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Sample records for albugo candida white

  1. De novo sequence assembly of Albugo candida reveals a small genome relative to other biotrophic oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Albugo candida is a biotrophic oomycete that parasitizes various species of Brassicaceae, causing a disease (white blister rust) with remarkable convergence in behaviour to unrelated rusts of basidiomycete fungi. Results A recent genome analysis of the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suggests that a reduction in the number of genes encoding secreted pathogenicity proteins, enzymes for assimilation of inorganic nitrogen and sulphur represent a genomic signature for the evolution of obligate biotrophy. Here, we report a draft reference genome of a major crop pathogen Albugo candida (another obligate biotrophic oomycete) with an estimated genome of 45.3 Mb. This is very similar to the genome size of a necrotrophic oomycete Pythium ultimum (43 Mb) but less than half that of H. arabidopsidis (99 Mb). Sequencing of A. candida transcripts from infected host tissue and zoosporangia combined with genome-wide annotation revealed 15,824 predicted genes. Most of the predicted genes lack significant similarity with sequences from other oomycetes. Most intriguingly, A. candida appears to have a much smaller repertoire of pathogenicity-related proteins than H. arabidopsidis including genes that encode RXLR effector proteins, CRINKLER-like genes, and elicitins. Necrosis and Ethylene inducing Peptides were not detected in the genome of A. candida. Putative orthologs of tat-C, a component of the twin arginine translocase system, were identified from multiple oomycete genera along with proteins containing putative tat-secretion signal peptides. Conclusion Albugo candida has a comparatively small genome amongst oomycetes, retains motility of sporangial inoculum, and harbours a much smaller repertoire of candidate effectors than was recently reported for H. arabidopsidis. This minimal gene repertoire could indicate a lack of expansion, rather than a reduction, in the number of genes that signify the evolution of biotrophy in oomycetes. PMID:21995639

  2. First report of albugo lepidi causing white rust on broadleaved pepperweed (lepidium latifolium) in Nevada and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biology and taxonomy of a white rust that is commonly found on the exotic invasive weed Lepidium latifolium were studied in order to assess its potential as a bioherbicide. Previously assumed to be Albugo candida, a common disease of Brassicaceae crops, comparisons of spore morphology and DNA s...

  3. First report of Albugo lepidi causing white rust on broadleaved pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in Nevada and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biology and taxonomy of a white rust that is commonly found on the exotic invasive weed Lepidium latifolium were studied in order to assess its potential as a bioherbicide. Previously assumed to be Albugo candida, a common disease of Brassicaceae crops, comparisons of spore morphology and DNA s...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Albugo species (white blister rusts) based on LSU rDNA sequence and oospore data.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Riethmüller, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 60 collections belonging to 12 species of Albugo (Peronosporales) and two species of Pythium (Pythiales) were performed using nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences containing the D1 and D2 regions. These data were supplemented with detailed light and scanning electron microscopical analyses of oospore morphology, and the morphological data of insufficiently studied taxa (e.g. A. caryophyllacearum, A. gomphrenae) are revised. Molecular data revealed two main clades: one containing the collections from hosts belonging to the Caryophyllales and Asteraceae, and the other containing the collections from hosts belonging to the Brassicaceae and Convolvulaceae. Separation into these two clades was also corroborated by oospore morphology. Whereas the Albugo collections from Caryophyllales did not form a monophyletic lineage, the collections originating from Brassicaceae, Convolvulaceae and Asteraceae each formed highly supported monophyletic clades. According to DNA sequence data and oospore morphology, the host genus Amaranthus harbors two distinct species, Albugo amaranthi and Albugo bliti. The DNA sequence data further indicate that Albugo candida and Albugo tragopogonis each may consist of several distinct lineages, but additional data need to be collected before further taxonomic conclusions can be made. PMID:16376066

  5. Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Mark; Gardiner, Anastasia; Bailey, Kate; Kemen, Eric; Ward, Ben J; Cevik, Volkan; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Balmuth, Alexi; Holub, Eric; van Oosterhout, Cock; Jones, Jonathan DG

    2015-01-01

    How generalist parasites with wide host ranges can evolve is a central question in parasite evolution. Albugo candida is an obligate biotrophic parasite that consists of many physiological races that each specialize on distinct Brassicaceae host species. By analyzing genome sequence assemblies of five isolates, we show they represent three races that are genetically diverged by ∼1%. Despite this divergence, their genomes are mosaic-like, with ∼25% being introgressed from other races. Sequential infection experiments show that infection by adapted races enables subsequent infection of hosts by normally non-infecting races. This facilitates introgression and the exchange of effector repertoires, and may enable the evolution of novel races that can undergo clonal population expansion on new hosts. We discuss recent studies on hybridization in other eukaryotes such as yeast, Heliconius butterflies, Darwin's finches, sunflowers and cichlid fishes, and the implications of introgression for pathogen evolution in an agro-ecological environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04550.001 PMID:25723966

  6. Molecular identification and pathogenic behavior of Albugo sp., a potential bioherbicide of perennial pepperweed in northern Nevada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial pepperweed (PPW, Lepidium latifolium) is a cruciferous plant native to Eurasia that is a noxious weed in the western USA. In northern Nevada, PPW plants in the field are commonly infected with white rust fungus (Albugo sp.), exhibiting white pustules on the leaves and stems of mature plan...

  7. Candida and calcofluor white: Study in precancer and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rashmi Santosh; Ganvir, SM; Hazarey, VK

    2009-01-01

    Background: The interest in oral candidosis has waxed and waned from the period of Hippocrates. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has certainly bolstered these figures on oral candidosis, with diabetes and oral cancer being no exception. A need for rapid detection of Candida is made possible by the use of Calcofluor - White (CFW) stain when examined under a fluorescence microscope. The present study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of CFW is compared to Gram stain and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) in detection of Candida in oral precancer and cancer. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of patients with precancer (n=45), cancer (n=45), and control group (n=45). Presence of Candida was confirmed by culture inoculation along with a germ tube and carbohydrate fermentation test. The cytopathological smears were analyzed by papanicolaou - CFW and Gram staining, whereas, tissue sections were stained by PAS and CFW staining. Results: Candida albicans was the predominant species identified. A highly significant association of Candida was seen more often in cancer than in precancer. Both in cytology and histopathology Candida detection by CFW was higher. In precancer it was 48.88% in smears and 40% in tissue sections, whereas, in cancer 60% in smears and 55.55% in histopathology. Conclusion: Among the various diagnostic tools used in the present study, the use of CFW is seen to be a simple, effective, rapid, and reliable method, both in cytopathology and histopathology. PMID:21886989

  8. Production of White Colonies on CHROMagar Candida Medium by Members of the Candida glabrata Clade and Other Species with Overlapping Phenotypic Traits▿

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Justin A.; Chase, Nancy; Lee, Richard; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Merz, William G.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that species of the Candida glabrata clade and species with phenotypic traits that overlap those of C. glabrata would produce white colonies on CHROMagar Candida medium. Of 154 isolates (seven species) tested, C. bracarensis, C. nivariensis, C. norvegensis, C. glabrata, and C. inconspicua produced white colonies; the Pichia fermentans group and C. krusei did not. Many of these species are difficult to identify phenotypically; white colonies may signal the need for the use of molecular approaches. PMID:18685009

  9. Production of White Colonies on CHROMagar Candida(TM) by Members of the Candida glabrata Clade and Other Species with Overlapping Phenotypic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that species of the Candida glabrata clade and species with phenotypic traits overlapping with C. glabrata would produce white colonies on CHROMagar Candida. Of 154 isolates (seven species) tested, C. bracarensis, C. nivariensis, C. norvegensis, C. glabrata, and C. inconspicua produ...

  10. Obligate Biotroph Pathogens of the Genus Albugo Are Better Adapted to Active Host Defense Compared to Niche Competitors.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Jonas; Agler, Matthew T; Placzek, Aleksandra; Kramer, Katharina; Finkemeier, Iris; Kemen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggested that plants behave differently under combined versus single abiotic and biotic stress conditions in controlled environments. While this work has provided a glimpse into how plants might behave under complex natural conditions, it also highlights the need for field experiments using established model systems. In nature, diverse microbes colonize the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana, including the obligate biotroph oomycete genus Albugo, causal agent of the common disease white rust. Biotrophic, as well as hemibiotrophic plant pathogens are characterized by efficient suppression of host defense responses. Lab experiments have even shown that Albugo sp. can suppress non-host resistance, thereby enabling otherwise avirulent pathogen growth. We asked how a pathogen that is vitally dependent on a living host can compete in nature for limited niche space while paradoxically enabling colonization of its host plant for competitors? To address this question, we used a proteomics approach to identify differences and similarities between lab and field samples of Albugo sp.-infected and -uninfected A. thaliana plants. We could identify highly similar apoplastic proteomic profiles in both infected and uninfected plants. In wild plants, however, a broad range of defense-related proteins were detected in the apoplast regardless of infection status, while no or low levels of defense-related proteins were detected in lab samples. These results indicate that Albugo sp. do not strongly affect immune responses and leave distinct branches of the immune signaling network intact. To validate our findings and to get mechanistic insights, we tested a panel of A. thaliana mutant plants with induced or compromised immunity for susceptibility to different biotrophic pathogens. Our findings suggest that the biotroph pathogen Albugo selectively interferes with host defense under different environmental and competitive pressures to maintain its ecological niche

  11. Obligate Biotroph Pathogens of the Genus Albugo Are Better Adapted to Active Host Defense Compared to Niche Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Ruhe, Jonas; Agler, Matthew T.; Placzek, Aleksandra; Kramer, Katharina; Finkemeier, Iris; Kemen, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggested that plants behave differently under combined versus single abiotic and biotic stress conditions in controlled environments. While this work has provided a glimpse into how plants might behave under complex natural conditions, it also highlights the need for field experiments using established model systems. In nature, diverse microbes colonize the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana, including the obligate biotroph oomycete genus Albugo, causal agent of the common disease white rust. Biotrophic, as well as hemibiotrophic plant pathogens are characterized by efficient suppression of host defense responses. Lab experiments have even shown that Albugo sp. can suppress non-host resistance, thereby enabling otherwise avirulent pathogen growth. We asked how a pathogen that is vitally dependent on a living host can compete in nature for limited niche space while paradoxically enabling colonization of its host plant for competitors? To address this question, we used a proteomics approach to identify differences and similarities between lab and field samples of Albugo sp.-infected and -uninfected A. thaliana plants. We could identify highly similar apoplastic proteomic profiles in both infected and uninfected plants. In wild plants, however, a broad range of defense-related proteins were detected in the apoplast regardless of infection status, while no or low levels of defense-related proteins were detected in lab samples. These results indicate that Albugo sp. do not strongly affect immune responses and leave distinct branches of the immune signaling network intact. To validate our findings and to get mechanistic insights, we tested a panel of A. thaliana mutant plants with induced or compromised immunity for susceptibility to different biotrophic pathogens. Our findings suggest that the biotroph pathogen Albugo selectively interferes with host defense under different environmental and competitive pressures to maintain its ecological niche

  12. Discovery of the gray phenotype and white-gray-opaque tristable phenotypic transitions in Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Huizhen; Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Tao, Li; Du, Han; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-04-01

    Candida dubliniensis is closely related to Candida albicans, a major causative agent of candidiasis, and is primarily associated with oral colonization and infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Despite the high similarity of genomic and phenotypic features between the 2 species, C. dubliniensis is much less virulent and less prevalent than C. albicans. The ability to change morphological phenotypes is a striking feature of Candida species and is linked to virulence. In this study, we report a novel phenotype, the gray phenotype, in C. dubliniensis. Together with the previously reported white and opaque cell types, the gray phenotype forms a tristable phenotypic switching system in C. dubliniensis that is similar to the white-gray-opaque tristable switching system in C. albicans. Gray cells of C. dubliniensis are similar to their counterparts in C. albicans in terms of several biological aspects including cellular morphology, mating competence, and genetic regulatory mechanisms. However, the gray phenotypes of the 2 species have some distinguishing features. For example, the secreted aspartyl protease (Sap) activity is induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA) in gray cells of C. albicans, but not in gray cells of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the biological features and regulatory mechanisms of white-gray-opaque tristable transitions are largely conserved in the 2 pathogenic Candida species. PMID:26714067

  13. White-Opaque Switching of Candida albicans Allows Immune Evasion in an Environment-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Sasse, Christoph; Hasenberg, Mike; Weyler, Michael; Gunzer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can spontaneously and reversibly switch from the normal yeast morphology (white) to an elongated cell type (opaque), which is the mating-competent form of the fungus. White-opaque switching also influences the ability of C. albicans to colonize and proliferate in specific host niches and its susceptibility to host defense mechanisms. We used live imaging to observe the interaction of white and opaque cells with host phagocytic cells. For this purpose, we generated derivatives of the switching-competent strain WO-1 that express green fluorescent protein from a white-specific promoter and red fluorescent protein from an opaque-specific promoter or vice versa. When mixed populations of these differentially labeled white and opaque cells were incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on a glass slide, the neutrophils selectively phagocytosed and killed white cells, despite frequent physical interaction with opaque cells. White cells were attacked only after they started to form a germ tube, indicating that the suppression of filamentation in opaque cells saved them from recognition by the PMNs. In contrast to neutrophils, dendritic cells internalized white as well as opaque cells. However, when embedded in a collagen matrix, the PMNs also phagocytosed both white and opaque cells with similar efficiency. These results suggest that, depending on the environment, white-opaque switching enables C. albicans to escape from specific host defense mechanisms. PMID:23125350

  14. Opaque cells signal white cells to form biofilms in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Karla J; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Lockhart, Shawn R; Pujol, Claude; Soll, David R

    2006-01-01

    Upon homozygosis from a/α to a/a or α/α, Candida albicans must still switch from the ‘white' to ‘opaque' phenotype to mate. It was, therefore, surprising to discover that pheromone selectively upregulated mating-associated genes in mating-incompetent white cells without causing G1 arrest or shmoo formation. White cells, like opaque cells, possess pheromone receptors, although their distribution and redistribution upon pheromone treatment differ between the two cell types. In speculating about the possible role of the white cell pheromone response, it is hypothesized that in overlapping white a/a and α/α populations in nature, rare opaque cells, through the release of pheromone, signal majority white cells of opposite mating type to form a biofilm that facilitates mating. In support of this hypothesis, it is demonstrated that pheromone induces cohesiveness between white cells, minority opaque cells increase two-fold the thickness of majority white cell biofilms, and majority white cell biofilms facilitate minority opaque cell chemotropism. These results reveal a novel form of communication between switch phenotypes, analogous to the inductive events during embryogenesis in higher eukaryotes. PMID:16628217

  15. Unique phenotype of opaque cells in the white-opaque transition of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J M; Soll, D R

    1987-01-01

    Select strains of Candida albicans switch reversibly and at extremely high frequency between a white and an opaque colony-forming phenotype, which has been referred to as the white-opaque transition. Cells in the white phase exhibit a cellular phenotype indistinguishable from that of most standard strains of C. albicans, but cells in the opaque phase exhibit an unusually large, elongate cellular shape. In comparing the white and opaque cellular phenotypes, the following findings are demonstrated. (i) The surface of the cell wall of maturing opaque cells when viewed by scanning electron microscopy exhibits a unique pimpled, or punctate, pattern not observed in white cells or standard strains of C. albicans. (ii) The dynamics of actin localization which accompanies opaque-cell growth first follows the pattern of budding cells during early opaque-bud growth and then the pattern of hypha-forming cells during late opaque-bud growth. (iii) A hypha-specific cell surface antigen is also expressed on the surface of opaque budding cells. (iv) An opaque-specific surface antigen is distributed in a punctate pattern. Images PMID:3316187

  16. Systematic Genetic Screen for Transcriptional Regulators of the Candida albicans White-Opaque Switch.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Matthew B; Ene, Iuliana V; Craik, Veronica B; Hernday, Aaron D; Mancera, Eugenio; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Bennett, Richard J; Johnson, Alexander D

    2016-08-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can reversibly switch between two cell types named "white" and "opaque," each of which is stable through many cell divisions. These two cell types differ in their ability to mate, their metabolic preferences and their interactions with the mammalian innate immune system. A highly interconnected network of eight transcriptional regulators has been shown to control switching between these two cell types. To identify additional regulators of the switch, we systematically and quantitatively measured white-opaque switching rates of 196 strains, each deleted for a specific transcriptional regulator. We identified 19 new regulators with at least a 10-fold effect on switching rates and an additional 14 new regulators with more subtle effects. To investigate how these regulators affect switching rates, we examined several criteria, including the binding of the eight known regulators of switching to the control region of each new regulatory gene, differential expression of the newly found genes between cell types, and the growth rate of each mutant strain. This study highlights the complexity of the transcriptional network that regulates the white-opaque switch and the extent to which switching is linked to a variety of metabolic processes, including respiration and carbon utilization. In addition to revealing specific insights, the information reported here provides a foundation to understand the highly complex coupling of white-opaque switching to cellular physiology. PMID:27280690

  17. Structure of the Transcriptional Network Controlling White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hernday, Aaron D.; Lohse, Matthew B.; Fordyce, Polly M.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two phenotypic cell types, termed “white” and “opaque.” Both cell types are heritable for many generations, and the switch between the two types occurs epigenetically, that is, without a change in the primary DNA sequence of the genome. Previous work identified six key transcriptional regulators important for white-opaque switching: Wor1, Wor2, Wor3, Czf1, Efg1, and Ahr1. In this work, we describe the structure of the transcriptional network that specifies the white and opaque cell types and governs the ability to switch between them. In particular, we use a combination of genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, gene expression profiling, and microfluidics-based DNA binding experiments to determine the direct and indirect regulatory interactions that form the switch network. The six regulators are arranged together in a complex, interlocking network with many seemingly redundant and overlapping connections. We propose that the structure (or topology) of this network is responsible for the epigenetic maintenance of the white and opaque states, the switching between them, and the specialized properties of each state. PMID:23855748

  18. N-Acetylglucosamine Induces White to Opaque Switching, a Mating Prerequisite in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guanghua; Yi, Song; Sahni, Nidhi; Daniels, Karla J.; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Soll, David R.

    2010-01-01

    To mate, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans must undergo homozygosis at the mating-type locus and then switch from the white to opaque phenotype. Paradoxically, opaque cells were found to be unstable at physiological temperature, suggesting that mating had little chance of occurring in the host, the main niche of C. albicans. Recently, however, it was demonstrated that high levels of CO2, equivalent to those found in the host gastrointestinal tract and select tissues, induced the white to opaque switch at physiological temperature, providing a possible resolution to the paradox. Here, we demonstrate that a second signal, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a monosaccharide produced primarily by gastrointestinal tract bacteria, also serves as a potent inducer of white to opaque switching and functions primarily through the Ras1/cAMP pathway and phosphorylated Wor1, the gene product of the master switch locus. Our results therefore suggest that signals produced by bacterial co-members of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota regulate switching and therefore mating of C. albicans. PMID:20300604

  19. pH Regulates White-Opaque Switching and Sexual Mating in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Cao, Chengjun; Jia, Wei; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Huang, Guanghua

    2015-11-01

    As a successful commensal and pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a wide range of environmental conditions. Among them, ambient pH, which changes frequently and affects many biological processes in this species, is an important factor, and the ability to adapt to pH changes is tightly linked with pathogenesis and morphogenesis. In this study, we report that pH has a profound effect on white-opaque switching and sexual mating in C. albicans. Acidic pH promotes white-to-opaque switching under certain culture conditions but represses sexual mating. The Rim101-mediated pH-sensing pathway is involved in the control of pH-regulated white-opaque switching and the mating response. Phr2 and Rim101 could play a major role in acidic pH-induced opaque cell formation. Despite the fact that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway does not play a major role in pH-regulated white-opaque switching and mating, white and opaque cells of the cyr1/cyr1 mutant, which is defective in the production of cAMP, showed distinct growth defects under acidic and alkaline conditions. We further discovered that acidic pH conditions repressed sexual mating due to the failure of activation of the Ste2-mediated α-pheromone response pathway in opaque A: cells. The effects of pH changes on phenotypic switching and sexual mating could involve a balance of host adaptation and sexual reproduction in C. albicans. PMID:26342021

  20. Production of white colonies on CHROMagar Candida BD by species in the C. glabrata clade, and other species with overlapping phenotypic traits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromogenic agars are important diagnostic media used in the clinical mycology laboratory. Candida spp. that produced white colonies on CHROMagar Candida (Becton Dickinson) (CAC) were found during a study designed to detect and identify C. bracarensis, a newly-described species in the C. glabrata c...

  1. Differential Regulation of White-Opaque Switching by Individual Subunits of Candida albicans Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Anda; Liu, Zhongle

    2013-01-01

    The multisubunit eukaryotic Mediator complex integrates diverse positive and negative gene regulatory signals and transmits them to the core transcription machinery. Mutations in individual subunits within the complex can lead to decreased or increased transcription of certain subsets of genes, which are highly specific to the mutated subunit. Recent studies suggest a role for Mediator in epigenetic silencing. Using white-opaque morphological switching in Candida albicans as a model, we have shown that Mediator is required for the stability of both the epigenetic silenced (white) and active (opaque) states of the bistable transcription circuit driven by the master regulator Wor1. Individual deletions of eight C. albicans Mediator subunits have shown that different Mediator subunits have dramatically diverse effects on the directionality, frequency, and environmental induction of epigenetic switching. Among the Mediator deletion mutants analyzed, only Med12 has a steady-state transcriptional effect on the components of the Wor1 circuit that clearly corresponds to its effect on switching. The MED16 and MED9 genes have been found to be among a small subset of genes that are required for the stability of both the white and opaque states. Deletion of the Med3 subunit completely destabilizes the opaque state, even though the Wor1 transcription circuit is intact and can be driven by ectopic expression of Wor1. The highly impaired ability of the med3 deletion mutant to mate, even when Wor1 expression is ectopically induced, reveals that the activation of the Wor1 circuit can be decoupled from the opaque state and one of its primary biological consequences. PMID:23873866

  2. Genes Selectively Up-Regulated by Pheromone in White Cells Are Involved in Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Daniels, Karla J.; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Soll, David R.

    2009-01-01

    To mate, MTL-homozygous strains of the yeast pathogen Candida albicans must switch from the white to opaque phase. Mating-competent opaque cells then release pheromone that induces polarization, a G1 block and conjugation tube formation in opaque cells of opposite mating type. Pheromone also induces mating-incompetent white cells to become adhesive and cohesive, and form thicker biofilms that facilitate mating. The pheromone response pathway of white cells shares the upstream components of that of opaque cells, but targets a different transcription factor. Here we demonstrate that the genes up-regulated by the pheromone in white cells are activated through a common cis-acting sequence, WPRE, which is distinct from the cis-acting sequence, OPRE, responsible for up-regulation in opaque cells. Furthermore, we find that these white-specific genes play roles in white cell biofilm formation, and are essential for biofilm formation in the absence of an added source of pheromone, suggesting either an autocrine or pheromone-independent mechanism. These results suggest an intimate, complex and unique relationship between switching, mating and MTL-homozygous white cell biofilm formation, the latter a presumed virulence factor in C. albicans. PMID:19798425

  3. Genes selectively up-regulated by pheromone in white cells are involved in biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Daniels, Karla J; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Soll, David R

    2009-10-01

    To mate, MTL-homozygous strains of the yeast pathogen Candida albicans must switch from the white to opaque phase. Mating-competent opaque cells then release pheromone that induces polarization, a G1 block and conjugation tube formation in opaque cells of opposite mating type. Pheromone also induces mating-incompetent white cells to become adhesive and cohesive, and form thicker biofilms that facilitate mating. The pheromone response pathway of white cells shares the upstream components of that of opaque cells, but targets a different transcription factor. Here we demonstrate that the genes up-regulated by the pheromone in white cells are activated through a common cis-acting sequence, WPRE, which is distinct from the cis-acting sequence, OPRE, responsible for up-regulation in opaque cells. Furthermore, we find that these white-specific genes play roles in white cell biofilm formation, and are essential for biofilm formation in the absence of an added source of pheromone, suggesting either an autocrine or pheromone-independent mechanism. These results suggest an intimate, complex and unique relationship between switching, mating and MTL-homozygous white cell biofilm formation, the latter a presumed virulence factor in C. albicans. PMID:19798425

  4. Calcofluor White Combination Antifungal Treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Joanne M.; Heitman, Joseph; Pinnell, Sheldon R.

    2012-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW) inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses. PMID:22792174

  5. Transcription of the gene for a pepsinogen, PEP1, is regulated by white-opaque switching in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, B; Srikantha, T; Soll, D R

    1992-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans WO-1 spontaneously switch between a white and opaque CFU, and this phase transition involves a dramatic change in cellular phenotype. By using a differential hybridization screen, an opaque-specific cDNA, Op1a, which represents the transcript of a gene regulated by switching, has been isolated. The gene for Op1a is transcribed by opaque but not by white cells. The nucleotide sequence of the Op1a cDNA reveals over 99% base homology with an acid protease gene of C. albicans, and the predicted amino acid sequence demonstrates that the product of this gene is a member of the family of pepsinogens, which possess a hydrophobic leader sequence for secretion and two catalytic aspartate domains. Southern blots of both genomic DNA digested with 14 different endonucleases and electrophoretically separated chromosomes were probed with the Op1a cDNA. No polymorphisms were detected in either case between white and opaque cells, suggesting that no genomic reorganization occurs in the proximity of the gene during the white-opaque transition. Although transcription of Op1a correlates with the high levels of extracellular protease activity in opaque cell cultures and the absence of activity in white cell cultures, stimulation of extracellular protease activity by addition of serum albumin is not accompanied by Op1a transcription in cultures of WO-1 white cells or cultures of two additional clinical isolates of C. albicans, suggesting that expression of one or more other protease genes is stimulated in these cases. The results demonstrate that transcription of the Op1a gene is under the rigid control of switching in strain WO-1. Images PMID:1620110

  6. Coordinate regulation of two opaque-phase-specific genes during white-opaque switching in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, B; Srikantha, T; Anderson, J; Soll, D R

    1993-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans WO-1 switch spontaneously and frequently between a white and an opaque CFU. Recently, an opaque-phase-specific cDNA, PEP1, was cloned and was demonstrated to code for a pepsinogen. By using a differential hybridization screen, a second opaque-phase-specific cDNA, Op4, has been isolated and its corresponding gene has been cloned. Op4 is coordinately regulated with PEP1 but resides on a different chromosome. During temperature-induced mass conversion from opaque to white, transcription of PEP1 and Op4 is immediately inhibited by the increase in temperature, but transcription of both genes can be rapidly reestablished by a downshift in temperature prior to phenotypic commitment. However, the capacity to rapidly induce both PEP1 and Op4 is lost coincidentally with the second semisynchronous round of cell division and phenotypic commitment during mass conversion. Op4 shows no significant base or amino acid sequence homology with a known gene or protein, respectively. However, the deduced Op4 protein exhibits several interesting characteristics, including a hydrophobic amino terminus with 26 amino acids, a pI of 10.73 for the last 100 amino acids, two serine repeats adjacent to alanine repeats, and the potential for alpha-helical conformation within the alanine-rich sequences. No genomic reorganization was evident in the proximity of Op4 during transcriptional activation and deactivation accompanying the white-opaque transition. Images PMID:8478072

  7. Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the CAI microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (CAI) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the CAI genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the CAI locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the CAI microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141

  8. Binding Sites in the EFG1 Promoter for Transcription Factors in a Proposed Regulatory Network: A Functional Analysis in the White and Opaque Phases of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Claude; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Park, Yang-Nim; Daniels, Karla J.; Soll, David R.

    2016-01-01

    In Candida albicans the transcription factor Efg1, which is differentially expressed in the white phase of the white-opaque transition, is essential for expression of the white phenotype. It is one of six transcription factors included in a proposed interactive transcription network regulating white-opaque switching and maintenance of the alternative phenotypes. Ten sites were identified in the EFG1 promoter that differentially bind one or more of the network transcription factors in the white and/or opaque phase. To explore the functionality of these binding sites in the differential expression of EFG1, we generated targeted deletions of each of the 10 binding sites, combinatorial deletions, and regional deletions using a Renilla reniformis luciferase reporter system. Individually targeted deletion of only four of the 10 sites had minor effects consistent with differential expression of EFG1, and only in the opaque phase. Alternative explanations are considered. PMID:27172219

  9. Ssn6 Defines a New Level of Regulation of White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans and Is Required For the Stochasticity of the Switch

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Noiman, Liron; Laksana, Clement N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human commensal and opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two distinct, heritable cell types, named “white” and “opaque,” which differ in morphology, mating abilities, and metabolic preferences and in their interactions with the host immune system. Previous studies revealed a highly interconnected group of transcriptional regulators that control switching between the two cell types. Here, we identify Ssn6, the C. albicans functional homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional corepressor Cyc8, as a new regulator of white-opaque switching. In a or α mating type strains, deletion of SSN6 results in mass switching from the white to the opaque cell type. Transcriptional profiling of ssn6 deletion mutant strains reveals that Ssn6 represses part of the opaque cell transcriptional program in white cells and the majority of the white cell transcriptional program in opaque cells. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Ssn6 is tightly integrated into the opaque cell regulatory circuit and that the positions to which it is bound across the genome strongly overlap those bound by Wor1 and Wor2, previously identified regulators of white-opaque switching. This work reveals the next layer in the white-opaque transcriptional circuitry by integrating a transcriptional regulator that does not bind DNA directly but instead associates with specific combinations of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators. PMID:26814177

  10. Crystal structure of the WOPR-DNA complex and implications for Wor1 function in white-opaque switching of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shicheng; Zhang, Tianlong; Yan, Minghui; Ding, Jianping; Chen, Jiangye

    2014-01-01

    Wor1 (white-opaque switching regulator 1) is a master regulator of the white-opaque switching in Candida albicans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, and is associated with its pathogenicity and commensality. Wor1 contains a conserved DNA-binding region at the N-terminus, consisting of two conserved segments (WOPRa and WOPRb) connected by a non-conserved linker that can bind to specific DNA sequences of the promoter regions and then regulates the transcription. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C. albicans Wor1 WOPR segments in complex with a double-stranded DNA corresponding to one promoter region of WOR1. The sequentially separated WOPRa and WOPRb are structurally interwound together to form a compact globular domain that we term the WOPR domain. The WOPR domain represents a new conserved fungal-specific DNA-binding domain which uses primarily a conserved loop to recognize and interact specifically with a conserved 6-bp motif of the DNA in both minor and major grooves. The protein-DNA interactions are essential for WOR1 transcriptional regulation and white-to-opaque switching. The structural and biological data together reveal the molecular basis for the recognition and binding specificity of the WOPR domain with its specific DNA sequences and the function of Wor1 in the activation of transcription. PMID:25091450

  11. Crystal structure of the WOPR-DNA complex and implications for Wor1 function in white-opaque switching of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shicheng; Zhang, Tianlong; Yan, Minghui; Ding, Jianping; Chen, Jiangye

    2014-09-01

    Wor1 (white-opaque switching regulator 1) is a master regulator of the white-opaque switching in Candida albicans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, and is associated with its pathogenicity and commensality. Wor1 contains a conserved DNA-binding region at the N-terminus, consisting of two conserved segments (WOPRa and WOPRb) connected by a non-conserved linker that can bind to specific DNA sequences of the promoter regions and then regulates the transcription. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C. albicans Wor1 WOPR segments in complex with a double-stranded DNA corresponding to one promoter region of WOR1. The sequentially separated WOPRa and WOPRb are structurally interwound together to form a compact globular domain that we term the WOPR domain. The WOPR domain represents a new conserved fungal-specific DNA-binding domain which uses primarily a conserved loop to recognize and interact specifically with a conserved 6-bp motif of the DNA in both minor and major grooves. The protein-DNA interactions are essential for WOR1 transcriptional regulation and white-to-opaque switching. The structural and biological data together reveal the molecular basis for the recognition and binding specificity of the WOPR domain with its specific DNA sequences and the function of Wor1 in the activation of transcription. PMID:25091450

  12. The conserved dual phosphorylation sites of the Candida albicans Hog1 protein are crucial for white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Liang, Shen-Huan; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has a unique morphological transition between white and opaque phases. These two cells differ in virulence, mating capability, biofilm formation, and host-cell interaction. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the SSK2, PBS2, or HOG1 gene resulted in 100% opaque cell formation and suppressed the mating response. Thr-174 and Tyr-176 of the Hog1 protein are important phosphoacceptors and can be activated in response to stimuli. In this study, we first demonstrated the importance of two conserved phosphorylation sites in white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion. Six Hog1 point-mutated strains were generated, including nonphosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174A), Hog1(Y176F), and Hog1(T174A,Y176F)) and negatively charged phosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174D), Hog1(Y176D), and Hog1(T174D,Y176D)). Point mutation on Thr-174, Tyr-176 or in combination with the Hog1 protein in C. albicans MTL homozygous strains stimulated opaque cell formation at a frequency of 100%. Furthermore, mating projections of point-mutated strains were significantly shorter and their mating efficiencies and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesive numbers were lower than those of the wild-type. By investigating the effects of Hog1 phosphorylation in ssk1Δ and sln1Δ, we also demonstrate that the phosphorylation intensity of Hog1p is directly involved in the white-opaque switching. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that dual phosphorylation sites of C. albicans are crucial for white-opaque transition, sexual mating, and pheromone-induced cell adhesion. PMID:27118797

  13. Tec1 Mediates the Pheromone Response of the White Phenotype of Candida albicans: Insights into the Evolution of New Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Karla J.; Huang, Guanghua; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Soll, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The way in which signal transduction pathways evolve remains a mystery, primarily because we have few examples of ones that have newly evolved. There are numerous examples of how signal transduction pathways in the same organism selectively share components, most notably between the signal transduction pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the mating process, the filamentation process, cell wall integrity, ascospore formation, and osmoregulation. These examples, however, have not provided insights into how such pathways evolve. Here, through construction of an overexpression library for 107 transcription factors, and through mutational analyses, we have identified the transcription factor Tec1 as the last component of the newly evolved signal transduction pathway that regulates the pheromone response of the white cell phenotype in Candida albicans. The elucidation of this last component, Tec1, establishes a comprehensive description of the pheromone response pathway in the white cell phenotype of C. albicans, providing a unique perspective on how new signal transduction pathways may evolve. The three portions of this new regulatory pathway appear to have been derived from three different ancestral programs still functional in C. albicans. The upstream portion, including signals, receptors, the trimeric G protein complex, and the MAP kinase cascade, was derived intact from the upstream portion of the opaque pheromone response pathway of the mating process; Tec1, the transcription factor targeted by the MAP kinase pathway, was derived from a filamentation pathway; and the white-specific downstream target genes were derived from an ancestral biofilm process. The evolution of this pheromone response pathway provides a possible paradigm for how such signal transduction pathways evolve. PMID:20454615

  14. Analysis of Phase-Specific Gene Expression at the Single-Cell Level in the White-Opaque Switching System of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Strauß, Anja; Michel, Sonja; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans can switch spontaneously and reversibly between different cell forms, a capacity that may enhance adaptation to different host niches and evasion of host defense mechanisms. Phenotypic switching has been studied intensively for the white-opaque switching system of strain WO-1. To facilitate the molecular analysis of phenotypic switching, we have constructed homozygous ura3 mutants from strain WO-1 by targeted gene deletion. The two URA3 alleles were sequentially inactivated using the MPAR-flipping strategy, which is based on the selection of integrative transformants carrying a mycophenolic acid (MPA) resistance marker that is subsequently deleted again by site-specific, FLP-mediated recombination. To investigate a possible cell type-independent switching in the expression of individual phase-specific genes, two different reporter genes that allowed the analysis of gene expression at the single-cell level were integrated into the genome, using URA3 as a selection marker. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of cells in which a GFP reporter gene was placed under the control of phase-specific promoters demonstrated that the opaque-phase-specific SAP1 gene was detectably expressed only in opaque cells and that the white-phase-specific WH11 gene was detectably expressed only in white cells. When MPAR was used as a reporter gene, it conferred an MPA-resistant phenotype on opaque but not white cells in strains expressing it from the SAP1 promoter, which was monitored at the level of single cells by a significantly enlarged size of the corresponding colonies on MPA-containing indicator plates. Similarly, white but not opaque cells became MPA resistant when MPAR was placed under the control of the WH11 promoter. The analysis of these reporter strains showed that cell type-independent phase variation in the expression of the SAP1 and WH11 genes did not occur at a detectable frequency. The expression of these phase

  15. Candida famata (Candida flareri).

    PubMed

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2012-11-01

    Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so-called 'flavinogenic yeasts', capable of riboflavin oversynthesis under condition of iron starvation. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known and were used for industrial production of riboflavin for a long time in the USA. C. famata is characterized by high salt tolerance, growing at NaCl concentrations of up to 2.5  M. Development of basic tools for the metabolic engineering of C. famata, such as a transformation system, selective markers, insertional mutagenesis, a reporter system and others, are described. The developed tools were used for cloning and identification of structural and regulatory genes of riboflavin synthesis. The construction of improved yeast strains producing riboflavin, FMN and FAD, based on the industrial riboflavin-producing strain dep8 and its non-reverting analogue AF4, is also described. PMID:23108915

  16. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis. PMID:25480879

  17. Candida Berkhout (1923)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the 314 species assigned to the genus Candida and is to be published in the Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. Ascomycete yeasts that do not form ascosporic state are assigned to the genus Candida, which is a highly polyphyletic taxonomic form genus. Assigned species in...

  18. Evaluation of the new chromogenic medium Candida ID 2 for isolation and identification of Candida albicans and other medically important Candida species.

    PubMed

    Eraso, Elena; Moragues, María D; Villar-Vidal, María; Sahand, Ismail H; González-Gómez, Nagore; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

    2006-09-01

    The usefulness of Candida ID 2 (CAID2) reformulated medium (bioMérieux, France) has been compared with that of the former Candida ID (CAID; bioMérieux), Albicans ID 2 (ALB2; bioMérieux), and CHROMagar Candida (CAC; Chromagar, France) chromogenic media for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically relevant yeasts. Three hundred forty-five stock strains from culture collections, and 103 fresh isolates from different clinical specimens were evaluated. CAID2 permitted differentiation based on colony color between Candida albicans (cobalt blue; sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 97.2%) and Candida dubliniensis (turquoise blue; sensitivity, 97.9%; specificity, 96.6%). Candida tropicalis gave distinguishable pink-bluish colonies in 97.4% of the strains in CAID2 (sensitivity, 97.4%; specificity, 100%); the same proportion was reached in CAC, where colonies were blue-gray (sensitivity, 97.4%; specificity, 98.7%). CAC and CAID2 showed 100% sensitivity values for the identification of Candida krusei. However, with CAID2, experience is required to differentiate the downy aspect of the white colonies of C. krusei from other white-colony-forming species. The new CAID2 medium is a good candidate to replace CAID and ALB2, and it compares well to CAC for culture and presumptive identification of clinically relevant Candida species. CAID2 showed better results than CAC in some aspects, such as quicker growth and color development of colonies from clinical specimens, detection of mixed cultures, and presumptive differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. PMID:16954270

  19. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue. PMID:26781374

  20. Candida Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Baddley, John W.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Patel, Mukesh; Miró, José; Athan, Eugene; Barsic, Bruno; Bouza, Emilio; Clara, Liliana; Elliott, Tom; Kanafani, Zeina; Klein, John; Lerakis, Stamatios; Levine, Donald; Spelman, Denis; Rubinstein, Ethan; Tornos, Pilar; Morris, Arthur J.; Pappas, Paul; Fowler, Vance G.; Chu, Vivian H.; Cabell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. Methods We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study. Patients were enrolled and data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. Results Patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p<0.001), short term indwelling catheters (p<0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infection (p<0.001). Reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2% p=0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p=0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p=0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p=0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. Conclusions These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE. PMID:18283504

  1. Genetics of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, S; Magee, P T

    1990-01-01

    Candida albicans is among the most common fungal pathogens. Infections caused by C. albicans and other Candida species can be life threatening in individuals with impaired immune function. Genetic analysis of C. albicans pathogenesis is complicated by the diploid nature of the species and the absence of a known sexual cycle. Through a combination of parasexual techniques and molecular approaches, an effective genetic system has been developed. The close relationship of C. albicans to the more extensively studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been of great utility in the isolation of Candida genes and development of the C. albicans DNA transformation system. Molecular methods have been used for clarification of taxonomic relationships and more precise epidemiologic investigations. Analysis of the physical and genetic maps of C. albicans and the closely related Candida stellatoidea has provided much information on the highly fluid nature of the Candida genome. The genetic system is seeing increased application to biological questions such as drug resistance, virulence determinants, and the phenomenon of phenotypic variation. Although most molecular analysis to data has been with C. albicans, the same methodologies are proving highly effective with other Candida species. Images PMID:2215421

  2. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... these infections are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus, although other species of Candida are ... in some cases. Teenaged girls who develop a yeast infection of the vagina and the surrounding area ...

  3. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribe...

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana▿

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans and its closely related yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  6. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results. Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, <1–84 years). Most patients (65%) were not pharmacologically immunosuppressed. Polyarticular infection (≥3 joints) occurred in 31% of cases. Clinical manifestations included pain (82%), edema (71%), limited function (39%), and erythema (22%) with knees (75%) and hips (15%) most commonly infected. Median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 62 mm/hr (10–141) and C reactive protein 26 mg/dL (0.5–95). Synovial fluid median white blood cell count was 27 500/µL (range, 100–220 000/µL) with 90% polymorphonuclear neutrophils (range, 24–98). Adjacent osteomyelitis was present in 30% of cases. Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion. Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse

  7. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, <1-84 years). Most patients (65%) were not pharmacologically immunosuppressed. Polyarticular infection (≥3 joints) occurred in 31% of cases. Clinical manifestations included pain (82%), edema (71%), limited function (39%), and erythema (22%) with knees (75%) and hips (15%) most commonly infected. Median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 62 mm/hr (10-141) and C reactive protein 26 mg/dL (0.5-95). Synovial fluid median white blood cell count was 27 500/µL (range, 100-220 000/µL) with 90% polymorphonuclear neutrophils (range, 24-98). Adjacent osteomyelitis was present in 30% of cases. Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion.  Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite

  8. Performance of Candida ID, a New Chromogenic Medium for Presumptive Identification of Candida Species, in Comparison to CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Willinger, Birgit; Hillowoth, Cornelia; Selitsch, Brigitte; Manafi, Mammad

    2001-01-01

    Candida ID agar allows identification of Candida albicans and differentiation of other Candida species. In comparison with CHROMagar Candida, we evaluated the performance of this medium directly from 596 clinical specimens. In particular, detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on Candida ID (sensitivity, 96.8%) than on CHROMagar (sensitivity, 49.6%). PMID:11574621

  9. Prevalence of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis in vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianling; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping

    2014-10-01

    Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis were isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis were found in presumptive Candida glabrata isolates, which were identified using the API Candida system. We retrospectively re-examined vaginal presumptive Candida glabrata isolates for Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2012, via detection of the ITS1 region and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. Among 301 presumptive Candida glabrata isolates, 293 isolates were confirmed as C. glabrata (97.34 %), 7 isolates were identified as C. nivariensis (2.33 %) and 1 isolate was identified as C. bracarensis (0.33 %). The C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis isolates were confirmed by sequencing. All C. nivariensis isolates were susceptible to nystatin and susceptible or susceptible dose-dependent to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. The C. bracarensis isolate was susceptible to nystatin and the tested azoles. Among the seven patients with VVC caused by C. nivariensis and who were treated with various antifungal agents, only one patient achieved mycological eradication at both the day 7-14 and day 30-35 follow-ups. The C. bracarensis isolate was isolated from a symptomatic pregnant woman; additional data for this patient were unavailable. We conclude that C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis existed in the vaginal samples of patients with VVC. Therapeutic efficacy in the patients with C. nivariensis was poor and inconsistent with the observed in vitro antifungal susceptibility, which requires further study. PMID:25118875

  10. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p < 0.001) than non-albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. PMID:27020154

  11. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii. PMID:27142089

  12. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of the first Italian Candida africana isolate.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    One atypical isolate of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was isolated from an Italian patient with vulvovaginitis. The strain, germ tube positive and chlamydospore-negative showed white-thin turquoise colonies on Candida ID 2 medium. The yeast was identified as Candida africana by using morphological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the molecular results obtained in this study as well as in other studies, C. africana cannot be yet considered as a new species of Candida. It is possible that C. africana represents a new variant of C. albicans like the well-known Candida stellatoidea. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Italy. PMID:18983430

  13. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.165 Candida lipolytica. The food additive Candida lipolytica... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the organism Candida lipolytica and...

  14. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.165 Candida lipolytica. The food additive Candida lipolytica... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the organism Candida lipolytica and...

  15. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.165 Candida lipolytica. The food additive Candida lipolytica... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the organism Candida lipolytica and...

  16. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.165 Candida lipolytica. The food additive Candida lipolytica... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the organism Candida lipolytica and...

  17. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    MedlinePlus

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of fungal infections worldwide. In the U.S., Candida is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream ...

  18. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  19. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  20. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections. Images PMID:6227630

  1. Adherence ability of Candida africana: a comparative study with Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; De Leo, Filomena; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we compared the adherence ability to human Hela cells and biofilm formation of three closely related Candida yeast. In our experiments, Candida africana showed poor adhesion ability to human Hela cells and the absence of biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride strips. Conversely, Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis formed mature biofilms and stable attachment to Hela cells. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study reporting data on biofilm formation and adherence to human Hela cells by C. africana. PMID:20202113

  2. Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fich, Felix; Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Pérez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; León, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the

  3. CHROMagar Candida, a new differential isolation medium for presumptive identification of clinically important Candida species.

    PubMed Central

    Odds, F C; Bernaerts, R

    1994-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a novel, differential culture medium that is claimed to facilitate the isolation and presumptive identification of some clinically important yeast species. We evaluated the use of this medium with 726 yeast isolates, including 82 isolated directly on the medium from clinical material. After 2 days of incubation at 37 degrees C, 285 C. albicans isolates gave distinctive green colonies that were not seen with any of 441 other yeast isolates representing 21 different species. A total of 54 C. tropicalis isolates also developed distinctive dark blue-gray colonies with a halo of dark brownish purple in the surrounding agar. C. krusei isolates (n = 43) also formed highly characteristic rough, spreading colonies with pale pink centers and a white edge that was otherwise encountered only rarely with isolates of C. norvegensis. Trichosporon spp. (n = 34) formed small, pale colonies that became larger and characteristically rough with prolonged incubation. Most of the other 310 yeasts studied formed colonies with a color that ranged from white to pink to purple with a brownish tint. The only exceptions were found among isolates identified as Geotrichum sp. or Pichia sp., some of which formed colonies with a gray to blue color and which in two instances formed a green pigment or a dark halo in the agar. The specificity and sensitivity of the new medium for the presumptive identification of C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis exceeded 99% for all three species. A blinded reading test involving four personnel and 57 yeast isolates representing nine clinically important species confirmed that colonial appearance after 48 h of incubation on CHROMagar Candida afforded the correct presumptive recognition of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C, krusei, and Trichosporon spp. None of nine bacterial isolates grew on CHROMagar Candida within 72 h, and bacteria (Escherichia coli) grew from only 4 of 104 vaginal, 100 oral, and 99 anorectal swabs. The new medium

  4. Fluorescence assay for the detection of adherent Candida yeasts to target cells in microtest plates.

    PubMed

    Borg-von Zepelin, M; Wagner, T

    1995-01-01

    We describe an assay based on photometric analysis for the measurement of adherence of Candida species to epithelial target cells (Vero cell line). Adherent Candida cells were detected by staining the cells with the fluorescent dye Calcofluor white (CFW), which binds to chitin and glucan in the yeasts. The tests were performed on microtest plates, which were analysed automatically by fluorescence plate readers. The assay is based on the following steps: (i) coating of the microtest plates with target cells (e.g. Vero cells); (ii) infection with Candida: (iii) staining of Candida with CFW; (iv) rinsing to remove non-adherent Candida cells and unbound dye; (v) detection of adherent fluorescent Candida cells. The test was able to detect 4 x 10(4) cells ml-1. The standard deviation was +/- 8%. Day-to-day variation was +/- 10% at most. The adherence of strains of different Candida species was assayed by a standard procedure. The results confirmed the order of adherence, with C. albicans ranking first, followed by C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata. PMID:8569807

  5. Pathogenesis of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J D

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of candida vulvovaginitis (CVV) has been estimated based on statistical data from Great Britain to be an increase to 200/100,000 over 10 years to 1984. CVV in the US is the 2nd commonest cause of vaginal infection, with bacterial vaginosis occurring twice as often. 85-90% of the yeasts isolated from the vagina are candida albicans, based on biotyping rather that the newer methods of DNA hybridization. The pathogenesis of CVV is discussed in terms of the microbiology (virulence factors, adherence, germ tube and mycelium formation, proteinase secretion, and switching colonies), asymptomatic vaginal colonization, transformation to symptomatic vaginitis, host predisposing factors (pregnancy, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobes, and other), vaginal defense mechanisms (humoral system, phagocytic system, cell mediated immunity, vaginal flora, other), and pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic CVV (internal reservoir, sexual transmission, vaginal relapse, and experimental models) The discussion of the development of virulent symptoms is capsuled in the following comments. Vaginal cell receptivity varies among individuals, but all strains of C. Albicans adhere to both exfoliated vaginal and buccal epithelial cells, or mucosal surfaces, through the yeast surface mannoprotein. It is suggested from in vitro studies that germ tube and mycelium formation facilitates vaginal mucosal invasion. Exogenous and endogenous factors may enhance germination and precipitate symptomatic vaginitis, or inhibit germination. Increased proteinase secretion may be a result of the transformation from the blastoconidium/colonization phase to the germinated invasive vaginitis stage or an independent virulence factor. It is reported that hereditable spontaneous switching may occur spontaneously in vivo also. Colonizing yeasts with a change in environment can transform to a more virulent phase. Colonization rates vary from 10-25%, and the critical issue is understanding

  6. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T). PMID:26410375

  7. The gray phenotype and tristable phenotypic transitions in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Tao, Li; Zhang, Qiuyu; Guan, Guobo; Nobile, Clarissa J; Zheng, Qiushi; Ding, Xuefen; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, the ability to switch between different morphological types, plays critical roles in environmental adaptation, leading to infections, and allowing for sexual reproduction in pathogenic Candida species. Candida tropicalis, which is both an emerging human fungal pathogen and an environmental fungus, can switch between two heritable cell types termed white and opaque. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel phenotype in C. tropicalis, named the gray phenotype. Similar to Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, white, gray, and opaque cell types of C. tropicalis also form a tristable switching system, where gray cells are relatively small and elongated. In C. tropicalis, gray cells exhibit intermediate levels of mating competency and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model compared to the white and opaque cell types, express a set of cell type-enriched genes, and exhibit both common and species-specific biological features. The key regulators of white-opaque transitions, Wor1 and Efg1, are not required for the gray phenotype. A comparative study of the gray phenotypes in C. tropicalis, C. albicans, and C. dubliniensis provides clues to explain the virulence properties and niche preferences of C. tropicalis. PMID:27246518

  8. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and osteomyelitis associated with CARD9 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas; Garcez, Tomaz; Newman, William; Denning, David

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with unilateral red eye and visual blur, and was found to have panuveitis with an inflammatory white mass at the macula, initially presumed to be Toxoplasma retinitis. After failure to respond, she underwent vitrectomy, which produced Candida albicans. Despite intraocular and systemic antifungal treatment, she lost all vision in that eye. Two years later, she developed unilateral hip osteomyelitis leading to total hip replacement and also revealing Candida infection. By clinical exome sequencing, she was then found to have caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder that causes a specific susceptibility to candidal infections. She remains otherwise well but on lifelong fluconazole prophylaxis. PMID:26941346

  9. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism...

  10. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism...

  11. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism...

  12. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism...

  13. Candida albicans clades.

    PubMed

    Soll, David R; Pujol, Claude

    2003-10-24

    DNA fingerprinting with the complex probe Ca3 has revealed the following five Candida albicans clades: group I, group II, group III, group SA and group E. These groups exhibit geographical specificity. Group SA is relatively specific (i.e., highly enriched) to South Africa, group E is relatively specific to Europe, and group II is absent in the Southwest USA and South America. The maintenance of deep-rooted clades side by side in the same geographical locale and the apparent absence of subclade structure suggest little recombination between clades, but higher rates of recombination within clades. Exclusive 5-fluorocytosine resistance in the majority of group I isolates reinforces the above conclusions on recombination, and demonstrates that clades differ phenotypically. The ramifications of these findings with regard to pathogenesis are discussed. In particular, these findings lay to rest the idea that one strain represents all strains of C. albicans, support the need for a worldwide analysis of population structure and clade-specific phenotypic characteristics, and demonstrate that in the future, pathogenic characteristics must be analyzed in representatives from all five clades. PMID:14556989

  14. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  15. High-frequency switching in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Soll, D R

    1992-01-01

    Most strains of Candida albicans are capable of switching frequently and reversibly between a number of phenotypes distinguishable by colony morphology. A number of different switching systems have been defined according to the limited set of phenotypes in each switching repertoire, and each strain appears to possess a single system. Switching can affect many aspects of cellular physiology and morphology and appears to be a second level of phenotypic variability superimposed upon the bud-hypha transition. The most dramatic switching system so far identified is the "white-opaque transition." This system dramatizes the extraordinary effects switching can have on the budding cell phenotype, including the synthesis of opaque-specific antigens, the expression of white-specific and opaque-specific genes, and the genesis of unique cell wall structures. Switching has been demonstrated to occur at sites of infection and between episodes of recurrent vaginitis, and it may function to generate variability in commensal and infecting populations for adaptive reasons. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in the switch event are not understood, recent approaches to its elucidation are discussed and an epigenetic mechanism is proposed. Images PMID:1576587

  16. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  17. [Biomineralization of copper in Candida fukuyamaensis RCL-3].

    PubMed

    Irazusta, Verónica; Michel, Lucas; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2016-01-01

    Candida fukuyamaensis RCL-3 yeast has the ability to decrease copper concentration in a culture medium. High copper concentrations change the cell color from white/cream to brown. The effect of color change ceases with the addition of KCN or when cells are grown in a culture medium without sulfate ions. These results could be associated with CuS bioaccumulation in the cell surface. This report revealed that mineralization would be a mechanism used by this yeast for copper bioremediation. PMID:27237424

  18. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847

  19. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51), but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS) which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy)-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene) (WSP1267) had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a) loss of cell wall integrity, (b) detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c) accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d) presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e) significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new antifungal drugs. PMID

  20. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  1. Candida osteomyelitis in a gelding

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Aimie; López, Alfonso; Pack, LeeAnn; Muckle, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old gelding was referred for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness. The horse was grade 4/5 lame on the right forelimb. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings were consistent with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Due to poor prognosis the owner elected euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed chronic arthritis and osteomyelitis with intralesional yeast (Candida species). PMID:23904643

  2. Candida albicans, plasticity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The yeast Candida albicans has emerged as a major public health problem during the past two decades. The spectrum of diseases caused by this species ranges from vaginal infections, which affect up to 75% of the women at least once in their lifetime, to deep infections in hospitalized patients which lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. Candida albicans may also play a role in the persistence or worsening of some chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Active research is now improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors in the yeast and its host which influence the development of disease. Despite these advances and the availability of a more extensive therapeutic arsenal, current progress in the control of nosocomial infections due to Candida remains limited, mainly due to the difficulties in diagnosing these infections. The biologist has a key role to play in establishing a dialogue with the clinician in order to identify the saprophyte/pathogen transition in patients as early as possible. This review provides a quick synopsis of the modern concepts of Candida pathogenesis with some representative examples illustrating the specifics traits of this yeast in terms of pathogenic adaptation. PMID:23962107

  3. A multiplex PCR protocol for rapid identification of Candida glabrata and its phylogenetically related species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Scordino, Fabio; Pernice, Ida; Lo Passo, Carla; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of Candida glabrata and its closely related species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis. The method uses four PCR primers, targeting the ITS1 region and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. The combination of these primers yielded unique results to all Candida species tested. The PCR assay we developed was found to be a rapid, specific and easy to perform method and it will be useful for characterizing large numbers of isolates for epidemiological studies. PMID:19635503

  4. Occurrence and diversity of Candida genus in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenming; Yue, Lixi; Chi, Zhe; Zhang, Dechao

    2008-11-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, guts of marine fishes and marine algae were obtained. The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeasts belonged to Candida genus as Candida intermedia for YA01a, Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2, Candida quercitrusa for JHSb, Candia rugosa for wl8, Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a, and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3. Isolates YA01a ( Candida intermedia), wl8 ( Candida rugosa), 3eA2 ( Candida parapsilosis), and JHSb ( Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase, while isolate W14-3 ( Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin. These marine yeast Candida spp. seem to have wide potential applications in biotechnology.

  5. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  6. Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Robert, Raymond; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2006-06-01

    We have evaluated the ability of the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze (Fumouze Diagnostics, Levallois-Perret, France) latex agglutination test to identify colonies of Candida dubliniensis grown on different media. The test was positive for 103 of 106 isolates of C. dubliniensis and negative for Candida albicans and other Candida species studied. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 97.1% and 100%, respectively. The test is very rapid, simple, and reliable giving the same results independently of whether the colonies are grown previously on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHROMagar Candida medium, Candida ID2 medium, or CHROMagar-Pal's medium. PMID:16529902

  7. Direct Isolation of Candida spp. from Blood Cultures on the Chromogenic Medium CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Lynn L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Dooley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a selective and differential chromogenic medium that has been shown to be useful for identification of Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. Colony morphology and color have been well defined when CHROMagar Candida has been used to isolate yeast directly from clinical specimens, including stool, urine, respiratory, vaginal, oropharyngeal, and esophageal sources. Direct isolation of yeast on CHROMagar Candida from blood cultures has not been evaluated. We evaluated whether the color and colony characteristics produced by Candida spp. on CHROMagar Candida were altered when yeasts were isolated directly from blood cultures. Fifty clinical isolates of Candida were inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and incubated at 35°C in an automated blood culture system. When growth was detected, an aliquot was removed and plated onto CHROMagar Candida. As a control, CHROMagar Candida plates were inoculated with the same isolate of yeast grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar simultaneously. No significant difference was detected in color or colony morphology between the blood and control isolates in any of the tested organisms. All C. albicans (n = 12), C. tropicalis (n = 12), C. glabrata (n = 9), and C. krusei (n = 5) isolates exhibited the expected species-specific colony characteristics and color, whether isolated directly from blood or from control cultures. CHROMagar Candida can be reliably used for direct isolation of yeast from blood cultures. Direct isolation could allow mycology laboratories to more rapidly identify Candida spp., enable clinicians to more quickly make antifungal agent selections, and potentially decrease patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:12791890

  8. Intracranial fungal aneurysm caused by Candida endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Wakabayashi, K; Yamazaki, K; Miyakawa, T; Arai, H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 67-year-old man who died 4 days after suffering a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Autopsy revealed a fresh subarachnoid hemorrhage and a ruptured fungal aneurysm near the trifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. In comparison with 21 previously reported cases in which the fungal aneurysms were proved to be intracranial, the present case had several characteristic features: the causative fungus of the aneurysm was Candida (only one such case has been reported previously). The aneurysm was caused by direct Candida invasion of the arterial wall from the Candida embolus (previously reported aneurysms have been caused by direct invasion of the arterial wall during fungal meningitis). The source of the Candida was endocarditis (the main sources of fungus in previously reported cases have been sinusitis, dental extraction wounds, and some forms of surgery). We describe the features of this rare autopsy case of a ruptured fungal aneurysm caused by Candida originating from endocarditis and review the literature. PMID:9707334

  9. Novel strategies to fight Candida species infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of human fungal infections. The increase in cases of infection caused by Candida species, and the consequent excessive use of antimicrobials, has favored the emergence of resistance to conventional antifungal agents over the past decades. Consequently, Candida infections morbidity and mortality are also increasing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients suffering from Candida infections, because it seems unlikely that the established standard treatments will drastically lower the morbidity of mucocutaneous Candida infections and the high mortality associated with invasive candidiasis. This review aims to present the last advances in the traditional antifungal therapy, and present an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of Candida infections, with a special focus on combined antifungal agents, antifungal therapies with alternative compounds (plant extracts and essential oils), adjuvant immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy and laser therapy. PMID:25383647

  10. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    PubMed Central

    Pravin Charles, M. V.; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing. PMID:26109791

  11. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Nur Saeida; Abdullah, Hasmah; Abdul Wahab, Wan Nor Amilah Wan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis. PMID:25709331

  12. Microwave sterilization of Candida on underwear fabric. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, E.G. Jr.; Phillips, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Candida-contaminated underwear might not be sterilized by ordinary laundering. The effectiveness of microwaving against Candida albicans on fabric was therefore determined. Swatches of Candida-impregnated cotton underpants fabric were subjected to domestic microwaving at the high setting for up to 30 minutes. If the fabric was microwaved dry, the Candida organisms survived. If the fabric was moistened, sterilization occurred within five minutes. Microwaving wet, freshly laundered cotton underpants should sterilize residual Candida and reduce the risk of reinfection.

  13. Application of CHROMagar Candida for rapid screening of clinical specimens for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Houston, A; Coffmann, S

    1996-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a new differential culture medium that allows selective isolation of yeasts and simultaneously identifies colonies of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We evaluated the use of this medium with 316 yeast isolates including 247 isolated directly on CHROMagar from clinical material. Over 95% of stock and clinical isolates of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei were correctly identified on the basis of colony morphology and pigmentation on CHROMagar. Additionally, CHROMagar also allowed the identification of C. (Torulopsis) glabrata at a similar level of accuracy. The overall agreement between two observers in reading the CHROMagar plates was 95%. Growth of Candida sp. isolates on CHROMagar had no adverse effect on antifungal MICs or Vitek identification results. In parallel, cultures of 548 stool and rectal swab specimens set up on CHROMagar and Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) were positive in 234 instances. CHROMagar was positive and SGA was negative for 11 specimens, and CHROMagar was negative and SGA was positive for 18 specimens. A single yeast species was isolated on both media from 162 specimens, and in 146 (90%) of these specimens the same species was detected on both CHROMagar and SGA. A total of 43 of the 234 positive cultures contained mixtures of yeast species. Twenty (47%) of these mixed cultures were detected only on CHROMagar. CHROMagar is extremely useful in making a rapid presumptive identification of common yeast species. This capability plus the ability to detect mixed cultures of Candida spp. promises to improve and streamline the work flow in the mycology and clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:8748273

  14. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  15. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

    PubMed

    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats. PMID:1293885

  16. The First Korean Case of Candidemia due to Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nae; Kim, Hye Ryoun

    2012-01-01

    Candidemia due to uncommon Candida spp. appears to be increasing in incidence. C. dubliniensis has been increasingly recovered from individuals not infected with HIV. Identification of C. dubliniensis can be problematic in routine clinical practice due to its phenotypic resemblance to C. albicans. We report the first case of C. dubliniensis candidemia in Korea, which occurred in a 64-yr-old woman who presented with partial seizure, drowsiness, and recurrent fever. Germ-tube positive yeast that was isolated from blood and central venous catheter tip cultures formed smooth, white colonies on sheep blood agar and Sabouraud agar plates, indicative of Candida spp. C. dubliniensis was identified using the Vitek 2 system (bioMerieux, USA), latex agglutination, chromogenic agar, and multiplex PCR. The blood isolate was susceptible to flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. After removal of the central venous catheter and initiation of fluconazole treatment, the patient's condition gradually improved, and she was cleared for discharge from our hospital. Both clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of predisposing factors to C. dubliniensis candidemia in order to promote early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:22563560

  17. Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Fries, Bettina C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: All humans are colonized with Candida species, mostly Candida albicans, yet some develop diseases due to Candida, among which genitourinary manifestations are extremely common. The forms of genitourinary candidiasis are distinct from each other and affect different populations. While vulvovaginal candidiasis affects mostly healthy women, candiduria occurs typically in elderly, hospitalized, or immunocompromised patients and in neonates. Despite its high incidence and clinical relevance, genitourinary candidiasis is understudied, and therefore, important questions about pathogenesis and treatment guidelines remain to be resolved. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about genitourinary candidiasis. PMID:20375352

  18. Candida albicans Quorum Sensing Molecules Stimulate Mouse Macrophage Migration

    PubMed Central

    Hargarten, Jessica C.; Moore, Tyler C.; Petro, Thomas M.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphic commensal fungus Candida albicans causes life-threatening disease via bloodstream and intra-abdominal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Although host immune evasion is a common strategy used by successful human fungal pathogens, C. albicans provokes recognition by host immune cells less capable of destroying it. To accomplish this, C. albicans white cells secrete a low-molecular-weight chemoattractive stimulant(s) of macrophages, a phagocyte that they are able to survive within and eventually escape from. C. albicans opaque cells do not secrete this chemoattractive stimulant(s). We report here a physiological mechanism that contributes to the differences in the interaction of C. albicans white and opaque cells with macrophages. E,E-Farnesol, which is secreted by white cells only, is a potent stimulator of macrophage chemokinesis, whose activity is enhanced by yeast cell wall components and aromatic alcohols. E,E-farnesol results in up to an 8.5-fold increase in macrophage migration in vitro and promotes a 3-fold increase in the peritoneal infiltration of macrophages in vivo. Therefore, modulation of farnesol secretion to stimulate host immune recognition by macrophages may help explain why this commensal is such a successful pathogen. PMID:26195556

  19. Candida albicans Quorum Sensing Molecules Stimulate Mouse Macrophage Migration.

    PubMed

    Hargarten, Jessica C; Moore, Tyler C; Petro, Thomas M; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Atkin, Audrey L

    2015-10-01

    The polymorphic commensal fungus Candida albicans causes life-threatening disease via bloodstream and intra-abdominal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Although host immune evasion is a common strategy used by successful human fungal pathogens, C. albicans provokes recognition by host immune cells less capable of destroying it. To accomplish this, C. albicans white cells secrete a low-molecular-weight chemoattractive stimulant(s) of macrophages, a phagocyte that they are able to survive within and eventually escape from. C. albicans opaque cells do not secrete this chemoattractive stimulant(s). We report here a physiological mechanism that contributes to the differences in the interaction of C. albicans white and opaque cells with macrophages. E,E-Farnesol, which is secreted by white cells only, is a potent stimulator of macrophage chemokinesis, whose activity is enhanced by yeast cell wall components and aromatic alcohols. E,E-farnesol results in up to an 8.5-fold increase in macrophage migration in vitro and promotes a 3-fold increase in the peritoneal infiltration of macrophages in vivo. Therefore, modulation of farnesol secretion to stimulate host immune recognition by macrophages may help explain why this commensal is such a successful pathogen. PMID:26195556

  20. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. PMID:27261732

  1. Comparison of Switching and Biofilm Formation between MTL-Homozygous Strains of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Claude; Daniels, Karla J.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture in comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit a far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilms composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to a pseudohypha-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved. PMID:26432632

  2. Sulphate transport in Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Benítez, J A; Alonso, A; Delgado, J; Kotyk, A

    1983-01-01

    Sulphate uptake by Candida utilis follows Michaelis-Menten type kinetics characterized by a Km of 1.43 mM for sulphate. The process is unidirectional, pH, temperature and energy dependent. Molybdate, selenate, thiosulphate, chromate and sulphite are competitive inhibitors. Dithionite is a mixed-type inhibitor of sulphate uptake. If cells are pre-incubated with sulphate, sulphite, thiosulphate, dithionite or sulphide, sulphate uptake is severely blocked. Inhibition by endogenous sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate was specific for sulphate uptake. Thus, incorporation of extracellular sulphate seems to be under the control of a heterogeneous pool of sulphur compounds. These results are discussed in connection with the regulation of sulphur amino acid biosynthesis in C. utilis. PMID:6682074

  3. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  4. Fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, C A; Pye, G W; Troke, P F; Johnson, E M; Warnock, D W

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of infection with Candida glabrata in which the organism became resistant to fluconazole and in which pre- and posttreatment isolates were available for comparison. The organism was cross-resistant to ketoconazole and itraconazole, in common with other azole-resistant yeasts. Fluconazole was a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (P-450DM) in lysates of cells from both susceptible and resistant cultures (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.2 microM), indicating that resistance was unrelated to changes in P-450DM. Instead, it appeared to arise from a permeability barrier to fluconazole, since resistant cells were unable to take up radiolabelled drug. PMID:8239613

  5. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  6. Candida Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit?

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Ronny M.; Linssen, Catharina F.; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N.; Bergmans, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make validation and the development of a clinical algorithm difficult. In the present study, we analyze whether Candida pneumonia exists in our critical care population. We used a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen database that we have built in a structural diagnostic approach to ventilator-associated pneumonia for more than a decade consisting of 832 samples. Microbiological data were linked to clinical information and available autopsy data. We searched for critically ill patients with respiratory failure with no other microbiological or clinical explanation than exclusive presence of Candida species in BAL fluid. Five cases could be identified with Candida as the likely cause of pneumonia. PMID:25734099

  7. GENETIC CONTROL OF CANDIDA ALBICANS BIOFILM DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan S.; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Candida species cause frequent infections due to their ability to form biofilms – surface-associated microbial communities – primarily on implanted medical devices. Increasingly, mechanistic studies have identified the gene products that participate directly in Candida albicans biofilm formation, as well as the regulatory circuitry and networks that control their expression and activity. These studies have revealed new mechanisms and signals that govern C. albicans biofilm formation and associated drug resistance, thus providing biological insight and therapeutic foresight. PMID:21189476

  8. [Candida catheter related-blood stream infection].

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Masako; Shimono, Nobuyuki

    2014-02-01

    Candida catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a biofilm-related disease, which is usually refractory because antifungals show limited effect. With medical development and increase in number of compromised hosts, CRBSI became more frequent. Candida, which is one of the opportunistic pathogens, ranks the fourth causative organism of bacteremia. The onset of bacteremia is greatly associated with the presence of catheter. Repeated blood cultures and the central venous catheter (CVC) tip culture are done for the definitive diagnosis of Candida CRBSI. Additionally serological examinations such as (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan and mannan antigen are also useful for early diagnosis. It is important for the appropriate treatment to remove CVC, which is an artificial contaminated material, and administer antifungals promptly. As to the choice of antifungals, we should also take into account the ability of antibiofilm effect of antifungals as well as immunological state of host including neutropenia, prior administration of azoles, isolated or estimated Candida species, sensitivity against antifungals, administration route, pharmacokinetics (bioavailability, metabolic and excretion pathway, distribution) and drug interaction. As to complication of Candida bacteremia, first we should check endophthalmitis, which occurs frequently and leads to the loss of eyesight, as well as infective endocarditis, arthritis, metastatic infections such as embolic pneumonia and suppurative thrombotic phlebitis of catheter insertion site. Lastly we emphasize that the appropriate treatment based on the character of Candida bacteremia and biofilm leads to favorable prognosis. PMID:24809204

  9. Candida africana and its closest relatives.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Candida africana is a recently described opportunistic yeast pathogen that has been linked to vaginal candidiasis. This yeast was first described, in 1995, as atypical chlamydospore-negative Candida albicans strain, and subsequently proposed as a new Candida species on the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics clearly different from those of typical C. albicans isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on the comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences demonstrated that C. africana and C. albicans isolates are too closely related to draw any conclusions regarding the status of a new species. Therefore, on the basis of these studies, some authors considered C. africana as a biovar of C. albicans even if genetic differences may be found if additional regions of genomic DNA are sequenced. The taxonomic situation of C. africana and its phylogenetic relationship with other Candida species is still controversial and remains, at present, a matter of debate. Our goal is to review the current knowledge about C. africana and highlight the development of rapid and accurate tests for its discrimination from C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea. Furthermore, through the analysis of literature data, we have found that C. africana has a worldwide distribution and a considerable number of features making its study particularly interesting. PMID:20667001

  10. White House

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Necrotising Candida oesophagitis after thoracic radiotherapy: significance of oesophageal wall oedema on CT.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirotake; Sueyama, Hiroo; Fukuda, Takanori; Ota, Kyuma

    2015-01-01

    Although oesophageal candidiasis is usually a superficial mucosal infection, necrotising Candida oesophagitis has been reported to cause oesophageal perforation or lung abscess. We report the case of an elderly Japanese man presenting with painless dysphagia after thoracic radiotherapy for oesophageal cancer. Non-contrast CT demonstrated segmental and oedematous thickening of the oesophageal wall. Endoscopy revealed white plaques on the oesophageal mucosa. The patient's oesophagitis responded to systemic antifungal therapy, and did not lead to oesophageal perforation. He died of recurrent oesophageal cancer several months later. The importance of severe radiation-induced oesophagitis without pain, our pathophysiological hypothesis on the local oedema caused by Candida infection and the usefulness of CT in evaluating abnormal thickening of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed separately in the article. PMID:26135495

  12. Candida glabrata among Candida spp. from environmental health practitioners of a Brazilian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Catarina; de Oliveira Silva, Elisa; Gonçalves, Lindyanne Lemos; Nery, Jéssica Maria; Silva, Naiara Chaves; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of the species Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida was evaluated in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital from the environment and health practitioners. In a 12-month period we had a total positivity of 19.65% of Candida spp. The most recurring non-albicans Candida species was C. glabrata (37.62%), generally considered a species of low virulence, but with a higher mortality rate than C. albicans. Subsequently, C. parapsilosis (25.74%) and C. tropicalis (16.86%) were the second and third most commonly isolated species. Considering the total samples collected from the emergency room and from the inpatient and the pediatric sector, 19.10% were positive for Candida spp., with the predominance of non-albicans Candida species (89.42%). The high percentage of positivity occurred in the hands (24.32%) and the lab coats (21.88%) of the health care assistants. No sample of C. albicans presented a profile of resistance to the drugs. All the non-albicans Candida species presented a decreased susceptibility to miconazole and itraconazole, but they were susceptible to nystatin. Most of the isolates were susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. As expected, a high resistance rate was observed in C. glabrata and C. krusei, which are intrinsically less susceptible to this antifungal agent. The contamination of environmental surfaces by Candida spp. through hand touching may facilitate the occurrence of Candida infections predominantly in immunocompromised patients. In addition to that, the antifungal agents used should be carefully evaluated considering local epidemiologic trends in Candida spp. infections, so that therapeutic choices may be better guided. PMID:26991302

  13. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, Muhammad Ali; Fouladi, Zahra

    2007-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts was 70.7 and 127 mg l−1, respectively. Aqueous extract showed no remarkable activity against Candida species. We conclude that methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss has more anti-Candida effect at 70.7 mg l−1 compared to ethanolic extract 127 mg l−1. In addition, the isolates of Candida parapsilosis were more susceptible to methanolic extract than other tested species. PMID:17965766

  14. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  15. Effect of Usnic Acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections. PMID:22006006

  16. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    PubMed

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals. PMID:27452427

  17. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Simeon J.; Swan, Christopher D.; Boutlis, Craig S.; Reid, Alistair B.

    2016-01-01

    Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use. PMID:27182491

  18. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    Deorukhkar, Sachin C.; Saini, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species demonstrate reduced susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. among Candida isolates from various clinical specimens and analysed their virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile. A total of 523 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant pathogens isolated. Non-albicans Candida species also demonstrated the production of virulence factors once attributed to Candida albicans. Non-albicans Candida demonstrated high resistance to azole group of antifungal agents. Therefore, it can be concluded that non-albicans Candida species have emerged as an important cause of infections. Their isolation from clinical specimen can no longer be ignored as a nonpathogenic isolate nor can it be dismissed as a contaminant. PMID:25404942

  19. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Simeon J; Swan, Christopher D; Boutlis, Craig S; Reid, Alistair B

    2016-01-01

    Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use. PMID:27182491

  20. Gene Gain and Loss during Evolution of Obligate Parasitism in the White Rust Pathogen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kemen, Eric; Gardiner, Anastasia; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Kemen, Ariane C.; Balmuth, Alexi L.; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Bailey, Kate; Holub, Eric; Studholme, David J.; MacLean, Dan; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Biotrophic eukaryotic plant pathogens require a living host for their growth and form an intimate haustorial interface with parasitized cells. Evolution to biotrophy occurred independently in fungal rusts and powdery mildews, and in oomycete white rusts and downy mildews. Biotroph evolution and molecular mechanisms of biotrophy are poorly understood. It has been proposed, but not shown, that obligate biotrophy results from (i) reduced selection for maintenance of biosynthetic pathways and (ii) gain of mechanisms to evade host recognition or suppress host defence. Here we use Illumina sequencing to define the genome, transcriptome, and gene models for the obligate biotroph oomycete and Arabidopsis parasite, Albugo laibachii. A. laibachii is a member of the Chromalveolata, which incorporates Heterokonts (containing the oomycetes), Apicomplexa (which includes human parasites like Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii), and four other taxa. From comparisons with other oomycete plant pathogens and other chromalveolates, we reveal independent loss of molybdenum-cofactor-requiring enzymes in downy mildews, white rusts, and the malaria parasite P. falciparum. Biotrophy also requires “effectors” to suppress host defence; we reveal RXLR and Crinkler effectors shared with other oomycetes, and also discover and verify a novel class of effectors, the “CHXCs”, by showing effector delivery and effector functionality. Our findings suggest that evolution to progressively more intimate association between host and parasite results in reduced selection for retention of certain biosynthetic pathways, and particularly reduced selection for retention of molybdopterin-requiring biosynthetic pathways. These mechanisms are not only relevant to plant pathogenic oomycetes but also to human pathogens within the Chromalveolata. PMID:21750662

  1. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  2. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  3. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Evaluation of a Reformulated CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Brenner, Troy M.; Romagnoli, Mark; Baqui, A. A. M. A.; Merz, William G.; Falkler, William A.; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a differential culture medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically important yeasts. Recently the medium was reformulated by Becton Dickinson. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the new formula of CHROMagar against the original CHROMagar Candida for recovery, growth, and colony color with stock cultures and with direct plating of clinical specimens. A total of 90 stock yeast isolates representing nine yeast species, including Candida dubliniensis, as well as 522 clinical specimens were included in this study. No major differences were noted in growth rate or colony size between the two media for most of the species. However, all 10 Candida albicans isolates evaluated consistently gave a lighter shade of green on the new CHROMagar formulation. In contrast, all 26 C. dubliniensis isolates gave the same typical dark green color on both media. A total of 173 of the 522 clinical specimens were positive for yeast, with eight yeast species recovered. The recovery rates for each species were equivalent on both media, with no consistent species-associated differences in colony size or color. Although both media were comparable in performance, the lighter green colonies of C. albicans isolates on the new CHROMagar made it easier to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolates. In conclusion, the newly formulated Becton Dickinson CHROMagar Candida medium is as equally suited as a differential medium for the presumptive identification of yeast species and for the detection of multiple yeast species in clinical specimens as the original CHROMagar Candida medium. PMID:11326038

  5. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast. PMID:20690497

  6. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Jeniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections. PMID:26999221

  7. The use of flow cytometry to monitor chitin synthesis in regenerating protoplasts of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hector, R F; Braun, P C; Hart, J T; Kamarck, M E

    1990-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to monitor chitin synthesis in regenerating protoplasts of the yeast Candida albicans. Comparisons of cells stained with Calcofluor White, a fluorochrome with known affinity for chitin, and cells incubated in the presence of N-[3H]-acetylglucosamine, the precursor substrate for chitin, showed a linear relationship between fluorescence and incorporation of label over time. Changes in both the fluorescence and light scatter of regenerating protoplasts treated with inhibitors of fungal chitin synthase were also quantitated by flow cytometry. PMID:2194018

  8. Candida arthritis: cellular immune responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood lymphocytes to Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, E; Mayet, W J; Klein, O; Lohse, A W; Trautwein, C; Michiels, I; Poralla, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1991-01-01

    A case of septic Candida albicans arthritis of the knee in a patient with systemic candidiasis is presented. Systemic and intra-articular cellular immune responses to C albicans and various bacterial antigens were monitored for 15 weeks. It is shown that the candida induced blastogenesis of synovial fluid lymphocytes was much more stimulated than that of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and that the proportion of activated cells expressing HLA class II antigens was markedly increased in the synovial fluid. Strong cellular immune responses to Candida albicans could still be shown many weeks after the synovial fluid aspirates had become sterile. For the first time synovial fluid derived, CD4 positive T lymphocyte clones with specificity for candida antigens were characterised and further propagated in vitro. Images PMID:1720301

  9. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

  10. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    PubMed

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed. PMID:18266075

  11. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  12. In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin against Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis Evaluated by Time-Kill Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin killing activities against Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis were evaluated by the time-kill methodology. The concentrations assayed were 0.06, 0.125, and 0.5 μg/ml, which are achieved in serum. Anidulafungin and micafungin required between 13 and 26 h to reach the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% killing) against C. glabrata and C. bracarensis. All echinocandins were less active against C. nivariensis. PMID:25801575

  13. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  14. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov., two ascosporic yeast species isolated from the gut of beetles.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Zhang, Lin; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-10-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from the gut of beetles collected on Baotianman Mountain and People's Park of Nanyang in Henan Province, China. These strains produced unconjugated asci with one or two ellipsoidal to elongate ascospores in a persistent ascus. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates represent two novel sexual species in the Candida/Lodderomyces clade. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. was located in a statistically well-supported branch together with Candida maltosa. Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. formed a subclade with its closest relative Candida viswanathii supported by a strong bootstrap value. The two novel species were distinguished from their most closely related described species, Candida maltosa and Candida viswanathii, in the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and in phenotypic traits. The type strain of Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14719T ( = CBS 13915T = CICC 33052T), and the type strain of Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. is NYNU 14772T ( = CBS 13916T = CICC 33053T). The MycoBank numbers for Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. are MB 812621 and MB 812622. PMID:26297152

  15. Anticandidal Effect and Mechanisms of Monoterpenoid, Perillyl Alcohol against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Moiz A; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the antifungal potential of perillyl alcohol (PA), a natural monoterpene alcohol, against most prevalent human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its clinical isolates and four non-albicans species of Candida. To resolve the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome analyses of PA treated Candida cells to examine the affected cellular circuitry of this pathogen. The transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and PA as among the several categories of PA responsive genes the down regulation of calcineurin signaling gene CNB1 was noteworthy which was also confirmed by both molecular docking and susceptibility assays. We observed that PA treated Candida phenocopied compromised calcineurin pathway stress responses and turned sensitive to alkaline pH, ionic, membrane, salinity, endoplasmic reticulum and serum stresses. Indispensability of functional calcineurin was further confirmed as calcineurin mutant was hypersensitive to PA while constitutively expressed calcineurin strain remained resistant. We explored that PA leads to perturbed membrane integrity as depicted through depleted ergosterol levels and disrupted pH homeostasis. Moreover, PA caused cell wall damage which was evident from hypersensitivity against cell wall perturbing agents (congo red, calcoflour white), SEM and enhanced rate of cell sedimentation. Furthermore, PA inhibited potential virulence traits including morphological transition, biofilm formation and displayed diminished capacity to adhere both to the polystyrene surface and buccal epithelial cells. The study also revealed that PA leads to cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial dysfunction in C. albicans. Together, the present study provides enough evidence for further work on PA so that better strategies could be employed to treat Candida infections. PMID:27627759

  16. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilmin vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50of CAS and FLU against singleCandida spp.and mixedCandida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicansandC. glabratamixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages ofCandidabiofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (P< .05) but not different when CAS at 0.5 MIC combined with FLU at 0.25 or 0.5MIC, compared to CAS treatment alone. Structural analyses revealed that CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms showed less hyphae and blastospores with some aberrant cells compared to control group. Although it was evident that a greater CFU ofCandida glabratawere demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent. PMID:26768371

  17. Phenotypic Plasticity Regulates Candida albicans Interactions and Virulence in the Vertebrate Host

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Emily M.; Bergeron, Audrey C.; Jones, Stephen K.; Newman, Zachary R.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Creton, Robbert; Wheeler, Robert T.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is critical to the lifestyles of many microbial species, enabling rapid responses to changes in environmental conditions. In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, cells exhibit heritable switching between two phenotypic states, white and opaque, which yield differences in mating, filamentous growth, and interactions with immune cells in vitro. Here, we address the in vivo virulence properties of the two cell states in a zebrafish model of infection. Multiple attributes were compared including the stability of phenotypic states, filamentation, virulence, dissemination, and phagocytosis by immune cells, and phenotypes equated across three different host temperatures. Importantly, we found that both white and opaque cells could establish a lethal systemic infection. The relative virulence of the two cell types was temperature dependent; virulence was similar at 25°C, but at higher temperatures (30 and 33°C) white cells were significantly more virulent than opaque cells. Despite the difference in virulence, fungal burden, and dissemination were similar between cells in the two states. Additionally, both white and opaque cells exhibited robust filamentation during infection and blocking filamentation resulted in decreased virulence, establishing that this program is critical for pathogenesis in both cell states. Interactions between C. albicans cells and immune cells differed between white and opaque states. Macrophages and neutrophils preferentially phagocytosed white cells over opaque cells in vitro, and neutrophils showed preferential phagocytosis of white cells in vivo. Together, these studies distinguish the properties of white and opaque cells in a vertebrate host, and establish that the two cell types demonstrate both important similarities and key differences during infection. PMID:27303374

  18. Evaluation of CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Koc, Ayse Nedret; Sav, Hafize; Aydemir, Gonca

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare conventional methods, CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS system for the identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-four strains were identified according to conventional methods, CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS. Sequencing was used as the reference method. The 54 strains included 32 Candida parapsilosis, 19 Candida albicans, 1 Candida glabrata and 2 Candida tropicalis according to the reference method. One C. albicans and one C. glabrata isolate were misidentified as C. parapsilosis by CHROMagar Candida. Two C. parapsilosis and three C. albicans isolates were misidentified by VITEK2 YST card. CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS identified correctly 96.2%, 90.7% and 100% of all strains, respectively. We found that the CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST card and VITEK®MS system are easy, rapid and accurate alternative methods for the identification of yeast species in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:26700081

  19. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov., and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain...

  20. Four novel yeasts species from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four novel Candida species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and C. vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. C. robertii and C. scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS culture collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 region of the large su...

  1. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Candida tropicalis complicated by multiple pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, K; Gabriel, H; Willinger, B; Ehringer, H; Polterauer, P; Graninger, W

    2001-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is an unusual but severe complication caused by Candida albicans or other fungal species. We describe a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Candida tropicalis, complicated by multiple pseudoaneurysms. PMID:11440392

  2. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients. PMID:25322705

  3. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T). PMID:16627669

  4. Uncommon Candida Species Fungemia among Cancer Patients, Houston, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong Sik; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Jiang, Ying; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2015-11-01

    Many uncommon Candida species that cause bloodstream infections (BSIs) are not well-characterized. We investigated the epidemiology, antifungal use, susceptibility patterns, and factors associated with all-cause death among cancer patients in whom uncommon Candida spp. BSIs were diagnosed at a cancer treatment center during January 1998–September 2013. Of 1,395 Candida bloodstream isolates, 79 from 68 patients were uncommon Candida spp. The incidence density of uncommon Candida spp. BSIs and their proportion to all candidemia episodes substantively increased during the study period, and the rise was associated with increasing use of echinocandin antifungal drugs. Thirty-seven patients had breakthrough infections during therapy or prophylaxis with various systemic antifungal drugs for >7 consecutive days; 21 were receiving an echinocandin. C. kefyr (82%), and C. lusitaniae (21%) isolates frequently showed caspofungin MICs above the epidemiologic cutoff values. These findings support the need for institutional surveillance for uncommon Candida spp. among cancer patients. PMID:26488845

  5. In vitro pharmacodynamic modelling of anidulafungin against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Ortega, Ignacio; Eraso, Elena; Suárez, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fit anidulafungin in vitro static time-kill data from nine strains of Candida with a pharmacodynamic (PD) model in order to describe the antifungal activity of this drug against Candida spp. Time-kill data from strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis clades were best fit using an adapted sigmoidal Emax model and resulted in a set of PD parameters (Emax, EC50 and Hill factor) for each fungal strain. The data were analysed with NONMEM 7. Anidulafungin was effective in a species- and concentration-dependent manner against the strains of C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis clades as observed with the EC50 estimates. Maximum killing rate constant (Emax) values were higher against C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis complex strains. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the activity of anidulafungin against Candida can be accurately described using an adapted sigmoidal Emax model. PMID:26857078

  6. Uncommon Candida Species Fungemia among Cancer Patients, Houston, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong Sik; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Jiang, Ying; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Many uncommon Candida species that cause bloodstream infections (BSIs) are not well-characterized. We investigated the epidemiology, antifungal use, susceptibility patterns, and factors associated with all-cause death among cancer patients in whom uncommon Candida spp. BSIs were diagnosed at a cancer treatment center during January 1998–September 2013. Of 1,395 Candida bloodstream isolates, 79 from 68 patients were uncommon Candida spp. The incidence density of uncommon Candida spp. BSIs and their proportion to all candidemia episodes substantively increased during the study period, and the rise was associated with increasing use of echinocandin antifungal drugs. Thirty-seven patients had breakthrough infections during therapy or prophylaxis with various systemic antifungal drugs for >7 consecutive days; 21 were receiving an echinocandin. C. kefyr (82%), and C. lusitaniae (21%) isolates frequently showed caspofungin MICs above the epidemiologic cutoff values. These findings support the need for institutional surveillance for uncommon Candida spp. among cancer patients. PMID:26488845

  7. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    PubMed Central

    Runyoro, Deborah KB; Matee, Mecky IN; Ngassapa, Olipa D; Joseph, Cosam C; Mbwambo, Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Results Twenty- seven (48%) out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds. PMID:16571139

  8. Candida bracarensis Detected Among Isolates of Candida glabrata by Petide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence in Situ Hybirdization: Susceptibility Data and Documentation of Presumed Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular taxonomic studies have revealed new yeast (Candida) species among phenotypically-delineated species: the best example being Candida dubliniensis. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of two new molecularly-defined species, Candida bracarensis and Candida nivariensis, which ...

  9. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  10. In Vitro Models for Candida Biofilm Development.

    PubMed

    Krom, Bastiaan P; Willems, Hubertine M E

    2016-01-01

    Development of Candida spp. biofilms on medical devices such as catheters and voice prosthesis has been recognized as an increasing clinical problem. Different in vitro models are presented with increasing complexity. Each model system can be utilized for analysis of new active compounds to prevent or treat Candida biofilms as well as to study molecular processes involved in biofilm formation. Susceptibility studies of clinical isolates are generally performed in a simple 96-well model system similar to the CLSI standard. In the present chapter, optimized conditions that promote biofilm formation within individual wells of microtiter plates are described. In addition, the method has proven useful in preparing C. albicans biofilms for investigation by a variety of microscopic and molecular techniques. A more realistic and more complex biofilm system is presented by the Amsterdam Active Attachment (AAA) model. In this 24-well model all crucial steps of biofilm formation: adhesion, proliferation, and maturation, can be simulated on various surfaces, while still allowing a medium throughput approach. This model has been applied to study susceptibility, complex molecular mechanisms as well as interspecies (Candida-bacterium) interactions. Finally, a realistic microfluidics channel system is presented to follow dynamic processes in biofilm formation. In this Bioflux-based system, molecular mechanisms as well as dynamic processes can be studied at a high time-resolution. PMID:26519068

  11. Secreted Aspartic Proteinase Family of Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Zaugg, Christophe; Borg-von Zepelin, Margarete; Reichard, Utz; Sanglard, Dominique; Monod, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Medically important yeasts of the genus Candida secrete aspartic proteinases (Saps), which are of particular interest as virulence factors. Like Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis secretes in vitro one dominant Sap (Sapt1p) in a medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole source of nitrogen. Using the gene SAPT1 as a probe and under low-stringency hybridization conditions, three new closely related gene sequences, SAPT2 to SAPT4, encoding secreted proteinases were cloned from a C. tropicalis λEMBL3 genomic library. All bands identified by Southern blotting of EcoRI-digested C. tropicalis genomic DNA with SAPT1 could be assigned to a specific SAP gene. Therefore, the SAPT gene family of C. tropicalis is likely to contain only four members. Interestingly, the SAPT2 and SAPT3 gene products, Sapt2p and Sapt3p, which have not yet been detected in C. tropicalis cultures in vitro, were produced as active recombinant enzymes with the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression system. As expected, reverse transcriptase PCR experiments revealed a strong SAPT1 signal with RNA extracted from cells grown in BSA medium. However, a weak signal was obtained with all other SAPT genes under several conditions tested, showing that these SAPT genes could be expressed at a basic level. Together, these experiments suggest that the gene products Sapt2p, Sapt3p, and Sapt4p could be produced under conditions yet to be described in vitro or during infection. PMID:11119531

  12. [Candida albicans endocarditis after pulmonary artery banding].

    PubMed

    Talvard, M; Paranon, S; Dulac, Y; Mansir, T; Kreitmann, B; Acar, P

    2009-08-01

    Endocarditis is uncommon in infants and is exceptionally related to Candida albicans on pulmonary banding. We report on a case in a 7-month-old infant who had pulmonary artery banding for a ventricular septal defect and who presented with candidal endocarditis. Banding was chosen because of the patient's poor trophic and unstable status, which could be risky for surgery involving extracorporeal circulation. A few weeks after the banding, the patient developed systemic Candida infection, which was treated successfully. At 7 months, cardiac failure appeared without fever or inflammatory signs. Cardiac echography showed that the banding was not protective as well as a hyperechogenic image on the pulmonary bifurcation. The angioscan showed a hypodense thrombus. Emergency surgery was performed consisting of pulmonary artery exploration, thrombectomy, and ventricular septal defect closure. The exploration showed a pulmonary artery perforation caused by the infected pseudoaneurysm and the migration of the banding into the pulmonary artery. The anatomopathologic analysis of the vegetation identified multisensitive Candida albicans. After surgery and prolonged antifungal treatment, progression was satisfactory. PMID:19525096

  13. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  14. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex. PMID:26168269

  15. Casein Agar: a Useful Medium for Differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Christian O.; Moragues, María D.; Llovo, José; Al Mosaid, Asmaa; Coleman, David C.; Pontón, José

    2003-01-01

    Production of chlamydospores on casein agar at 24°C for 48 h provides a simple means for differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans based on chlamydospore production. Of 109 C. dubliniensis isolates tested on this medium, 106 (97.2%) produced abundant chlamydospores and three produced few chlamydospores. In contrast, of the 120 C. albicans isolates tested, 111 (92.5%) failed to produce any chlamydospores, whereas the remaining nine isolates produced few chlamydospores. These findings indicate that abundant chlamydospore production on casein agar is a useful test for discriminating between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans. PMID:12624062

  16. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  17. Identification of local clinical Candida isolates using CHROMagar Candida™ as a primary identification method for various Candida species.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, P; Jamal, F; Chong, P P; Ng, K P

    2011-08-01

    The objective of our study was to study the effectiveness of CHROMagar Candida™ as the primary identification method for various clinical Candida isolates, other than the three suggested species by the manufacturer. We studied 34 clinical isolates which were isolated from patients in a local teaching hospital and 7 ATCC strains. These strains were first cultured in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) for 36 hours at 35ºC, then on CHROMagar plates at 30ºC, 35ºC and 37ºC. The sensitivity of this agar to identify Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis ranged between 25 and 100% at 30ºC, 14% and 100% at 35ºC, 56% and 100% at 37ºC. The specificity of this agar was 100% at 30ºC, between 97% and 100% at 35ºC, 92% and 100% at 37ºC. The efficiency of this agar ranged between 88 and 100% at 30ºC, 83% and 100% at 35ºC, 88% and 100% at 37ºC. Each species also gave rise to a variety of colony colours ranging from pink to green to blue of different colony characteristics. Therefore, the chromogenic agar was found to be useful in our study for identifying clinical Candida isolates. PMID:22041745

  18. Correlation of atherogenesis with an infection of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Nurgeldiyeva, Maya J; Hojakuliyev, Bayram G; Muhammedov, Merdan B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study contents of atherosclerotic plaques for the presence of fungi of the genus Candida; and an analysis of some immunological and biochemical indices in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that are positive for Candida albicans. Materials and methods: To test for the presence of fungi in an atherosclerotic plaque, we used a method developed by us (patent NO 531, a priority from 6/28/2010). A total of 47 atherosclerotic plaques were obtained during 20 autopsies. In addition, 80 individuals (58 male, 22 female; age range from 29 to 85) with acute coronary syndrome were subjected to a blood biochemical test, including quantification of TNF-α levels and IgG and IgM to Candida albicans was determined. Results: Fungi of the genus Candida were identified in 31.9% (15 out of 47) of atherosclerotic plaques. Particularly, Candida krusii and Candida grabrata were identified in overwhelming majority, although solitary colonies of Candida tropicalis and a single colony of Candida albicans were also detected. 80 (100%) patients were negative for IgM, but 30 (37.5%) were positive for IgG to Candida albicans. TNF-α was detected in a smaller quantity of IgG-negative patients (36.7%) relative to patients of IgG-positive group (70%), however its levels were considerably above in the first group (511.73±195.80 pg/ml) than in the second one (326.68±259.91 pg/ml, P < 0.05). Differences in the levels of ASAT and ALAT in patients positive to Candida albicans and negative for TNF-α were significantly higher than in the rest of patients. Conclusion: It is conceivable that fungi of the genus Candida are capable of inducing an inflammation of the vascular wall that in turn can lead to the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25232398

  19. Malassezia and Candida colonisation on glans penis of circumcised men.

    PubMed

    Aridoğan, I Atilla; Ilkit, Macit; Izol, Volkan; Ates, Aylin

    2005-09-01

    The Malassezia yeast are members of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults. They also are reported as part of the microflora of the male genital region in mostly uncircumcised males. It has been reported that Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia globosa are the most frequent yeast belonging to the resident microflora of the penis as in other human skin areas. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of Malassezia and Candida yeast colonisation on the glans penis of circumcised males. Impression preparations were made on modified Dixon agar. The isolates were identified by morphological and physiological characteristics. A total of 245 circumcised males were included in the study. Of the 245 patients examined, 55 (22.4%) were found to have a mycologically proven yeast fungi on their glans penis. In 17 (30.9%) Malassezia, in 36 (65.5%) Candida, in one (1.8%) Malassezia and Candida, and in one (1.8%) Saccharomyces strains were detected. Malassezia furfur (66.7%) was the most common species among the lipophilic yeast, followed by Malassezia globosa (11.1%), Malassezia obtusa (11.1%) and Malassezia slooffiae (11.1%). Candida albicans was the most common non-lipophilic yeast (46.0%), that was isolated among the other yeast, followed by unidentified Candida strains (18.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.1%), Candida glabrata (8.1%), Candida parapsilosis (8.1%), Candida zeylanoides (5.4%), Candida guilliermondii (2.7%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%). The results of this study showed that Malassezia species were also colonised like Candida on the glans penis of circumcised males. PMID:16115108

  20. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  1. Use of CHROMagar Candida medium for isolation of yeasts from dental samples.

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, D; Ludford, R; Clark, D T; Brailsford, S R; Pankhurst, C L; Tinsley, G F; Fiske, J; Lewis, D; Daly, B; Khalifa, N

    1995-01-01

    A new differential medium, CHROMagar Candida, for the isolation of clinically important yeasts was investigated to determine its usefulness in facilitating the study of oral yeasts. The recovery of yeasts on the medium was not significantly different from the recovery on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The identities of 450 green colonies on CHROMagar Candida, presumptively identified as Candida albicans on the basis of the manufacturer's instructions, were confirmed by testing for beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Candida tropicalis also formed distinctive colonies, and other yeasts including Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, Candida Parapsilosis, Candida Magnoliae, Candida lusitaniae, Candida Famata, Candida kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were readily distinguished from C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates. CHROMagar Candida is a very useful medium, and its use will facilitate the study of yeasts associated with dental diseases. PMID:8576366

  2. Whites Trashing Whites: Multiculturalism's Liberal Guilt Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Presents the opinions of a white, male literature professor who attended a conference of college writing teachers and was distressed because the overwhelmingly white audience listened quietly as speakers used the platform to identify whites as oppressors of minorities and linguistic imperialists. The paper questions the view that Standard English…

  3. Environmental pH adaption and morphological transitions in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Du, Han; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-05-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans encounters a wide range of pH stresses during its commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. It has been well studied that environmental pH regulates the yeast-filamentous growth transition in this fungus. White-opaque switching is another type of phenotypic transitions in C. albicans. White and opaque cells are two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types, which differ in many aspects including global gene expression profiles, virulence, mating competency, and susceptibility to antifungals. The switch between white and opaque cell types is heritable and epigenetically regulated. In a recently study, Sun et al. (Eukaryot Cell 14:1127-1134, 2015) reported that pH plays a critical role in the regulation of the white-opaque phenotypic switch and sexual mating in C. albicans via both the conserved Rim101-mediated pH sensing and cAMP signaling pathways. The effect of pH on the two biological processes may represent a balancing act between host environmental adaptation and sexual reproduction in this pathogenic fungus. PMID:26581628

  4. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  5. Chlamydospore formation in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis--an enigmatic developmental programme.

    PubMed

    Staib, Peter; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydospore formation has served for a long time for identification of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, but the biological function of these structures still remains a secret. They have been proposed to allow survival in harsh environmental conditions, but this assumption remains to be proven. Chlamydospores are produced only by the two closely related species C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis, whose natural habitats are humans and warm-blooded animals, but not by other Candida species that are also found outside animal hosts. However, no role in the pathogenesis of Candida infections has been assigned to these unusual cells and only a limited number of studies have been conducted in the past to unravel their function. The development of new molecular tools and the recent discovery of mating in C. albicans have also restimulated investigations to understand the morphogenesis and function of chlamydospores. The finding that chlamydospore formation is differentially controlled by certain environmental signals in C. albicans and C. dubliniensis has opened new approaches to study the regulation of this morphogenetic programme. These studies have already identified genes and signalling pathways that are required for chlamydospore production and should lead to a detailed understanding of this fascinating developmental process. PMID:17302741

  6. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of adhered cells to the acrylic surface for single and mixed cultures of both species, with reductions ranging from 1.74 to 3.64-log10. In conclusion, tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections. PMID:26162470

  7. Electron Microscopy of Young Candida albicans Chlamydospores

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sara E.; Spurlock, Ben O.; Michaels, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    One- to three-day-old cultures of Candida albicans bearing chlamydospores were grown and harvested by a special technique, free of agar, and prepared for ultramicrotomy and electron microscopy. These young chlamydospores exhibited a subcellular structure similar to that of the yeast phase, e.g., cytoplasmic membrane, ribosomes, and mitochondria. Other structural characteristics unique to chlamydospores were a very thick, layered cell wall, the outer layer of which was continuous with the outer layer of the suspensor cell wall and was covered by hair-like projections; membrane bound organelles; and large lipoid inclusions. Only young chlamydospores less than 3 to 4 days old exhibited these ultrastructural characteristics. Images PMID:4368664

  8. Adherence and receptor relationships of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Calderone, R A; Braun, P C

    1991-01-01

    The cell surface of Candida albicans is composed of a variety of polysaccharides such as glucan, chitin, and mannan. The first two components primarily provide structure, while the mannan, often covalently linked to protein, constitutes the major antigen of the organism. Mannoproteins also have enzymatic activity (acid protease) and ligand-receptor functions. The complement receptors of C. albicans appear to be mannoproteins that are required for the adherence of the organism to endothelial cells. This is certainly true of the CR3-like protein of C. albicans. Proof that the CR3 is the Candida receptor for endothelial cells is derived from two observations. First, mutants lacking CR3 activity are less adherent in vitro and, in fact, less virulent. Second, the ligand recognized by the CR3 receptor (C3bi) as well as anti-CR3 antibodies blocks adherence of the organism to endothelial cells. The CR2 of C. albicans appears to promote the adherence of the organism to plastic substrates. Unlike the CR2 of mammalian cells, the Candida CR2 recognizes ligands containing the RGD sequence of amino acids in addition to the C3d ligand, which does not contain the RGD sequence. There is uncertainty as to whether the Candida CR2 and CR3 are, in fact, different proteins. A mannoprotein has also been described as the adhesin for epithelial cells. In this case, the receptor has a lectinlike activity and recognizes fucose- or glucosamine-containing glycoproteins of epithelial cells, depending on the strain of C. albicans. The oligosaccharide component of the receptor is probably not involved in ligand recognition and may serve to stabilize the receptor. However, the oligosaccharide factor 6 epitope of mannan may also provide adhesin activity in the recognition of epithelial cells. Mannoproteins can be extracted from cells by a number of reagents. Zymolyase, for instance, tends to remove structural mannoproteins, which contain relatively little protein and are linked to glucan. Reagents

  9. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage. PMID:26347504

  10. Candida albicans keratitis in an immunocompromised patient

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, H Mohammed J; Papanikolaou, Theocharis; Mariatos, Georgios; Hammad, Amany; Hassan, Hala

    2010-01-01

    Purpose When investigating a case of unexplained corneal ulceration, we need to think of fungal infection and any predisposing factors. Methods A case study of a corneal ulceration in a patient who was HIV positive with a devastating visual outcome. Results Therapeutic corneal graft was necessary due to corneal perforation. Immunocompromised state of patient was retrospectively diagnosed. Conclusions Candida albicans keratitis is an opportunistic infection of a compromised cornea, and sometimes unknowingly compromised host, which can be initially misdiagnosed. Despite intensive antifungal therapy, occasionally patients require corneal grafting to improve vision, and before it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis. PMID:21060674

  11. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, Katarina; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Mahelová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. PMID:25535081

  12. Candida parapsilosis biofilm identification by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, Katarina; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Mahelová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. PMID:25535081

  13. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Cana; Lee, Dong Gun

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  14. Synergistic Activity of Chloroquine with Fluconazole against Fluconazole-Resistant Isolates of Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates. PMID:25512426

  15. Candida biofilm formation on voice prostheses.

    PubMed

    Talpaert, Moira J; Balfour, Alistair; Stevens, Sarah; Baker, Mark; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2015-03-01

    Laryngopharyngeal malignancy is treated with radiotherapy and/or surgery. When total laryngectomy is required, major laryngeal functions (phonation, airway control, swallowing and coughing) are affected. The insertion of a silicone rubber voice prosthesis in a surgically created tracheoesophageal puncture is the most effective method for voice rehabilitation. Silicone, as is the case with other synthetic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and polystyrene, has the propensity to become rapidly colonized by micro-organisms (mainly Candida albicans) forming a biofilm, which leads to the failure of the devices. Silicone is used within voice prosthetic devices because of its flexible properties, which are essential for valve function. Valve failure, as well as compromising speech, may result in aspiration pneumonia, and repeated valve replacement may lead to either tract stenosis or insufficiency. Prevention and control of biofilm formation are therefore crucial for the lifespan of the prosthesis and promotion of tracheoesophageal tissue and lung health. To date, the mechanisms of biofilm formation on voice prostheses are not fully understood. Further studies are therefore required to identify factors influencing Candida biofilm formation. This review describes the factors known to influence biofilm formation on voice prostheses and current strategies employed to prolong their life by interfering with microbial colonization. PMID:25106862

  16. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex. PMID:25289589

  17. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    PubMed

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  18. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida. PMID:26214300

  19. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity. PMID:26223507

  20. Biosolubilization of coal by Candida in glucose limited cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mitter, J.; Guillory, L.; Bose, N.K.; Misra, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Coal biodegradation is attracting the attention of many workers because of its significance for efficient bioconversion of coal into useful chemicals. The authors work is based upon the beneficiation of a fungus (candida) on subbituminous coal. Candida was grown on both solid and liquid sabouraud medium and the coal solubilizing activity was studied at varying glucose concentration and temperature. Lower glucose concentration and higher temperature enhanced coal solubilizing activity by this fungus. Preliminary work has begun on analyzing organic extractions (alumina chromatography) of the liquid produced after microbial solubilization, including elemental analysis, solubility, molecular weights and chemical structure. This preliminary work suggests that the candida could metabolize naturally occurring coal as substrate.

  1. Impending rupture in an aortic arch aneurysm by Candida infection.

    PubMed

    Minami, H; Wakita, N; Kawanishi, Y; Kitano, I; Sakata, M

    2001-03-01

    A 68-year-old man was hospitalized with the complaints of left back pain and fever. He had a history of using steroids to treat uveitis for about thirty years. Computed tomography on the chest demonstrated an impending rupture in an aortic arch aneurysm, which was consequently surgically excised. Candida albicans was identified in the wall of the aneurysm, so fluconazole and itraconazole were administered. The patient was discharged at 120 days after surgery without recrudescence of the candida. To our knowledge, this is the fifteenth case of a successfully treated aneurysm caused by candida infection. PMID:11305059

  2. Effect of Marine Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Thibane, Vuyisile S.; Kock, Johan L. F.; Ells, Ruan; van Wyk, Pieter W. J.; Pohl, Carolina H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids on biofilm formation by the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis was investigated. It was found that stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) have an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial metabolism of both C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and that the production of biofilm biomass by C. dubliniensis was more susceptible to these fatty acids than C. albicans. Ultrastructural differences, which may be due to increased oxidative stress, were observed between treated and untreated cells of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis with formation of rough cell walls by both species and fibrillar structures in C. dubliniensis. These results indicate that marine polyunsaturated fatty acids may be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of biofilms formed by these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:21116408

  3. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  4. Three novel species of the anamorphic yeast genus Candida in the Candida intermedia clade found in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Takashi; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Am-In, Somit; Lee, Ching-Fu; Imanishi, Yumi; Limtong, Savitree

    2011-01-01

    Four strains of yeasts isolated in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan were found to represent three novel species of the genus Candida. The three species are located in a clade including Candida tsuchiyae, Candida thailandica and Candida akabanensis in a tree based on the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit rRNA genes but clearly differentiated from these relative species. Three novel species are proposed for these strains, i. e., Candida berkhoutiae sp. nov., for strains ST-49(T) (=BCC 7749(T)=NBRC 106733(T)=CBS 11722(T)) isolated from insect frass in Thailand and SA13S01 (=NBRC 106053) isolated from soil in Taiwan, Candida ezoensis sp. nov., for strain Y07-1601-2(T) (=NBRC 105019(T)=CBS 11753(T)) isolated from forest soil in Japan, and Candida inulinophila sp. nov., for ST-369(T) (=BCC 15081(T)=NBRC 106735(T)=CBS 11725(T)) isolated from an unidentified wild mushroom from Thailand. PMID:21606608

  5. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrille, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHOROMagar Candida, and CandidaSelect, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93.1 to 100%. These parameters decreased, however, to 91.4% when the test was performed with yeast isolated

  6. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrillé, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHOROMagar Candida, and CandidaSelect, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93.1 to 100%. These parameters decreased, however, to 91.4% when the test was performed with yeast isolated

  7. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Hilburn, Carla F; Rios, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 10(3)/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  8. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Grissel

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 103/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  9. Activity of Hoechst 33258 against Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Matthew D.; Stephenson, Ruth; Wright, Terry W.; Haidaris, Constantine G.; Turner, Douglas H.; Gigliotti, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Hoechst 33258 is a compound that binds nucleic acids. We report that Hoechst 33258 exhibits antimicrobial activity against Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris in a mouse model for P. carinii pneumonia and against Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis in vitro. Relative to saline treatment, a 14-day, daily treatment of mice with 37.5 mg of Hoechst 33258/kg of body weight after inoculation with P. carinii reduced by about 100-fold the number of P. carinii organisms detected by either PCR or by microscopy after silver staining. For comparison, treatment based on a dose of 15 to 20 mg of the trimethoprim component in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/kg reduced the number of P. carinii by about fourfold. In vitro inhibition of P. carinii group I intron splicing was observed with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)of 30 μM in 2 or 4 mM Mg2+, suggesting RNA as a possible target. However, Hoechst 33258 inhibits growth of Candida strains with and without group I introns. IC50s ranged from 1 to 9 μM for strains with group I introns and were 12 and 32 μM for two strains without group I introns. These studies demonstrate that compounds that bind fungal nucleic acids have the potential to be developed as new therapeutics for Pneumocystis and possibly other fungi, especially if they could be directed to structures that are not present in mammalian cells, such as self-splicing introns. PMID:15793106

  10. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  11. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  12. Germination of Candida albicans induced by proline.

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowa, N; Taxer, S S; Howard, D H

    1976-01-01

    Blastospores of Candida albicans germinated in proline-biotin-buffer medium incubated at 37 C. Certain other amino acids in the glatamate, asparate, and pyruvate families also fostered germinaton but generally to a lesser extent than did proline. L-Cysteine, D-proline, and certain structural analogues of L-proline inhibited proline-stimualted germination. The concentration of phosphate and glucose was crucial to amino acid-stimulated germination of C. albicans. Clinical isolates and stock cultures varied in their response to the germ tube-inducing activity of proline or other amino acids. The proline-buffer medium cannot be used in a diagnostic test for production of germ tubes by isolates of yeasts. PMID:5375

  13. Expression Plasmids for Use in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, Rebecca E.; Ren, Yuxia; Pan, Shih-Jung; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Peñas, Alejandro De Las; Iluore, Joseph; Cormack, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a series of CEN/ARS episomal plasmids containing different Candida glabrata promoters, allowing for a range of constitutive or regulated expression of proteins in C. glabrata. The set of promoters includes three constitutive promoters (EGD2pr, HHT2pr, PDC1pr), two macrophage/phagocytosis-induced promoters (ACO2pr, LYS21pr), and one nutritionally regulated promoter (MET3pr). Each promoter was cloned into two plasmid backbones that differ in their selectable marker, URA3, or the dominant-selectable NAT1 gene, which confers resistance to the drug nourseothricin. Expression from the 12 resulting plasmids was assessed using GFP as a reporter and flow cytometry or quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess expression levels. Together this set of plasmids expands the toolkit of expression vectors available for use with C. glabrata. PMID:23934995

  14. Candida parapsilosis, an Emerging Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Trofa, David; Gácser, Attila; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Candida parapsilosis is an emerging major human pathogen that has dramatically increased in significance and prevalence over the past 2 decades, such that C. parapsilosis is now one of the leading causes of invasive candidal disease. Individuals at the highest risk for severe infection include neonates and patients in intensive care units. C. parapsilosis infections are especially associated with hyperalimentation solutions, prosthetic devices, and indwelling catheters, as well as the nosocomial spread of disease through the hands of health care workers. Factors involved in disease pathogenesis include the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, adhesion to prosthetics, and biofilm formation. New molecular genetic tools are providing additional and much-needed information regarding C. parapsilosis virulence. The emerging information will provide a deeper understanding of C. parapsilosis pathogenesis and facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches for treating C. parapsilosis infections. PMID:18854483

  15. Endothelial Cell Stimulation by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Quynh T.; Filler, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, enters the bloodstream and causes hematogenously disseminated infection in hospitalized patients. During the initiation of a hematogenously disseminated infection, endothelial cells are one of the first host cells to come in contact with C. albicans. Endothelial cells can significantly influence the local host response to C. albicans by expressing leukocyte adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, it is of interest to investigate the response of endothelial cells to C. albicans in vitro. We describe the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassays to measure the effects of C. albicans on the endothelial cell production of E-selectin and tumor necrosis factor α in vitro. PMID:19089392

  16. A Candida albicans PeptideAtlas

    PubMed Central

    Vialas, Vital; Sun, Zhi; Penha, Carla Verónica Loureiro y; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin; Monteoliva, Lucía; Deutsch, Eric W.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L.; Gil, Concha

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans public proteomic data sets, though growing steadily in the last few years, still have a very limited presence in online repositories. We report here the creation of a C. albicans PeptideAtlas comprising near 22000 distinct peptides at a 0.24 % False Discovery Rate (FDR) that account for over 2500 canonical proteins at a 1.2% FDR. Based on data from 16 experiments, we attained coverage of 41% of the C.albicans open reading frame sequences (ORFs) in the database used for the searches. This PeptideAtlas provides several useful features, including comprehensive protein and peptide-centered search capabilities and visualization tools that establish a solid basis for the study of basic biological mechanisms key to virulence and pathogenesis such as dimorphism, adherence, and apoptosis. Further, it is a valuable resource for the selection of candidate proteotypic peptides for targeted proteomic experiments via selected reaction monitoring (SRM) or SWATH-MS. PMID:23811049

  17. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  18. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Demet; Öcal Demir, Sevliya; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Türel, Özden; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration. PMID:26558119

  19. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S; Ugena, L; Tornero-Lopéz, J; Martín, H; Molina, M; Camacho, J J; Cáceres, J O

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) for the discrimination of different strains of various species of Candida. This genus of yeast was selected due to its medical relevance as it is commonly found in cases of fungal infection in humans. Twenty one strains belonging to seven species of Candida were included in the study. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was employed as a complementary technique to provide information about elemental composition of Candida cells. The use of LIBS spectra in combination with optimized NN models provided reliable discrimination among the distinct Candida strains with a high spectral correlation index for the samples analyzed, without any false positive or false negative. Therefore, this study indicates that LIBS-NN based methodology has the potential to be used as fast fungal identification or even diagnostic method. PMID:27216662

  20. [Useful phenotypic characteristics for presumptive identification of Candida guilliermondii].

    PubMed

    Pinoni, M V; Castán, V; Maegli, M I; Lorenzo, J; Frizzera, F; Jewtuchowicz, V; Mujica, M T

    2007-01-01

    Candida guilliermondii developed a pink-purplish colony on CHROMagar Candida. In the micromorphology in milk-tween 80 1% agar at 28 degrees C after 48 h of incubation C. guilliermondii showed small (3-5 microm), spherical yeasts without pseudohyphaes. This Candida species presented a characteristic cluster of blastospores with pseudohyphaes radiating from the centre at 96 h. The trehalose-sucrose assimilation assay was applied to the C. guilliermondii isolates which proved negative for trehalose and positive for sucrose. These results allowed for the presumptive identification of C. guilliermondii. The results were concordant in 100% of the isolates with the identification of the C. guilliermondii species by the ID 32C and Vitek YBC methods. Such automated methods offered Candida famata as a second option, with a reliability percentage of 10%. Micromorphological studies increase yeast identification reliability, especially among species presenting similar biochemical profiles. PMID:17702251

  1. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, K.; Kumar, L. Sathish; Rajendran, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Bhaskar, K.; Sajit Khan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  2. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  3. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections. PMID:24125484

  4. Persistence of Pigment Production by Yeast Isolates Grown on CHROMagar Candida Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Green, Judith A.; Dooley, David P.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the persistence of pigmentation in yeast isolates grown on the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida over 7 days. Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichosporon isolates were inoculated alone or mixed onto duplicate sets of plates and incubated at 30 and 35°C. Candida albicans and Candida krusei were readily identified throughout the reading period, but Candida glabrata was difficult to differentiate from other species until the 3- or 4-day time point. Candida tropicalis produced colonies similar to those of rare Cryptococcus and Trichosporon species, and mixed cultures were often difficult to identify as such. PMID:12454192

  5. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Genotypic Candida albicans Subgroups and Comparison with Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Michael J.; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.

    1999-01-01

    There have been increased reports of the isolation of unusual genotypic groups of Candida albicans (groups C and D) based on a well-defined genotypic method; this method uses cellular DNA digested with the EcoRI enzyme and the restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) generated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The aim of the present study was to use additional molecular tools to characterize these unusual strains and to compare them with authentic strains of C. dubliniensis, a recently delineated species, and type I C. stellatoidea. The RFLPs of PCR products generated from the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region did not differentiate among C. albicans genotypes A, B, and C and type I C. stellatoidea. However, this method did differentiate the C. albicans genotype D strains, which were identical to C. dubliniensis. The RFLPs generated by HaeIII digestion of the PCR products of the V3 region of the 25S rRNA gene (rDNA) could differentiate the same groups as RFLP analysis of the PCR amplicon of the ITS region. C. albicans genotype B isolates have been shown to have a transposable intron in the 25S rDNA, whereas genotype A isolates do not; C. dubliniensis strains also have an intron that is larger than that in genotype B C. albicans strains but that is in the same location. PCR designed to span this region resulted in a single product for C. albicans genotype A (450 bp), B (840 bp), type 1 C. stellatoidea (840 bp), and C. dubliniensis (1,080 bp), whereas the C. albicans genotype C isolates had two major products (450 and 840 bp). All C. albicans genotype D isolates gave a PCR product identical to that given by C. dubliniensis. These results indicate that those strains previously designated C. albicans genotype D are in fact C. dubliniensis, that no differences were found between type 1 C. stellatoidea and C. albicans genotype B strains, and that the C. albicans genotype C strains appear to have the transposable intron incompletely inserted throughout the

  6. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    PubMed

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [< 32 weeks n = 20 (37%), < 28 weeks n = 7 (13%)]. The percentage of low birth weight infants was 65% (42% was < 1500 g, 13% was < 1000 g). Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of

  7. Medical treatment of a pacemaker endocarditis due to Candida albicans and to Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Roger, P M; Boissy, C; Gari-Toussaint, M; Foucher, R; Mondain, V; Vandenbos, F; le Fichoux, Y; Michiels, J F; Dellamonica, P

    2000-09-01

    We describe a case of pacemaker infection due to two fungal species: Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the intraventricular wires. Because of severe underlying diseases, surgery was believed to be contraindicated. The patient was treated using high dose of fluconazole, resulting in clinical improvement and negative blood cultures. However, 2 months later, the patient underwent a fatal stroke. At autopsy, a large vegetation was found only all along the wires. Postmortem culture of the infected material was positive for both C. albicans and C. glabrata. PMID:11023765

  8. Characterization of two aminotransferases from Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Rząd, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Aminoadipate aminotransferase (AmAA) is an enzyme of α-aminoadipate pathway (AAP) for L-lysine biosynthesis. AmAA may also participated in biosynthesis or degradation of aromatic amino acids and in D-tryptophan based pigment production. The AAP is unique for fungal microorganisms. Enzymes involved in this pathway have specific structures and properties. These features can be used as potential molecular markers. Enzymes catalyzing reactions of L-lysine biosynthesis in Candida albicans may also become new targets for antifungal chemotherapy. Search of the NCBI database resulted in identification of two putative aminoadipate aminotransferase genes from Candida albicans: ARO8 (ORFs 19.2098 and 19.9645) and YER152C (ORFs 19.1180 and 19.8771). ARO8 from C. albicans exhibits 53% identity to ARO8 from S. cerevisiae, while YER152C exhibits 30% identity to ARO8 and 45% to YER152C from S. cerevisiae. We amplified two genes from the C. albicans genome: ARO8 and YER152C. Both were cloned and expressed as His-tagged fusion proteins in E. coli. The purified Aro8CHp gene product revealed aromatic and α-aminoadipate aminotransferase activity. Basic molecular properties of the purified protein were determined. We obtained catalytic parameters of Aro8CHp with aromatic amino acids and aminoadipate (AA) (Km(L-Phe) 0.05±0.003 mM, Km(L-Tyr) 0.1±0.008 mM, Km(L-AA) 0.02±0.006 mM) and confirmed the enzyme broad substrate spectrum. The assays also demonstrated that this enzyme may use 2-oxoadipate and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) as amino acceptors. Aro8-CHp exhibited pH optima range of 8, which is similar to AmAA from S. cerevisiae. Our results also indicate that CaYer152Cp has a possible role only in aromatic amino acids degradation, in contrast to CaAro8CHp. PMID:26619256

  9. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, microbial cells (including bacteria, archaea, and fungi) greatly outnumber host cells. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota; this species asymptomatically colonizes many areas of the body, particularly the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Alterations in host immunity, stress, resident microbiota, and other factors can lead to C. albicans overgrowth, causing a wide range of infections, from superficial mucosal to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. To date, most studies of C. albicans have been carried out in suspension cultures; however, the medical impact of C. albicans (like that of many other microorganisms) depends on its ability to thrive as a biofilm, a closely packed community of cells. Biofilms are notorious for forming on implanted medical devices, including catheters, pacemakers, dentures, and prosthetic joints, which provide a surface and sanctuary for biofilm growth. C. albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to conventional antifungal therapeutics, the host immune system, and other environmental perturbations, making biofilm-based infections a significant clinical challenge. Here, we review our current knowledge of biofilms formed by C. albicans and closely related fungal species. PMID:26488273

  10. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Krom, Bastiaan P; Meijering, Roelien A M; Peters, Brian M; Zhu, Jingsong; Scheper, Mark A; Harris, Megan L; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-06-01

    Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. In addition, we have shown that farnesol can trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells via the classical apoptotic pathways. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind farnesol cytotoxicity in C. albicans, the response to farnesol was investigated, using proteomic analysis. Global protein expression profiles demonstrated significant changes in protein expression resulting from farnesol exposure. Among the downregulated proteins were those involved in metabolism, glycolysis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial electron transport and the respiratory chain, whereas proteins involved in folding, protection against environmental and oxidative stress, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and apoptosis were upregulated. Cellular changes that accompany apoptosis (regulated cell death) were further analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and gene expression analysis. The results indicated reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial degradation, and positive terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the farnesol-exposed cells concurrent with increased expression of antioxidant-encoding and drug response genes. More importantly, the results demonstrated farnesol-induced upregulation of the caspase gene MCA1 and the intracellular presence of activated caspases. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that farnesol promotes apoptosis in C. albicans through caspase activation, implying an important physiological role for farnesol in the fungal cell life cycle with important implications for adaptation and survival. PMID:19364863

  11. Portrait of Candida albicans Adherence Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan S.; Xu, Wenjie; Huang, David; Hill, Elizabeth M.; Desai, Jigar V.; Woolford, Carol A.; Nett, Jeniel E.; Taff, Heather; Norice, Carmelle T.; Andes, David R.; Lanni, Frederick; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2012-01-01

    Cell-substrate adherence is a fundamental property of microorganisms that enables them to exist in biofilms. Our study focuses on adherence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans to one substrate, silicone, that is relevant to device-associated infection. We conducted a mutant screen with a quantitative flow-cell assay to identify thirty transcription factors that are required for adherence. We then combined nanoString gene expression profiling with functional analysis to elucidate relationships among these transcription factors, with two major goals: to extend our understanding of transcription factors previously known to govern adherence or biofilm formation, and to gain insight into the many transcription factors we identified that were relatively uncharacterized, particularly in the context of adherence or cell surface biogenesis. With regard to the first goal, we have discovered a role for biofilm regulator Bcr1 in adherence, and found that biofilm regulator Ace2 is a major functional target of chromatin remodeling factor Snf5. In addition, Bcr1 and Ace2 share several target genes, pointing to a new connection between them. With regard to the second goal, our findings reveal existence of a large regulatory network that connects eleven adherence regulators, the zinc-response regulator Zap1, and approximately one quarter of the predicted cell surface protein genes in this organism. This limited yet sensitive glimpse of mutant gene expression changes had thus defined one of the broadest cell surface regulatory networks in C. albicans. PMID:22359502

  12. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  13. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection. PMID:17725566

  14. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  15. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  16. Screening protocol for Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Land, G; Burke, J; Shelby, C; Rhodes, J; Collett, J; Bennett, I; Johnson, J

    1996-01-01

    A screening test has been developed for the presumptive identification of Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata from other common clinical isolates of yeast-like fungi. An interlaboratory comparison of a protocol consisting of morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and trehalose fermentation at 42 degrees C was successful in differentiating T. glabrata from other taxa that are frequent or possible clinical isolates. The screening results for 517 clinical yeast isolates, 241 of which were T. glabrata, were compared with their final identification via commercial systems (API20C Yeast Identification System [bioMERIEUX, Hazelwood, Mo.] and Rapid Yeast Identification Panel [Dade Microscan, Sacramento, Calif.]). The trehalose screening test has a sensitivity and a specificity of 97.8 and 95.8%, respectively, and a positive predictive value of 97.4% and a negative predictive value of 96.5%. Overall, the trehalose screen had an efficiency rating of 93.9% for ruling in or out T. glabrata. Since T. glabrata represents a substantial part of the workload in a clinical laboratory, a significant reduction in direct and indirect costs should be realized. PMID:8862605

  17. Effect of Tetrandrine against Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Li, De-Dong; Hu, Dan-Dan; Hu, Gan-Hai; Yan, Lan; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and has a high propensity to develop biofilms that are resistant to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the effect of tetrandrine (TET) on growth, biofilm formation and yeast-to-hypha transition of C. albicans. We characterized the inhibitory effect of TET on hyphal growth and addressed its possible mechanism of action. Treatment of TET at a low concentration without affecting fungal growth inhibited hyphal growth in both liquid and solid Spider media. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that TET down-regulated the expression of hypha-specific genes ECE1, ALS3 and HWP1, and abrogated the induction of EFG1 and RAS1, regulators of hyphal growth. Addition of cAMP restored the normal phenotype of the SC5314 strain. These results indicate that TET may inhibit hyphal growth through the Ras1p-cAMP-PKA pathway. In vivo, at a range of concentrations from 4 mg/L to 32 mg/L, TET prolonged the survival of C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans significantly. This study provides useful information for the development of new strategies to reduce the incidence of C. albicans biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24260276

  18. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kivnick, Seth

    1993-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis. Case: The immunocompetent primigravida developed progressive nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and a 4.1 kg weight loss during the second trimester of pregnancy. Treatment with metoclopramide and cimetidine for presumed gastroesophageal reflux was not effective. The patient had normal T-cell CD4 and CD8 subsets and was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody negative. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed C. albicans esophagitis which was treated with oral nystatin. The esophagitis had resolved completely when reassessed postpartum. The use of histamine2 blockers is associated with an increased risk for fungal esophagitis and may have been a contributing cause in this case. Conclusion: Pregnant patients with persistent nausea, vomiting, and weight loss should be evaluated by endoscopy for fungal esophagitis. PMID:18475336

  19. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G.; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata. PMID:27029023

  20. Propargyl-Linked Antifolates are Dual Inhibitors of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species of Candida, primarily C. albicans and with increasing prevalence, C. glabrata, are responsible for the majority of fungal bloodstream infections that cause morbidity, especially among immune compromised patients. While the development of new antifungal agents that target the essential enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), in both Candida species would be ideal, previous attempts have resulted in antifolates that exhibit inconsistencies between enzyme inhibition and antifungal properties. In this article, we describe the evaluation of pairs of propargyl-linked antifolates that possess similar physicochemical properties but different shapes. All of these compounds are effective at inhibiting the fungal enzymes and the growth of C. glabrata; however, the inhibition of the growth of C. albicans is shape-dependent with extended para-linked compounds proving more effective than compact, meta-linked compounds. Using crystal structures of DHFR from C. albicans and C. glabrata bound to lead compounds, 13 new para-linked compounds designed to inhibit both species were synthesized. Eight of these compounds potently inhibit the growth of both fungal species with three compounds displaying dual MIC values less than 1 μg/mL. Analysis of the active compounds shows that shape and distribution of polar functionality is critical in achieving dual antifungal activity. PMID:24568657

  1. Passage through the mammalian gut triggers a phenotypic switch that promotes Candida albicans commensalism

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Kalyan; Chen, Changbin; Noble, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Among ~5,000,000 fungal species,1 Candida albicans is exceptional in its lifelong association with humans, either within the gastrointestinal microbiome or as an invasive pathogen.2 Opportunistic infections are generally ascribed to defective host immunity 3 but may require specific microbial programs. Here, we report that exposure of C. albicans to the mammalian gut triggers a developmental switch, driven by the Wor1 transcription factor, to a commensal cell type. Wor1 expression was previously observed only in rare genetic backgrounds,4–6 where it controls a white-opaque switch for mating.4–7 We show that passage of wild-type cells through the murine gastrointestinal tract triggers WOR1 expression and a novel phenotypic switch. The resulting GUT (Gastrointestinally-IndUced Transition) cells differ morphologically and functionally from previously defined cell types, including opaque, and express a transcriptome that is optimized for the digestive tract. The white-GUT switch illuminates how a microorganism utilizes distinct genetic programs to transition between commensalism and invasive pathogenesis. PMID:23892606

  2. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24252829

  3. Clinical Appearance of Oral Candida Infection and Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali; Anil, Sukumaran

    2015-01-01

    Candida species present both as commensals and opportunistic pathogens of the oral cavity. For decades, it has enthralled the clinicians to investigate its pathogenicity and to improvise newer therapeutic regimens based on the updated molecular research. Candida is readily isolated from the oral cavity, but simple carriage does not predictably result in development of an infection. Whether it remains as a commensal, or transmutes into a pathogen, is usually determined by pre-existing or associated variations in the host immune system. The candida infections may range from non-life threatening superficial mucocutaneous disorders to invasive disseminated disease involving multiple organs. In fact, with the increase in number of AIDS cases, there is a resurgence of less common forms of oral candida infections. The treatment after confirmation of the diagnosis should include recognizing and eliminating the underlying causes such as ill-fitting oral appliances, history of medications (antibiotics, corticosteroids, etc.), immunological and endocrine disorders, nutritional deficiency states and prolonged hospitalization. Treatment with appropriate topical antifungal agents such as amphotericin, nystatin, or miconazole usually resolves the symptoms of superficial infection. Occasionally, administration of systemic antifungal agents may be necessary in immunocompromised patients, the selection of which should be based upon history of recent azole exposure, a history of intolerance to an antifungal agent, the dominant Candida species and current susceptibility data. PMID:26733948

  4. Candida-Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Allison, Devon L; Willems, Hubertine M E; Jayatilake, J A M S; Bruno, Vincent M; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Candida species are the most common infectious fungal species in humans; out of the approximately 150 known species, Candida albicans is the leading pathogenic species, largely affecting immunocompromised individuals. Apart from its role as the primary etiology for various types of candidiasis, C. albicans is known to contribute to polymicrobial infections. Polymicrobial interactions, particularly between C. albicans and bacterial species, have gained recent interest in which polymicrobial biofilm virulence mechanisms have been studied including adhesion, invasion, quorum sensing, and development of antimicrobial resistance. These trans-kingdom interactions, either synergistic or antagonistic, may help modulate the virulence and pathogenicity of both Candida and bacteria while uniquely impacting the pathogen-host immune response. As antibiotic and antifungal resistance increases, there is a great need to explore the intermicrobial cross-talk with a focus on the treatment of Candida-associated polymicrobial infections. This article explores the current literature on the interactions between Candida and clinically important bacteria and evaluates these interactions in the context of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and disease management. PMID:27337476

  5. Effects of neutrophils and in vitro oxidants on survival and phenotypic switching of Candida albicans WO-1.

    PubMed Central

    Kolotila, M P; Diamond, R D

    1990-01-01

    The relationship to pathogenesis of the spontaneous phenotypic switching of Candida albicans is uncertain. Since neutrophils are critical in containment of disseminated candidiasis, we used these cells and some of their potentially microbicidal oxidative products to define effects on a C. albicans strain (WO-1) that exhibits characteristic, easily recognized switching between the white and opaque phenotypes. Blastoconidia of the opaque phenotypes were more susceptible than those of the white to killing by either intact neutrophils or cell-free oxidants, including reagent hydrogen peroxide or the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl- system. Paralleling these findings, opaque blastoconidia were 2.8- to 3.6-fold more potent stimuli of neutrophil superoxide generation than were the white cells. In addition, both neutrophils and oxidants (reagent H2O2 or hypochlorous acid as well as the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl- system) induced unidirectional increases in spontaneous rates of switching from white to opaque phenotypes. Differences in expression of C. albicans phenotypes therefore may determine relative susceptibility to neutrophil fungicidal mechanisms, and neutrophils themselves appear to be capable of selectively augmenting the switching process. PMID:2157666

  6. The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Białoń, M; Krzyśko-Łupicka, T; Koszałkowska, M; Wieczorek, P P

    2014-02-01

    Candida yeasts are saprophytes naturally present in the environment and forming colonies on human mucous membranes and skin. They are opportunistic fungi that cause severe and even fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Several essential oils, including eucalyptus, pine, cinnamon and lemon, have been shown to be effective against Candida strains. This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial lemon essential oils and their antifungal potential against selected Candida yeast strains. Antifungal potential and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for six commercial lemon essential oils against five Candida yeast strains (Candida albicans 31, Candida tropicalis 32, Candida glabrata 33, Candida glabrata 35 and Candida glabrata 38). On the basis of the GCMS analysis, it was found that the tested lemon essential oils had different chemical compositions, but mostly, they contained almost exclusively terpenes and oxygenated terpenes. The tests show that antifungal potential of lemon essential oils against Candida yeast strains was related to the high content of monoterpenoids and the type of Candida strains. From six tested commercial oils, only four (ETJA, Vera-Nord, Avicenna-Oil and Aromatic Art) shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata). Vera-Nord and Avicenna-Oil show the best activity and effectively inhibit the growth of the C. albicans strain across the full range of the concentrations used. Our study characterises lemon essential oils, which could be used as very effective natural remedies against candidiasis caused by C. albicans. PMID:24436010

  7. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis (fluconazole-resistant) osteomyelitis with caspofungin in a HIV patient.

    PubMed

    Legout, L; Assal, M; Rohner, P; Lew, D; Bernard, L; Hoffmeyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Treating Candida arthritis is challenging. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis successfully treated with caspofungin. We illustrate the likelihood of severe infections due fluconazole resistant C. parapsilosis after extensive fluconazole use and discuss the role of newer antifungal agents in the treatment of arthritis due to Candida spp. PMID:16857628

  8. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a...

  13. MRI-DWI improves the early diagnosis of brain abscess induced by Candida albicans in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Jing; Du, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ying-Jie; Li, Xin; Wang, Rui; Chen, Li-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in brain abscess induced by invasive fungal infection (IFI) of the central nervous system. Methods The clinical data of eight preterm infants with IFI of the central nervous system were retrospectively analyzed. All these eight children received three sequential brain MRI modes T1WI, T2WI and DWI during hospitalization and after discharge. Results All these eight preterm infants were infected with Candida albicans, seven of which were manifested by brain abscess and four were accompanied by meningitis. MRI of seven infants with brain abscess indicated extensive invasion including involvement of subcortical white matter, deep periventricular white matter and semiovale center white matter. MRI examination was conducted within 11 d following infection on four cases and showed diffuse or multiple miliary nodules, hyper-intense signal on DWI, while insignificant signal changes on T1WI and T2WI. DWI signal nearly disappeared three weeks later. T1WI/T2WI signal changed most significantly 2-4 weeks following infection, with nodules ring-shaped, hyper-intense signal around T1WI and hypo-intense signal in the center. Signal on T2WI was just on the opposite. Severe cases presented fusion of different degrees. Significant enhanced effect was observed on T1WI. Four weeks later, the lesion gradually became fewer and smaller on T1WI, transferred into dot or line-like hyper-intense signal and presented obviously hypo-intense signal on T2WI. Dynamic MRI of two cases showed delayed myelination and corpus callosum thinning. Conclusion MRI-DWI and dynamic MRI changes can improve the early diagnosis of brain abscess induced by Candida albicans in preterm infants. PMID:26835268

  14. Whiteness in Social Work Education Authentic White Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is guided by the following questions: How do People of Color define and experience White people as "authentic" allies? What does a White ally look like to People of Color? How do White allies view themselves as "authentic" White allies? What experiences lead White people to anti-racism and anti-racist praxis?…

  15. Molecular mechanisms of mucocutaneous immunity against Candida and Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Maródi, László; Cypowyj, Sophie; Tóth, Beáta; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are key components of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic microorganisms. Recent research on primary immunodeficiency disorders and the identification of patients carrying germline mutations in STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5B have highlighted the role of human STATs in host defense against various viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Mutations in STAT1 and STAT3 may disrupt various cytokine pathways that control mucocutaneous immunity against Candida species, especially Candida albicans, and Staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we consider inborn errors of immunity arising from mutations in either STAT1 or STAT3 that affect mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and Staphylococci. PMID:23040277

  16. Mannan antigenemia in the diagnosis of invasive Candida infections.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, M H; Yount, W J

    1976-01-01

    Because it is often difficult to diagnose invasive Candida infections, a sensitive hemagglutination inhibition assay to detect the surface antigen, mannan, was developed. Mannan antigenemia was detected early in the course of infection in 4 of 14 patients with systemic candidiasis and 2 of 5 patients with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis. Mannan was not detected in 48 patients with noninvasive Candida or other systemic mycotic infections or in 99% of 234 patients in other control groups. Mannan antibodies were almost universally present in both candidiasis and control groups. In four patients with systemic candidiasis, an early period of mannan antigenemia was followed by a rapid rise in mannan antibody titer. These findings suggest that antemortem diagnosis would be improved in one-third of cases of invasive Candida infection detected by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. A positive test for serum mannan would be an early and specific signal of invasive disease. Images PMID:993329

  17. Candida albicans, the opportunist. A cellular and molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Dupont, P F

    1995-02-01

    Candida albicans causes the majority of opportunistic fungal infections. The yeast's commensualistic relationship with humans enables it, when environmental conditions are favorable, to multiply and replace much of the normal flora. Virulence factors of C. albicans, enabling the organism to adhere to and penetrate host tissues, involve specific molecular interactions between the cells of the fungus and the host. Localized disease, such as oral candidiasis, onychomycosis, and vaginitis, results. These infections are usually limited to surfaces of the host, and can be quickly and successfully controlled by the use of one of the available antifungal agents. Candida albicans infections typically become systemic and life threatening when the host is immunocompromised. Depending on the immune defect in the host, one of the spectrum of Candida diseases can develop. If successful treatment of these patients is to be achieved, modulation of the immune deficit, as well as the use of an appropriate antifungal drug, must become a routine part of therapeutic interventions. PMID:7877106

  18. Coevolution of Morphology and Virulence in Candida Species ▿

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Delma S.; Carlisle, Patricia L.; Kadosh, David

    2011-01-01

    Many of the major human fungal pathogens are known to undergo morphological changes, which in certain cases are associated with virulence. Although there has been an intense research focus on morphology in fungi, very little is known about how morphology evolved in conjunction with a variety of other virulence properties. However, several recent important discoveries, primarily in Candida species, are beginning to shed light on this important area and answer many longstanding questions. In this minireview, we first provide a description of the major fungal morphologies, as well as the roles of morphology and morphology-associated gene expression in virulence. Next, focusing largely on Candida species, we examine the evolutionary relationships among specific morphological forms. Finally, drawing on recent findings, we begin to address the question of how specific morphological changes came to be associated with virulence of Candida species during evolution. PMID:21764907

  19. IL-17 Signaling in Host Defense Against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Gaffen, Sarah L.; Hernandez-Santos, Nydiaris; Peterson, Alanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the Th17 lineage in 2005 triggered a major change in how immunity to infectious diseases is viewed. Fungal infections, in particular, have long been a relatively understudied area of investigation in terms of the host immune response. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast that colonizes mucosal sites and skin. In healthy individuals it is non-pathogenic, but in conditions of immune deficiency, this organism can cause a variety of infections associated with considerable morbidity. Candida can also cause disseminated infections that have a high mortality rate and are a major clinical problem in hospital settings. Although immunity to Candida albicans was long considered to be mediated by Th1 cells, new data in both rodent models and in humans have revealed an essential role for the Th17 lineage, and in particular its signature cytokine IL-17. PMID:21717069

  20. Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes.

    PubMed

    Butler, Geraldine; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Lin, Michael F; Santos, Manuel A S; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Munro, Carol A; Rheinbay, Esther; Grabherr, Manfred; Forche, Anja; Reedy, Jennifer L; Agrafioti, Ino; Arnaud, Martha B; Bates, Steven; Brown, Alistair J P; Brunke, Sascha; Costanzo, Maria C; Fitzpatrick, David A; de Groot, Piet W J; Harris, David; Hoyer, Lois L; Hube, Bernhard; Klis, Frans M; Kodira, Chinnappa; Lennard, Nicola; Logue, Mary E; Martin, Ronny; Neiman, Aaron M; Nikolaou, Elissavet; Quail, Michael A; Quinn, Janet; Santos, Maria C; Schmitzberger, Florian F; Sherlock, Gavin; Shah, Prachi; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Skrzypek, Marek S; Soll, David; Staggs, Rodney; Stansfield, Ian; Stumpf, Michael P H; Sudbery, Peter E; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Zeng, Qiandong; Berman, Judith; Berriman, Matthew; Heitman, Joseph; Gow, Neil A R; Lorenz, Michael C; Birren, Bruce W; Kellis, Manolis; Cuomo, Christina A

    2009-06-01

    Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Here we report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and non-pathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine-to-serine genetic-code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the Candida albicans gene catalogue, identifying many new genes. PMID:19465905

  1. Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR) grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB), but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum) a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance. PMID:22424058

  2. Proinflammatory chemokines during Candida albicans keratitis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Hua, Xia; Wilhelmus, Kirk R

    2010-03-01

    Chemotactic cytokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes into infected tissues. This study investigated the profile of chemokines during experimental Candida albicans keratitis and determined the effects of chemokine inhibition on leukocyte infiltration and fungal growth during murine keratomycosis. Scarified corneas of BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with C. albicans and monitored daily over one week for fungal keratitis. After a gene microarray for murine chemokines compared infected corneas to controls, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining assessed chemokine expression in infected and mock-inoculated corneas. An anti-chemokine antibody was then administered subconjunctivally and evaluated for effects on clinical severity, corneal inflammation, fungal recovery, and cytokine expression. Of 33 chemokine genes examined by microarray, 6 CC chemokines and 6 CXC chemokines were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated more than two-fold. Chemokine (CC-motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) was upregulated 108-fold (P=0.03) by real-time RT-PCR within one day after fungal inoculation and remained increased 28-fold (P=0.02) at one week, and its in situ expression increased in the epithelium and stroma of infected corneas. Compared to the control antibody-treated group, eyes treated with anti-CCL3 antibody showed reduced clinical severity (P<0.05), less corneal neovascularization (P=0.02), and fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating corneal tissue, but the amount of recoverable fungi was not significantly (P=0.4) affected. Anti-CCL3 treatment significantly (P=0.01) reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta in infected corneas. These results indicate that chemokines, especially the CC chemokine CCL3, play important roles in the acute inflammatory response to C. albicans corneal infection. PMID:20005222

  3. Virulence factors of Candida species isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and obstructive uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Alenzi, Faris Q.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Fungal urinary tract infections due to Candida have increased significantly in recent years. Our research objective was to study Candida species in urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with obstructive uropathy and to investigate the virulence factors of the isolated Candida. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (cases): 50 patients with UTIs and obstructive uropathy. Group II (control): 50 patients with UTIs but with no functional or anatomical obstruction of their urinary tract. Clinical histories and physical examinations, together with laboratory investigations of urine samples were carried out in all patients in this study. Mid stream urine samples were examined microscopically and by fungal cell culture. The isolated Candida species were identified by analytical profile index (API). Candida Virulence factors were determined for the isolated Candida. The susceptibility to fluconazole was evaluated. Results: This study revealed an overall isolation rate of 27% of Candida species among all patient groups. The rate was 36% in cases, and 18% in controls, a difference found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). By API, C.albicans was detected in 44% of Candida species in cases, and in 33% in controls. While C.glabrata was detected in 28% of Candida species in cases, and in 22% in controls. C.tropicalis was detected in 17% of Candida species in cases, and in 22% in controls. Both C.krusei and C.kyfr were detected in 5.5% of Candida species in cases, and in 11% in controls. In terms of virulence factors the study showed that 11 out of 27 (40.5%) of Candida isolates were biofilm positive by tube adherence. Phospholipase activity was demonstrated in 12 out of 27 (44.5%) of Candida isolates. Secretory aspartic proteinase activity was demonstrated in 13 out of 27 (48%) of the Candida isolates. Conclusion: Candida is an important cause of UTIs and obstructive uropathy is a major predisposing factor

  4. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American…

  5. White Mold of Chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold of chickpea can occur at either seedling stage or at flowering and pod filling stages. At seedling stage, the disease occurs at the base of the stem causing symptoms like collar rot. Often white mycelial growth around the stem on soil surface is visible. Affected plants wilt and die. ...

  6. The Hidden Curriculum of Whiteness: White Teachers, White Territory, and White Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    This paper suggests that space and spatiality are major features of racial identity and the formation of student resistance. It brings together critical studies of "Whiteness," human territoriality, and theories of resistance in education. The problems between white teachers and students of color can be understood better through a combination of…

  7. Sailing to White Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  8. Vulvovaginal Candida albicans infections: pathogenesis, immunity and vaccine prospects.

    PubMed

    Cassone, A

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of fungal species belonging to the genus Candida can cause acute vulvovaginal infection (VVC), Candida albicans is by far the most prevalent etiological agent, particularly for the most severe chronic condition known as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). This review focuses on recent advances in pathogenic mechanisms and host immune responses to C. albicans and on the utilisation of this information in the development of a vaccine to prevent and/or treat vaginal candidiasis. Currently, two vaccines with main or sole RVVC as clinical indication have completed a phase 1 clinical trial, and one of them has entered a phase 2 trial. PMID:25052208

  9. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  10. Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  11. Synthesis, morphology and antifungal activity of nano-particulated amphotericin-B, ketoconazole and thymoquinone against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Mohammad A; Gondal, Mohammed A; Al-Zahrani, Al-Hosain J; Rashid, Siddique G; Ali, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, nano-particulated drugs-Amphotericin-B, Ketoconazole and Thymoquinone (an active ingredient of Nigella sativa)-were prepared using the ball milling technique, and their particle sizes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and using a particle size analyzer. The grain sizes of the prepared compounds were found in between 5 to 20 nm, and exhibited quasi-spherical morphology. The antifungal activity of each nano-particulated drug was investigated in vitro against Candida albicans yeasts and Candida biofilm, and compared with their micro-structured conventional forms. Nano-sized drugs were found to be two to four times more effective in disinfecting both the Candida yeasts and Candida biofilm. The study is a first of its kind as nano-forms of drugs have not been studied against Candida and Candida biofilm before. Further investigations are required for the determination of the clinical significance of the nano-formulation of antifungal substances. PMID:25560257

  12. Measurement of fluorescent white effects and whiteness.

    PubMed

    Anders, G

    1975-01-01

    This report surveys the literature and describes various techniques of whiteness measurement and evaluation in current use. Measuring techniques are described for dealing separately with the effects obtained by bleaching, blueing and fluorescent whitening, and an example is given of the direct quantitative estimation of a fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) on a substrate by measuring reflectance in the ultraviolet region. Another chapter deals with the colorimetric estimation of the whiteness and the shade of a fluorescent white using modern apparatus in conjunction with a programmable minicomputer. A new simple and universally applicab,e formula was worked out: W=D-Y+P-x+Q-y+C which has been successfully used in routine tests and which for the first time gives different weight to whiteness values corresponding to all shade preferences existing in theory. Each user can match the formula to his own preference by appropriate adjustment of the D, P, Q andC values. Y,x and y are the customary colorimetric values as standardized by the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage). It was also found that with another formula the shades of fluorescent whitening effects (green to red tints) may be defined in a simple way. PMID:1064551

  13. Alcoholic fermentation of d-xylose by yeasts. [Brettanomyces naardenensis; Candida shehatae; Candida tenuis; Pachysolen tannaphilus, Pichia segobiensis; Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Toivola, A.; Yarrow, D.; van den Bosch, E.; van Dijken, J.P.; Scheffers, W.A.

    1984-06-01

    Type strains of 200 species of yeasts able to ferment glucose and grow on xylose were screened for fermentation of D-xylose. In most of the strains tested, ethanol production was negligible. Nineteen were found to produce between 0.1 and 1.0 g of ethanol per liter. Strains of the following species produce more than 1 g of ethanol per liter in the fermentation test with 2% xylose: Brettanomyces naardenensis, Candida shehatae, Candida tenuis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Pichia segobiensis, and Pichia stipitis. Subsequent screening of these yeasts for their capacity to ferment D-cellobiose revealed that only Candida tenuis CBS 4435 was a good fermenter of both xylose and cellobiose under the test conditions used.

  14. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  15. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; Weetman, D A; MacFarlane, T W

    1986-05-01

    Growth characteristic and acid production of oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in glucose supplemented and glucose-free, pooled, human whole saliva were examined. Both Candida species exhibited sigmoidal growth curves in batch cultures of mixed saliva, supplemented with glucose. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in pH from 7.5 to 3.2 over 48 h and the major acidic components initiating and sustaining this pH drop were pyruvates and acetates. These acidic metabolites may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral Candida infections. PMID:3091791

  16. Saliva promotes survival and even proliferation of Candida species in tap water.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Vanessa; Migeot, Virginie; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Deborde, Marie; Imbert, Christine

    2011-11-01

    Candida yeasts colonize the human oral cavity as commensals or opportunistic pathogens. They may be isolated from water circulating in dental unit waterlines mixed with traces of saliva mainly because of the dysfunction of antiretraction valves. This study deals with the growth ability of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis in tap water with saliva (0-20% v/v). Results show that C. glabrata is the most susceptible species in tap water. Furthermore, saliva promotes both survival and proliferation of the three studied Candida species in tap water. PMID:22092759

  17. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA), and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli) latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours) identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior testing for germ tube

  18. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  19. Comparative Phenotypic Analysis of the Major Fungal Pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Linda M.; Schröder, Markus S.; Turner, Siobhán A.; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis. PMID:25233198

  20. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested. PMID:21761153

  1. Presence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of heart transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Patrícia Monteiro; BACAL, Fernando; KOGA-ITO, Cristiane Yumi; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Candida spp. can lead to infections or even fungal sepsis particularly among immunocompromized individuals. Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the presence of Candida spp. among patients subjected to orthotopic heart transplantation. Material and Methods Oral rinses from 50 patients subjected to orthotopic heart transplantation, aged 13 to 70 years, 40 males and 10 females, were examined. Sexage-oral conditions matched-control included 50 individuals who were not subjected to any kind of transplantation and were not immunocompromized for any other reason. Counts of yeasts were expressed as median values of logarithm of cfu/mL and were statistically compared by Mann-Whitney’s test. The heart transplant and control groups were compared for the presence of Candida spp. by chi-square test (p<0.05). Results The results showed statistically significant difference (p=0.001) in the prevalence of Candida spp. between the transplantation and control groups. Counts of yeasts (cfu/mL) in the transplanted group were significantly higher than in the control group (p=0.005). Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated from both groups. Conclusion It was concluded that Candida yeast counts were higher in the heart transplant recipients than in the controls. There was higher variation of Candida species among the heart transplant patients and the most frequently isolated samples were: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Isolates of Candida dubliniensis was not found in either of the groups. PMID:21437462

  2. Erratum: Evaluation of CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Mutlu Sariguzel, Fatma; Berk, Elife; Nedret Koc, Ayse; Sav, Hafize; Aydemir, Gonca

    2016-03-01

    Erratum Following publication of the original article (Infez Med. volume 23, issue 4, pages 318-322, year 2015) we became aware of the following errors which we wish to correct. These corrections have no impact over the study results, their interpretation or conclusions. Title The correct title is the following: Evaluation of chromagenic agar, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures Text In the whole text CHROMOMagar Candida shoul be read as chromogenic agar. PMID:27031906

  3. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood

  4. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded. PMID:24458659

  5. Distinguishing Candida Species by β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Kyoko; Shepherd, Maxwell G.; Cannon, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of fungi produce the hydrolytic enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HexNAcase), which can be readily detected in assays by using p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide as a substrate. In the present study we developed a microtiter plate-based HexNAcase assay for distinguishing Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains from other yeast species. HexNAcase activity was detected in 89 of 92 (97%) C. albicans strains and 4 of 4 C. dubliniensis strains but not in 28 strains of eight other Candida species, 4 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, or 2 Cryptococcus neoformans strains. The HexNAcase activity in C. albicans and C. dubliniensis was strain specific. All except three clinical C. albicans isolates among the C. albicans strains tested produced enzyme activity within 24 h. These strains did produce enzyme activity, however, after a prolonged incubation period. For two of these atypical strains, genomic DNA at the C. albicans HEX1 gene locus, which encodes HexNAcase, showed nucleotide differences from the sequence of control strains. Among the other Candida species tested, only C. dubliniensis had a DNA sequence that hybridized with the HEX1 probe under low-stringency conditions. The microtiter plate-based assay used in the present study for the detection of HexNAcase activity is a simple, relatively inexpensive method useful for the presumptive identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. PMID:11376040

  6. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K; Kragelund, C; Twetman, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the groups were noted concerning the levels of supragingival plaque or bleeding on probing. Thus, daily use of probiotic lozenges may reduce the prevalence of high oral Candida counts in frail elderly nursing homes residents (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02391532). PMID:26202995

  7. Candida pseudorugosa sp. nov., a Novel Yeast Species from Sputum▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Xu, Ying-Chun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2006-01-01

    Two yeast strains, strains XH 1026 and XH 1164, isolated from the sputum of an intensive care unit patient with acute pneumonia, were originally identified as Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, respectively. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the two strains represent a novel yeast species closely related to C. rogusa. The name Candida pseudorugosa sp. nov. is therefore proposed (type strain, AS 2.3107 [CBS 10433]). The new species is able to grow at 42°C and is resistant or insusceptible to amphotericin B (MIC, 2 μg/ml), caspofungin (MIC, 64 μg/ml), itraconazole (MIC, 1 μg/ml), and nystatin (MIC, 16 μg/ml); dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole (MIC, 16 μg/ml); and susceptible to flucytosine (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) and voriconazole (MIC, 0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml). The code for C. pseudorugosa sp. nov. provided by the API 20C AUX system is identical to that for C. rugosa. The colonies of the new species on CHROMagar Candida appear blue-green, similar to those of C. albicans. In addition to the molecular method based on D1/D2 domain or ITS region sequencing, use of the combination of the API system and CHROMagar Candida is helpful for the correct identification of C. pseudorugosa sp. nov. PMID:17021068

  8. Echinocandin resistance in two Candida haemulonii isolates from pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Muro, Marisol Dominguez; Motta, Fábio de Araújo; Burger, Marion; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Dalla-Costa, Líbera Maria

    2012-11-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with Candida haemulonii isolates that were obtained from hemocultures. In 2 of the 3 cases, isolates exhibited resistance to echinocandins and fluconazole. This is the first report of an echinocandin-resistant species of this fungus in pediatric patients. PMID:22895037

  9. Preterm Caesarean Delivery in a Parturient with Candida parapsilosis Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jason; Retherford, Lance M.; Flynn, Brigid

    2015-01-01

    We present the first documented case of Candida parapsilosis infective endocarditis in a pregnant patient. While the incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is rare, the incidence of C. parapsilosis endocarditis is even rarer. The numerous specific risks and decision making processes regarding this case are presented. PMID:26246916

  10. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN FOUR USUAL METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION OF Candida SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    SOUZA, Margarida Neves; ORTIZ, Stéfanie Otowicz; MELLO, Marcelo Martins; OLIVEIRA, Flávio de Mattos; SEVERO, Luiz Carlos; GOEBEL, Cristine Souza

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Infection by Candidaspp. is associated with high mortality rates, especially when treatment is not appropriate and/or not immediate. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly identify the genus and species of Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the identification of 89 samples of Candida spp. by the manual methods germ tube test, auxanogram and chromogenic medium in relation to the ID 32C automated method. The concordances between the methods in ascending order, measured by the Kappa index were: ID 32C with CHROMagar Candida(κ = 0.38), ID 32C with auxanogram (κ = 0.59) and ID 32C with germ tube (κ = 0.9). One of the species identified in this study was C. tropicalis,which demonstrated a sensitivity of 46.2%, a specificity of 95.2%, PPV of 80%, NPV of 81.1%, and an accuracy of 80.9% in tests performed with CHROMagar Candida;and a sensitivity of 76.9%, a specificity of 96.8%, PPV of 90.9%, NPV of 91%, and an accuracy of 91% in the auxanogram tests. Therefore, it is necessary to know the advantages and limitations of methods to choose the best combination between them for a fast and correct identification of Candidaspecies. PMID:26422150

  12. Fluconazole treatment hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane of Candida cells.

    PubMed

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2013-11-01

    Five pathogenic Candida species were compared in terms of their osmotolerance, tolerance to toxic sodium and lithium cations, and resistance to fluconazole. The species not only differed, in general, in their tolerance to high osmotic pressure (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis being the most osmotolerant) but exhibited distinct sensitivities to toxic sodium and lithium cations, with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis being very tolerant but C. krusei and C. dubliniensis sensitive to LiCl. The treatment of both fluconazole-susceptible (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis) and fluconazole-resistant (C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. tropicalis) growing cells with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole resulted in substantially elevated intracellular Na(+) levels. Using a diS-C3(3) assay, for the first time, to monitor the relative membrane potential (ΔΨ) of Candida cells, we show that the fluconazole treatment of growing cells of all five species results in a substantial hyperpolarization of their plasma membranes, which is responsible for an increased non-specific transport of toxic alkali metal cations and other cationic drugs (e.g., hygromycin B). Thus, the combination of relatively low doses of fluconazole and drugs, whose import into the tested Candida strains is driven by the cell membrane potential, might be especially potent in terms of its ability to inhibit the growth of or even kill various Candida species. PMID:23547882

  13. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia x candida Pers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3-, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weigh...

  14. Disseminated Candida tropicalis presenting with Ecthyma-Gangrenosum-like Lesions.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Knox; Panach, Kamaldeep; Dominguez, Arturo R

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis in immunosuppressed patients has been classically associated with an erythematous papular eruption, however more severe presentations are possible. We present a patient who developed disseminated Candida tropicalis that presented with hemorrhagic bullae that progressed to large necrotic ulcers. PMID:26990472

  15. Candida sepsis originating from bulbar abscess of the penis.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, J; Aaltomaa, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a patient with a very unusual penile abscess. Antibiotic treatment for Clostridium sordellii and Candida albicans infection and drainage of pus was curative. We propose that the penile abscess may have been an unusual manifestation of a rectal fistula. PMID:16916779

  16. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  17. When White Dwarfs Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Wendy Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate collisions. Observations of individual SNIa, SNIa rates in different galaxy types, and double white dwarf binary systems suggest that mergers or collisions between two white dwarfs play a role in the overall SNIa population. Given the possibility of two progenitor systems (single-degenerate and double-degenerate), the sample of SNIa used in cosmological calcula- tions needs to be carefully examined. To improve calculations of cosmological parameters, the development of calibrated diagnostics for double-degenerate progenitor SNIa is essential. Head-on white dwarf collision simulations are used to provide an upper limit on the 56Ni production in white dwarf collisions. In chapter II, I explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs using the Eulerian grid code FLASH. The initial 1D white dwarf profiles are created assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and a uniform composition of 50% 12C and 50% 16O. The masses range from 0.64 to 0.81 solar masses and have an isothermal temperature of 107 K. I map these 1D models onto a 3D grid, where the dimensions of the grid are each eight times the white dwarf radius, and the dwarfs are initially placed four white dwarf radii apart (center to center). To provide insight into a larger range of physical possibilities, I also model non-zero impact parameter white dwarf collisions (Chapter III). Although head-on white dwarf collisions provide an upper limit on 56Ni production, non-zero impact parameter collisions provide insight into a wider range of physical scenarios. The initial conditions (box size, initial separation, composition, and initial temperature) are identical to those used for the head-on collisions (Chapter II) for the same range of masses. For each mass pair- ing, collision simulations are carried

  18. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  19. Beyond Black and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    Black and white conflict is a by-product of a more basic problem: the failure of this society to develop a social system that enables all people to meet their basic human needs at a reasonable level. Until this is done, we will not be able to move beyond black and white. The underlying problem is related to a sudden acceleration of human history…

  20. [Surprising white lesions].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; van der Waal, I

    2011-09-01

    A 46-year-old man appeared with white lesions of the oral cavity. A previously taken biopsy revealed no classifying diagnosis and treatment with mouth rinse produced no improvement. A new biopsy was taken, on which the pathologist performed additional tests. This resulted in the diagnosis 'syphilis'. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and the oral white lesions disappeared. Although nowadays syphilis is rare, special attention is required when noticing these kinds of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:21957637

  1. Development of two molecular approaches for differentiation of clinically relevant yeast species closely related to Candida guilliermondii and Candida famata.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Jingsong; Ling, Bo; Yang, Xianwei; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-09-01

    The emerging pathogens Candida palmioleophila, Candida fermentati, and Debaryomyces nepalensis are often misidentified as Candida guilliermondii or Candida famata in the clinical laboratory. Due to the significant differences in antifungal susceptibilities and epidemiologies among these closely related species, a lot of studies have focused on the identification of these emerging yeast species in clinical specimens. Nevertheless, limited tools are currently available for their discrimination. Here, two new molecular approaches were established to distinguish these closely related species. The first approach differentiates these species by use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of partial internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and large subunit ribosomal DNA with the enzymes BsaHI and XbaI in a double digestion. The second method involves a multiplex PCR based on the intron size differences of RPL18, a gene coding for a protein component of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit, and species-specific amplification. These two methods worked well in differentiation of these closely related yeast species and have the potential to serve as effective molecular tools suitable for laboratory diagnoses and epidemiological studies. PMID:24951804

  2. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Candida guilliermondii and Candida fermentati from a Multicenter Study in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Yu, Shu-Ying; Xiao, Meng; Wang, He; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-08-01

    With molecular sequencing as a gold standard, the Vitek MS, Bruker Biotyper MS, and Vitek-2 Compact systems correctly identified 92.7%, 97.0%, and 15.2% of 164 Candida guillermondii isolates, respectively, and none of 8 C. fermentati isolates. All of the isolates showed high susceptibility to echinocandins, but some C. guilliermondii isolates showed low azole susceptibility. PMID:27252461

  3. SUMOylation of Wor1 by a novel SUMO E3 ligase controls cell fate in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yan, Minghui; Nie, Xinyi; Wang, Huafeng; Gao, Ning; Liu, Haoping; Chen, Jiangye

    2015-10-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen, yet is a normal commensal resident of the human gut. CO(2) levels in the gut are much higher than in air, and it is known that elevated CO(2) concentration promotes C. albicans cells to undergo a phenotypic switch from white to opaque phase. Wor1, the master regulator of opaque cell formation, is required for both the white to opaque transition and opaque maintenance. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of Wor1, we set out to identify Wor1-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid screen. A SUMO E3 ligase named Wos1 (Wor1 SUMO-ligase 1) was identified to interact with Wor1 and regulate Wor1 SUMOylation. WOS1 expression is upregulated in response to high CO(2), and the induction by CO(2) is dependent on the transcription factor Flo8. Under high CO(2) conditions, Wos1 is required for the white to opaque switch and acts downstream of Flo8. At atmospheric CO(2) levels, overexpression of Wos1 enhances Wor1 SUMOylation and promotes the white to opaque switch. Wor1 is found to be SUMOylated at lysine 385, and loss of this mark by point mutation leads to a defect in CO(2) -mediated opaque cell induction. Together, our genetic and biological data show that Wos1-mediated Wor1 SUMOylation contributes to the regulation of CO(2) -induced white to opaque switching as well as heritable maintenance of the opaque cell type. PMID:26112173

  4. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species. PMID:17651080

  5. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  6. Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mohamed E.; Assiry, Mohammed M.; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Al-Abed, Fatin; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Al-Hakami, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 2012 and 2013 using the classic morphological schemes and the Vitek 2 automated system. Results: The results of the retrospective analysis (2011-2012) indicated that of the 6100 various clinical specimens submitted to the routine microbiology analysis, 143 (2.35%) revealed the presence of Candida spp. The distribution of the 143 Candida spp. according to specimens was as follows: urine 72%, sputum 10.5%, endotracheal tube 7%, blood 4.2%, catheter tip 2.1%, throat swab 2.1%, eye swab 0.7%, wound exudates 0.7%, and cerebrospinal fluid 0.7%. The results of the prospective study (2012-2013), which involved the identification of yeast recovered from 84 specimens indicated that Candida albicans 28.6% was the predominant species, followed by Candida parapsilosis 21.4%, Candida tropicalis 14.3%, and Candida lusitaniae 9.5%. Conclusions: Along with the commonly encountered Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida lusitaniae were detected with significant rates. Many other Candida species and some other pathogenic yeasts have been detected for the first time in the region. Urinary tract samples were the main source of Candida species. PMID:25316465

  7. Sensitive and rapid RT-qPCR quantification of pathogenic Candida species in human blood.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kiyohito; Matsuda, Kazunori; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nomoto, Koji

    2015-10-01

    For accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of candidiasis, we developed a highly sensitive quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) system for five Candida species that have been reported to be the major causes of bloodstream fungal infection (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei), together with a system for all pathogenic Candida species. Cells of each fungal species spiked into human peripheral blood (PB) were specifically detected at a lower detection limit of 10(0) cell/1 mL PB by this system using the newly developed specific primer sets targeting 18S or 26S rRNA of the five Candida species, together with the existing group primer set. The total count of the five Candida spp. as the sum of those obtained by using the five species primer sets was equivalent to the count obtained by using the group primer set, indicating that the group set covered the major five Candida spp. in human blood with the same degree of accuracy as the species primer sets. The RT-qPCR counts of the Candida species were in good agreement with CFU counts obtained by their culture on CHROMagar™, with a lower detection limit of 10(0)cell/mL of PB. Candida rRNA molecules were stably stored for at least 7 days at 4°C by keeping the blood specimens in an RNA stabilizing reagent. These results strongly suggest that this sensitive system is useful for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Candida bloodstream infections. PMID:26232708

  8. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains. PMID:26065323

  9. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Dos Santos, Leandro Vieira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  10. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; dos Santos, Leandro Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  11. Description of Teunomyces gen. nov. for the Candida kruisii clade, Suhomyces gen. nov. for the Candida tanzawaensis clade and Suhomyces kilbournensis sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence analysis has shown that species of the Candida kruisii clade and species of the Candida tanzawaensis clade represent phylogenetically circumscribed genera, which are described as Teunomyces gen. nov., type species T. kruisii, and Suhomyces gen. nov., type species S. tanzawaensis. Many o...

  12. Coaggregation of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain dependent.

    PubMed

    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Dashper, Stuart; Catmull, Deanne; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent. PMID:26054855

  13. Cilofungin (LY121019), an antifungal agent with specific activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G S; Myles, C; Pratt, K J; Washington, J A

    1988-01-01

    Cilofungin (LY121019) is an antifungal agent that interferes with beta-glucan synthesis in the cells walls of fungi. The activity of this agent against 256 clinical isolates of yeasts was determined. It was found to be very active in vitro against Candida albicans (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], less than or equal to 0.31 microgram/ml; minimal fungicidal concentration for 90% of isolates [MFC90], less than or equal to 0.31 micrograms/ml) and C. tropicalis (MIC90, less than or equal to 0.31 microgram/ml; MFC90, less than or equal to 0.31 microgram/ml) and moderately active against Torulopsis glabrata (MIC90 and MFC90, less than or equal to 20 micrograms/ml). All C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were resistant. The activity of cilofungin was affected by medium and inoculum size. Antibiotic medium no. 3 was used as the standard medium. Isolates of C. albicans and C. tropicalis demonstrated a paradoxical effect in Sabouraud dextrose broth and yeast nitrogen base broth in that growth was partially inhibited at MICs equivalent to those in antibiotic medium no. 3, but growth continued, in many instances, throughout all concentrations tested. There was decreased activity of cilofungin with inocula greater than 10(5) CFU/ml. The temperature and duration of incubation did not affect its activity. Images PMID:3058017

  14. Candida albicans strain types from the genitalia of patients with and without Candida infection.

    PubMed

    Odds, F C; Abbott, A B; Reed, T A; Willmott, F E

    1983-04-01

    The strain phenotypes of 266 C. albicans isolates from patients attending a genitourinary clinic were determined on the basis of 9 biochemical tests. Analysis of the strain patterns of isolates from the genitalia showed that there were no statistically significant differences between types associated with clinically overt Candida infection and types isolated in the absence of symptoms of candidosis. This finding accords with the traditional view of C. albicans as an opportunistic pathogen, rather than a species containing some strains of high virulence. In cases where isolations were made from the same patient at different times, or from different anatomical sites in the same patient, it was found that usually, but not always, a patient carried the same phenotype at different sites and different times. Similarly, the same strain type was isolated from the genitalis of both partners in a majority of instances where strains were isolated from consorts; however, this was not the case for a substantial minority of couples, particularly in those where high promiscuity appeared to promote considerable mixture and interchange of the C. albicans genital microflora. PMID:6350074

  15. White coat, patient gown.

    PubMed

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. PMID:24687912

  16. Ultrastructure and antigenicity of the unique cell wall pimple of the Candida opaque phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J; Mihalik, R; Soll, D R

    1990-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans WO-1 switch frequently and reversibly between two colony-forming phenotypes, white and opaque. In the white form, budding cells appear similar to those of most other strains of C. albicans, but in the opaque form, budding cells are larger, are bean shaped, and possess pimples on the wall. These pimples exhibit a unique and complex morphology. With scanning electron microscopy, a central pit can be discerned, and in many cases, a bleb can be observed emerging from the pimple center. With transmission electron microscopy, channels are evident in some pimples and vesicles are apparent under the pimple in the cytoplasm, in the actual wall of the pimple, or emerging from the tip of the pimple. A large vacuole predominates in the opaque-cell cytoplasm. This vacuole is usually filled with spaghettilike membranous material and in a minority of cases is filled with vesicles, many of which exhibit a relatively uniform size. An antiserum to opaque cells recognizes three opaque-cell-specific antigens with molecular masses of approximately 14.5, 21, and 31 kilodaltons (kDa). Absorption with nonpermeabilized opaque cells demonstrated that only the 14.5-kDa antigen is on the cell surface; indirect immunogold labeling demonstrated that it is localized in or on the pimple. The possibility is suggested that the vacuole of opaque cells is the origin of membrane-bound vesicles which traverse the wall through specialized pimple structures and emerge from the pimple with an intact outer double membrane, a unique phenomenon in yeast cells. The opaque-cell-specific 14.5-kDa antigen either is in the pimple channel or is a component of the emerging vesicle. The functions of the unique opaque-cell pimple and emerging vesicle are not known. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7A-7B FIG. 7C-7D PMID:2403540

  17. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival. PMID:25308076

  18. A new flavonol glycoside and activity of compounds from the flower of Nymphaea candida.

    PubMed

    Liu, R-N; Wang, W; Ding, Y; Xie, W-D; Ma, C; Du, L-J

    2007-01-01

    A new compound, kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside) (1), was isolated from the white flower of Nymphaea candida, together with nine known flavonol glycosides, kaempferol (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 3-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside) (6), quercetin (7), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (8), myricetin (9), myricetin 3'-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (10). The structure of 1 was established on the basis of the analysis of its 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to significant antioxidant activities, which were evaluated by measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9 exhibited promising neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury model of cultured rat cortical neurons treated with sodium dithionite in glucose-free medium. Furthermore, compounds 1, 5, and 9 had distinct cytotoxicity to adrenal gland pheochromocytoma, PC12 cells, being treated by the same way. PMID:17613618

  19. Marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a potential immunostimulant in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Babu, Divya T; Antony, Swapna P; Joseph, Simi P; Bright, Ann Rose; Philip, Rosamma

    2013-03-01

    A marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a source of immunostimulant in Penaeus monodon was studied. Yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% C. aquaetextoris S527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in P. monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, alkaline phosphatase activity and acid phosphatase activity were tested. Expression profile of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5; immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, peroxinectin, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase, and WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were analyzed. The study demonstrated that marine yeast diet administered once every seven days conferred better protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection, supported by the hematological and immune gene expression profiles analyzed. PMID:23262396

  20. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms. PMID:23478969

  1. White light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, J.; Schlotter, P.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN LEDs on SiC substrate chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white light emitting diodes (LUCOLEDs). The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta, is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence downconversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic dye molecules and many inorganic phosphors. For white light generation via the LUCOLED principle, the phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(4f1) is ideally suited. The optical characteristics of Ce3+(4f1) in Y3Al5O12(YAG) are discussed in detail. Possibilities to "tune" the white color by various substitutions in the garnet lattice are shortly outlined.

  2. White LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2004-10-01

    Two life tests were conducted to compare the effects of drive current and ambient temperature on the degradation rate of 5 mm and high-flux white LEDs. Tests of 5 mm white LED arrays showed that junction temperature increases produced by drive current had a greater effect on the rate of light output degradation than junction temperature increases from ambient heat. A preliminary test of high-flux white LEDs showed the opposite effect, with junction temperature increases from ambient heat leading to a faster depreciation. However, a second life test is necessary to verify this finding. The dissimilarity in temperature effect among 5 mm and high-flux LEDs is likely caused by packaging differences between the two device types.

  3. [In vitro nystatin sensitivity of vaginal isolates of Candida spp].

    PubMed

    Andreu, C M; Medina, Y E; Gonzáles, T C; Llanes, D M

    2001-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nistatine, one of the most used antifungal agents for this micosis, was determined in 68 Candida strains isolated from vaginal smears. Candida albicans represented 75% of the total strains whereas C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. glabrata were much less frequently found. The predisposing factors were pregnancy and antibacterial treatment whereas leukorrhea and itching were the prevailing symptoms in most of the cases. MIC values from the use of a broth dilution method ranged from 0,5-8mg/mL and the geometric mean was 1.36mg/ mL. For C. albicans, MIC was 4mg/mL due to two strains that showed the highest MIC values (8 mg/mL). Similarly, the strains showed low MIC values, this means that therapeutic failures are not inherent to the emergence of resistant strains. PMID:15846923

  4. Candida Efflux ATPases and Antiporters in Clinical Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Shah, Abdul Haseeb

    2016-01-01

    An enhanced expression of genes encoding ATP binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transport proteins are known to contribute to the development of tolerance to antifungals in pathogenic yeasts. For example, the azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans show an overexpression of CDR1 and/or CaMDR1 belonging to ABC and MFS, superfamilies, respectively. The reduced accumulation (due to rapid efflux) of drugs in AR isolates confirms the role of efflux pump proteins in the development of drug tolerance. Considering the importance of major multidrug transporters, the focus of recent research has been to understand the structure and function of these proteins which could help to design inhibitors/modulators of these pump proteins. This chapter focuses on some aspects of the structure and function of yeast transporter proteins particularly in relation to MDR in Candida. PMID:26721282

  5. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Candidaspecies are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, withCandida albicansbeing the most clinically relevant species.Candida albicansresides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation ofC. albicansvirulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and withinCandidaspecies), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein-DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics inC. albicansand discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  6. Two unlike cousins: Candida albicans and C. glabrata infection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Sascha; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. glabrata are the two most common pathogenic yeasts of humans, yet they are phylogenetically, genetically and phenotypically very different. In this review, we compare and contrast the strategies of C. albicans and C. glabrata to attach to and invade into the host, obtain nutrients and evade the host immune response. Although their strategies share some basic concepts, they differ greatly in their outcome. While C. albicans follows an aggressive strategy to subvert the host response and to obtain nutrients for its survival, C. glabrata seems to have evolved a strategy which is based on stealth, evasion and persistence, without causing severe damage in murine models. However, both fungi are successful as commensals and as pathogens of humans. Understanding these strategies will help in finding novel ways to fight Candida, and fungal infections in general. PMID:23253282

  7. Fungal Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis by Candida parapsilosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shokohi, Tahereh; Nouraei, Seyed Mahmood; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Najafi, Narges; Mehdipour, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is rare but serious complication of valve replacement surgery. Candida species, particularly Candida albicans is the most common isolated pathogen in fungal PVE (1–6%of cases). Case Presentation: We describe a 35-year-old woman who underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement about 3 years ago. She was admitted with neurological symptoms and later with dyspnea and hypotension. Transesophageal echocardiography showed large and mobile prosthetic valve vegetation. She underwent mitral valve surgery. The explanted valve and vegetation revealed lots of budding yeasts and the isolated yeast was identified as C. parapsilosis. Amphotericin B and broad spectrum antibiotic were started immediately. Unfortunately, the patient died two days after surgery, due to sepsis probably related to the candidemia. Conclusions: Fungal endocarditis is uncommon infection, but it is a serious problem in patients with prosthetic valve. Fungal PVE can occur years after the surgery, thus long-term follow-up is essential. PMID:25147692

  8. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  9. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  10. Candida and candidosis. Epidemiology, diagnosis and therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Hellstein, J W

    1992-10-01

    Infections caused by Candida species comprise one of the most common oral disease conditions encountered in the practice of dentistry. Gradual changes in population demographics have been accompanied by an increased incidence in candidal and related opportunistic infection rates. Candida albicans and other candidal species traditionally have been recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Recent advances in both the scientific basis for and the clinical significance of candidal organisms, however, have demonstrated these fungi to be distributed widely and to be important contributors to a broad range of mucosal and systemic disease conditions. These factors have allowed for a better understanding of fungal pathogenesis as it affects human oral disease through improvements in clinical and laboratory diagnosis and the therapeutic management of candidosis. PMID:1397438

  11. Asymptomatic trichomonas and candida colonization and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Hay, Phillip; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted surface pathogen of the lower urogenital tract, and may be associated with asymptomatic vaginal colonization or intensely symptomatic vaginitis. In pregnancy it is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. However, a randomized trial of treatment of asymptomatic trichomonas colonization in pregnancy showed an increase in the risk of preterm delivery in treated women. The reasons for this paradox are yet to be fully elucidated. Candida species, on the other hand, may be present--usually in the yeast form--in the vaginal flora of up to 40% of healthy pregnant women. Although candidiasis is not usually associated with chorioamnionitis or preterm delivery, there is some emerging evidence to suggest that screening for and eradication of candida during pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm delivery. This chapter reviews the impact of these common vaginal infections on pregnancy outcome and appraises the recent evidence on the role of treatment during pregnancy. PMID:17512254

  12. Frequency of bacteria, Candida and malassezia species in balanoposthitis.

    PubMed

    Alsterholm, Mikael; Flytström, Ingela; Leifsdottir, Ragna; Faergemann, Jan; Bergbrant, Ing-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Balanoposthitis is an inflammatory disorder of the prepuce and glans penis. Microbes involved in balanoposthitis have been investigated, but no single study has covered the growth of both bacteria, Candida and Malassezia. We report here the prevalence of these microbes in 100 patients with balanoposthitis and in 26 control patients. Among patients with balanoposthitis there was a significantly higher frequency of positive cultures than in the control group (59% and 35%, respectively, p<0.05). In the balanoposthitis group Staphylococcus aureus was found in 19%, group B streptococci in 9%, Candida albicans in 18% and Malassezia in 23% of patients. In the control group S. aureus was not found at all, whereas C. albicans was found in 7.7% and Malassezia in 23% of patients. Different microbes did not correspond with distinct clinical manifestations. In summary, we report increased frequency of microbes, specifically S. aureus, in the area of the prepuce and glans penis in balanoposthitis. PMID:18709300

  13. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates. PMID:26922471

  14. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  15. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  16. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  17. White cell design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The White cell is a unit-magnification image relay system consisting of three noncoaxial spherical mirrors of equal curvature. The cell is used to provide a long optical path in a relatively small physical space. Multiple reflections are used, in a manner similar to a unstable laser resonator. A particular application is an optical delay line on the input of a streak camera to allow for the finite triggering time of the sweep start. This paper addresses the first- and third-order properties of the White cell. A displacement sensitivity analysis is included.

  18. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  19. White cell design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, Paul

    1989-11-01

    The White cell is a unit-magnification image relay system consisting of three noncoaxial spherical mirrors of equal curvature. The cell is used to provide a long optical path in a relatively small physical space. Multiple reflections are used, in a manner similar to a unstable laser resonator. A particular application is an optical delay line on the input of a streak camera to allow for the finite triggering time of the sweep start. This paper addresses the first- and third-order properties of the White cell. A displacement sensitivity analysis is included.

  20. Candida dubliniensis encrustation of an obstructing upper renal tract calculus

    PubMed Central

    O'Kane, Dermot; Kiosoglous, Anthony; Jones, Kay

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old man, with a history of alcohol abuse, requiring intensive care unit admission, with an obstructing right upper renal calculus and Klebsiella pneumoniae urosepsis. Ureteroscopic treatment of this obstruction displayed a small calculus within the renal pelvis completely encapsulated within a fungal bezoar. Laboratory analysis of the fungal mass found it to be Candida dubliniensis. PMID:23975908

  1. Candida quercitrusa Candidemia in a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Christina A.; Hilinski, Joseph A.; Stanley, Theresa; Jerris, Robert C.; Wilkey, Kathy; Pincus, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of candidemia due to Candida quercitrusa in a pediatric patient. The identification of the isolate was protracted and ultimately dependent upon sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. To further define the antifungal susceptibility characteristics of this species, we performed antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical and type strains. In light of the antifungal susceptibility testing results, we caution against the use of fluconazole for treating C. quercitrusa infections. PMID:26063864

  2. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  3. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (p<0.05). No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis. PMID:27206014

  4. In-vivo Candida biofilms in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paulitsch, Astrid Helga; Willinger, Birgit; Zsalatz, Benedikt; Stabentheiner, Edith; Marth, Egon; Buzina, Walter

    2009-11-01

    Candida biofilms on indwelling devices are an increasing problem in patients treated at intensive care units. The goal of this study was to examine the occurrence and frequency of these biofilms. A total of 172 catheters were collected from 105 male and 67 female patients (the age range of both patient groups was from 3 weeks to 98 years old). The catheters were incubated on blood agar plates and the resulting yeast colonies were subsequently identified. Furthermore, pieces of catheters were fixed, dried and sputter coated with gold for investigation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Yeasts were recovered from significantly more catheters obtained from men than from women (chi(2): n = 67; P < 0.01). In SEM, 56.4% catheters turned out to be positive for biofilm formation. Again catheters from male patients were statistically significant (chi(2): n = 40; P < 0.01) more often positive than those from women. Candida albicans (71.1%) was the most common species isolated from the catheters, followed by C. glabrata (10.3%), C. parapsilosis (8.2%) and C. tropicalis (5.2%). Based on the results of this investigation, the epidemiology of Candida biofilms on indwelling devices seems to be a promising target for future investigations. PMID:19888801

  5. Molecular Characterization of Highly Susceptible Candida africana from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Fakhim, Hamed; Shokohi, Tahereh; Haghani, Iman; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gholami, Haniyeh; Ahmadi, Imaneh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic studies highlight Candida africana as an atypical variant within Candida albicans species complex which is dominantly recovered from vaginal specimens. This study aimed to characterize C. africana isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) by molecular methods and in vitro susceptibilities. One hundred and fifty-six (48.44%) Candida strains were collected from 322 patients diagnosed with VVC. Of these, 114 (73.07%) were germ tube positive and presented green color on the chromogenic medium, thus classified as C. albicans species complex. One hundred and nine (95.61%) out of 114 isolates were identified as C. albicans, while five (4.38%) isolates were identical with C. africana based on hwp1 PCR. C. africana appeared to be highly susceptible to the tested antifungals. For all strains of C. africana, fluconazole MIC was 2-log2-dilution steps less active than amphotericin B, which in turn was 2-log2-dilution steps and 3-log2-dilution steps less active than other azoles and echinocandin agents, respectively. In conclusion, among the C. albicans species complex, C. albicans predominantly and C. africana rarely occur in vaginal mucosa. Due to limited information on molecular epidemiology of this novel yeast, more studies using molecular methods are needed to elucidate the inter- and intraspecific genomic variations of C. africana isolates. PMID:26183965

  6. Regulation of filamentation in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyu; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Yue, Huizhen; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Dai, Yu; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    The yeast-filament transition is essential for the virulence of a variety of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a potent inducer of filamentation in Candida albicans and thermally dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. However, GlcNAc suppresses rather than promotes filamentation in Candida tropicalis, a fungal species that is closely related to C. albicans. Despite the intensive study in C. albicans, the regulatory mechanism of filamentation is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. By screening an overexpression library of 156 transcription factors, we have identified approximately 40 regulators of filamentous growth. Although most of the regulators (e.g., Tec1, Gat2, Nrg1, Sfl1, Sfl2 and Ash1) demonstrate a conserved role in the regulation of filamentation, similar to their homologues in C. albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of transcription factors (e.g., Wor1, Bcr1, Stp4, Efh1, Csr1 and Zcf17) play a specific role in C. tropicalis. Our findings indicate that multiple interconnected signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. These mechanisms have conserved and divergent features among different Candida species. PMID:26466925

  7. Polyketide Glycosides from Bionectria ochroleuca Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges presented by Candida infections is that many of the isolates encountered in the clinic produce biofilms, which can decrease these pathogens’ susceptibilities to standard-of-care antibiotic therapies. Inhibitors of fungal biofilm formation offer a potential solution to counteracting some of the problems associated with Candida infections. A screening campaign utilizing samples from our fungal extract library revealed that a Bionectria ochroleuca isolate cultured on Cheerios breakfast cereal produced metabolites that blocked the in vitro formation of Candida albicans biofilms. A scale-up culture of the fungus was undertaken using mycobags (also known as mushroom bags or spawn bags), which afforded four known [TMC-151s C–F (1–4)] and three new [bionectriols B–D (5–7)] polyketide glycosides. All seven metabolites exhibited potent biofilm inhibition against C. albicans SC5314, as well as exerted synergistic antifungal activities in combination with amphotericin B. In this report, we describe the structure determination of the new metabolites, as well as compare the secondary metabolome profiles of fungi grown in flasks and mycobags. These studies demonstrate that mycobags offer a useful alternative to flask-based cultures for the preparative production of fungal secondary metabolites. PMID:25302529

  8. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27074245

  9. Candida Virulence Properties and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Neonatal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Joseph M.; Wong, Angela Y.; Bhak, Grace; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S.; Taylor, Sarah; Tan, Sylvia; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if premature infants with invasive Candida infection caused by strains with increased virulence properties have worse clinical outcomes than those infected with less virulent strains. Study design Clinical isolates were studied from 2 populations; premature infants colonized with Candida (commensal, n=27), and those with invasive candidiasis (n=81). Individual isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis were tested for virulence in each of 3 assays: phenotypic switching, adhesion, and cytotoxicity. Invasive isolates were considered to have enhanced virulence if they measured more than 1 SD above the mean for the commensal isolates in at least 1 assay. Outcomes of patients with invasive isolates with enhanced virulence were compared with those with invasive isolates lacking enhanced virulence characteristics. Results 61% of invasive isolates of C. albicans and 42% of invasive isolates of C. parapsilosis had enhanced virulence. All C. albicans cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates (n=6) and 90% of urine isolates (n=10) had enhanced virulence, compared with 48% of blood isolates (n=40). Infants with more virulent isolates were younger at the time of positive culture and had higher serum creatinine. Conclusions Individual isolates of Candida species vary in their virulence properties. Strains with higher virulence are associated with certain clinical outcomes. PMID:22504098

  10. Granulomatous rhinitis due to Candida parapsilosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Grune, Sterrett C; Estrada, Marko M; McIlwain, Mary B; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old female spayed Domestic Medium Hair cat presented to the referring veterinarian with a 2-week history of sneezing, which progressed to swelling over the nasal planum. The cat had been under veterinary care for inflammatory bowel disease and had been treated with 1.25 mg/kg prednisolone once a day for approximately 1 year. On physical examination, an approximately 2-3 mm diameter, round polypoid pink soft-tissue mass was protruding slightly from the right nostril. Through histologic examination of representative sections from the mass, there was a severe diffuse infiltrate of epithelioid macrophages and neutrophils that surrounded frequent 15-20 µm yeast organisms. A Grocott methenamine silver stain revealed the presence of pseudohyphae in addition to the previously noted yeast forms. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Cryptococcus neoformans, Ajellomyces dermatitidis (syn. Blastomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides immitis, Ajellomyces capsulatus (syn. Histoplasma capsulatum), Malassezia spp., and Candida spp. was performed on the paraffin-embedded sample. The PCR for Candida spp. was positive; the product was then sequenced and was determined to be consistent with Candida parapsilosis. Following the PCR diagnosis and prior to treatment of the infection, C. parapsilosis was cultured from a nasal swab. The infection in the cat in the current report was considered opportunistic and secondary to immunosuppression, following treatment for the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23883665

  11. Candida bituminiphila, a novel anamorphic species of yeast.

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Bonjean, B; Karutz, M; Paschold, H; Peeters, W; Wubbolts, M G

    2001-11-01

    A novel anamorphic species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from tar in Canada. Morphological and physiological observations, as well as phylogenetic analyses, were performed. Conidiophores were produced, were usually short and had sympodial growth, numerous bud scars and a rachis-like structure. They bore one or more conidia. Pseudomycelium was scarcely produced and true mycelium was sparse. No sexual reproduction was observed on corn meal, malt, Gorodkowa, Dextrose Yeast Peptone or V8 agars. Zygoascus hellenicus was physiologically the most closely related species, but it differed from the novel species by its ability to assimilate D-galacturonate and L-rhamnose, ferment sucrose and grow at 37 degrees C. From sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 region, Z. hellenicus and Candida bertae var. bertae were the closest species with 54 and 56 bp substitutions, respectively. Similar results have been obtained from analysis of the 18S rDNA. All these data support the hypothesis that the yeast, named Candida bituminiphila, is a novel species closely related to Z. hellenicus. The holotype and only isolate of C. bituminiphila is strain CBS 8813T (= MUCL 41424T). PMID:11760960

  12. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species. PMID:22315984

  13. Early differential molecular response of a macrophage cell line to yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, E; Pitzurra, L; Puliti, M; Lanfrancone, L; Bistoni, F

    1992-01-01

    The dimorphic transition of Candida albicans from the yeast (Y-Candida) to the hyphal (H-Candida) form is a complex event; the relevance of this transition in fungal pathogenicity is still poorly understood. By using a cloned macrophage cell line (ANA-1), we questioned whether the interaction between macrophages and Y-Candida or H-Candida could affect specific cell functions, i.e., tumor necrosis factor and lysozyme production. We found that ANA-1 macrophages selectively responded to H-Candida with increased tumor necrosis factor and downregulated lysozyme, as assessed by measurement of relative mRNA levels and secreted biological activities. The H-Candida-mediated effects were (i) dependent upon the ratio between ANA-1 macrophages and H-Candida, (ii) detectable after 1 h of coincubation, and (iii) accomplished without fungal ingestion. Conversely, Y-Candida, which was found inside the ANA-1 macrophages, did not affect tumor necrosis factor and lysozyme production, nor did it prevent the macrophage response to other stimuli. Overall, these results indicate that a macrophage can distinguish between Y-Candida and H-Candida and that only the latter is able to modulate specific functions. H-Candida is recognized and probably processed as an extracellular target. The possible implication of macrophages as autocrine and paracrine regulatory cells during Candida infections is discussed. Images PMID:1541557

  14. Dithiocarbamates are strong inhibitors of the beta-class fungal carbonic anhydrases from Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Monti, Simona Maria; Maresca, Alfonso; Viparelli, Francesca; Carta, Fabrizio; De Simone, Giuseppina; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-01-15

    A series of N-mono- and N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates have been investigated as inhibitors of three β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, that is, Can2, CaNce103 and CgNce103, respectively. These enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the subnanomolar to the micromolar range, depending on the substitution pattern at the nitrogen atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding group. This new class of β-CA inhibitors may have the potential for developing antifungal agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which drug resistance was reported, and may also explain the efficacy of dithiocarbamates as agricultural antifungal agents. PMID:22209456

  15. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2014-11-01

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and subunits B1 and B2 of RNA polymerase II B. From this analysis, the anamorphic species Candida borneana, Candida cidri, Candida floccosa, Candida hungarica, and Candida ogatae were transferred to the genus Kuraishia as new combinations and Candida anatomiae, Candida ernobii, Candida ishiwadae, Candida laoshanensis, Candida molendini-olei, Candida peltata, Candida pomicola, Candida populi, Candida wickerhamii, and Candida wyomingensis were transferred to the genus Nakazawaea. PMID:25132542

  16. Disk Diffusion Testing Using Candida sp. Colonies Taken Directly from CHROMagar Candida Medium May Decrease Time Required To Obtain Results

    PubMed Central

    Klevay, Michael; Ebinger, Alex; Diekema, Daniel; Messer, Shawn; Hollis, Richard; Pfaller, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We compared results of disk diffusion antifungal susceptibility testing from Candida sp. strains passaged on CHROMagar and on potato dextrose agar. The overall categorical agreements for fluconazole and voriconazole disk testing were 95% and 98% with 0% and 0.5% very major errors, respectively. Disk diffusion testing by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) M44-A method can be performed accurately by taking inocula directly from CHROMagar. PMID:16000489

  17. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  18. Liquid White Enamel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  19. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  20. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in

  1. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Borecká-Melkusová, Silvia; Moran, Gary P; Sullivan, Derek J; Kucharíková, Sona; Chorvát, Dusan; Bujdáková, Helena

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates. PMID:18627475

  2. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Hospenthal, Duane R; Beckius, Miriam L; Floyd, Karon L; Horvath, Lynn L; Murray, Clinton K

    2006-01-01

    Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC) species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium. PMID:16390552

  3. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Metabolites from Lactobacillus Strains on Candida Species Implicated in Candida Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Mopelola A; Bello, Victoria B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research from developing countries, such as Nigeria, on Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract and their role as a barrier to vaginal infection is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical biotherapeutic potential of indigenous Lactobacillus species. Methods: Antimicrobial metabolites production were characterised using simple and easily reproducible qualitative and quantitative methods. The in vitro inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus antimicrobials on vulvovaginal candidiasis–associated Candida species was investigated using modified agar spot and agar well-diffusion methods. Results: The maximum levels of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl from 20 vaginal Lactobacillus strains from diseased subjects were 1.46 mg/L, 1.36 mmol/L, and 1.72 mg/L respectively. From the 4 healthy subjects, the maximum level of lactic acid was 1.08 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide, 1.36 mmol/L; and diacetyl, 0.86 mg/L. The maximum productions of these substances occurred between 72 and 120 hours of incubation. The in vitro antagonistic activities of vaginal L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. jensenii from diseased subjects inhibited a maximum of 5.71% of the 35 Candida species tested, while vaginal L. acidophilus and L. plantarum from healthy subjects inhibited between 57.1% and 68.6% of Candida species in vitro. Conclusion: Antimicrobial-producing lactobacilli can be considered as adjunct biotherapeutic candidates for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:22589669

  4. What is white?

    PubMed Central

    Bosten, J. M.; Beer, R. D.; MacLeod, D. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on the perceptual basis of the color white, we measured settings of unique white in a dark surround. We find that settings reliably show more variability in an oblique (blue-yellow) direction in color space than along the cardinal axes of the cone-opponent mechanisms. This is against the idea that white perception arises at the null point of the cone-opponent mechanisms, but one alternative possibility is that it occurs through calibration to the visual environment. We found that the locus of maximum variability in settings lies close to the locus of natural daylights, suggesting that variability may result from uncertainty about the color of the illuminant. We tested this by manipulating uncertainty. First, we altered the extent to which the task was absolute (requiring knowledge of the illumination) or relative. We found no clear effect of this factor on the reduction in sensitivity in the blue-yellow direction. Second, we provided a white surround as a cue to the illumination or left the surround dark. Sensitivity was selectively worse in the blue-yellow direction when the surround was black than when it was white. Our results can be functionally related to the statistics of natural images, where a greater blue-yellow dispersion is characteristic of both reflectances (where anisotropy is weak) and illuminants (where it is very pronounced). Mechanistically, the results could suggest a neural signal responsive to deviations from the blue-yellow locus or an adaptively matched range of contrast response functions for signals that encode different directions in color space. PMID:26641948

  5. Jupiter's White Ovals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show a newly created large-scale storm on Jupiter, known as a white oval. This storm is the size of Earth and was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Galileo spacecraft's photopolarimeter radiometer in July 1998. The color composite image shown in the upper panel was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide-Field/Planetary Camera on July 16, 1998. The image in the lower panel was created from data taken by Galileo's photopolarimeter experiment on July 20, 1998, and it is sensitive to Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures.

    The white oval is believed to be the result of a merger between two smaller, 50-year-old ovals sometime in February, 1998. This white oval may be the strongest storm in the solar system outside Jupiter's 200-year old Great Red Spot. The Galileo spacecraft's measurements of the temperature field show that the feature is distinctly colder than its surroundings, as would be expected from rapidly upwelling winds in the center of the feature, and this temperature difference is at least as large as that of the two former white ovals. The temperature measurements also show that the feature to the left of the new white oval, once distinctly warmer that its surroundings (as expected of downdrafts) has cooled off.

    More images and information on the Galileo mission are available on the Internet at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov .

    The Hubble Space Telescope image is courtesy of Amy Simon and Reta Beebe, New Mexico State University, and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  6. I Also Said, "White Racial Identity Influences White Researchers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Janet E.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1992) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Briefly summarizes theory of white racial identity development as conceptualized by Helms and suggests some ways in which white scholar's stages might influence her or his scholarship endeavors.…

  7. Exploring Whiteness: A Study of Self Labels for White Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Judith N.; Krizek, Robert L.; Nakayama, Thomas K.; Bradford, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Examines the preferences and meanings of labels for White Americans as discursively defined expressions of identity, after preliminary revelations of resistance by Whites to self-labeling was seen. Surveys 371 White undergraduate students, rating seven labels regarding preference and discussing feelings about self-labeling. Reveals that the most…

  8. 50 CFR 660.373 - Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 CFR Part 660, subpart G, a vessel that is 75 feet or less LOA that harvests whiting and, in... affecting § 660.373, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting (whiting)...

  9. Complicating Whiteness: Identifications of Veteran White Teachers in Multicultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A scrupulous search of whiteness literatures in relation to multicultural education reveals a preponderance of scholarship noting White privilege and race evasiveness. Given contrasting scholarship arguing White identity as complicated, multifarious, and bound to social and historical context, concurrent with a dearth of scholarship that examines…

  10. White Institutional Presence: The Impact of Whiteness on Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusa, Diane Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, Diane Gusa highlights the salience of race by scrutinizing the culture of Whiteness within predominately White institutions of higher education. Using existing research in higher education retention literature, Gusa examines embedded White cultural ideology in the cultural practices, traditions, and perceptions of…

  11. White Students Reflecting on Whiteness: Understanding Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Nathan R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Aber, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors explored potential predictors of White students’ general emotional responses after they reflected on their Whiteness in a semi-structured interview (n = 88) or written reflection (n = 187). Specifically, the authors examined how color-blindness (i.e., awareness of White privilege) and racial affect (i.e., White empathy, White guilt, and White fear), assessed before the interview or written reflection, may predict positive and negative emotional responses, assessed immediately following the interview or written reflection. Furthermore, the authors considered whether affective costs of racism to Whites moderated the association between racial color-blindness and general positive and negative emotional responses of White students. Findings indicated that affective costs of racism moderated associations between racial color-blindness and general emotional responses. Specifically, White fear moderated associations for the written reflection group whereas White empathy moderated an association in the interview. White guilt did not moderate, but instead directly predicted a negative emotional response in the written reflection group. Findings suggest that the interaction between racial color-blindness and racial affect is important when predicting students’ emotional responses to reflecting on their Whiteness. Implications for educators and administrators are discussed. PMID:20657811

  12. Isolation of Different Species of Candida in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis From Sari, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Taheri, Zahra; Galinimoghadam, Tahereh; Aghili, Seyed Reza; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid; Mosayebi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent, complex and cumbersome condition that can cause physical and psychological distress for the involved individual. Candida albicans was reported as the most common agent of VVC yet it seems that we are recently encountering changes in the pattern of Candida species in VVC. Objectives: In this study we assessed different species of Candida isolated from patients with VVC, residing in Sari, Iran. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-four patients with vulvovaginitis were enrolled in this study. Samples were collected by a wet swab. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically and processed for fungal culture. The identification of Candida species was done by morphological and physiological methods such as culture on CHROMagar Candida media and sugar assimilation test with the HiCandida identification kit (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). Results: Out of 234 patients with vulvovaginitis, 66 (28.2%) patients showed VVC. Of these patients, 16 (24.2%) had recurrent VVC (RVVC). The age group of 20 - 29 year-olds had the highest frequency of VVC (48.5%). Erythema concomitant with itching (40.9%) was the most prevalent sign in VVC patients. Fifty-seven (86.4%) of the collected samples had positive results from both microscopic examination and culture. In total, 73 colonies of Candida spp. were isolated from 66 patients with VVC. The most common identified species of Candida were C. albicans (42.5%), C. glabrata (21.9%) and C. dubliniensis (16.4%). In patients with RVVC and patients without recurrence, C. albicans and non-albicans species of Candida were frequent species, respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study showed that non-albicans species of Candida are more frequent than C. albicans in patients with VVC. This result is in line with some recent studies indicating that non-albicans species of Candida must be considered in gynecology clinics due to the reported azole resistance in these species. PMID

  13. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Candida Infection

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Chapman, Ira; Bann, Carla M.; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Sanchez, Páblo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Duara, Shahnaz; Miller, Nancy A.; Heyne, Roy J.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Steichen, Jean J.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hintz, Susan R.; Evans, Patricia W.; Acarregui, Michael J.; Myers, Gary J.; Vohr, Betty R.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Pappas, Athina; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Dillard, Robert G.; Fuller, Janell; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Candida remains an important cause of late-onset infection in preterm infants. Mortality and neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants enrolled in the Candida study was evaluated based on infection status. Study design ELBW infants born at NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers between March 2004 and July 2007 screened for suspected sepsis were eligible for inclusion in the Candida study. Primary outcome data for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) or death were available for 1317/1515 (90%) of the infants enrolled in the Candida study. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-II or the BSID-III was administered at 18 months adjusted age. A secondary comparison with 864 infants registered with NRN enrolled during the same cohort never screened for sepsis and therefore not eligible for the Candida study was performed. Results Among ELBW infants enrolled in the Candida study, 31% with Candida and 31% with late-onset non-Candida sepsis had NDI at 18 months. Infants with Candida sepsis and/or meningitis had an increased risk of death and were more likely to have the composite outcome of death and/or NDI compared with uninfected infants in adjusted analysis. Compared with infants in the NRN registry never screened for sepsis, overall risk for death were similar but those with Candida infection were more likely to have NDI (OR 1.83 (1.01,3.33, p=0.047). Conclusion In this cohort of ELBW infants, those with infection and/or meningitis were at increased risk for death and/or NDI. This risk was highest among those with Candida sepsis and/or meningitis. PMID:23726546

  14. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez, Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel, Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurement, sialometry test, Gram-stained exfoliative cytology, and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida TM. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We examined 141 patients (mean age 57 years): 103 women (73%) and 38 men (26.9%). Exfoliative cytology was positive in 32 cases (23 with oral lesions); 78 had oral lesions but no Candida (93.9%). Candida was isolated in 58 patients (41.1%), 21 (45.6 %) had blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dl, and 37 (38.9%) had less than 126 mg/dl. The most frequent species was C. albicans (82.7%). Forty-two Candida carriers had salivary flow greater than 20 mm (72.4%), and 16 (27.5%) had hyposalivation. Candida was isolated in 25 of 79 patients with dental prosthesis (31.6%), 9 of 15 were smokers (60%), and 22 of 71 had symptoms (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of oral Candida carriers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico was similar to that found in other countries; exfoliative cytology was effective in finding Candida; salivary flow rate, use of prosthesis, and presence of oral lesions and symptoms were similar in oral Candida carriers and negative patients. Most smokers were Candida carriers. PMID:23739717

  15. White matter of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    White matter is found in the deeper tissues of the brain (subcortical). It contains nerve fibers (axons), which are ... or covering called myelin. Myelin gives the white matter its color. It also protects the nerve fibers ...

  16. White Flight: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Christine

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of school desegregation on White enrollment, the policy impact from two long-term demographic trends among middle class Whites--suburbanization and the declining birth rate--must be isolated. (Author/MC)

  17. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition in which there is an extra electrical pathway of the heart. The ... to periods of rapid heart rate ( tachycardia ). Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is one of the most common ...

  18. Oral administration of the broad-spectrum antibiofilm compound toremifene inhibits Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, Kaat; Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Peeters, Annelies; Kucharíková, Soña; Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-12-01

    We here report on the in vitro activity of toremifene to inhibit biofilm formation of different fungal and bacterial pathogens, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We validated the in vivo efficacy of orally administered toremifene against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm formation in a rat subcutaneous catheter model. Combined, our results demonstrate the potential of toremifene as a broad-spectrum oral antibiofilm compound. PMID:25288093

  19. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  20. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  1. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  2. 40 CFR 180.1144 - Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Candida oleophila isolate I-182... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1144 Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Candida oleophila isolate I-182, when used as a post-harvest biological...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1144 - Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila isolate I-182... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1144 Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Candida oleophila isolate I-182, when used as a post-harvest biological...

  4. Candida lignophila sp. nov., a new basidiomycetous yeast anamorph from rotting wood of Drimys winteri.

    PubMed

    Dill, I; Ramírez, C; González, A

    1984-01-01

    Two strains of an undescribed Candida species were isolated from samples of a rotting trunk of Drimys winteri collected on the isle of Chiloé in South Chile. A description of the new species Candida lignophila is given and its relationship to other species is discussed with particular emphasis on its typical basidiomycetous properties as well as on its ecological habitat. PMID:6541456

  5. Assessment of Antifungal Activity of Bakuchiol on Oral-Associated Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Himratul-Aznita, Wan Harun

    2015-01-01

    Bakuchiol is an active component of Psoralea glandulosa and Psoralea corylifolia, used in traditional Chinese medicine. The study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of bakuchiol on planktonic and biofilm forms of orally associated Candida species. The antifungal susceptibility testing was determined by the broth micro dilution technique. Growth kinetics and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Candida were measured to assess the inhibitory effect of bakuchiol on Candida planktonic cells. Biofilm biomass and cellular metabolic activity were quantitatively estimated by the crystal violet (CV) and the 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) assays. All Candida strains have been shown to be susceptible to bakuchiol with the MIC ranges from 12.5 to 100 μg/mL. Significant decrease in specific growth rates and viable counts demonstrates the inhibitory effect of bakuchiol on Candida planktonic cells. A brief exposure to bakuchiol also reduced CSH of Candida (P < 0.05), indicating altered surface properties of yeast cells towards hydrophobic interfaces. Biofilm biomass and cell metabolic activity were mostly decreased, except for C. glabrata (P = 0.29). The antifungal properties of bakuchiol on Candida species in this in vitro study may give insights into the application in therapeutic strategy against Candida infections. PMID:26633986

  6. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514T, CBS 5366T) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747T, CBS 10863T) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1387 - Lactase enzyme preparation from Candida pseudotropicalis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactase enzyme preparation from Candida... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1387 Lactase enzyme preparation from Candida...

  8. Combination of different molecular mechanisms leading to fluconazole resistance in a Candida lusitaniae clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Reboutier, David; Piednoël, Mathieu; Boisnard, Stéphanie; Conti, Audrey; Chevalier, Virginie; Florent, Martine; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Da Silva, Bruno; Chastin, Christiane; Fallague, Karim; Favel, Anne; Noël, Thierry; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Papon, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    We report on the underlying molecular mechanisms likely responsible for the high-level fluconazole resistance in a Candida lusitaniae clinical isolate. Fluconazole resistance correlated with overexpression of ERG11 and of several efflux pump genes, in particular, the orthologs of the Candida albicans MDR1, PDR16, CDR1, CDR2, and YOR1. PMID:19070454

  9. Phenotypic variability and therapeutic implications of Candida species in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Verma, M; Gupta, S R; Urs, A B; Dhakad, M S; Kaur, R

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenotypic variation of Candida species in oral lichen planus (OLP) and the therapeutic implications of our findings. Eighty patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of OLP (64 non-erosive, 16 erosive) and a control group of 80 healthy individuals with no predisposing factors for oral candidiasis were examined for evidence of Candida infection. Oral swabs and smears were obtained for cytology and culture. Identification, speciation and antifungal susceptibility tests of Candida isolates were performed using an automated microbial identification system. Fifty percent of erosive OLP cases, 28% of non-erosive cases and none of the controls showed evidence of Candida. Candida albicans was found predominantly in non-erosive OLP, while other Candida species were predominate in erosive OLP. Non-Candida albicans isolates (C. glabrata, C. krusei) were resistant to the commonly used antifungals, clotrimazole and fluconazole. Candida infection is common in cases of OLP. We recommend antifungal sensitivity testing prior to antifungal therapy for the erosive form of OLP. PMID:26984382

  10. In vitro interactions between anidulafungin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on biofilms of Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Antonio; Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Carrieri, Antonio; Carone, Addolorata; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Franchini, Carlo; Corbo, Filomena; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Candida spp. are responsible for many biomaterial-related infections; they give rise to infective pathologies typically associated with biofilm formation. We recently reported that the echinocandin anidulafungin (ANF) showed a strong in vitro activity against both planktonic and biofilms cells. Herein, we report the antifungal activities of ANF alone and in association with some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against nine Candida strain biofilms: four Candida albicans, two Candida glabrata and three Candida guilliermondii. The activity of ANF was assessed using an in vitro microbiological model relevant for clinical practice. ANF proved oneself to be active against biofilms cells, and a clear-cut synergism was found against Candida species biofilms when ANF was used in combination with three NSAIDs: aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen. The positive synergism against Candida spp. of ANF in association with aspirin or the other NSAIDs proved to be a very effective antifungal treatment (FICI<0.5). These results may provide the starting point for new combination therapies of ANF with NSAIDs against Candida biofilm pathologies. PMID:26833243

  11. VINEGAR AS AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT FOR CONTROL OF Candida spp. IN COMPLETE DENTURE WEARERS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Telma Maria Silva; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3) overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation). The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p≤0.05). Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL) of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients. PMID:19082396

  12. 'Snow White' Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.'

    Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Wor4, a New Transcriptional Regulator of White-Opaque Switching

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two cell types, “white” and “opaque,” each of which is heritable through many cell divisions. Switching between these two cell types is regulated by six transcriptional regulators that form a highly interconnected circuit with multiple feedback loops. Here, we identify a seventh regulator of white-opaque switching, which we have named Wor4. We show that ectopic expression of Wor4 is sufficient to drive switching from the white to the opaque cell type, and that deletion of Wor4 blocks switching from the white to the opaque cell type. A combination of ectopic expression and deletion experiments indicates that Wor4 is positioned upstream of Wor1, and that it is formally an activator of the opaque cell type. The combination of ectopic expression and deletion phenotypes for Wor4 is unique; none of the other six white-opaque regulators show this pattern. We determined the pattern of Wor4 binding across the genome by ChIP-seq and found it is highly correlated with that of Wor1 and Wor2, indicating that Wor4 is tightly integrated into the existing white-opaque regulatory circuit. We previously proposed that white-to-opaque switching relies on the activation of a complex circuit of feedback loops that remains excited through many cell divisions. The identification of a new, central regulator of white-opaque switching supports this idea by indicating that the white-opaque switching mechanism is considerably more complex than those controlling conventional, nonheritable patterns of gene expression. PMID:26772749

  14. Production of virulence factors in Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis and control individuals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Araújo, Maria Izabel Daniel Santos Alves; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups. PMID:26971635

  15. Anti-Candida activity and biofilm inhibitory effects of secreted products of tropical environmental yeasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, H W; Tay, S T

    2011-04-01

    This study describes the killer phenotypes of tropical environmental yeasts and the inhibition effects of the culture filtrates on the biofilm of Candida albicans. A total of 26 (10.5%) of 258 yeast isolates obtained from an environmental sampling study demonstrated killer activity to Candida species. The killer yeasts were identified as species belonging to the genus Aureobasidium, Pseudozyma, Ustilago and Candida based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the yeasts. Pseudozyma showed the broadest killing effects against sensitive strains of Candida. New species of Ustilago and Pseudozyma demonstrating killer phenotypes were identified in this study. Interestingly, more than 50% reduction in the metabolic activity of Candida albicans biofilm was noted after exposure to the culture filtrates of the nine killer yeasts. Purification and characterization of toxin and metabolites are essential for understanding the yeast killing effects. PMID:21602784

  16. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-01

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections. PMID:25881537

  17. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the pathogenesis of Candida albicans in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Denkins, Y.M.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation addresses questions concerning the effects of UV radiation on the pathogenesis of opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. UV radiation decreased the survival of Candida-infected mice; however, no correlation was found between suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the course of lethal infection. This suggested that DTH was not protective against lethal disease with this organism. UV radiation also changed the persistence of the organism in the internal organs. UV-irradiated, infected animals had increased numbers of Candida in their kidneys compared to non-irradiated mice. Sensitization prior to UV irradiation aided clearance of the organism from the kidneys of UV-irradiated mice. These data show that UV radiation suppresses cell-mediated immunity to Candida albicans in mice and increases mortality of Candida-infected mice. Moreover, the data suggest that an increase in environmental UV radiation could increase the severity of pathogenic infections.

  18. Evaluation of Candida albicans formation on feldspathic porcelain subjected to four surface treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Karayazgan, Banu; Atay, Arzu; Saracli, Mehmet Ali; Gunay, Yumushan

    2010-03-01

    Candida albicans, known for its adhesion on prosthetic materials and oral tissues, is the most frequently encountered fungal infection in dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different surface treatment methods and immersion in artificial saliva on the surface roughness of and candida adhesion on dental porcelains. The four surface treatment methods were namely: natural glaze, overglaze, dual ion exchange, and polishing. Surface roughness of porcelain was evaluated using a surface profilometer and by SEM. Candida adhesion was examined by culturing two Candida strains on porcelain specimens followed by a colorimetric method using XTT/Coenzyme Q0. It became evident that Candida adhesion was found more in the specimens treated with natural glaze and polishing. Further, by the visual inspection of SEM images and comparison of surface roughness, polished and natural-glazed specimens showed rougher surface characteristics than overglazed and dual-ion-exchanged specimens. PMID:20379024

  19. Rapid Identification of Candida Species and Other Clinically Important Yeast Species by Flow Cytometry†

    PubMed Central

    Page, Brent T.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid diagnostic assays, utilizing two different Luminex flow cytometry methods, were developed for identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeast species. Direct hybridization and allele-specific primer extension methods were both successful in establishing a DNA-based assay that can rapidly and accurately identify Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis as well as other clinical species. The direct hybridization assay was designed to identify a total of 19 ascomycetous yeast species, and the allele-specific primer extension assay was designed to identify a total of 34 species. Probes were validated against 438 strains representing 303 species. From culture to identification, the allele-specific primer extension method takes 8 h and the direct hybridization method takes less than 5 h to complete. These assays represent comprehensive, rapid tests that are well suited for the clinical laboratory. PMID:16145099

  20. Doxorubicin induces drug efflux pumps in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kofla, Grzegorz; Turner, Vincent; Schulz, Bettina; Storch, Ulrike; Froelich, Daniela; Rognon, Bénédicte; Coste, Alix T; Sanglard, Dominique; Ruhnke, Markus

    2011-02-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important opportunistic fungal pathogens. It can cause serious fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients, including those with cancer. Treatment failures due to the emergence of drug-resistant C. albicans strains have become a serious clinical problem. Resistance incidents were often mediated by fungal efflux pumps which are closely related to the human ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is often overexpressed in cancer cells and confers resistance to many cytotoxic drugs. We examined whether cytotoxic drugs commonly used for cancer treatment (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) could alter the expression of genes responsible for the development of fluconazole resistance in Candida cells in the way they can influence homologous genes in cancer cell lines. ABC transporters (CDR1 and CDR2) and other resistance genes (MDR1 and ERG11) were tested by real-time PCR for their expression in C. albicans cells at the mRNA level after induction by antineoplastic drugs. The results were confirmed by a lacZ gene reporter system and verified at the protein level using GFP and immunoblotting. We showed that doxorubicin is a potent inducer of CDR1/CDR2 expression in C. albicans at both the mRNA and protein level and thus causes an increase in fluconazole MIC values. However, cyclophosphamide, which is not a substrate of human P-gp, did not induce ABC transporter expression in C. albicans. Neither doxorubicin nor cyclophosphamide could influence the expression of the other resistance genes (MDR1 and ERG11). The induction of CDR1/CDR2 by doxorubicin in C. albicans and the resulting alteration of antifungal susceptibility might be of clinical relevance for the antifungal treatment of Candida infections occurring after anticancer chemotherapy with doxorubicin. PMID:20818920

  1. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  2. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Saikia, Lahari; Nath, Reema; Phukan, Sanjib Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The changing spectrum of Candida species in causation of oropharyngeal candidiasis and their antifungal susceptibility pattern among the HIV infected individuals has made the identification to species level mandatory and detection of drug resistance necessary for patient care. The present study was carried out to determine the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting both HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals. Methods: A case-control study was conducted including 141 consecutive, non-repeat HIV-seropositive individuals and an equal number of sex and age matched HIV-seronegative control. Speciation of the oropharyngeal Candida isolates was done using standard yeast identification protocol. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by the disk-diffusion method as well as by Fungitest method. Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candida albicans (n=47, 77.0%), C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%), C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%), C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%), and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%). Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control) group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3%) C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country. PMID:27377507

  3. Interactions between amphotericin B and nitroimidazoles against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Cury, A E; Hirschfeld, M P

    1997-10-01

    This work proved that nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agents, such as metronidazole, ornidazole, secnidazole and tinidazole, in concentrations of up to 64 micrograms ml-1 did not present any antifungal activity against 17 strains of Candida albicans. The combination of each drug with amphotericin B showed the occurrence of variable interactions according to the studied strain. Promising results were observed based on synergistic and additive interactions of the polyene with the metronidazole; the inhibitory and lethal activities of the drugs were potentiated against all strains in concentrations reachable in vivo. PMID:9476486

  4. Continuous fermentation of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Admassu, W.; Korus, R.A.; Heinsch, R.C.

    1984-12-01

    Results are presented for the continuous, two-stage fermentation of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Candida utilis. The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was grown in the first stage, and a mixed culture of the two yeasts was maintained in the second stage. The first stage was operated under constant conditions near the optimum dilution rate for amylase productivity. Maximum biomass production occurred at a second-stage dilution rate, D2, of 0.27 h/sup -1/ at a volumetric ratio (V1/V2) of 0.57. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the volumetric ratio on this two-stage fermentation. 3 references.

  5. The exocyst in Candida albicans polarized secretion and filamentation.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A; Bernardo, Stella M; Lee, Samuel A

    2016-05-01

    The exocyst is an octameric complex that orchestrates the docking and tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis and is fundamental for key biological processes including growth and establishment of cell polarity. Although components of the exocyst are well conserved among fungi, the specific functions of each component of the exocyst complex unique to Candida albicans biology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. This commentary describes recent findings regarding the role of exocyst subunits Sec6 and Sec15 in C. albicans filamentation and virulence. PMID:26762634

  6. [Molecular identification of Candida lusitaniae in lower respiratory tract infection].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Israel Martínez; Ibarra, Misael González; Torres Guerrero, Haydee K

    2014-01-01

    Candida lusitaniae is a yeast that has emerged as a low frequency nosocomial pathogen in deep infections. Although it usually shows in vitro susceptibility to all antifungal agents, in vivo resistance to amphotericin B has been observed in several clinical cases. Therefore, its early identification in the course of therapy is important. We report the isolation of C. lusitaniae as an etiologic agent of a lower respiratory tract infection in a male patient. Urine and sputum cultures were negative for bacteria and positive for this yeast. Isolates were identified by routine phenotypic methods and confirmed by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR internal spacer of ribosomal DNA. PMID:25576413

  7. Oxygen transfer rate and sophorose lipid production by Candida bombicola.

    PubMed

    Guilmanov, Vladimir; Ballistreri, Alberto; Impallomeni, Giuseppe; Gross, Richard A

    2002-03-01

    Sophorose lipids (SLs) have applications as surfactants and are produced at high levels by several yeasts. We developed a fed-batch shake-flask method for the production of SLs by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. Optimal aeration, expressed in terms of oxygen transfer rate, was between 50 and 80 mM O(2)/L h(-1) and resulted in maximum values for both volumetric product formation (1-1.5 g/L h(-1)) and SL yield (350 g/L). The lowest aeration levels resulted in the enrichment in saturated fatty acid SLs at the expense of unsaturated fatty acid SLs. PMID:11788948

  8. Humoral immune responses to Candida albicans complement receptor 3-related protein in the atopic subjects with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Novel sensitive marker for Candida infection.

    PubMed

    Paulovičová, Ema; Bujdáková, Helena; Chupáčová, Jarmila; Paulovičová, Lucia; Kertys, Pavol; Hrubiško, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In vitro evaluation of specific anti-Candida albicans sera antibodies based on synthetically prepared complement receptor 3-related protein (CR3-RP) mimicking the structure of native complement receptor 3 in a cohort of 72 patients with atopy and recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis (RVC) revealed effective humoral response against Candida CR3-RP. The most significant have been IgM and IgA isotype antibodies (33 and 47% positive cases, respectively). The quantitative evaluation of anti-CR3RP isotype antibodies was confronted with results of commercial ELISA anti-C. albicans antibodies diagnostics based on C. albicans cell wall mannan and β-glucan antigens, the most significant correlation being observed with anti-CR3-RP IgM and anti-β-D-glucan IgM (r(2) = 0.624) followed by isotype IgA (r(2) = 0.381). The immunogenicity and immunoreactivity of CR3RP antigen in RVC patients' sera had been evaluated with regard to the results reached by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay. Obviously, synthetically prepared CR3-RP mimicking the Candida cell-wall-derived structure moiety represents a promising immunological tool not only for Candida serodiagnostics, but also prospectively for follow-up of targeted antifungal therapy and as promising Candida vaccine candidate. PMID:25673750

  9. [Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida strains isolated as nosocomial pathogens].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Ergünay, Koray; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Ardıç, Nurittin; Hoşbul, Tuğrul; Haznedaroğlu, Tunçer

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decade, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections and antifungal agents used to treat these infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections among patients in intensive care units. One of the main goals of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of infectious Candida species isolated in our hospital and accordingly supply data for hospital infection (HI) control. The other aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and practical applicability of traditional and molecular methods used to identify Candida isolates to the species level. A total of 77 Candida strains that were isolated from various clinical specimens of 60 hospitalized patients (29 male, 24 female; 7 were children) were included in the study. Fifty-seven (74%) of those isolates were defined as HI agents according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The most common Candida species identified as agents of HI were C.albicans (22; 38.6%), followed by C.tropicalis (14; 24.6%), C.parapsilosis (13; 22.8%), C.glabrata (7; 12.3%) and Candida spp. (1; 1.75%). It was determined that bloodstream (26; 45.6%) and urinary tract infections (24; 42.1%) were the most frequently encountered nosocomial infections caused by Candida species. In addition it was detected that the most frequent causative agent of bloodstream infections was C.parapsilosis (10; 38.5%) and of urinary tract infections was C.albicans (12; 50%). The evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of traditional phenotypic methods [germ tube formation, chlamydospore formation in corn meal agar, growth at 45°C, colony characteristics on CHROMagar Candida medium, carbohydrate assimilation properties detected by API ID 32C (BioMerieux, France) system] and some molecular techniques [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using ITS-1, ITS-3 and ITS 4 primers, PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), PCRRFLP

  10. 'Snow White' in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench.

    The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Environmental alteration and phenotypic regulation of Candida albicans adhesion to plastic.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M J; Rogers, A L; Yancey, R J

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to plastic was examined after growth in two chemically defined media, Lee-Buckley-Campbell (LBC) and yeast nitrogen base (YNB), by binding isotherms, Langmuir isotherms, and Scatchard plots, and the number of binding sites (N) and the affinity constants (K) were calculated. K and N were twofold and fourfold higher, respectively, after growth in LBC compared with that in YNB. A comparison of adhesion in different assay solutions gave similar results, with the solution given to dehydrated patients (5% glucose in 0.45% NaCl [D5.45]) allowing for the highest K and the largest N. Scatchard curves for both LBC- and YNB-grown cells had negative slopes, which is supportive evidence for the view that negative cooperativity is involved in the binding process. Additional experiments to examine the role of cell surface hydrophobicity in adhesion to plastic were conducted with the white and opaque phenotypes of C. albicans. There was no significant difference in the adhesion of these phenotypes to plastic, although the opaque phenotype was significantly more hydrophobic. Adhesion, but not cell surface hydrophobicity, of both phenotypes was significantly greater in D5.45. Moreover, relatively hydrophilic mycelial forms of C. albicans were found to attach only when D5.45 was used as the assay medium and, in contrast to yeast-phase cells, were insensitive to reduced adhesion by nonionic detergents. These results suggest that the adhesion of C. albicans to plastic is regulated by environmental circumstances and the phenotypic state of the organism. PMID:2680985

  12. Construction of an SfiI macrorestriction map of the Candida albicans genome.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, W S; Magee, B B; Magee, P T

    1993-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, is diploid as usually isolated and has no apparent sexual cycle. Genetic analysis has therefore been very difficult. Molecular genetics has yielded important information in the past few years, but it too is hampered by the lack of a good genetic map. Using the well-characterized strain 1006 and strain WO-1, which undergoes the white-opaque phenotypic transition, we have developed a genomic restriction map of C. albicans with the enzyme SfiI. There are approximately 34 SfiI restriction sites in the C. albicans genome. Restriction fragments were separated by pulsed-field electrophoresis and were assigned to chromosomes by hybridization of complete and partial digests with known chromosome-specific probes as well as by digestion of isolated chromosomes. Telomeric fragments were identified by hybridization with a telomere-specific probe (C. Sadhu, M.J. McEachern, E.P. Rustchenko-Bulgac, J. Schmid, D.R. Soll, and J.B. Hicks, J. Bacteriol. 173:842-850, 1991). WO-1 differs from 1006 in that it has undergone three reciprocal chromosomal translocations. Analysis of the translocation products indicates that each translocation has occurred at or near an SfiI site; thus, the SfiI fragments from the two strains are similar or identical. The tendency for translocation to occur at or near SfiI sites may be related to the repeated sequence RPS 1, which contains four such sites and could provide homology for ectopic pairing and crossing over. The genome size of both strains is about 16 to 17 megabases, in good agreement with previous determinations. Images PMID:8407841

  13. The Candida albicans CDR3 gene codes for an opaque-phase ABC transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Balan, I; Alarco, A M; Raymond, M

    1997-01-01

    We report the cloning and functional analysis of a third member of the CDR gene family in Candida albicans, named CDR3. This gene codes for an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter of 1,501 amino acids highly homologous to Cdr1p and Cdr2p (56 and 55% amino acid sequence identity, respectively), two transporters involved in fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. The predicted structure of Cdr3p is typical of the PDR/CDR family, with two similar halves, each comprising an N-terminal hydrophilic domain with consensus sequences for ATP binding and a C-terminal hydrophobic domain with six predicted transmembrane segments. Northern analysis showed that CDR3 expression is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner, with low levels of CDR3 mRNA in CAI4 yeast and hyphal cells, high levels in WO-1 opaque cells, and undetectable levels in WO-1 white cells. Disruption of both alleles of CDR3 in CAI4 resulted in no obvious changes in cell morphology, growth rate, or susceptibility to fluconazole. Overexpression of Cdr3p in C. albicans did not result in increased cellular resistance to fluconazole, cycloheximide, and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, which are known substrates for different transporters of the PDR/CDR family. These results indicate that despite a high degree of sequence conservation with C. albicans Cdr1p and Cdr2p, Cdr3p does not appear to be involved in drug resistance, at least to the compounds tested which include the clinically relevant antifungal agent fluconazole. Rather, the high level of Cdr3p expression in WO-1 opaque cells suggests an opaque-phase-associated biological function which remains to be identified. PMID:9393682

  14. Dynamics of the interlocked positive feedback loops explaining the robust epigenetic switching in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sriram, K; Soliman, Sylvain; Fages, François

    2009-05-01

    The two element mutual activation and inhibitory positive feedback loops are a common motifs that occur in many biological systems in both isolated and interlocked form, as for example, in the cell division cycle and thymus differentiation in eukaryotes. The properties of three element interlocked positive feedback loops that embeds both mutual activation and inhibition are studied in depth for their bistable properties by performing bifurcation and stochastic simulations. Codimension one and two bifurcations reveal important properties like robustness to parameter variations and adaptability under various conditions by its ability to fine tune the threshold to a wide range of values and to maintain a wide bistable regime. Furthermore, we show that in the interlocked circuit, mutual inhibition controls the decision to switch from OFF to ON state, while mutual activation enforces the decision. This view is supported through a concrete biological example Candida albicans, a human fungal pathogen that can exist in two distinctive cell types; one in the default white state and the other in an opaque form. Stochastic switching between these two forms takes place due to the epigenetic alternation induced by the transcriptional regulators in the circuit, albeit without any rearrangement of the nuclear chromosomes. The transcriptional regulators constitute interlocked mutual activation and inhibition feedback circuits that provide adaptable threshold and wide bistable regime. These positive feedback loops are shown to be responsible for robust noise induced transitions without chattering, persistence of particular phenotypes for many generations and selective exhibition of one particular form of phenotype when mutated. Finally, we propose for synthetic biology constructs to use interlocked positive feedback loops instead of two element positive feedback loops because they are better controlled than isolated mutual activation and mutual inhibition feedback circuits. PMID

  15. Bilateral endogenous Candida albicans subretinal abscess with suspected mixed bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yusuke; Sato, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kawashima, Hidetoshi; Kaburaki, Toshikatsu; Gomi, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Candida albicans subretinal abscess is extremely rare. To our knowledge, only one unilateral case has been reported. Herein, we report one bilateral case. Mixed bacterial infection was also suspected based on broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction. Methods A 64-year-old man being treated with oral corticosteroids for interstitial pneumonia visited us for visual loss in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and 8/200 in the left eye. Funduscopy revealed round yellowish-white subretinal lesions with retinal hemorrhage in both eyes. Results Broad-range polymerase chain reaction of the vitreous fluid from the left eye showed a high copy count of bacterial 16s ribosome RNA. Despite large doses of antibiotics, the abscess expanded and vision decreased to light perception in the left eye. Exenteration of the left eye was performed followed by microscopic examination showing Gram-negative bacilli, and C. albicans was also cultured. Antibiotics and the maximum doses of antifungal drugs were administered. However, the abscess in the right eye expanded, and BCVA decreased to 2/200. Vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade were performed. Vitreous fluid culture revealed C. albicans. At 16 months follow-up, BCVA was stable at 4/200 with healing of the subretinal abscess under silicone oil. Conclusion Since C. albicans subretinal abscess is extremely rare and there was a concurrent mixed bacterial infection, diagnostic procedures in our bilateral case were more complicated than usual. C. albicans infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of subretinal abscesses. PMID:25378901

  16. Bax-induced cell death in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Kris; Eberhardt, Ines; Reekmans, Rieka; Contreras, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins involved in the regulation of genetically programmed cell death in mammalian cells. It has been shown that heterologous expression of Bax in several yeast species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Pichia pastoris, also induces cell death. In this study we investigated the effects of Bax expression in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Cell death inducing expression of Bax required a synthetic BAX gene that was codon-optimized for expression in Candida albicans. Expression of this BAX gene resulted in growth inhibition and cell death. By fusing Bax with the yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein of Aequoria victoria, the cell death-inducing effect of Bax was increased due to reduced proteolytic degradation of Bax. Using this fusion protein we showed that, upon expression in C. albicans, Bax co-localizes with the mitochondria. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that expression of Bax in yeast causes the mitochondria, which are normally distributed throughout the cell, to cluster in the perinuclear region. PMID:15565645

  17. Candida albicans Ultrastructure: Colonization and Invasion of Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Julie A.; Squier, Christopher A.

    1980-01-01

    The colonization and invasion of various animal oral mucosae by Candida albicans were examined in an organ culture model. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the oral epithelium between 12 and 30 h after inoculation with the fungus revealed the morphological relationships between host and parasite. Examination of the fungi in thin sections showed five distinct layers in the cell wall of C. albicans within the epithelium, but changes were evident in the organization and definition of the outer cell wall layers in budding hyphae and in hyphae participating in colonization and invasion of the epithelial cells. Adherence of the fungus to the superficial cells of the oral mucosa appeared to involve intimate contact between the epithelial cell surface and the deeper layers of the fungal cell wall. During invasion a close seal was maintained between the invading hyphae and the surrounding epithelial cell envelope, there being no other evidence of damage to the host cell surface except at the site of entry. Within the epithelial cells there was only occasional loss of cytoplasmic components in the vicinity of the invading hyphae. These findings would suggest that enzymatic lysis associated with the invasive process is localized and that the mechanical support provided by surface adherence and the intimate association between the fungus and the epithelial cell envelope may permit growth of Candida on through the epithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995338

  18. Structural characterization of CA1462, the Candida albicans thiamine pyrophosphokinase

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Sébastien; Monchois, Vincent; Mouz, Nicolas; Sigoillot, Cécile; Rousselle, Tristan; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background In search of new antifungal targets of potential interest for pharmaceutical companies, we initiated a comparative genomics study to identify the most promising protein-coding genes in fungal genomes. One criterion was the protein sequence conservation between reference pathogenic genomes. A second criterion was that the corresponding gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae should be essential. Since thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential product involved in a variety of metabolic pathways, proteins responsible for its production satisfied these two criteria. Results We report the enzymatic characterization and the crystallographic structure of the Candida albicans Thiamine pyrophosphokinase. The protein was co-crystallized with thiamine or thiamine-PNP. Conclusion The presence of an inorganic phosphate in the crystallographic structure opposite the known AMP binding site relative to the thiamine moiety suggests that a second AMP molecule could be accommodated in the C. albicans structure. Together with the crystallographic structures of the enzyme/substrate complexes this suggests the existence of a secondary, less specific, nucleotide binding site in the Candida albicans thiamine pyrophosphokinase which could transiently serve during the release or the binding of ATP. The structures also highlight a conserved Glutamine residue (Q138) which could interact with the ATP α-phosphate and act as gatekeeper. Finally, the TPK/Thiamine-PNP complex is consistent with a one step mechanism of pyrophosphorylation. PMID:18652651

  19. The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Atanu; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni

    2015-01-01

    In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms. PMID:26407965

  20. Chloroquine sensitizes biofilms of Candida albicans to antifungal azoles.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ravikumar Bapurao; Raut, Jayant Shankar; Chauhan, Nitin Mahendra; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic assay were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions between chloroquine and four antifungal drugs were determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Azole resistance in biofilms was reverted significantly (p<0.05) in presence of 250μg/mL of chloroquine, which resulted in inhibition of biofilms at very low concentrations of antifungal drugs. No significant alteration in the sensitivity of biofilms to caspofungin and amphotericin B was evident in combination with chloroquine. This study for the first time indicates that chloroquine potentiates anti-biofilm activity of fluconazole and voriconazole. PMID:23602464

  1. Rapid Development of Candida krusei Echinocandin Resistance during Caspofungin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Forastiero, A.; Garcia-Gil, V.; Rivero-Menendez, O.; Garcia-Rubio, R.; Monteiro, M. C.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Jordan, R.; Agorio, I.

    2015-01-01

    In invasive candidiasis, there has been an epidemiological shift from Candida albicans to non-albicans species infections, including infections with C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Although the prevalence of C. krusei remains low among yeast infections, its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole raises epidemiological and therapeutic concerns. Echinocandins have in vitro activity against most Candida spp. and are the first-line agents in the treatment of candidemia. Although resistance to echinocandin drugs is still rare, individual cases of C. krusei resistance have been reported in recent years, especially with strains that have been under selective pressure. A total of 15 C. krusei strains, isolated from the blood, urine, and soft tissue of an acute lymphocytic leukemia patient, were analyzed. Strains developed echinocandin resistance during 10 days of caspofungin therapy. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was investigated using two different typing methods: PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic CKRS-1 sequence and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genetically related, and the mechanism involved in decreased echinocandin susceptibility was characterized. Clinical resistance was associated with an increase in echinocandin MICs in vitro and was related to three different mutations in hot spot 1 of the target enzyme Fks1p. Molecular evidence of the rapid acquisition of resistance by different mutations in FKS1 highlights the need to monitor the development of resistance in C. krusei infections treated with echinocandin drugs. PMID:26324281

  2. The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Banerjee, Atanu; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni

    2015-12-01

    In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms. PMID:26407965

  3. Nanocapsules with glycerol monolaurate: Effects on Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Cayane Genro; Vaucher, Rodrigo de Almeida; Raffin, Renata Platcheck; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans does not only occur in the free living planktonic form but also grows in surface-attached biofilm communities. Moreover, these biofilms appear to be the most common lifestyle and are involved in the majority of human Candida infections. Nanoparticles can be used as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents and can also act as carriers for antibiotics and other drugs. In view of this, the aim of the study was develop, characterize and verify the anti-biofilm potential of GML Nanocapsules against C. albicans. The GML Nanocapsules showed mean diameter of 193.2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.044, zeta potential of -23.3 mV and pH 6.32. The microdilution assay showed MIC of 15.5 μg mL(-1) to GML Nanocapsules and 31.25 μg mL(-1) to GML. The anti-biofilm assay showed the significantly reduction of biomass of C. albicans biofilm treated with GML Nanocapsules while the GML does not exhibit effect. The kinetic assay demonstrated that at 48 h, the GML Nanocapsules reduce 94% of formed biofilm. The positive results suggest the promisor alternative for this public health problem that is biofilm infections. PMID:27241236

  4. Topical fluconazole for experimental candida keratitis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens-Baumann, W; Klinge, B; Rüchel, R

    1990-01-01

    Using a reproducible model of Candida albicans keratitis in rabbits we studied the effect of topical fluconazole, a new triazole. Candida albicans DSM 70010 (2.5 X 10(5) cells) was injected into the corneal stroma of both eyes of 21 rabbits. All eyes developed a corneal ulcer. Forty-eight hours after inoculation the animals were divided into three groups: (1) 14 eyes, received fluconazole (2 mg/ml) and the epithelium subsequently removed; (2) 14 eyes, received only fluconazole drops; (3) 14 eyes, received 0.9% NaCl: half of this group was also debrided. We applied one drop of either substance 10 times a day for 24 days. A further six rabbits were used to judge if the drug penetrated into the cornea and aqueous humour. There was a highly significant difference between the fluconazole groups (1,2) and the control group (3) as to hypopyon and complications (descemetocele, corneal perforation) as well as recultivation of C. albicans from corneal tissue. The difference between the fluconazole groups with and without debridement was not significant. The drug penetrated into the cornea and aqueous humour of both uninflamed and inflamed eyes. Images PMID:2306443

  5. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  6. Candida glabrata survives and replicates in human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Duarte, Ana Rosa; Castrejón-Jiménez, Nayeli Shantal; Baltierra-Uribe, Shantal Lizbeth; Pérez-Rangel, Sofia Judith; Carapia-Minero, Natalee; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; López-Santiago, Rubén; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; García-Pérez, Blanca Estela

    2016-06-01

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic pathogen that is considered the second most common cause of candidiasis after Candida albicans Many characteristics of its mechanisms of pathogenicity remain unknown. Recent studies have focused on determining the events that underlie interactions between C. glabrata and immune cells, but the relationship between this yeast and osteoblasts has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of interaction between human osteoblasts and C. glabrata, and to identify the roles played by some of the molecules that are produced by these cells in response to infection. We show that C. glabrata adheres to and is internalized by human osteoblasts. Adhesion is independent of opsonization, and internalization depends on the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that C. glabrata survives and replicates in osteoblasts and that this intracellular behavior is related to the level of production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. Opsonized C. glabrata stimulates the production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 cytokines. Adhesion and internalization of the pathogen and the innate immune response of osteoblasts require viable C. glabrata These results suggest that C. glabrata modulates immunological mechanisms in osteoblasts to survive inside the cell. PMID:27073253

  7. Rapid development of Candida krusei echinocandin resistance during caspofungin therapy.

    PubMed

    Forastiero, A; Garcia-Gil, V; Rivero-Menendez, O; Garcia-Rubio, R; Monteiro, M C; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Jordan, R; Agorio, I; Mellado, E

    2015-11-01

    In invasive candidiasis, there has been an epidemiological shift from Candida albicans to non-albicans species infections, including infections with C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Although the prevalence of C. krusei remains low among yeast infections, its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole raises epidemiological and therapeutic concerns. Echinocandins have in vitro activity against most Candida spp. and are the first-line agents in the treatment of candidemia. Although resistance to echinocandin drugs is still rare, individual cases of C. krusei resistance have been reported in recent years, especially with strains that have been under selective pressure. A total of 15 C. krusei strains, isolated from the blood, urine, and soft tissue of an acute lymphocytic leukemia patient, were analyzed. Strains developed echinocandin resistance during 10 days of caspofungin therapy. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was investigated using two different typing methods: PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic CKRS-1 sequence and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genetically related, and the mechanism involved in decreased echinocandin susceptibility was characterized. Clinical resistance was associated with an increase in echinocandin MICs in vitro and was related to three different mutations in hot spot 1 of the target enzyme Fks1p. Molecular evidence of the rapid acquisition of resistance by different mutations in FKS1 highlights the need to monitor the development of resistance in C. krusei infections treated with echinocandin drugs. PMID:26324281

  8. SOME CYTOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF SPHEROPLASTS OF CANDIDA ALBICANS

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, George S.; Friedman, Lorraine; Kofroth, Judith F.

    1964-01-01

    Kobayashi, George S. (Tulane University, New Orleans, La.), Lorraine Friedman, and Judith F. Kofroth. Some cytological and pathogenic properties of spheroplasts of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 88:795–801. 1964.—Spheroplasts of Candida albicans were prepared by use of an enzymatic mixture from the digestive tract of the snail Helix pomatia. Untreated cells exhibited well-defined cell walls, whereas such structures were absent from spheroplasts. The intravenous inoculation of either spheroplasts or intact cells into rabbits produced a fever which was apparent within 30 min, the “immediate” fever response characteristic of microbial endotoxin. Cell-wall fragments of enzyme-treated cells did not induce a convincing pyrogenic response. When the inoculum was viable, body temperatures did not return to normal but remained elevated until death of the animal 1 or more days later, exhibiting the “delayed” fever of infection. The gross pathological picture in animals succumbing to infection by viable spheroplasts was similar to that obtained with untreated yeast cells. Images PMID:14208520

  9. Four pathogenic Candida species differ in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrova, Hana

    2010-10-01

    The virulence of Candida species depends on many environmental conditions, including extracellular pH and concentration of alkali metal cations. Tests of the tolerance/sensitivity of four pathogenic Candida species (C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis) to alkali metal cations under various growth conditions revealed significant differences among these species. Though all of them can be classified as rather osmotolerant yeast species, they exhibit different levels of tolerance to different salts. C. parapsilosis and C. albicans are the most salt-tolerant in general; C. dubliniensis is the least tolerant on rich YPD media and C. glabrata on acidic (pH 3.5) minimal YNB medium. C. dubliniensis is relatively salt-sensitive in spite of its ability to maintain as high intracellular K(+)/Na(+) ratio as its highly salt-tolerant relative C. albicans. On the other hand, C. parapsilosis can grow in the presence of very high external NaCl concentrations in spite of its high intracellular Na(+) concentrations (and thus lower K(+)/Na(+) ratio) and thus resembles salt-tolerant (halophilic) Debaryomyces hansenii. PMID:20300937

  10. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  11. Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm. PMID:25290909

  12. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

  13. Antifungal activity of local anesthetics against Candida species.

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Vaz, C; Rodrigues, A G; Sansonetty, F; Martinez-De-Oliveira, J; Fonseca, A F; Mårdh, P A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, three drugs with local anesthetic activity, against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and to clarify their mechanism of activity. METHODS: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 20 Candida strains (18 clinical isolates and two American Type Culture Collection strains). The fungistatic activity was studied with the fluorescent probe FUN-1 and observation under epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The fungicidal activity of the three drugs was assayed by viability counts. Membrane alterations induced in the yeast cells were evaluated by staining with propidium iodide, by quantitation of intracellular K+ leakage and by transmission electron microscopy of intact yeast cells and prepared spheroplasts. RESULTS: The MIC ranged from 12.5-50.0 microg/mL, 5.0-40.0 mg/mL, and 2.5-10.0 mg/mL for benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, respectively. The inhibitory activity of these concentrations could be detected with the fluorescent probe FUN-1 after incubation for 60 minutes. A very fast fungicidal activity was shown by 0.2, 50, and 30 mg/mL of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At lower concentrations, the tested drugs have a fungistatic activity, due to yeast metabolic impairment, while at higher concentrations they are fungicidal, due to direct damage to the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:10968594

  14. Interesterification and synthesis by Candida cylindracea lipase in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Bello, M; Thomas, D; Legoy, M D

    1987-07-15

    Unusual reactions of interesterification and synthesis catalyzed by Candida cylindracea lipase have been tested in reverse microemulsions. The microemulsions used are made of fatty acids or triglycerides, the enzyme dissolved in a very low water quantity, Brij 35 used as surfactant and an alcoholic cosurfactant. In such a system, fats and alcohols are both the substrates of the enzyme and the microemulsion components. Incidentally, non specific Candida cylindracea lipase does not catalyze interesterification of short chain triglycerides, revealing a specificity for the chain length. Interesterification reactions tested in the presence of a given water quantity but with varying water activities show that it is the water activity and not the water quantity which is a fundamental parameter of the system. The effect of the surfactant (Brij 35) on the interesterification reaction is studied. Heptyl-oleate synthesis catalyzed by non-specific lipase is obtained in microemulsions at a 98% yield. Synthesis of glycerol esters is also tested in monophasic medium and mono and diglycerides are obtained. PMID:3606623

  15. Candida albicans in oral biofilms could prevent caries.

    PubMed

    Willems, Hubertine Marjoleine; Kos, Kevin; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterium involved in development to caries, the most common infectious disease of our time. Streptococcus mutans interacts with other microbes, like the fungus Candida albicans and both are commonly isolated from patients with caries. Since the role of C. albicans in caries remains unknown, our aim was to unravel this using an in vitro dual-species cariogenic oral biofilm model. Biofilms were grown for 24-72 h on glass cover slips or hydroxyapatite (HA) disks to mimic the surface of teeth. Medium pH, lactic acid production capacity and calcium release from HA disks were determined. All 24-h biofilms had external pH values below the critical pH of 5.5 where enamel dissolves. In contrast, 72-h dual-species biofilms had significantly higher pH (above the critical pH) and consequently decreased calcium release compared to single-species S. mutans biofilms. Counter intuitively, lactic acid production and growth of S. mutans were increased in 72-h dual-species biofilms. Candida albicans modulates the pH in dual-species biofilms to values above the critical pH where enamel dissolves. Our results suggest that C. albicans is not by definition a cariogenic microorganism; it could prevent caries by actively increasing pH preventing mineral loss. PMID:27129365

  16. Transcriptional Response of Candida parapsilosis following Exposure to Farnesol▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Tristan; Logue, Mary E.; Reynolds, Kieran; Grenon, Muriel; Lowndes, Noel F.; Butler, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    In Candida albicans, the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol inhibits the transition from yeast to hyphae but has no effect on cellular growth. We show that the addition of exogenous farnesol to cultures of Candida parapsilosis causes the cells to arrest, but not at a specific stage in the cell cycle. The cells are not susceptible to additional farnesol. However, the cells do eventually recover from arrest. Unlike in C. albicans, in C. parapsilosis sterols are localized to the tips of budding cells, and this polarization is disrupted by the addition of farnesol. We used the results of a genome sequence survey to design and manufacture partial genomic microarrays that were applied to determining the transcriptional response of C. parapsilosis to the presence of exogenous farnesol. In both C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, exposure to farnesol results in increased expression of the oxidoreductases GRP2 and ADH7 and altered expression of genes involved in sterol metabolism. There is no effect on expression of C. parapsilosis orthologs of genes involved in hyphal growth in C. albicans. Farnesol therefore differs significantly in its effects on C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. PMID:17684006

  17. Candida milleri species reveals intraspecific genetic and metabolic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Vigentini, Ileana; Antoniani, Davide; Roscini, Luca; Comasio, Andrea; Galafassi, Silvia; Picozzi, Claudia; Corte, Laura; Compagno, Concetta; Dal Bello, Fabio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Foschino, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Candida milleri, together with Candida humilis, is the most representative yeast species found in type I sourdough ecosystems. In this work, comparison of the ITS region and the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA gene partial sequences, karyotyping, mtDNA-RFLP analysis, Intron Splice Site dispersion (ISS-PCR) and (GTG)5 microsatellite analyses, assimilation test of different carbohydrates, and metabolome assessment by FT-IR analysis, were investigated in seventeen strains isolated from four different companies as well as in type strains CBS6897(T) and CBS5658(T). Most isolates were ascribed to C. milleri, even if a strong relatedness was confirmed with C. humilis as well, particularly for three strains. Genetic characterization showed a high degree of intraspecific polymorphism since 12 different genotypes were discriminated. The number of chromosomes varied from 9 to 13 and their size ranged from less than 0.3 to over 2 Mbp. Phenotypic traits let to recognize 9 different profiles of carbon sources assimilation. FT-IR spectra from yeast cells cultivated in different media and collected at different growth phases revealed a diversity of behaviour among strains in accordance with the results of PCR-based fingerprinting. A clear evidence of the polymorphic status of C. milleri species is provided thus representing an important feature for the development of technological applications in bakery industries. PMID:24929720

  18. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Burkhard R; van het Hoog, Marco; d'Enfert, Christophe; Martchenko, Mikhail; Dungan, Jan; Kuo, Alan; Inglis, Diane O; Uhl, M. Andrew; Hogues, Hervé; Berriman, Matthew; Lorenz, Michael; Levitin, Anastasia; Oberholzer, Ursula; Bachewich, Catherine; Harcus, Doreen; Marcil, Anne; Dignard, Daniel; Iouk, Tatiana; Zito, Rosa; Frangeul, Lionel; Tekaia, Fredj; Rutherford, Kim; Wang, Edwin; Munro, Carol A; Bates, Steve; Gow, Neil A; Hoyer, Lois L; Köhler, Gerwald; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Newport, George; Znaidi, Sadri; Raymond, Martine; Turcotte, Bernard; Sherlock, Gavin; Costanzo, Maria; Ihmels, Jan; Berman, Judith; Sanglard, Dominique; Agabian, Nina; Mitchell, Aaron P; Johnson, Alexander D; Whiteway, Malcolm; Nantel, André

    2005-01-01

    Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations) that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:16103911

  19. Determination of MICs of aminocandin for Candida spp. and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Isham, N; Ghannoum, M A

    2006-12-01

    Candida and Aspergillus spp., as well as other filamentous molds, have increasingly been reported as the causes of severe invasive fungal infections. We evaluated the new echinocandin aminocandin (AMN) for its antifungal activities against a range of fungal pathogens by determination of the MICs for the organisms. The MICs of the comparator drugs amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin, and voriconazole were also determined. The MICs of AMN for 25 strains each of non-Candida albicans Candida spp. (including Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, and Candida tropicalis), Aspergillus fumigatus, Scedosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and zygomycetes (including Absidia, Mucor, and Rhizopus spp.) were determined by using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A2 and M38-A methodologies for yeasts and filamentous molds, respectively. The MIC ranges of AMN for all yeasts were similar (0.03 to 4.0 microg/ml), while the MIC ranges of AMN for filamentous fungi were species specific. AMN demonstrated potent antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, limited activity against Scedosporium spp., and no activity against zygomycetes or Fusarium spp. Our data showed that AMN demonstrated potent antifungal activities against all of the yeasts and Aspergillus isolates tested, suggesting that AMN could be an important addition to our arsenal of antifungals for the treatment of invasive fungal disease. PMID:17021057

  20. Delicate Metabolic Control and Coordinated Stress Response Critically Determine Antifungal Tolerance of Candida albicans Biofilm Persisters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Alpi, Emanuele; Vizcaino, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida infection has emerged as a critical health care burden worldwide, owing to the formation of robust biofilms against common antifungals. Recent evidence shows that multidrug-tolerant persisters critically account for biofilm recalcitrance, but their underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we first investigated the phenotypic characteristics of Candida biofilm persisters under consecutive harsh treatments of amphotericin B. The prolonged treatments effectively killed the majority of the cells of biofilms derived from representative strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis but failed to eradicate a small fraction of persisters. Next, we explored the tolerance mechanisms of the persisters through an investigation of the proteomic profiles of C. albicans biofilm persister fractions by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The C. albicans biofilm persisters displayed a specific proteomic signature, with an array of 205 differentially expressed proteins. The crucial enzymes involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and protein synthesis were markedly downregulated, indicating that major metabolic activities are subdued in the persisters. It is noteworthy that certain metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate cycle, were able to be activated with significantly increased levels of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. Moreover, a number of important proteins responsible for Candida growth, virulence, and the stress response were greatly upregulated. Interestingly, the persisters were tolerant to oxidative stress, despite highly induced intracellular superoxide. The current findings suggest that delicate metabolic control and a coordinated stress response may play a crucial role in mediating the survival and antifungal tolerance of Candida biofilm persisters. PMID:26195524

  1. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  2. Adherence of Candida to cultured vascular endothelial cells: mechanisms of attachment and endothelial cell penetration.

    PubMed

    Rotrosen, D; Edwards, J E; Gibson, T R; Moore, J C; Cohen, A H; Green, I

    1985-12-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of hematogenous Candida infections, we developed an in vitro model of Candida adherence to and penetration of human endothelial cells. We enhanced or inhibited adherence in order to probe mechanisms of attachment. Adherence of Candida albicans showed a linear relation to Candida inoculum (range, 10(2)-10(5) cfu, r = .99, P less than .01) and exceeded that of less virulent Candida species and that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P less than .01). Candida immune serum blocked attachment (greater than 95% inhibition; P less than .001), however, this activity was abolished by immunoprecipitation of immune serum with C. albicans mannan (P less than .001) and was unaffected by immunoprecipitation with S. cerevisiae mannan or by adsorption with particulate chitin. Adherence was diminished by exposing C. albicans to heat (greater than 99% inhibition; P less than .01), UV light (98% inhibition; P less than .01), or sodium periodate (greater than 72% inhibition; P less than .01). An extract from heat-exposed C. albicans blocked adherence (greater than 51% inhibition; P less than .001). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that viable or killed Candida organisms were attached to endothelial cells, were enveloped by membrane processes from the endothelial cell surface, and were incorporated into the endothelial cells within phagosomes. Cytochalasin B blocked incorporation without blocking surface attachment. PMID:3905987

  3. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (P<0.01). The resistance rates to C. albicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7 % for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  4. A novel flucytosine-resistant yeast species, Candida pseudoaaseri, causes disease in a cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-12-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170(T)), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  5. A Novel Flucytosine-Resistant Yeast Species, Candida pseudoaaseri, Causes Disease in a Cancer Patient ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-01-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170T), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  6. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candida species from hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Yankee C.; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q.; Melônio, Luciane C.; Ribeiro, Patrícia C.S.; Cosme, Lécia M.; Rhoden, Cristianne R.; Marques, Sirlei G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp . (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections. PMID:26221096

  7. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candida species from hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Yankee C; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q; Melônio, Luciane C; Ribeiro, Patrícia C S; Cosme, Lécia M; Rhoden, Cristianne R; Marques, Sirlei G

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp . (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections. PMID:26221096

  8. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp. PMID:26363919

  9. Catalase activity of different Candida species after exposition to specific antiserum

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Natália R.S.; Unterkircher, Carmelinda S.; Shimizu, Mario T.

    2008-01-01

    Antisera were developed in rabbits after challenge with intracellular antigens of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Microorganism catalase has been correlated with virulence, resistance to drugs and immunogenicity. The intracellular catalase is consistently present in strains of Candida and in this paper, the enzyme activity was analysed by PAGE after exposition to antisera. The catalases of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were immunogenic and differed in their binding to specific antibodies raised in rabbits. Tests of cross-reactivity between different Candida species showed that when antiserum from C. albicans immunized rabbit was incubated with intracellular extracts of these three Candida species, the catalases activities were abolished. However, the antisera from C. parapsilosis or C. tropicalis immunized rabbits did not affect the catalase activity of C. albicans; the enzyme of C. albicans was inactivated only by the antiserum to the catalase of own C. albicans. The antiserum to the catalase of C. tropicalis was species-specific and did not cross-react with catalases of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The activities of Aspergillus niger and bovine catalases were not affected by the antiserum from any Candida immunized rabbits. This report is a preliminary study of specific antisera that react against intracellular catalase of Candida sp. and neutralize the enzymatic activity. Further study is necessary to develop species-specific antibody once differences in the susceptibility of the Candida species to commonly used antifungal drugs make identification to the species level important. PMID:24031174

  10. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj S.

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6) was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27–37°C, pH 8–10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v). The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6) lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6) can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6) showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6). PMID:25191320

  11. Candidaemia with uncommon Candida species: predisposing factors, outcome, antifungal susceptibility, and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C A; Marriott, D; Playford, E G; Nguyen, Q; Ellis, D; Meyer, W; Sorrell, T C; Slavin, M

    2009-07-01

    The risk factors for and clinical features of bloodstream infection with uncommon Candida spp. (species other than C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicals and C. krusei) are incompletely defined. To identify clinical variables associated with these species that might guide management, 57 cases of candidaemia resulting from uncommon Candida spp. were analysed in comparison with 517 episodes of Candida albicans candidaemia (2001-2004). Infection with uncommon Candida spp. (5.3% of candidaemia cases), as compared with C. albicans candidaemia, was significantly more likely to be outpatient-acquired than inpatient-acquired (15 of 57 vs. 65 of 517 episodes, p 0.01). Prior exposure to fluconazole was uncommon (n=1). Candida dubliniensis was the commonest species (n=22, 39%), followed by Candida guilliermondii (n=11, 19%) and Candida lusitaniae (n=7, 12%).C. dubliniensis candidaemia was independently associated with recent intravenous drug use (p 0.01) and chronic liver disease (p 0.03), and infection with species other than C. dubliniensis was independently associated with age<65 years (p 0.02), male sex (p 0.03) and human immunodeficiency virus infection (p 0.05). Presence of sepsis at diagnosis and crude 30-day mortality rates were similar for C. dubliniensis-related, non-C. dubliniensis-related and C. albicans-related candidaemia. Haematological malignancy was the commonest predisposing factor in C. guilliermondii (n=3, 27%) and C. lusitaniae (n=3, 43%) candidaemia. The 30-day mortality rate of C. lusitaniae candidaemia was higher than the overall death rate for all uncommon Candida spp. (42.9% vs. 25%, p not significant). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin; five strains (9%) had fluconazole MIC values of 16-32 mg/L. Candidaemia due to uncommon Candida spp. is emerging among hospital outpatients; certain clinical variables may assist in recognition of this entity. PMID:19614718

  12. Urinary micafungin levels are sufficient to treat urinary tract infections caused by Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Grau, S; Luque, S; Echeverría-Esnal, D; Sorlí, L; Campillo, N; Montero, M; Álvarez Lerma, F; Plasencia, V; Horcajada, J P

    2016-08-01

    Six cases of patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) successfully treated with micafungin are reported. Four were infected with fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. and two (with hepatic injury) were infected with fluconazole-sensitive Candida spp. Traditionally, echinocandins have not been considered for the treatment of UTIs. However, despite its low urinary excretion rate, therapeutic drug monitoring of micafungin urinary levels could be helpful in order to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices for treating UTIs caused by Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole. PMID:27424599

  13. Antimicrobial effects of three tropical plant extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Okigbo, R N; Mmeka, E C

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citatrus (lemongrass) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and the seed extracts of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) were carried out. G. kola had effect only on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. Ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibition on the three organism but G. kola ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts only inhibited S. aureus and E. coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. The organism's susceptibility varied with more inhibition to S. aureus and least to Candida albicans. PMID:20161941

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Candida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Lischewski, A; Ruhnke, M; Tennagen, I; Schönian, G; Morschhäuser, J; Hacker, J

    1995-01-01

    Thirty Candida isolates obtained from the oropharynxes of three AIDS patients were genotypically characterized. In vitro fluconazole MIC determination revealed increasing fluconazole resistances during treatment, thereby confirming the in vivo situation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis karyotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and hybridizations with Candida albicans repetitive element 2 were used to determine possible genotypic changes. The isolates from two patients showed genetic homogeneity, suggesting the selection for resistant variants. One patient experienced a strain switch to Candida krusei. Horizontal spread of identical strains between the patients could be excluded. However, the molecular methods used might not be sufficient to detect the underlying genetic basis of resistance to fluconazole. PMID:7751395

  15. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Mark M; Zhang, Lingxin; Stoll, Janis M; Sheybani, Elizabeth F

    2016-04-01

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. PMID:26546567

  16. Cross-Reactivity of the PLATELIA CANDIDA Antigen Detection Enzyme Immunoassay with Fungal Antigen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rimek, Dagmar; Singh, Jagpal; Kappe, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    We studied the specificity of the PLATELIA CANDIDA Ag enzyme immunoassay by using 130 isolates of 63 clinically relevant fungal species. Antigen extracts of seven Candida spp. (Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, and C. tropicalis) repeatedly yielded positive reactions (>0.5 ng/ml). Geotrichum candidum and Fusarium verticillioides were found to yield borderline-positive reactions (0.25 to 0.50 ng/ml). Antigen preparations from the other 54 fungal species, including yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and dimorphic fungi, did not cross-react in the assay. PMID:12843102

  17. The Achievement Gap between White and Non-White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-LeBouef, Ana; Slate, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This Collection contains three seminal modules by Authors Ana Rojas-LeBouef and John R. Slate, professors and researchers from Sam Houston State University in Texas. They are nationally recognized scholars in the area of the academic inequity between White and Non-White students. This paper is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1--The…

  18. One Black, One White: Power, White Privilege, & Creating Safe Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade O.; Parks, Marguerite W.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of two professors as they teach about White privilege in predominately White institutions of higher education. The authors discuss how racial potentiality shapes the classroom climates of each of the professors and then present strategies that utilize safe spaces to navigate students away from the resistance…

  19. Breakin' down Whiteness in Antiracist Teaching: Introducing Critical Whiteness Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Mackey, Janiece

    2016-01-01

    Because of the changing nature of race the role of antiracist teaching is a forever-evolving process. Acknowledging that the majority of the U.S. teaching force, from K-12 to teacher education in institutions of higher education, are white middle-class females, it becomes imperative to unveil pedagogical applications of critical whiteness studies.…

  20. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  1. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Norwegian Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kari-Mette; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Ingebretsen, André; Vikholt, Katharina Johnsen; Örtengren, Ulf Thore; Olsen, Ingar; Enersen, Morten; Gaustad, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients have resulted in greater incidence of invasive fungal infections with high mortality. Candida albicans infections dominate, but during the last decade, Candida glabrata has become the second highest cause of candidemia in the United States and Northern Europe. Reliable and early diagnosis, together with appropriate choice of antifungal treatment, is needed to combat these challenging infections. Objectives To confirm the identity of 183 Candida glabrata isolates from different human body sites using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and VITEK®2, and to analyze isolate protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven antifungal drugs was determined for the isolates to elucidate susceptibility. Design A total of 183 C. glabrata isolates obtained between 2002 and 2012 from Norwegian health-care units were analyzed. For species verification and differentiation, biochemical characterization (VITEK®2) and mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF) were used. MIC determination for seven antifungal drugs was undertaken using E-tests®. Results Using VITEK®2, 92.9% of isolates were identified as C. glabrata, while all isolates (100%) were identified as C. glabrata using MALDI-TOF. Variation in protein spectra occurred for all identified C. glabrata isolates. The majority of isolates had low MICs to amphotericin B (≤1 mg/L for 99.5%) and anidulafungin (≤0.06 mg/L for 98.9%). For fluconazole, 18% of isolates had MICs >32 mg/L and 82% had MICs in the range ≥0.016 mg/L to ≤32 mg/L. Conclusions Protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility characteristics of the C. glabrata isolates were diverse. Clustering of protein profiles indicated that many azole resistant isolates were closely related. In most cases, isolates had highest susceptibility to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. The results confirmed previous observations of high

  2. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  3. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  4. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic. PMID:26404657

  5. What Can White Faculty Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jill

    2007-01-01

    White faculty members, even those who desire to participate in institutional change, are often unsure what role they can play in making their campuses places where American racial minority students want, and are able, to learn. Knowing what they can do may be the first step for White faculty members to begin making changes that can positively…

  6. Kinematics of faint white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Luyten, W J

    1978-10-01

    An analysis has been made for solar motion for 128 very faint white dwarfs of color class b or a. While about 40% of these stars may be high-velocity objects, it seems definitely indicated that the luminosity of all of them is considerably lower than that for the "normal" white dwarf of the same color. PMID:16592566

  7. White Nationalism and Native Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stineback, David

    1977-01-01

    Suggesting there has been a nationalistic psychology inherent in white America's relationship with the American Indian, this article asserts that the Puritans and 19th century politicians are alike in their inability to accept the idea that Indians have not wanted to live like the white man. (JC)

  8. Acting White: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of acting White has been heatedly debated and influential over the last 20 years or so in explaining the Black-White test score gap. Recently, economists have joined the debate and started providing new theoretical and empirical analyses of the phenomenon. This paper critically reviews the arguments that have been advanced to…

  9. In vitro avarol does affect the growth of Candida sp.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Ciric, Ana; Markovic, Dejan; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-09-01

    This work extends in vitro screening of antimicrobial activity of avarol, the marine natural product firstly isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Dysidea avara. Its anticandidial activity was evaluated by microdilution method against eight Candida strains, two ATCC and six clinical ones. At a different extent this compound was proven to be active against all the strains tested (MIC 0.8-6.0 μg/mL and MFC 1.6-12.0 μg/mL, respectively). According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on avarol activity towards any yeast strain which may be of relevance for Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, avarol derivatives showing moderate AChE activity should be screened for anticandidial activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26405848

  10. Gastrointestinal granuloma due to Candida albicans in an immunocompetent cat

    PubMed Central

    Duchaussoy, Anne-Claire; Rose, Annie; Talbot, Jessica J.; Barrs, Vanessa R.

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5 year-old cat was admitted to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Teaching Hospital for chronic vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a focal, circumferential thickening of the wall of the duodenum extending from the pylorus aborally for 3 cm, and an enlarged gastric lymph node. Cytology of fine-needle aspirates of the intestinal mass and lymph node revealed an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and numerous extracellular septate acute angle branching fungal-type hyphae. Occasional hyphae had globose terminal ends, as well as round to oval blastospores and germ tubes. Candida albicans was cultured from a surgical biopsy of the duodenal mass. No underlying host immunodeficiencies were identified. Passage of an abrasive intestinal foreign body was suspected to have caused intestinal mucosal damage resulting in focal intestinal candidiasis. The cat was treated with a short course of oral itraconazole and all clinical signs resolved. PMID:26862475

  11. Th17 cells in immunity to Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of immunity to fungal pathogens has advanced considerably in recent years. Particularly significant have been the parallel discoveries in the C-type lectin receptor family and the Th effector arms of immunity, especially Th17 cells and their signature cytokine IL-17. Many of these studies have focused on the most common human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is typically a commensal microbe in healthy individuals but causes various disease manifestations in immunocompromised hosts, ranging from mild mucosal infections to lethal disseminated disease. Here, we discuss emerging fundamental discoveries with C. albicans that have informed our overall molecular understanding of fungal immunity. In particular, we focus on the importance of pattern recognition receptor-mediated fungal recognition and subsequent IL-17 responses in host defense against mucosal candidiasis. In light of these recent advances, we also discuss the implications for anti-cytokine biologic therapy and vaccine development. PMID:22607796

  12. Epithelial discrimination of commensal and pathogenic Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tang, S X; Moyes, D L; Richardson, J P; Blagojevic, M; Naglik, J R

    2016-04-01

    All mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells and are colonised by opportunistic microbes. In health, these opportunistic microbes remain commensal and are tolerated by the immune system. However, when the correct environmental conditions arise, these microbes can become pathogenic and need to be controlled or cleared by the immune system to prevent disease. The mechanisms that enable epithelial cells to initiate the 'danger' signals activated specifically by pathogenic microbes are critical to mucosal defence and homeostasis but are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms will provide essential understanding to how mucosal tissues maintain health and activate immunity, as well as how pathogens promote disease. This review focuses on the interaction of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans with epithelial cells and the epithelial mechanisms that enable mucosal tissues to discriminate between the commensal and pathogenic state of this medically important fungus. PMID:26843519

  13. Sensitization of Candida albicans to terbinafine by berberine and berberrubine

    PubMed Central

    LAM, PIKLING; KOK, STANTON HON LUNG; LEE, KENNETH KA HO; LAM, KIM HUNG; HAU, DESMOND KWOK PO; WONG, WAI YEUNG; BIAN, ZHAOXIANG; GAMBARI, ROBERTO; CHUI, CHUNG HIN

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, particularly observed in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans accounts for 50–70% of cases of invasive candidiasis in the majority of clinical settings. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug, has been used to treat fungal infections previously. It has fungistatic activity against C. albicans. Traditional Chinese medicines can be used as complementary medicines to conventional drugs to treat a variety of ailments and diseases. Berberine is a quaternary alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese herb, Coptidis Rhizoma, while berberrubine is isolated from the medicinal plant Berberis vulgaris, but is also readily derived from berberine by pyrolysis. The present study demonstrates the possible complementary use of berberine and berberrubine with terbinafine against C. albicans. The experimental findings assume that the potential application of these alkaloids together with reduced dosage of the standard drug would enhance the resulting antifungal potency. PMID:27073630

  14. Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Garsin, Danielle A; Lorenz, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans and the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis are both normal residents of the human gut microbiome and cause opportunistic disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Using a nematode infection model, we recently showed that co-infection resulted in less pathology and less mortality than infection with either species alone and this was partly explained by an interkingdom signaling event in which a bacterial-derived product inhibits hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans. In this addendum we discuss these findings in the contest of other described bacterial-fungal interactions and recent data suggesting a potentially synergistic relationship between these two species in the mouse gut as well. We suggest that E. faecalis and C. albicans promote a mutually beneficial association with the host, in effect choosing a commensal lifestyle over a pathogenic one. PMID:23941906

  15. Fine separation and characterization of Candida rugosa lipase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Xiao-Xue Hu, Yi Xu; Cui, Jun-Ru; Li, Shu-Ben; Xia, Chun-Gu; Zhu, Li-Min

    2002-01-01

    Commercial Candida rugosa lipase has been separated into two distinct fractions (CRLA and CRLB) by anion-exchange chromatography. As analyzed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, CRLA and CRLB are homogenous. At high ionic strength, CRLA and CRLB have similar hydrophobicity and UV spectra, suggesting that the open extent of the large hydrophobic pockets of CRLA and CRLB may be similar. At low ionic strength, using "hydrophobic interfacial affinity chromatography", both CRLA and CRLB have been separated into four isofractions. They have different hydrophobicity and UV spectra, suggesting that the open extent of the large hydrophobic pocket of the four forms may be different. Further, the conversion of CRL isoenzymes in the process of organic solvent treatment and ester hydrolysis were examined. The results clearly showed not only that CRLB had been converted to CRLA, but also that CRLA sub-fractions with different open extent of large hydrophobic pocket had been converted PMID:12362407

  16. Candida dubliniensis: first identification in Sfax Hospital, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khlif, M; Sellami, H; Sellami, A; Chelly, H; Makni, F; Bouaziz, M; Ayadi, A

    2009-03-01

    Candida dubliniensis, a newly described fungal pathogen associated mainly to immunocompromised host's infection, is phenotypically closely related to C. albicans. In this study, we report for the first time, isolation and identification, in Tunisia, of 14 isolates of C. dubliniensis from 12 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients hospitalised in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital. Our study was firstly based on the failure to grow at 45 degrees C. This presumptive identification was completed by other tests: chlamydospore production, culture on Candiselect4 (Bio-Rad) and the commercial test Bichro-Dubli fumouze, which specifically identify C. dubliniensis. The confirmation of the discrimination between both species was performed by PCR, targeting the hyphal wall protein (HWP1) gene. The recovery of C. dublinensis by routine laboratory diagnosis is recommended for elucidating the epidemiology of this novel pathogen. PMID:18522698

  17. The significance of Candida pulcherrima findings in human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Pospisil, L

    1989-11-01

    From 1971 to 1976 the author examined by cultivation on Sabouraud glucose agar, 1720 specimens of the most varied materials--skin scales, nails, hair, beard, sputum--obtained from patients suffering from skin problems. In no one single case did he find Candida pulcherrima. However, since 1977 he has found C. pulcherrima to be on an increase. From 1977 to 1984 in 4644 specimens C. pulcherrima was found in 44 cases. 38 strains, i.e. 86%, were isolated from patients with clinical diagnosis of mycotic infection. The most frequent diagnosis was onychomycosis, 36%. Cultivation findings were mostly profuse and massive relative to the number of germs, in some patients even occurring repeatedly. In view of these findings it may be necessary to revise the views purporting the finding of C. pulcherrima from human material to be insignificant. PMID:2615783

  18. Molecular genetic techniques for gene manipulation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiu-Rong; Yan, Lan; Lv, Quan-Zhen; Zhou, Mi; Sui, Xue; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen in humans due to its high frequency as an opportunistic and pathogenic fungus causing superficial as well as invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. An understanding of gene function in C. albicans is necessary to study the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, virulence and drug resistance. Several manipulation techniques have been used for investigation of gene function in C. albicans, including gene disruption, controlled gene expression, protein tagging, gene reintegration, and overexpression. In this review, the main cassettes containing selectable markers used for gene manipulation in C. albicans are summarized; the advantages and limitations of these cassettes are discussed concerning the influences on the target gene expression and the virulence of the mutant strains. PMID:24759671

  19. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of European and African Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, V; Lo Passo, C; van Diepeningen, A D; Rharmitt, S; Delfino, D; Cascio, A; Nnadi, N E; Cilo, B D; Sampaio, P; Tietz, H-J; Pemán, J; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic relatedness and epidemiology of 127 clinical and environmental Candida glabrata isolates from Europe and Africa using multilocus microsatellite analysis. Each isolate was first identified using phenotypic and molecular methods and subsequently, six unlinked microsatellite loci were analyzed using automated fluorescent genotyping. Genetic relationships were estimated using the minimum-spanning tree (MStree) method. Microsatellite analyses revealed the existence of 47 different genotypes. The fungal population showed an irregular distribution owing to the over-representation of genetically different infectious haplotypes. The most common genotype was MG-9, which was frequently found in both European and African isolates. In conclusion, the data reported here emphasize the role of specific C. glabrata genotypes in human infections for at least some decades and highlight the widespread distribution of some isolates, which seem to be more able to cause disease than others. PMID:26946511

  20. Interleukin 17-Mediated Host Defense against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role of IL-17 in mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans. Research on mouse models has also contributed importantly to our current understanding of the regulation of IL-17 production by different cellular sources and its effector functions in distinct tissues. In this review, we highlight recent findings on IL-17-mediated immunity against C. albicans in mouse and man. PMID:26274976

  1. Importance of Candida-bacterial polymicrobial biofilms in disease

    PubMed Central

    Harriott, Melphine M.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, with an ability to inhabit diverse host niches and cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans also readily forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices and mucosal tissues, which serve as an infectious reservoir that is difficult to eradicate, and can lead to lethal systemic infections. Biofilm formation occurs within a complex milieu of host factors and other members of the human microbiota. Polymicrobial interactions will likely dictate the cellular and biochemical composition of the biofilm, as well as influence clinically relevant outcomes such as drug and host resistance and virulence. In this manuscript, we review C. albicans infections in the context of in vivo polymicrobial biofilms and implications for pathogenesis. PMID:21855346

  2. Production of flavin mononucleotide by metabolically engineered yeast Candida famata.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Ishchuk, Olena P; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Fedorovych, Daria V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-05-01

    Recombinant strains of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata able to overproduce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) that contain FMN1 gene encoding riboflavin (RF) kinase driven by the strong constitutive promoter TEF1 (translation elongation factor 1alpha) were constructed. Transformation of these strains with the additional plasmid containing the FMN1 gene under the TEF1 promoter resulted in the 200-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 100-fold increase in FMN production as compared to the wild-type strain (last feature was found only in iron-deficient medium). Overexpression of the FMN1 gene in the mutant that has deregulated riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and high level of riboflavin production in iron-sufficient medium led to the 30-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 400-fold increase in FMN production of the resulted transformants. The obtained C. famata recombinant strains can be used for the further construction of improved FMN overproducers. PMID:19558965

  3. Recent Taxonomic Developments with Candida and Other Opportunistic Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in susceptible patient populations and advances in identification methods have resulted in the continued recognition of novel yeasts as agents of human infection. Most of these agents are members of the well-recognized genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula. Some of these agents are “cryptic species,” members of species complexes, and may not be detectable using classical carbohydrate assimilation-based methods of yeast identification. Such species require DNA- or MALDI-based methods for correct identification, although sporadic isolates may not routinely require delineation to the individual species level. The coming end of the fungal taxonomy rules requiring separate names for sexual and asexual forms of the same fungus will hopefully allow greater clarity, as names for medically important yeast can now be based on the needs of the medical mycology community and the common goal of better communication between laboratory and clinician. PMID:26526658

  4. Novel strategies against Candida biofilms: interest of synthetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Marion; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A biofilm is a consortium of microbial cells that are attached to a substratum or an interface. It should be considered a reservoir that may induce serious infections. Indeed, Candidaspp. biofilms may be involved in the persistence or worsening of some chronic inflammatory diseases as well as in systemic infections, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. New strategies are currently being explored, utilizing several synthetic compounds to prevent or fight these Candida biofilms. This article focuses on active synthetic compounds classified with regards to their modes of action: inhibition of early adherence phase, inhibition or control of biofilm maturation and finally elimination of already formed biofilms. Some of them show promise in fighting biofilm. PMID:26673571

  5. Improved triglyceride transesterification by circular permuted Candida antarctica lipase B.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lutz, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Lipases represent a versatile class of biocatalysts with numerous potential applications in industry including the production of biodiesel via enzyme-catalyzed transesterification. In this article, we have investigated the performance of cp283, a variant of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) engineered by circular permutation, with a series of esters, as well as pure and complex triglycerides. In comparison with wild-type CALB, the permutated enzyme showed consistently higher catalytic activity (2.6- to 9-fold) for trans and interesterification of the different substrates with 1-butanol and ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors. Differences in the observed rates for wild-type CALB and cp283 are believe to be related to changes in the rate-determining step of the catalytic cycle as a result of circular permutation. PMID:19609971

  6. Cloning, purification, and properties of Candida albicans thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, S C; Richards, C A; Ferone, R; Benedict, D; Ray, P

    1989-01-01

    The thymidylate synthase (TS) gene was isolated from a genomic Candida albicans library by functional complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in TS. The gene was localized on a 4-kilobase HindIII DNA fragment and was shown to be expressed in a Thy- strain of Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the TS gene predicted a protein of 315 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36,027. The gene was cloned into a T7 expression vector in E. coli, allowing purification of large amounts of C. albicans TS. It was also purified from a wild-type C. albicans strain. Comparison of several enzyme properties including analysis of amino-terminal amino acid sequences showed the native and cloned C. albicans TS to be the same. PMID:2646281

  7. Efficacy of echinocandins against murine infections by Diutina (Candida) rugosa.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Marta; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep; Capilla, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Echinocandins are recommended as a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis. Candida rugosa was recently transferred to the new genus Diutina. We have determined the in vitro killing kinetics of two echinocandins, anidulafungin, and caspofungin and their in vivo efficacy, administering doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg, and 1 or 5 mg/kg, respectively against 2 clinical strains of D. rugosa. Both drugs showed a fungicidal concentration-dependent activity and, in a neutropenic murine model of disseminated infection, were able to reduce tissue burden and to prolong survival of mice. These results suggest that both echinocandins could be useful to treat infections by this fungus when isolates show minimal inhibitory concentrations within the range of susceptibility for both drugs. PMID:27342787

  8. Absence of DNA in peroxisomes of Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed Central

    Kamiryo, T; Abe, M; Okazaki, K; Kato, S; Shimamoto, N

    1982-01-01

    Yeast peroxisomes were purified to near homogeneity from cells of Candida tropicalis grown on oleic acid for the purpose of examining the possible presence of DNA in this organelle. The purification procedure includes the effective conversion of cells to spheroplasts with Zymolyase and sodium sulfite and the separation of the organelles at extremely low ionic strength. The mitochondrial contamination was less than 1%, based on several criteria, and the yield of peroxisomes was about 40%. The purified peroxisomal fraction contained a very small amount of DNA, which yielded restriction fragments indistinguishable from those of mitochondrial DNA. The absence of DNA in peroxisomes was also supported by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation of the organelles lysed with a detergent, staining of the organelles with a fluorescent dye specific to DNA, and labeling of the DNA with [3H]adenine. Images PMID:7118828

  9. A morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Raut, Jayant S; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Regulation of morphogenesis through the production of chemical signalling molecules such as isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol, E-nerolidol and farnesol is reported in Candida albicans. The present study focuses on the effect of ethyl alcohol on C. albicans dimorphism and biofilm development. Ethyl alcohol inhibited germ tube formation induced by the four standard inducers in a concentration-dependent manner. The germ tube inhibitory concentration (4%) did not have any effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans cells. Ethyl alcohol also inhibited the elongation of germ tubes. Four percentage of ethyl alcohol significantly inhibited biofilm development on polystyrene and silicone surfaces. We suggest a potential morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol, which may influence dissemination, virulence and establishment of infection. PMID:21605190

  10. Candida albicans binds to saliva proteins selectively adsorbed to silicone.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann R; van der Wielen, Pauline; Cannon, Richard D; Ruske, Dean; Dawes, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Explanted voice prostheses obtained from 5 patients at the time of prosthesis replacement were consistently colonized by yeast, in particular Candida albicans. A simple, reproducible, in vitro model of C. albicans adherence to saliva-coated voice prosthesis silicone was developed. Whole saliva promoted adherence of C. albicans to silicone in a dose-dependent manner. Saliva rinses from voice prosthesis patients also promoted binding of C. albicans to silicone in vitro (mean adherence 14.9% +/- 2.8% of input C. albicans cells). This was significantly higher than C. albicans adherence to silicone in the absence of saliva (P < .001) or adherence promoted by saliva rinses from healthy volunteers (P < .005). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a blot overlay adherence assay revealed that certain salivary proteins were selectively adsorbed to silicone and that C. albicans yeast cells adhered specifically to the adsorbed salivary proteins. PMID:16997116

  11. Purification and Characterization of Liposan, a Bioemulsifier from Candida lipolytica†

    PubMed Central

    Cirigliano, Michael C.; Carman, George M.

    1985-01-01

    The inducible water-soluble bioemulsifier liposan (M. C. Cirigliano and G. M. Carman, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:747-750, 1984) was purified from the yeast Candida lipolytica. The purification procedure included repeated solvent extractions of a concentrated culture filtrate and Affi-Gel concanavalin A affinity chromatography. The procedure yielded a preparation containing a major band (Mr = 27,600) which stained for protein and carbohydrate upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Liposan is composed of approximately 83% carbohydrate and 17% protein. Acid and enzymatic digestions of the emulsifier revealed that the carbohydrate portion is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, galactosamine, and galacturonic acid. Liposan effected and stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with a variety of commercial vegetable oils. Emulsification and stabilization properties of liposan were compared to those of a number of commercial emulsifiers and stabilizers. Images PMID:16346917

  12. Identification of Secreted Candida Proteins Using Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Molero, Emilia; Dekker, Henk L; de Boer, Albert D; de Groot, Piet W J

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fungal secretomes using mass spectrometry is a useful technique in cell biology. Knowledge of the secretome of a human fungal pathogen may yield important information of host-pathogen interactions and may be useful for identifying vaccines candidates or diagnostic markers for antifungal strategies. In this chapter, with a main focus on sample preparation aspects, we describe the methodology that we apply for gel-independent batch identification and quantification of proteins that are secreted during growth in liquid cultures. Using these techniques with Candida and other yeast species, the majority of the identified proteins are classical secretory proteins and cell wall proteins containing N-terminal signal peptides for secretion, although dependent on sample preparation quality and the mass spectrometric analysis also usually, a number of nonsecretory proteins are identified. PMID:26519067

  13. Candida parapsilosis corneal graft infection from a single eye center: Histopathologic report of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    Alkatan, Hind M.; Maktabi, Azza; Al-Harby, Mosa; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis accounts for 6–53% of all cases of ulcerative keratitis in variable studies. The majority of cases are due to septate fungi. The abnormal cornea in cases of dry eye syndrome, chronic ulceration, erythema multiform and possibly HIV infection is infected more commonly with Candida, most commonly Candida albicans. Candida parapsilosis affects neonates and intensive care unit (ICU) patients and it has been recently found with increasing frequency. In a previous study on mycotic keratitis in our tertiary eye hospital, filamentous fungi were more commonly isolated than yeasts. We are presenting 2 successive cases of corneal graft infection by Candida parapsilosis referred to us from another eye center to attract the attention of ophthalmologists and health workers to such an infection. PMID:26586985

  14. The Elderly as a Natural Resource: Candida Gillis's "Community as Classroom" (Resources and Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rief, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "The Community as Classroom" by Candida Gillis. Asserts that the book systematically shows how to take a segment of society--in this case, the elderly--and use that community in the language arts classroom. (MM)

  15. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided. PMID:23878798

  16. A patient with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Wardhana; Datau, E A

    2012-10-01

    Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis (ABPM) is an exagregated immunologic response to fungal colonization in the lower airways. It may cause by many kinds of fungal, but Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause of ABPM, although other Aspergillus and other fungal organisms, like Candida albicans, have been implicated. Aspergllus fumigatus and Candida albicans may be found as outdoor and indoor fungi, and cause the sensitization, elicitation of the disease pathology, and its clinical manifestations. Several diagnostic procedurs may be impicated to support the diagnosis of ABPM caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans in a 48 year old man was discussed. The patient was treated with antifungal, corticosteroids, and antibiotic for the secondary bacterial infection. The patient's condition is improved without any significant side effects. PMID:23314973

  17. Widespread geographic distribution of oral Candida dubliniensis strains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, D; Haynes, K; Bille, J; Boerlin, P; Rodero, L; Lloyd, S; Henman, M; Coleman, D

    1997-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently identified chlamydospore-positive yeast species associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients and is closely related to Candida albicans. Several recent reports have described atypical oral Candida isolates with phenotypic and genetic properties similar to those of C. dubliniensis. In this study 10 atypical chlamydospore-positive oral isolates from HIV+ patients in Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Argentina and 1 isolate from an HIV-negative Irish subject were compared to reference strains of C. albicans and Candida stellatoidea and reference strains of C. dubliniensis recovered from Irish and Australian HIV+ individuals. All 11 isolates were phenotypically and genetically similar to and phylogenetically identical to C. dubliniensis. These findings demonstrate that the geographical distribution of C. dubliniensis is widespread, and it is likely that it is a significant constituent of the normal oral flora with the potential to cause oral candidiasis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:9157162

  18. Induction of apoptosis in oral epithelial cells by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Villar, C Cunha; Chukwuedum Aniemeke, J; Zhao, X-R; Huynh-Ba, G

    2012-12-01

    During infection, interactions between Candida albicans and oral epithelial cells result in oral epithelial cell death. This is clinically manifested by the development of oral mucosal ulcerations generally associated with discomfort. In vitro studies have shown that C. albicans induces early apoptotic alterations in oral epithelial cells; however, these studies have also shown that treatment of infected cells with caspase inhibitors does not prevent their death. The reasons for these contradictory results are unknown and it is still not clear if C. albicans stimulates oral epithelial signaling pathways that promote apoptotic cell death. Activation of specific death pathways in response to microbial organisms plays an essential role in modulating the pathogenesis of a variety of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to (i) characterize C. albicans-induced apoptotic morphological alterations in oral epithelial cells, and (ii) investigate the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways and expression of apoptotic genes during infection. Candida albicans induced early apoptotic changes in over 50% of oral epithelial cells. However, only 15% of those showed mid-late apoptotic alterations. At the molecular level, C. albicans caused a loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Caspase-3/9 activities increased only during the first hours of infection. Moreover, poly[ADP ribose] polymerase 1 was cleaved into apoptotic and necrotic-like fragments. Finally, five anti-apoptotic genes were significantly upregulated and two pro-apoptotic genes were downregulated during infection. Altogether, these findings indicate that epithelial apoptotic pathways are activated in response to C. albicans, but fail to progress and promote apoptotic cell death. PMID:23134609

  19. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida SPP.

    PubMed

    Gil, Natalia F; Martinez, Rafael C R; Gomes, Bruna C; Nomizo, Auro; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2010-01-01

    Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, co-aggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation) and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of co-aggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l), followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l), L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l), and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l). All isolates produced H2O2, but the highest levels (3 - 10 mg/l) were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use. PMID:24031455

  20. Analysis of Candida albicans adhesion to salivary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M P; Haidaris, C G

    1993-01-01

    Clearance of Candida albicans from the oral cavity is thought to be mediated via specific receptor-ligand interactions between salivary constituents and the fungus. Since surfaces in the oral cavity are normally coated with a saliva-derived pellicle, specific interactions between salivary constituents and C. albicans may also contribute to adhesion of C. albicans to the oral mucosa and dental prostheses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify salivary constituents to which C. albicans is capable of binding. A solid-phase overlay assay was used in which electrophoretically separated rat and human salivary constituents bound to membrane filters were incubated with radiolabelled C. albicans cells. C. albicans adhered to a single salivary component from each host. Correlation of cell-binding activity with specific monoclonal antibody (MAb)-binding activity indicated that the constituent bound by C. albicans in human saliva was low-molecular-weight mucin (MG2) and that in rat saliva was rat submandibular gland (RSMG) mucin. Further studies showed an identical cell hybridization signal and MAb colocalization by using RSMG ductal saliva and an aqueous RSMG extract in the solid-phase overlay assay. Analysis of cell binding to the aqueous extract of RSMG fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography demonstrated that C. albicans binding was restricted to an acidic subfraction of the RSMG extract, which also bound the RSMG mucin-specific MAb. The Candida-binding fraction contained predominantly RSMG mucin glycoprotein and also a noncovalently associated, chloroform-extractable material. Furthermore, we identified two strains of C. albicans which differed severalfold in the ability to bind RSMG mucin in the overlay assay. These results suggest that C. albicans binds to only a specific subfraction of RSMG mucin and that the two C. albicans strains tested differ in the ability to bind RSMG mucin subfractions. Images PMID:8478083

  1. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida SPP.

    PubMed Central

    Gil1, Natalia F.; Martinez, Rafael C.R.; Gomes, Bruna C.; Nomizo, Auro; De Martinis, Elaine C. P.

    2010-01-01

    Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, co-aggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation) and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of co-aggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l), followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l), L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l), and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l). All isolates produced H2O2, but the highest levels (3 – 10 mg/l) were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use. PMID:24031455

  2. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

  3. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  4. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show

  5. Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (μ) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319 ± 0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141 ± 0.001 to 0.265 ± 0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the μ- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the μ-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (ρ < 0.05), while others were reduced within the range of 2.28% to 57.05%. The g-values of most candidal strains were extended and significantly reduced (ρ < 0.05) in relative to the

  6. CHROMagar Candida Medium for Direct Susceptibility Testing of Yeast from Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Grace L.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on 95 blood cultures positive for Candida spp. to determine the correlation of direct susceptibility testing of fluconazole versus both standardized disk diffusion and MIC methods. For direct testing, an aliquot taken from BD BACTEC Plus and/or BD BACTEC Lytic/10 bottles (Becton Dickinson [BD], Sparks, MD) positive by gram stain for yeast was subcultured to CHROMagar Candida (BD), and a 25-μg fluconazole disk (BD) was placed on the plate. The area of growth inhibition surrounding the disk was measured at 24 and 48 h. In addition, a subculture of the isolate was tested by a microdilution MIC using YeastOne (TREK Diagnostics Systems Inc., OH) and disk diffusion (NCCLS M44-A) using a standardized inoculum plated onto CHROMagar Candida as well as Mueller-Hinton agar to which 2% glucose and 0.5 μg/ml methylene blue dye was added (MH-GMB). The categorical interpretation derived from the MIC was used as the reference to which the disk diffusion results were compared. There were a total of 41 Candida albicans, 23 Candida glabrata, 20 Candida parapsilosis, 9 Candida tropicalis, and 1 each of Candida krusei and Candida lusitaniae tested. At 24 h there was full agreement among the methods for all C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and C. krusei isolates. For the C. parapsilosis isolates at 24 h there was one very major discrepancy using the direct CHROMagar and one major error with the standardized MH-GMB. The majority of the errors were seen at 24 h with the C. glabrata isolates. Of the 23 C. glabrata isolates at 24 h by direct CHROMagar, there were 10 minor and 1 very major error; by MH-GMB there were 12 minor and 2 very major errors; and by standardized CHROMagar Candida there were 13 minor and 2 major errors. There were no very major errors with C. glabrata when all plates were read at 48 h. At 24 h by the direct and standardized CHROMagar the majority of C. glabrata isolates were more resistant, whereas by MH-GMB they were more

  7. Two New Species of Cryptococcus sp. and Candida sp. from Wild Flowers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Hong; Kang, Min-Gu; Ryu, Jin-Ju; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, Chang-Mu; Kim, Ha-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Among 80 types of yeast isolated from wild flowers in Daejeon, Korea, two species that have not yet been identified by phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) genes and 26S rDNA sequences were identified as Candida sp. 44-C-1 and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1. Neither of the newly identified species formed ascospores, while Candida sp. 44-C-1 formed pseudomycelium and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1 did not. PMID:23323051

  8. Antifungal Effect of Zataria multiflora Essence on Experimentally Contaminated Acryl Resin Plates With Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Abbas Ali; Falah Tafti, Abbas; Hoseiny, Seyed Mehdi; Kazemi, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adherence and colonization of Candida species particularly C. albicans on denture surfaces, forms a microbial biofilm, which may result denture stomatitis in complete denture users. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal effect Zataria multiflora essence in removing of Candida albicans biofilms on experimentally contaminated resin acryl plates. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, 160 resin acrylic plates (10 × 10 × 1 mm) were contaminated by immersion in 1 × 103 C. albicans suspension for 24 hours to prepare experimental Candida biofilms. The total number of Candida cells, which adhered to 20 randomly selected acryl resin plates was determined as the Candia load before cleaning. The remaining 140 plates were divided to seven groups of 20 and immersed in five concentrations of Zataria multiflora essence from 50 to 3.125 mg/mL as test, 100000 IU nystatin as the positive and sterile physiologic serum as the negative control. The remaining Candida cells on each acryl plate were also enumerated and data were analyzed using the SPSS 16 software with Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Zataria essence at concentrations of 50 and 25 mg/mL removed 100% of attached Candida cells similar to nystatine (MFC), while weaker Zataria essence solutions cleaned 88%, 60.5% and 44.7% of attached Candida cells. Kruskal-wallis test showed a statistically significant difference between all test groups (P = 0.0001). In this study 12.5 mg/mL concentration of Zataria multiflora was considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90). Conclusions: Zataria essence, at concentrations of 50 and 25 mg/mL, effectively removed Candida cells that had adhered to the denture surface, similar to the level of removal observed for 100000 IU nystatin. PMID:25763273

  9. Antifungal Susceptibility in Serum and Virulence Determinants of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Rajan, Suhasini; Wong, Sarah S. W.; Tsang, Dominic N. C.; Lai, Christopher K. C.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Candida bloodstream infections (CBI) are one of the most common nosocomial infections globally, and they account for a high mortality rate. The increasing global prevalence of drug-resistant Candida strains has also been posing a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the biofilm formation and production of hemolysin and proteinase of 63 CBI isolates derived from a hospital setting in Hong Kong as well as their antifungal susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of human serum, using standard methodology. Candida albicans was the predominant species among the 63 CBI isolates collected, and non-albicans Candida species accounted for approximately one third of the isolates (36.5%). Of them, Candida tropicalis was the most common non-albicans Candida species. A high proportion (31.7%) of the CBI isolates (40% of C. albicans isolates, 10% of C. tropicalis isolates, 11% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 100% of C. glabrata isolates) were found to be resistant to fluconazole. One of the isolates (C. tropicalis) was resistant to amphotericin B. A rising prevalence of drug-resistance CBI isolates in Hong Kong was observed with reference to a previous study. Notably, all non-albicans Candida species, showed increased hemolytic activity relative to C. albicans, whilst C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis exhibited proteinase activities. Majority of the isolates were capable of forming mature biofilms. Interestingly, the presence of serum distorted the yeast sensitivity to fluconazole, but not amphotericin B. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CBI isolates of Candida have the potential to express to varying extent their virulence attributes (e.g., biofilm formation, hemolysin production, and proteinase activity) and these, together with perturbations in their antifungal sensitivity in the presence of serum, may contribute to treatment complication in candidemia. The effect of serum on antifungal activity

  10. Fluconazole susceptibility and ERG11 gene expression in vaginal candida species isolated from Lagos Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pam, Victoria K; Akpan, Juliet U; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Fowora, Muinah A; Oladele, Rita O; Ogunsola, Folasade T; Smith, Stella I

    2012-01-01

    Fluconazole resistance is an important type of resistance in Candida because in most countries, fluconazole is the drug of choice for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida species resist fluconazole by various mechanisms but there is paucity of data on these in our environment. Such mechanisms include among others, over-expression of the ERG11 gene, which codes for synthesis of the target enzymes in the fungus. The aim of this study was to screen Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole for the expression of ERG11 gene. Fluconazole susceptibility test was performed on 28 clinical strains of Candida species previously obtained from students of a School of Nursing in Lagos, Nigeria. They were identified by API Candida, CHROMagar candida and germ tube test. Using 25 mcg discs, fluconazole susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method and results were interpreted in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria; sensitive (S), resistant (R) and susceptible dose dependent (SDD). The R and SDD isolates were subsequently evaluated for the presence of ERG11 gene. Of the 28 clinical isolates, 14 were identified as C. albicans and six as C. tropicalis. The remaining isolates were identified as C. glabrata (2), C. famata (2) C. kefyr (2) one each of C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii respectively. In this study, 18 were susceptible (S) to fluconazole, eight were SDD and two were resistant to the antifungal agent. Out of the 14 C. albicans isolates, 12 were susceptible, one showed high level resistance and similar number showed susceptible dose dependence. ERG11 was detected in three susceptible dose dependent Candida species. This analysis demonstrates that susceptible dose dependence should not be overlooked as it may be associated with the presence of ERG11 gene and resistance to fluconazole. There is a need to consider routine antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida species causing vulvovaginitis. PMID:22493755

  11. Antifungal Susceptibility in Serum and Virulence Determinants of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Rajan, Suhasini; Wong, Sarah S W; Tsang, Dominic N C; Lai, Christopher K C; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Candida bloodstream infections (CBI) are one of the most common nosocomial infections globally, and they account for a high mortality rate. The increasing global prevalence of drug-resistant Candida strains has also been posing a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the biofilm formation and production of hemolysin and proteinase of 63 CBI isolates derived from a hospital setting in Hong Kong as well as their antifungal susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of human serum, using standard methodology. Candida albicans was the predominant species among the 63 CBI isolates collected, and non-albicans Candida species accounted for approximately one third of the isolates (36.5%). Of them, Candida tropicalis was the most common non-albicans Candida species. A high proportion (31.7%) of the CBI isolates (40% of C. albicans isolates, 10% of C. tropicalis isolates, 11% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 100% of C. glabrata isolates) were found to be resistant to fluconazole. One of the isolates (C. tropicalis) was resistant to amphotericin B. A rising prevalence of drug-resistance CBI isolates in Hong Kong was observed with reference to a previous study. Notably, all non-albicans Candida species, showed increased hemolytic activity relative to C. albicans, whilst C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis exhibited proteinase activities. Majority of the isolates were capable of forming mature biofilms. Interestingly, the presence of serum distorted the yeast sensitivity to fluconazole, but not amphotericin B. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CBI isolates of Candida have the potential to express to varying extent their virulence attributes (e.g., biofilm formation, hemolysin production, and proteinase activity) and these, together with perturbations in their antifungal sensitivity in the presence of serum, may contribute to treatment complication in candidemia. The effect of serum on antifungal activity

  12. [Infectious endocarditis caused by Candida. Presentation of 3 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Palacios Hernández, H J; Súchil, L; Huerta Arias, M D; Reyes, P A

    1987-01-01

    We present 3 patients with infective endocarditis due to Candida sp. They were not immunodeficient subjects, but they had major surgery, longterm antimicrobial therapy and prosthetic implants. Candida endocarditis is a difficult diagnosis for biological and technical. There is also poor results with and therapeutic reasons. The combined treatment with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine, plus surgical removal of the infected tissue is recommended widely in the literature. PMID:2959224

  13. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  14. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-01-01

    Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar. PMID:14613587

  15. Candida Associated Bloodstream Infections in Pediatric Hematology Patients: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gokcebay, Dilek Gurlek; Yarali, Nese; Isik, Pamir; Bayram, Cengiz; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur; Kara, Abdurrahman; Tunc, Bahattin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Candida-associated bloodstream infections are frequent and potentially life-threatening conditions in hematology patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of Candida-associated bloodstream infections in children with hematological diseases. Methods The medical records of the patients with hematological diseases and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients who were diagnosed as Candida-associated bloodstream infection between February 2010 and February 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Results Thirty episodes of candidemia involving 26 patients (38% female, and 62% male) with a median age of 7-year (range; 1 to 17) were noted. The incidence of candidemia in our study was 5.2 per 1000 hospital admissions. Infections with non-albicans Candida spp. occurred more frequently (63%) and C. krusei was the predominant microorganism among non-albicans Candida spp. (37%). Candida albicans was isolated from 11 of the 30 episodes (37%). Twenty-six of the episodes (88%) patients had a central venous catheter (CVC) prior to candidemia, and they were removed in 16 (62%). Thirty-day mortality rate was 20%. Isolated Candida spp, underlying disease and its status, presence of mucositis, neutropenia, using of broad spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids or total parenteral nutrition were not identified as predictors of outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that CVCs kept in place was the only significant factor associated with mortality (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.006–0.716). Conclusions Candida-associated bloodstream infections were common in children with hematological diseases and HSCT recipients, particularly in patients with CVCs. In addition to appropriate antifungal therapy, CVC removal improves the outcome of candidemia in children with hematological disease. PMID:26977277

  16. An Omics Perspective on Candida Infections: Toward Next-Generation Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Smeekens, S. P.; van de Veerdonk, F. L.; Netea, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species can cause severe infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is essential to gain more insight into the anti-fungal host defense response. The advent of omics technology and development of advanced systems biology tools has permitted to approach this in an unbiased and quantitative manner. This review summarizes the insights gained on anti-Candida immunity from genetic-, transcriptome-, proteome-, metabolome-, microbiome-, mycobiome-, and computational systems biology studies and discusses practical aspects and future perspectives. PMID:26909070

  17. Species identification of invasive yeasts including Candida in Pakistan: limitations of phenotypic methods

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Joveria; Jabeen, Kauser; Saeed, Noureen; Zafar, Afia; Brandt, Mary Eleanor; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare phenotypic and genotypic methods of yeast identification. Methods The in-vitro cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2009. Invasive yeasts isolated at the clinical microbiology laboratory at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan, were identified. Speciation by phenotypic and molecular methods was compared. All yeasts isolated during the study period from blood and other invasive sites were identified using standard methods. Isolates were shipped to Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, for identification by Luminex flow cytometric multianalyte profiling (xMAP) system. Ribosomal ITS2 DNA sequencing was performed on isolates not identified by Luminex. Result Of the 214 invasive yeasts evaluated, Candida species were 209 (97.7%) while the frequency of non-Candida species was 5 (2.3%). Overall agreement between phenotypic and molecular identification was 81.3%, 90.3% amongst the more common Candida species, and only 38.8% amongst the uncommon yeasts. Conclusion Phenotypic methods of identification proved adequate for common Candida species, but were deficient in recognising rare Candida and non-Candida yeasts, highlighting the importance of molecular methods for identification. PMID:23866432

  18. Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath; Prasad, Tulika; Sharma, Neeraj; Payasi, Anurag; Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Dwijendra K; Singh, Randhir

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenic yeasts from the genus Candida can cause serious infection in humans particularly, in immunocompromised patients and are now recognized as major agents of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. In the recent years, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of treatment failures in candidiasis patients receiving long-term antifungal therapy, which has posed a serious problem in its successful use in chemotherapy. Candida cells acquire drug resistance (MDR) during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents have been elucidated in Candida species and can be mainly categorized as (i) changes in the cell wall or plasma membrane, which lead to impaired drug (azole) uptake; (ii) alterations in the affinity of the drug target Erg11p (lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase) especially to azoles or in the cellular content of Erg11p due to target site mutation or overexpression of the ERG11 gene; and (iii) the efflux of drugs mediated by membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely CDR1 and CDR2 or to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter, CaMDR1. Many such manifestations are associated with the formation of Candida biofilms including those occurring on devices like indwelling intravascular catheters. Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of antifungal drugs. A combination of different resistance mechanisms is responsible for drug resistance in clinical isolates of Candida species. PMID:17896473

  19. In vitro biofilm production of Candida bloodstream isolates: any association with clinical characteristics?

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Júlia; Benedek, Kálmán; Juhász, Emese; Iván, Miklós; Kristóf, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Candida spp. are a leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) and are associated with high mortality rates. Biofilm production is a virulence factor of Candida spp., and has been linked with poor clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to assess biofilm production of Candida bloodstream isolates at our institute, and to determine whether in vitro biofilm production is associated with any clinical characteristics of infection. During the four-year study period, 93 cases of Candida BSI were analysed. The most frequently isolated species was C. albicans (66.7 %), followed by C. glabrata (9.7 %), C. parapsilosis (9.7 %), C. tropicalis (9.7 %) and C. krusei (4.3 %). Biofilm production was more prevalent among non-albicans Candida spp. (77.4 %) than C. albicans (30.6 %) (P = 0.02). Abdominal surgery was identified as a risk factor of BSI caused by biofilm producing non-albicans Candida isolates. No risk factors predisposing to bloodstream infection caused by a biofilm producing C. albicans isolate were identified. Biofilm production was not verified as a risk factor of mortality. PMID:26678484

  20. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda MB; Girão, Manoel João BC; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and twoCandida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrataisolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ. PMID:27304096