera system, while establishing a means for comparing systems. The camera evaluations are designed to provide system performance, camera comparison and system modeling information. This program is used to evaluate digital camera images. ImageTool provides basic image restoration and analysis features along with a special set of camera evaluation tools which are used to standardize camera system characterizations. This process is started with the acquisition of a well-defined set of calibration images. Image processing algorithms provide a consistent means of evaluating the camera calibration data. Performance measures in the areas of sensitivity, noise, and resolution are used as a basis for comparing camera systems and evaluating experimental system performance. Camera systems begin with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and optical relay system and may incorporate image intensifiers, electro-static image tubes, or electron bombarded charge-coupled devices (EBCCDs). Electro-optical components provide fast shuttering and/or optical gain to camera systems. Camera types evaluated include gated intensified cameras and multi-frame cameras used in applications ranging from X-ray radiography to visible and infrared imaging. It is valuable to evaluate the performance of a camera system in order to determine if a particular system meets experimental requirements. In this paper we highlight the processing features of ImageTool.

  9. Talking Online: Reflecting on Online Communication Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greener, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the value and constraints of varied online communication tools from web 2.0 to e-mail in a higher education (HE) teaching and learning context, where these tools are used to support or be the main focus of learning. Design/methodology/approach: A structured reflection is produced with the aid of…

  10. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes. PMID:27376846

  11. Case-control study of recidivist drivers involved in fatal highway accidents in Alberta in 1970-72.

    PubMed

    Bako, G; Mackenzie, W C; Smith, E S

    1977-01-22

    A 3-year enpidemiologic study of fatal motor vehicle accidents was carried out by the Alberta Task Force on Highway Accidents. It was found that 11.1% of culpable drivers had been driving while impaired by alcohol on at least one occasion prior to the fatal accident, while only 3.3% of exonerated drivers had previous records. This significant difference led to a case-control study that demonstrated that the recidivist drivers (case group) differed significantly in a number of aspects from the innocent drivers (control group)--notably, age distribution, sex, whether drinking before the accident, blood alcohol concentration, ethnic distribution, class of accident and type of collision. Thus the recidivist driver is a greater threat to highway safety than the innocent driver and needs special attention by legislators and law enforcement agencies. PMID:608145

  12. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations. PMID:23895936

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS. PMID:26284348

  14. Case-control study of recidivist drivers involved in fatal highway accidents in Alberta in 1970-72.

    PubMed Central

    Bako, G.; Mackenzie, W. C.; Smith, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-year enpidemiologic study of fatal motor vehicle accidents was carried out by the Alberta Task Force on Highway Accidents. It was found that 11.1% of culpable drivers had been driving while impaired by alcohol on at least one occasion prior to the fatal accident, while only 3.3% of exonerated drivers had previous records. This significant difference led to a case-control study that demonstrated that the recidivist drivers (case group) differed significantly in a number of aspects from the innocent drivers (control group)--notably, age distribution, sex, whether drinking before the accident, blood alcohol concentration, ethnic distribution, class of accident and type of collision. Thus the recidivist driver is a greater threat to highway safety than the innocent driver and needs special attention by legislators and law enforcement agencies. PMID:608145

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of an invading parasite: Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sympatric wapiti and beef cattle in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D

    2007-06-01

    Previous surveys of wild ungulates indicate that the liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, was rare in the Cypress Hills area of southeastern Alberta. However, 41 of 59 wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sampled during the 2003 and 2004 hunting seasons from this region were infected, with 7 hosts containing >1,000 worms. Prevalence and mean intensity were similarly high in sympatric beef cattle and mule deer. Worm abundance in wapiti was age related, with calves containing significantly higher numbers of worms (mean +/- SD abundance = 825 +/- 1098) than adults (107 +/- 259). This pattern with host age was not evident in beef cattle, although the smaller sample sizes may be a contributing factor. These results indicate that D. dendriticum is now well established in Cypress Hills Park, circulating between at least 3 species of sympatric ungulates, including beef cattle. PMID:17626339

  16. Cumulative impact of 40 years of industrial sulfur emissions on a forest soil in west-central Alberta (Canada).

    PubMed

    Prietzel, Jörg; Mayer, Bernhard; Legge, Allan H

    2004-11-01

    The impact of 40 years of sulfur (S) emissions from a sour gas processing plant in Alberta (Canada) on soil development, soil S pools, soil acidification, and stand nutrition at a pine (Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana) ecosystem was assessed by comparing ecologically analogous areas subjected to different S deposition levels. Sulfur isotope ratios showed that most deposited S was derived from the sour gas processing plant. The soil subjected to the highest S deposition contained 25.9 kmol S ha(-1) (uppermost 60 cm) compared to 12.5 kmol S ha(-1) or less at the analogues receiving low S deposition. The increase in soil S pools was caused by accumulation of organic S in the forest floor and accumulation of inorganic sulfate in the mineral soil. High S inputs resulted in topsoil acidification, depletion of exchangeable soil Ca2+ and Mg2+ pools by 50%, podzolization, and deterioration of N nutrition of the pine trees. PMID:15276281

  17. Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry as Indicators of Regionally Elevated Atmospheric N and S Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.; Quinn, J.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emission from ongoing development of oil sands in northern Alberta results in regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S in an area where background deposition of both N and S is exceptionally low (less than 1 kg/ha/yr). Because bogs, which represent major landforms in the Alberta oil sands region, are believed to be N-limited and potentially sensitive to S inputs, we have been investigating the effects of elevated N deposition on C, N, and S cycling in bogs, as well as the potential of bogs to serve as monitors of N and S deposition. Toward this latter end, we have measured seasonal variation (5 sampling dates between June and October 2009) concentrations of N and S, as well as δ15N value, in leaf tissues (Picea mariana (ectomycorrhizal); Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpon, Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal); Rubus chamaemorus, and Smilacina trifolia (nonmycorrhizal), Sphagnum (S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. magellanicum, S. angustifolium) moss capitula (top 1-cm of plant) and lichens (Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha) at 5 bogs at distances ranging from 14 to 300 km from the heart of the oil sands mining area. Averaged across all sites and sampling dates, N concentrations in ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal, nonmycorrhizal, Sphagnum, and lichens was 8.6 + 0.2, 11.9 + 0.2, 26.3 + 0.6, 10.2 + 0.1, 7.2 + 0.2 mg/g, respectively; δ15N values were -10.3 + 0.1, -6.0 + 0.1, 1.7 + 0.2, -5.3 + 0.1, -4.7 + 0.1 mg/g, respectively, and S concentrations were 1.07 + 0.2, 1.31 + 0.2, 1.94 + 0.6, 1.46 + 0.2, 1.11 + 0.3 mg/g, respectively. Plant functional groups and individual species behaved differently with respect to both seasonal variation and site differences, often with significant interactions when analyzed using two-way analyses of variance. Some species exhibited seasonal variation in some aspects

  18. Seasonal Population Changes and Characterization of Ice-Nucleating Bacteria in Farm Fields of Central Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Toshi

    1986-01-01

    During the summer of 1983 in central Alberta, changes in the bacterial population inhabiting the leaves of field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and canola (Brassica napus L. Altex) were studied to determine if ice-nucleating bacteria were present on these plants. Three colony types (white, yellow, and peach-colored) were found on field beans and canola leaves. Approximately 25% of the isolates from the white colony group, which dominated the population, were ice-nucleating bacteria. No ice-nucleating bacteria were present on canola leaves. Out of a total of 76 ice-nucleating bacteria isolated, 5 representative cultures were characterized in detail and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. The fatty acid composition of these cultures was essentially identical to that of typical P. fluorescens cultures and was altered by varying the growth temperature from 10 to 30°C. PMID:16347106

  19. Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bob; Howard Peter

    2008-01-01

    From 1999-2005, the Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts (MIC) project was implemented by the Board of Studies, New South Wales (NSW), in conjunction with the NSW Department of Education and Training, and academics from two universities. MIC project members worked with schools and communities at two sites: a primary school in an urban community in…

  20. From Context to Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    At Campus Technology 2008, Arizona State University Technology Officer Adrian Sannier mesmerized audiences with his mandate to become more efficient by doing only the "core" tech stuff--and getting someone else to slog through the context. This article presents an excerpt from Sannier's hour-long keynote address at Campus Technology '08. Sannier…