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Sample records for alcohol based hand

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting. PMID:20131613

  2. Virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand rub disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro; Ayaki, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the virucidal activity of commercially available alcohol-based hand rub products against coxsackievirus A7, B5, feline calicivirus F9, and human adenovirus type 3, type 7, type 8 using susceptible cell lines, Vero cells, CRFK cells, and A549 cells. Fifteen tested hand rub products were ethanol (EtOH) for disinfection (Japanese Pharmacopoeia Grade), two EtOH-based products, one povidone iode-containing product, one alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride-containing product, six benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing products, and four chlorohexidine gluconate (CHG)-containing products. Some active ingredients (BAK, benzetonium chloride, and CHG) were diluted with EtOH to make 0.5% and 0.2% solutions. Virus inactivation rates were calculated after contact with each hand rub product for 10 or 60 seconds. Of the hand rub products tested, only the povidone iode-based product showed antiviral activity superior to that of EtOH against all the strains. EtOH solutions of active ingredients (0.2% and 0.5%) also showed decreased antiviral activity. In conclusion, antiviral activity of all the commercially available alcohol-based hand rub products except that containing povidone idode was dependent on their active ingredients. The povidone idode-containing hand rub product kept its effectiveness even after the dilution with EtOH. Although alcohol-based hand rub products are convenient and suitable for the control of some microbes, they are not generally recommended for the control of viral infections. PMID:22451431

  3. Can intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs lead to passive alcoholization?

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m(3) per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  4. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  5. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene. PMID:25366919

  6. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  7. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  8. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  9. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  10. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  11. Hygienic safety of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauer, Katrin; Meyer, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Rödger, Hans-Joachim; Hintzpeter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall risk of hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics to become contaminated with bacterial spores throughout the production process and the subsequent in-use period, hence posing a public health risk. Methods: Microbiological assessment of primary packaging material was carried out and long-term survival of bacterial spores in alcohol was assessed using sporulated B. subtilis ATCC 6633 as a standard. In-use contamination of alcohol-based formulations was tested by repeated use over 12 months under practical conditions and microbiological and physico-chemical data were determined. Results: Among 625 containers analyzed, 542 did not yield any microbial growth. Median colony count for aerobic spore-forming bacteria was 0.2 cfu/10 ml container content. No anaerobic spore-forming bacteria were detected. Additionally, long-term survival of bacterial spores in aliphatic C2–C3 alcohols revealed 1-propanol to reduce the number of spores most effectively, with 2-propanol and ethanol having a somewhat less pronounced impact. In-use tests did not detect any microbial contamination or change in the physicochemical properties of the tested products over 12 months. Conclusions: Our data reveals that state-of-the-art production processes of alcohol-based hand rubs and antiseptics can be regarded safe. Primary packaging material and use were not found to pose a significant contamination risk as far as bacterial spores are concerned. Based on the data from this study, a microbial limit of <1 cfu/10 ml can be suggested as a quality-control threshold for finished goods to ensure high quality and safe products. PMID:24327945

  12. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and acceptability of an alcohol-based hand rinse with two alcohol-based hand gels during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frédéric; Maury, Eric; Goldwirt, Laurianne; Boëlle, Piérre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Aman, Rubina; Rossi, Beatrice; Offenstadt, Georges

    2007-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the antibacterial efficacy of handrubbing with an alcoholic rinse (AHRR) and two different alcoholic gels (AHRG) in reducing hand contamination under practical use conditions. We wanted to assess the acceptability of the three products and to determine the effect of each product on overall hand hygiene compliance. A prospective alternating time-series clinical trial was performed in a medical intensive care unit. The study was divided into three six-week periods (P1, P2, P3). Handrubbing was achieved with Sterillium rinse (AHRR) during P1, sterillium gel(AHRG-1) during P2 and Manugel Plus (AHRG-2) during P3. Pre- and post-rubbing hand contaminations were assessed immediately after a direct contact with a patient, using the glove juice technique. Health care workers (HCWs) evaluated the acceptability of the products through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Compliance of HCWs with hand hygiene was assessed during the three periods. We studied 242 handrubbing opportunities. The mean reduction factor (expressed as the Log(10) CFU/mL) of the AHRR, AHRG-1 and AHRG-2 were 1.28+/-0.95, 1.29+/-0.84 and 0.51+/-0.73, respectively (p<0.001). Assessment of the three products by HCWs indicated that AHRR and AHRG-1 were significantly better accepted than AHRG-2. The overall compliance of HCWs to hand hygiene was better when gel was available. Under practical use conditions, AHRG-1 and AHRR were more effective than AHRG-2, although all were claimed to pass the European standard EN1500. In vivo trials are essential to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of products for handrubbing. PMID:17513011

  13. Provision and consumption of alcohol-based hand rubs in European hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Schwab, F; Gastmeier, P; Pittet, D; Zingg, W; Sax, H; Gastmeier, P; Hansen, S; Grundmann, H; van Benthem, B; van der Kooi, T; Dettenkofer, M; Martin, M; Richet, H; Szilágyi, E; Központ, O E; Heczko, P B; Holmes, A; Kyratsis, Y; Ahmad, R; Allegranzi, B; Magiorakos, A; Cookson, B; Wu, A W

    2015-12-01

    Hand hygiene is considered to be the most effective way of preventing microbial transmission and healthcare-associated infections. The use of alcohol-based hand rubs (AHRs) is the reference standard for effective hand hygiene. AHR consumption is a valuable surrogate parameter for hand hygiene performance, and it can be easily tracked in the healthcare setting. AHR availability at the point of care ensures access to optimal agents, and makes hand hygiene easier by overcoming barriers such as lack of AHRs or inconvenient dispenser locations. Data on AHR consumption and availability at the point of care in European hospitals were obtained as part of the Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) study, a framework 7 project funded by the European Commission. Data on AHR consumption were provided by 232 hospitals, and showed median usage of 21 mL (interquartile range (IQR) 9-37 mL) per patient-day (PD) at the hospital level, 66 mL/PD (IQR 33-103 mL/PD) at the intensive-care unit (ICU) level, and 13 mL/PD (IQR 6-25 mL/PD) at the non-ICU level. Consumption varied by country and hospital type. Most ICUs (86%) had AHRs available at 76-100% of points of care, but only approximately two-thirds (65%) of non-ICUs did. The availability of wall-mounted and bed-mounted AHR dispensers was significantly associated with AHR consumption in both ICUs and non-ICUs. The data show that further improvement in hand hygiene behaviour is needed in Europe. To what extent factors at the national, hospital and ward levels influence AHR consumption must be explored further. PMID:26417851

  14. Impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer intervention on the spread of viruses in homes.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Carlino, Sheri; Edmonds, Sarah; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the movement of a virus throughout a household and the impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) on reducing the movement and exposure of the virus to household members. Bacterial virus MS-2 was used as the surrogate for human enteric and respiratory viruses. Seven households with families having at least two children in the age range of 2-18 living in the home were used in this study. The hands of one adult family member were contaminated with 1 × 10(8). MS-2 bacteriophage in each home. After 8 h, the hands of each family member (10 fingers) and 20 frequently touched fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. Within 8 h, MS-2 was detected on all of the family member's hands and most of the fomites. The intervention consisted of providing the families in all selected homes with bottles of an ABHS, which were placed in the kitchen, bathrooms, and nurseries. Smaller individual bottles were provided for each family member greater than 12 years old to place in purses, pockets, backpacks, etc. The families were instructed to use the ABHS one time or three times during the day. For one and three uses, a statistically significant reduction of virus on un-inoculated and inoculated hands of ~99% occurred within 8 h. Similar reductions occurred on fomites throughout the households (97-99%). These results demonstrate that the use of an ABHS can significantly reduce transfer of a virus to the hands, and to the commonly touched surfaces within the household. PMID:24728950

  15. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis. PMID:21316990

  16. Closing the hand hygiene gap in the postanesthesia care unit: a body-worn alcohol-based dispenser.

    PubMed

    Petty, William Clayton

    2013-04-01

    Clinicians who work in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), operating room (OR), and intensive care unit (ICU) have a greater opportunity to cross-contaminate patients because of high workloads and frequent patient contact events. Much progress has been made to increase hand hygiene compliance with the introduction of alcohol-based wall, bedside, and pocket dispensers. The introduction of body-worn alcohol-based dispensers to anesthesia and ICU providers has been shown to decrease ICU hospital-acquired infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias, and decrease contamination of the anesthesia workplace. Body-worn alcohol-based dispensers are an improvement in ergonomics, especially for those working in high intensity areas. The unit worn on the belt or scrubs waist is readily accessible, can be activated with one hand, and can be a vital tool to close the gap for hand hygiene. PMID:23522268

  17. Efficacy of an alcohol-based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shintre, Milind S; Gaonkar, Trupti A; Modak, Shanta M

    2006-09-01

    Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with benzethonium chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log(10) reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log(10) reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log(10) reduction in the microbial count within 15s and more than 2.8 log(10) reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20-35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These

  18. Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes three different investigations undertaken to demonstrate the advantage of fluid alcoholic hand disinfectants. In the first study, the skin compatibility of Sterillium, a liquid alcoholic rub-in hand disinfectant was compared with that of Hibiscrub, a water-based handwashing antiseptic. Using various parameters such as image analysis of removed squames (D-squames), skin roughness or transepidermal water loss, Hibiscrub was found to be significantly inferior to Sterillium. Hibiscrub caused skin irritation in 15 volunteers who could not complete the test. In a second study, the microbicidal efficacy of Sterillium and Hibiscrub was tested in surgical hand disinfection. The microbial reduction by Sterillium was significantly greater than that of Hibiscrub, immediately after application as well as after the surgical procedure. In a third study, certain alcoholic gels were tested according to the EN 1500 'hygienic hand disinfection'. None of the gels tested passed the EN 1500 within 30s. However, Sterillium met the EN 1500 requirement within 30s. We conclude that Sterillium is superior to Hibiscrub in terms of skin tolerance and microbicidal efficacy in surgical hand disinfection. It is also superior to alcoholic gels. PMID:11759022

  19. In vitro-in vivo sequence studies as a method of selecting the most efficacious alcohol-based solution for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaino, M J; Herruzo, I

    2010-05-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand rubs serves to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Many products of this type are now on offer and it is essential to know how to rank their efficacy. A sequence of tests is proposed here to compare any given new alcohol-based solution against the reference solution (60% 2-isopropyl-alcohol) with 30 s of contact time: (i) in vitro (with pig skin as carrier) testing of >30 species of microorganism; (ii) in vitro assessment of residual efficacy (after 30 min of drying); (iii) in vivo study of transient microbiota (modification of the EN 1500 standard procedure) using four ATCC strains; (iv) in vivo study of resident hand microbiota. After performing the in vitro evaluation of seven alcohol-based hand rubs, the two most efficacious (chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol and mecetronium- alcohol) were chosen and studied, comparatively with the reference solution (60% isopropyl alcohol), in vitro (for chemical sustainability on the skin) and in vivo (against transient and resident microbiota). Chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol proved to be significantly superior to mecetronium-alcohol or the reference solution in all tests, except against resident microbiota for which the improvement was not statistically significant. PMID:19624506

  20. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  1. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  2. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ▿

    PubMed Central

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log10 after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log10 and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log10 after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log10 reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log10 reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by ≥3.16 log10 and ≥4.32 log10, respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log10 in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  3. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  4. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Development and marketing authorisation.

    PubMed

    Stengele, Michael

    2008-10-01

    A 2005 survey showed that there are at least four legal product classifications for hand disinfectants in the European Union: medicinal products, biocidal products, cosmetics and medical devices. An internationally harmonized classification does not exist. The regulatory status of those products is defined at national level. In order to assure compliance with the regulations these four classifications provide different levels of official surveillance varying from product-specific marketing authorisations and production site audits to the obligation to just work in accordance with certain general guidelines. Biocidal product regulations cover eco-toxicological and toxicological aspects, but do not very much address to the customers' quality and efficacy expectations. In contrast, the medicinal product legislation is the most ambitious one claiming quality, safety, efficacy, and an independent benefit risk-assessment by an authority. In respect of ambition, the two remaining product categories--cosmetics and medical devices--rank between the both classifications mentioned above. For medical devices, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to make sure the products meet defined essential requirements regarding quality, safety and performance and to have an appropriate quality assurance system implemented under third party control. For cosmetics there are some legal restrictions, but within these it is the sole responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that the products are safe and fulfil their claims. This paper describes one way out of this increasingly complex situation, the definition of a single quality standard meeting the users' expectations as well as all legal requirements regardless of the specific sales country. This international quality standard for products would take priority over any individual national standard, to the benefit of users. PMID:18994682

  5. Effect of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel on microbial colonization of artificial fingernails worn by health care workers.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S A; Foster, C L; Hedderwick, S A; Kauffman, C A

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine differences in microflora on the nails of health care workers (HCWs) wearing artificial nails compared with control HCWs with native nails and to assess the effect on these microflora of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Cultures were obtained from 21 HCWs wearing artificial nails and 20 control HCWs before and after using antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Before cleansing with soap, 86% of HCWs with artificial nails had a pathogen (gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, or yeasts) isolated, compared with 35% of controls (P=.003); a similar difference was noted before hand cleansing with gel (68% vs. 28%; P=.03). Significantly more HCWs with artificial nails than controls had pathogens remaining after hand cleansing with soap or gel. Of HCWs with artificial nails, only 11% cleared pathogens with soap compared with 38% with gel. Of control HCWs, only 14% cleared with soap compared with 80% with gel. Artificial acrylic fingernails could contribute to the transmission of pathogens, and their use by HCWs should be discouraged. PMID:11170943

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  7. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  8. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Production, sales and post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    A high standard of hand hygiene is achieved by developing, producing and distributing hand disinfectants compliant with the German law for medicinal products. This ensures optimal protection of patients and staff from infections. In addition all local requirements are automatically fulfilled independent of the place within which the product is being used. It is shown that continuous improvement can be stimulated by intensive cooperation between the customer and supplier to ensure that customer expectations are met. PMID:18994683

  9. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity. PMID:23009803

  10. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications. PMID:11759028

  11. New non-alcoholic formulation for hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Giachetti, Daniela; Miraldi, Elisabetta; Figura, Natale

    2014-04-01

    Hand washing is considered as the single most important strategy to prevent infections. World health organization (WHO) defines hand hygiene as a primary issue of personal care with particular reference to hospital personnel and health facility workers. In this work, we investigated a new combination for hand disinfection as an alternative to alcohol-based and chlorhexidine products. The new combination of 5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CS) was tested upon different bacterial species that normally colonize hands, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MR S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis, multidrug resistant S. epidermidis (MDR S. epidermidis), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and three clinical isolates: MR S. aureus, MDR S. epidermidis, and an E. coli strain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices, and fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) indices were evaluated. Ethanol 70% V/V, isopropanol 60% V/V, and 4% w/V chlorhexidine solution were used as reference hand disinfectants. Copper sulphate pentahydrate was very effective against all tested microorganisms: The MIC and MBC for CS ranged from 781 mg/l against S. pyogenes to 12500 mg/l against E. coli strains and C. albicans. In addition, PCA exhibited a good antimicrobial activity, in particular, against S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae. The combination of CS and PCA showed a strong synergistic effect and all FIC indices were ≤0·500. The combination of CS and PCA were more effective than ethanol 70% V/V and isopropanol 60% V/V. In addition to antimicrobial activity, the new formulation possesses peculiar features such as residual activity and moisturizing effect. This work identifies a new strategy for hand disinfection. PMID:24090970

  12. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George

    2013-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  13. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  14. Second-hand drinking may increase support for alcohol policies: New results from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Kerr, William C.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Harms of second-hand smoke motivated tobacco control legislation. Documenting the effects of harms from others’ drinking might increase popular and political will for enacting alcohol policies. We investigated the individual-level relationship between having experienced such harms and favoring alcohol policy measures, adjusting for other influences. Design and Methods We used the landline sample (n = 6957) of the 2010 National Alcohol Survey, a computer assisted telephone interview based on a random household sample in US states. Multi-variable regression models adjusted for personal characteristics including drinking pattern (volume and heavy drinking) investigated the ability of six harms from other drinkers to predict a 3-item measure of favoring stronger alcohol policies. Results Adjusting for demographics and drinking pattern, number of harms from others’ drinking predicted support for alcohol policies (P < 0.001). In a similar model, family- and aggression-related harms, riding with a drunk driver and being concerned about another’s drinking all significantly influenced alcohol policy favorability. Discussion Although cross-sectional data cannot assure a causal influence or directionality, the association found is consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing harms from others’ drinking (experienced by a majority) makes one more likely to favor alcohol policies. Other things equal, women, racial/ethnic minorities, lower income individuals and lighter drinkers tend to be more supportive of alcohol controls and policies. Conclusions Studies that estimate the impact of harms from other drinkers on those victimized are important and now beginning. Next we need to learn how such information could affect decision makers and legislators. PMID:24761758

  15. Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices. PMID:25570917

  16. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  17. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  18. Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jennifer L.; Schultz, Alyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in…

  19. Model-based segmentation of hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Frank; Vogelsang, Frank

    1998-06-01

    An important procedure in pediatrics is to determine the skeletal maturity of a patient from radiographs of the hand. There is great interest in the automation of this tedious and time-consuming task. We present a new method for the segmentation of the bones of the hand, which allows the assessment of the skeletal maturity with an appropriate database of reference bones, similar to the atlas based methods. The proposed algorithm uses an extended active contour model for the segmentation of the hand bones, which incorporates a-priori knowledge of shape and topology of the bones in an additional energy term. This `scene knowledge' is integrated in a complex hierarchical image model, that is used for the image analysis task.

  20. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group. PMID:11885342

  1. Hand biometric recognition based on fused hand geometry and vascular patterns.

    PubMed

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

  2. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  3. iHand: an interactive bare-hand-based augmented reality interface on commercial mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junyeong; Park, Jungsik; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2013-02-01

    The performance of mobile phones has rapidly improved, and they are emerging as a powerful platform. In many vision-based applications, human hands play a key role in natural interaction. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the interaction between human hands and the mobile phone. Thus, we propose a vision- and hand gesture-based interface in which the user holds a mobile phone in one hand but sees the other hand's palm through a built-in camera. The virtual contents are faithfully rendered on the user's palm through palm pose estimation, and reaction with hand and finger movements is achieved that is recognized by hand shape recognition. Since the proposed interface is based on hand gestures familiar to humans and does not require any additional sensors or markers, the user can freely interact with virtual contents anytime and anywhere without any training. We demonstrate that the proposed interface works at over 15 fps on a commercial mobile phone with a 1.2-GHz dual core processor and 1 GB RAM.

  4. Effect of hand-based sensors on manipulator control performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Manipulator task categories and motion phases require various hand-based information systems to meet the control performance requirements. The effect of proximity, tactile and force/torque sensors on the performance of remote manipulator control is discussed. An overview is presented on various experimental hand-based information systems which provide the manipulator controller some non-visual 'awareness' of the task environment. The rest of the paper describes and evaluates various control experiments performed at JPL using hand-mounted proximity sensors to guide and control hand motion near solid objects.

  5. Web-based healthcare hand drawing management system.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Lai, Feipei

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses Medical Hand Drawing Management System architecture and implementation. In the system, we developed four modules: hand drawing management module; patient medical records query module; hand drawing editing and upload module; hand drawing query module. The system adapts windows-based applications and encompasses web pages by ASP.NET hosting mechanism under web services platforms. The hand drawings implemented as files are stored in a FTP server. The file names with associated data, e.g. patient identification, drawing physician, access rights, etc. are reposited in a database. The modules can be conveniently embedded, integrated into any system. Therefore, the system possesses the hand drawing features to support daily medical operations, effectively improve healthcare qualities as well. Moreover, the system includes the printing capability to achieve a complete, computerized medical document process. In summary, the system allows web-based applications to facilitate the graphic processes for healthcare operations. PMID:21097079

  6. Education of hand rubbing technique to prospective medical staff, employing UV-based digital imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Szilágyi, László; Demeter-Iclănzan, Annamária; Haidegger, Tamás; Wéber, György

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess the hand hygiene performance of medical students. Hand rubbing technique was evaluated by employing innovative UV-light-based imaging technology, identifying patterns and trends in missed areas after applying WHO's six-step protocol. This specially designed hand hygiene education and assessment program targeted 1,344 medical students at two distant sites in Central Europe. Students were introduced to a short video, presenting the basics of hand hygiene, and then received further demonstration from professional trainers, focusing on the correct execution of WHO's six-step technique. To verify the acquired skill, participants rubbed their hands with UV-marked alcohol-based solution. Digital images of the hands were recorded under UV light, followed by computer evaluation and assessment. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to the participants showing missed areas on their hands. The statistical analysis of missed spots was based on retrospective expert-driven manual evaluation. Significant difference in rubbing quality was found between female and male participants [35.3% (CI 95%: 33-38%) versus 29.0% (CI 95%: 27-31%), p < 0.001], dominant and non-dominant hands [43.4% (CI 95%: 39-48%) versus 34.9% (CI 95%: 32-38%), p = 0.002], and various zones of the hands' dorsal side. Based on the participants' feedback and the evaluation of the infection control specialists, it can be stated that the identification of typically missed patterns and the instant visual feedback have a vital role in improving the hand hygiene technique of prospective medical staff. PMID:27352974

  7. Surgical hand disinfection with a propanol-based hand rub: equivalence of shorter application times.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Ostermeyer, C; Heeg, P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a propanol-based hand rub at application times shorter than 3 min. The bacterial pre-value was obtained from the finger tips (prEN 12791). Subjects treated their hands with the reference procedure (n-propanol, 60%) for 3 min or the product (crossover design). Sterillium was applied for 3, 2, 1.5 and 1 min. Four other preparations were tested for 1 min. Post-values (immediate effect) were taken from one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3h. After the gloves were removed, the second post-value was taken (sustained effect). Sterillium was more effective than the reference procedure at 3, 2 and 1.5 min (immediate and sustained effect). The immediate effect after 1 min was significantly lower [mean log(10) reduction factor (RF): 1.91+/-0.90 vs. 2.52+/-0.95; P=0.001], whereas the sustained effect was not (mean RF: 1.81+/-1.06 vs. 2.05+/-1.14; P=0.204). All other preparations failed the efficacy requirement at 1 min for both the immediate and sustained effect. Using 2 x 3 mL Sterillium for a total of 1.5 min for surgical hand disinfection was at least as effective as the 3-min reference disinfection. PMID:15749318

  8. Hand posture recognizer based on separator wavelet networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchrika, Tahani; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel hand posture recognizer based on separator wavelet networks (SWNs). Aiming at creating a robust and rapid hand posture recognizer, we have contributed by proposing a new training algorithm for the wavelet network classifier based on fast wavelet transform (FWN). So, the contribution resides in reducing the number of WNs modeling training data. To make that, inspiring from the adaboost feature selection method, we thought to create SWNs (n-1 WNs for n classes) instead of modeling each training sample by its wavelet network (WN). By proposing the new training algorithm, the recognition phase will be positively influenced. It will be more rapid thanks to the reduction of the number of comparisons between test images WNs and training WNs. Comparisons with other works, employing universal hand posture datasets are presented and discussed. Obtained results have shown that the new hand posture recognizer is comparable to previously established ones.

  9. Impact of Perceived Second-Hand Consequences Related to Alcohol Use on College Students' Drinking Behavior Intent: A Test of Feasibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew; Reis, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to determine the impact of a group discussion about second-hand consequences of alcohol use on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Results reveal that intervention group participants reported intent to limit themselves to fewer drinks per drinking occasion and fewer drinks per week.…

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  15. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  17. Traumatic hand injuries: the emergency clinician's evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Aaron; Hern, H Gene

    2011-06-01

    At the start of your Saturday afternoon shift, you are not surprised to see that several patients are waiting to be seen for physical injuries. The first patient is a 34-year-old woman who sustained injury to her hand while skiing, 2 hours prior to her arrival. She reports falling with her hand still tethered to the pole's grip, landing on her outstretched right hand. She felt a painful snap in her right thumb, which still hurts, but otherwise she did not sustain any other trauma. Her only complaint currently is pain at the base of the right thumb. The patient is otherwise completely healthy, has no past medical or surgical history, and takes no medications. Upon examination, the affected hand appears to be surprisingly normal except for mild tenderness and swelling over the ulnar aspect of her first metacarpophalangeal joint and mildly decreased strength in her pincher grasp. X-ray reveals no fracture. You wonder if there is additional testing that should be done to evaluate this injury. You move on to a second patient, a 24-year-old man who cut his ring finger knuckle when he punched a wall 2 days ago. Physical examination reveals a small puncture wound over the IV metacarpophalangeal joint with mild swelling, erythema, warmth, and decreased range of motion secondary to pain. X-ray reveals no fracture, but there's something suspicious about this case. A third patient is a 37-year-old industrial worker whose finger contacted the stream of a high-powered grease injector. Physical examination reveals a small puncture wound over the volar proximal interphalangeal joint of his left long finger, mild tenderness to palpation over the area, and slight decreased range of motion secondary to pain. You wonder if the injury is as benign as it looks. PMID:22164514

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  19. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  20. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  1. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. PMID:24209795

  2. Telemedicine-Based Alcohol Services for Rural Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wahler, Elizabeth; Webster, J. Matthew; Godlaski, Theodore; Freeman, Rebecca; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that alcohol use is a problem in rural communities and access to substance abuse treatment, particularly evidence-based treatment is limited. Because telemedicine has been shown to be effective in delivering services, this article presents a novel and innovative way of using telemedicine technology in the form of videoconferencing to deliver an evidence-based alcohol intervention (motivational enhancement therapy) with at-risk alcohol users in real-world settings (rural probation and parole offices). This article focuses on: (a) creating a profile of an at-risk group of rural alcohol users; (b) describing the evidence-based intervention; and (c) describing the innovative telemedicine-based service delivery approach. PMID:22867122

  3. Alcohol based fuels for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Menrad, H.K.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of methanol and/or ethanol additions on various properties of gasolines are discussed. Both advantages and disadvantages of such mixtures are set forth. The necessary changes in engine design to accommodate such fuel mixtures are described. Successful use of blended fuels in diesel engines is described. The current status of alcohol fuels in actual use is also reported. (BLM)

  4. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  5. A Smartphone-Based Tool for Assessing Parkinsonian Hand Tremor.

    PubMed

    Kostikis, N; Hristu-Varsakelis, D; Arnaoutoglou, M; Kotsavasiloglou, C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a practical smartphone-based tool to accurately assess upper limb tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The tool uses signals from the phone's accelerometer and gyroscope (as the phone is held or mounted on a subject's hand) to compute a set of metrics which can be used to quantify a patient's tremor symptoms. In a small-scale clinical study with 25 PD patients and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers, we combined our metrics with machine learning techniques to correctly classify 82% of the patients and 90% of the healthy volunteers, which is high compared to similar studies. The proposed method could be effective in assisting physicians in the clinic, or to remotely evaluate the patient's condition and communicate the results to the physician. Our tool is low cost, platform independent, noninvasive, and requires no expertise to use. It is also well matched to the standard clinical examination for PD and can keep the patient "connected" to his physician on a daily basis. Finally, it can facilitate the creation of anonymous profiles for PD patients, aiding further research on the effectiveness of medication or other overlooked aspects of patients' lives. PMID:26302523

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mills, K C; Parkman, K M; Spruill, S E

    1996-12-01

    A new software-based visual search and divided-attention test of cognitive performance was developed and evaluated in an alcohol dose-response study with 24 human subjects aged 21-62 years. The test used language-free, color, graphic displays to represent the visuospatial demands of driving. Cognitive demands were increased over previous hardware-based tests, and the motor skills required for the test involved minimal eye movements and eye-hand coordination. Repeated performance on the test was evaluated with a latin-square design by using a placebo and two alcohol doses, low (0.48 g/kg/LBM) and moderate (0.72 g/kg/LBM). The data on 7 females and 17 males yielded significant falling and rising impairment effects coincident with moderate rising and falling breath alcohol levels (mean peak BrALs = 0.045 g/dl and 0.079 g/dl). None of the subjects reported eye-strain or psychomotor fatigue as compared with previous tests. The high sensitivity/variance relative to use in basic and applied research, and worksite fitness-for-duty testing, was discussed. The most distinct advantage of a software-based test that operates on readily available PCs is that it can be widely distributed to researchers with a common reference to compare a variety of alcohol and drug effects. PMID:8986207

  8. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  9. Twenty-one degrees of freedom model based hand pose tracking using a monocular RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junyeong; Park, Jong-Il; Park, Hanhoon

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to visually track a user's hand because of the many degrees of freedom (DOF) a hand has. For this reason, most model-based hand pose tracking methods have relied on the use of multiview images or RGB-D images. This paper proposes a model-based method that accurately tracks three-dimensional hand poses using monocular RGB images in real time. The main idea of the proposed method is to reduce hand tracking ambiguity by adopting a step-by-step estimation scheme consisting of three steps performed in consecutive order: palm pose estimation, finger yaw motion estimation, and finger pitch motion estimation. In addition, this paper proposes highly effective algorithms for each step. With the assumption that a human hand can be considered as an assemblage of articulated planes, the proposed method uses a piece-wise planar hand model which enables hand model regeneration. The hand model regeneration modifies the hand model to fit the current user's hand and improves the accuracy of the hand pose estimation results. Above all, the proposed method can operate in real time using only CPU-based processing. Consequently, it can be applied to various platforms, including egocentric vision devices such as wearable glasses. The results of several experiments conducted verify the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Comparative efficacy of alcohol-based surgical scrubs: the importance of formulation.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; McCormack, Robert R

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol-based surgical scrubs (ABSSs) are used to prevent surgical site infections. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) often is added to enhance persistent germicidal activity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ABSS product formulation on efficacy. We evaluated three commercially available ABSS formulations and one control alcohol formulation according to the surgical scrub methodology specified by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Only one ABSS formulation met FDA efficacy requirements when tested at the manufacturer's recommended dosage. In contrast, two ABSS formulations, one of which contained CHG, failed to meet the FDA acceptance criteria for a 3-log10 reduction on day 5, meaning the formulations did not sufficiently reduce bacteria levels on hands on the fifth day of product application. The data suggest that recommendations to include CHG in ABSS formulations should be reconsidered, and product efficacy, skin tolerability, and user acceptability should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25453683

  11. Basic Hand Gestures Classification Based on Surface Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Palkowski, Aleksander; Redlarski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative classification system for hand gestures using 2-channel surface electromyography analysis. The system developed uses the Support Vector Machine classifier, for which the kernel function and parameter optimisation are conducted additionally by the Cuckoo Search swarm algorithm. The system developed is compared with standard Support Vector Machine classifiers with various kernel functions. The average classification rate of 98.12% has been achieved for the proposed method. PMID:27298630

  12. Basic Hand Gestures Classification Based on Surface Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Palkowski, Aleksander; Redlarski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative classification system for hand gestures using 2-channel surface electromyography analysis. The system developed uses the Support Vector Machine classifier, for which the kernel function and parameter optimisation are conducted additionally by the Cuckoo Search swarm algorithm. The system developed is compared with standard Support Vector Machine classifiers with various kernel functions. The average classification rate of 98.12% has been achieved for the proposed method. PMID:27298630

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention using community-based narrowcasting campaigns.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669

  14. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  15. The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project: the development of a computer-based alcohol abuse prevention program for employees.

    PubMed

    Matano, R A; Futa, K T; Wanat, S F; Mussman, L M; Leung, C W

    2000-05-01

    The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project (ESAP) developed an interactive computer-based alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention program accessible to employees over the Internet. Behavioral health research recommends that specialists develop and provide comprehensive yet cost-effective approaches to alcohol abuse prevention, early intervention, and treatment within the context of workplace managed care. ESAP is implementing this web site for a diverse 8,567-employee work site. ESAP's web site enables employees to self-assess their stress levels, coping styles, and risk for alcohol-related problems. It provides personalized feedback, recommendations, mini-workshops, a drinking journal, links to other online resources, and an interactive forum for direct participant-to-participant communication. ESAP's web site provides resources for employees who are concerned about another individual's drinking as well as information about adolescent alcohol use. This article discusses the implications of incorporating the ESAP web site into worksite alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention programming. PMID:10795126

  16. Reduced object-based perception in the near-hand space.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jihyun; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that hand proximity changes visual perception (Abrams et al. in Cognition 107(3):1035-1047, 2008). The present study examined the effects of hand proximity on object-based perception. In three experiments, participants viewed stimuli that were either near to or far from their hands. The target stimulus appeared, after a cue, in one of two rectangular objects: either at the location that had been previously cued, at the uncued end of the cued object, or in the uncued object. We found a significantly reduced same-object benefit in reaction time for stimuli near the hands in one experiment. Interestingly, we observed a same-object cost in sensitivity for stimuli near the hands in another experiment. The results reveal that object-based perception is disrupted in the near-hand space. This is consistent with previous findings revealing altered visual processing near the hands. PMID:26289483

  17. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  18. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  19. Web-based treatment of alcohol problems among rural women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-09-01

    It is estimated that 6 million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The World Wide Web has the potential to help such individuals overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a Web-based, self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web-based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11 years), and their baseline Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cut-off score for problem drinking. At 3-month follow up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking; however, no significant differences were found between them. PMID:18823000

  20. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. PMID:26880543

  1. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  2. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  3. Virtual Robot Teaching Based on Motion Analysis and Hand Manipulability for Multi-Fingered Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Furukawa, Tomohir; Ueki, Satoshi; Mouri, Tetsuya

    A virtual robot teaching system, consisting of human demonstration and motion-intention analysis in a virtual reality environment, is an advanced form of automatic programming for multi-fingered robots. We propose a new segmentation method to analyze human motion data and a virtual teaching system based on hand manipulability, in which the position and orientation of the robot hand are determined so as to maximize the robot hand's manipulability. In the segmentation method, human motion data consisting of contact points, grasp force, hand and object position, and the like are segmented into plural primitive motions and the type of task is analyzed based on the sequence of the primitive motions. A trial assembly task using a humanoid robot hand named Gifu Hand III is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Pen-Based Interface Using Hand Motions in the Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yu; Misue, Kazuo; Tanaka, Jiro

    A system which employs a stylus as an input device is suitable for creative activities like writing and painting. However, such a system does not always provide the user with a GUI that is easy to operate using the stylus. In addition, system usability is diminished because the stylus is not always integrated into the system in a way that takes into consideration the features of a pen. The purpose of our research is to improve the usability of a system which uses a stylus as an input device. We propose shortcut actions, which are interaction techniques for operation with a stylus that are controlled through a user's hand motions made in the air. We developed the Context Sensitive Stylus as a device to implement the shortcut actions. The Context Sensitive Stylus consists of an accelerometer and a conventional stylus. We also developed application programs to which we applied the shortcut actions; e.g., a drawing tool, a scroll supporting tool, and so on. Results from our evaluation of the shortcut actions indicate that users can concentrate better on their work when using the shortcut actions than when using conventional menu operations.

  5. Titeres. (Puppets.) Hand Puppets for Children (Based on Spanish Games & Characters).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Nancy; And Others

    The guide consists of patterns for making ten hand puppets based on Spanish games and characters. These hand puppets can be used by the teacher or student. They can be made of felt or construction paper. These hand puppets can teach a simple song and game or become a means of introducing many things. The patterns are for the characters of Cri Cri,…

  6. The Invisible Hand of Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The key elements of learning in a classroom remain largely invisible. Teachers cannot expect every student to learn to their fullest capacity; yet they can augment learning within a classroom through inquiry-based learning. In this article, the author describes inquiry-based learning and how to begin this process in the classroom.

  7. [Evidence-based and promising interventions to prevent infectious diseases among youth as a result of poor hand hygiene in schools: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Hélène; Nugier, Angélique; Clément, Juliette; Lamboy, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major cause of death among young people throughout the world. This paper reviews the current knowledge of empirically validated and promising interventions aimed at preventing infectious diseases among children caused by poor hand hygiene in schools. The study used a standard protocol to identify and review the literature and to classify the selected interventions. Approximately ten interventions were found to have a beneficial effect by promoting hand washing and hand hygiene in schools. The study also found that most of the interventions were implemented at elementary school. However, some interventions were also implemented at kindergarten or in child care centers, while others were aimed at university students. Most of the interventions were implemented by teachers, peers and/or external professionals. The study found that hand hygiene is effective regardless of the type of cleaning product used (i.e. antibacterial or plain soap, alcohol-based or alcohol-free hand sanitizer). This study aims to contribute to the understanding of empirically validated and promising interventions and to promote reflection on professional practice in France. PMID:23782636

  8. Evaluation of the bactericidal efficacy of three different alcohol hand rubs against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus using an ex vivo carrier test.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, K E; Denyer, S P; Hosein, I K; Williams, G J; Maillard, J-Y

    2011-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of three alcohol hand rubs (AHRs) against Staphylococcus aureus using an ex vivo carrier test method and investigated the residual activity of AHRs and the effect of mechanical rubbing. A much longer contact time was required for the AHRs to achieve a bactericidal effect using the ex vivo test (between 10 and >20 min) compared with the in vitro test. Mechanical rubbing was found to increase the efficacy of the AHR compared to a rubbing control. Since the AHRs had no residual activity, the bactericidal effect achieved using the ex vivo test with contact times greater than the evaporation times (15 s) is unlikely to be achieved in practice. In view of such findings it is unlikely that AHRs are able to achieve a significant bactericidal effect (≥4 log(10) reduction) in practice, suggesting that contamination on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) may not be reduced enough to overcome the risk of cross-contamination and healthcare-associated infection. Since the AHRs had no residual effect they would be unable to prevent recolonisation of the hands of HCWs. PMID:21130519

  9. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG). Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF) hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user. Methods A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand) with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control. Results Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture) may be achieved. Conclusions This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis. PMID:20416036

  10. Computer vision-based classification of hand grip variations in neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zariffa, José; Steeves, John D

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of hand function is such that most existing upper limb rehabilitation robotic devices use only simplified hand interfaces. This is in contrast to the importance of the hand in regaining function after neurological injury. Computer vision technology has been used to identify hand posture in the field of Human Computer Interaction, but this approach has not been translated to the rehabilitation context. We describe a computer vision-based classifier that can be used to discriminate rehabilitation-relevant hand postures, and could be integrated into a virtual reality-based upper limb rehabilitation system. The proposed system was tested on a set of video recordings from able-bodied individuals performing cylindrical grasps, lateral key grips, and tip-to-tip pinches. The overall classification success rate was 91.2%, and was above 98% for 6 out of the 10 subjects. PMID:22275622

  11. Microassembly based on hands free origami with bidirectional curvature

    PubMed Central

    Bassik, Noy; Stern, George M.; Gracias, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Microassembly based on origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, presents an attractive methodology for constructing complex three-dimensional (3D) devices and advanced materials. A variety of functional structures have been created using patterned metallic, semiconducting, and polymeric thin films, but have been limited to those that curve in a single direction. We report a design framework that can be used to achieve spontaneous bidirectional folds with any desired angle, and we demonstrate theoretical and experimental realizations of complex 3D structures with +90°, −90°, +180°, and −180° folds. The strategy is parallel, versatile, and compatible with conventional microfabrication. PMID:19787072

  12. Gene-based and pathway-based genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    ZUO, Lingjun; ZHANG, Clarence K.; SAYWARD, Frederick G.; CHEUNG, Kei-Hoi; WANG, Kesheng; KRYSTAL, John H.; ZHAO, Hongyu; LUO, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    Background The organization of risk genes within signaling pathways may provide clues about the converging neurobiological effects of risk genes for alcohol dependence. Aim Identify risk genes and risk gene pathways for alcohol dependence. Methods We conducted a pathway-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) of alcohol dependence using a gene-set-rich analytic approach. Approximately one million genetic markers were tested in the discovery sample which included 1409 European-American (EA) alcohol dependent individuals and 1518 EA healthy comparison subjects. An additional 681 African-American (AA) cases and 508 AA healthy subjects served as the replication sample. Results We identified several genome-wide replicable risk genes and risk pathways that were significantly associated with alcohol dependence. After applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the ‘cellextracellular matrix interactions’ pathway (p<2.0E-4 in EAs) and the PXN gene (which encodes paxillin) (p=3.9E-7 in EAs) within this pathway were the most promising risk factors for alcohol dependence. There were also two nominally replicable pathways enriched in alcohol dependence-related genes in both EAs (0.015≤p≤0.035) and AAs (0.025≤p≤0.050): the ‘Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters’ pathway and the ‘other glycan degradation’ pathway. Conclusion These findings provide new evidence highlighting several genes and biological signaling processes that may be related to the risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26120261

  13. Effect of Educational Program Based On Exercise Therapy on Burned Hand Function

    PubMed Central

    Mohaddes Ardebili, Fatemeh; Manzari, Zahra Sadat; Bozorgnejad, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hands burn was associated with significant functional disorders that severely affected patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational program based on exercise therapy on burned hand function. METHODS This experimental research was conducted in a period of ten months in 2010-2011 in Mottahari Hospital in Tehran in Iran. The sample included 60 patients, who were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups, half in intervention and half in control group. Educational program was implemented on experimental group. The data collection tools were two observational checklists about determining of hand function. RESULTS Both groups were matched in characteristic of demographic and burn injury. Subjects in experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in range of motion and hand function balance from admission to discharge. CONCLUSION In order to reduce the hand functional impairment caused by burns, it is recommended that special attention be paid to patient education about exercise therapy. PMID:25489523

  14. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  15. Evaluation of an Elementary School-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shope, Jean T.; And Others

    The Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) presented an alcohol education program to fifth and sixth grade students based on social learning theory. The AMPS program introduced students to the concept of social pressure (especially peer pressure) to misuse alcohol and to strategies to effectively counter such pressure. The program was evaluated in…

  16. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions. PMID:27223341

  17. Hand-held based near-infrared optical imaging devices: a review.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2009-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is a non-invasive and non-ionizing modality that is emerging as a diagnostic/prognostic tool for breast cancer and other applications related to functional brain mapping. In recent years, hand-held based optical imaging devices are developed for clinical translation of the technology, as opposed to the various bulky optical imagers available. Herein, we review the different hand-held based NIR devices developed to date, in terms of the measurement techniques implemented (continuous wave, time or frequency-domain), the imaging methods used, and the specific applications towards which they were applied. The advantages and disadvantages of the different hand-held optical devices are described and also compared with respect to a novel hand-held based device currently developed in our Optical Imaging Laboratory towards three-dimensional tomography studies. PMID:19054704

  18. Digital hand atlas for web-based bone age assessment: system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.; Pietka, Ewa; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2000-04-01

    A frequently used assessment method of skeletal age is atlas matching by a radiological examination of a hand image against a small set of Greulich-Pyle patterns of normal standards. The method however can lead to significant deviation in age assessment, due to a variety of observers with different levels of training. The Greulich-Pyle atlas based on middle upper class white populations in the 1950s, is also not fully applicable for children of today, especially regarding the standard development in other racial groups. In this paper, we present our system design and initial implementation of a digital hand atlas and computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for Web-based bone age assessment. The digital atlas will remove the disadvantages of the currently out-of-date one and allow the bone age assessment to be computerized and done conveniently via Web. The system consists of a hand atlas database, a CAD module and a Java-based Web user interface. The atlas database is based on a large set of clinically normal hand images of diverse ethnic groups. The Java-based Web user interface allows users to interact with the hand image database form browsers. Users can use a Web browser to push a clinical hand image to the CAD server for a bone age assessment. Quantitative features on the examined image, which reflect the skeletal maturity, is then extracted and compared with patterns from the atlas database to assess the bone age.

  19. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  20. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream. PMID:23618466

  1. Left-handed metamaterials based on a leaf-shaped configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiren; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Gong, Boyi

    2011-05-01

    Based upon the bionics principle, we present the design of a metal-dielectric-metal sandwiched leaf-shaped metamaterial, and the numerical simulation and experiment have confirmed an obvious left-handed transmission peak by this structure. The retrieved effective permittivity, permeability, and refractive index are all negative around the frequency of the resonant peak, and the planar lens focusing experiment has further confirmed its left-handed features. The results in this paper can be used to explain the resonance mechanism of the left-handed metamaterials fabricated by means of the nano-self-assembly approach, and thus may greatly promote the development of optical metamaterials.

  2. Do flexible alcohol trading hours reduce violence? A theory-based natural experiment in alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, David K; Eisner, Manuel P

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-related violence is a pressing public health concern. In 2005, the government of England and Wales took a controversial approach to preventing violence by removing restrictions on opening hours for alcohol outlets, thus increasing the availability of alcohol. The policy aimed to remove fixed closing times, which it claimed was contributing to urban violence occurring at peak closing times. It proposed to reduce violence and disorder by installing systems of 'staggered closing times'. This policy was criticised for overlooking established public health principles prioritising the control of alcohol availability in the prevention of alcohol-related harm. In this study, we treated the removal of trading hour restrictions as a natural experiment to test competing theoretical principles about the relationship between alcohol availability and violence. Our study took place in the City of Manchester over a four-year period 2004-2008. Detailed trading records for over 600 alcohol outlets were obtained, as were police records for all violent incidents. We found considerable variation in the implementation of extended trading hours across the city, which affected area-level exposure of changes in alcohol availability and staggered closing times. To isolate the effect of these changes on violence, we performed a dose-response analysis to examine whether improved staggering of closing hours (or increased alcohol availability) was associated with decreases in violence. We found no evidence to support the government-proposed hypothesis that staggered closing reduces violence. We also found no support for the alternative hypothesis; that increase alcohol availability would result in increased violence. This study provides an example of how better evidence can be generated from natural experiments by placing added emphasis on theory, causal mechanisms and implementation science. PMID:24565135

  3. Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

  4. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders. PMID:25865819

  5. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  6. IpsiHand Bravo: an improved EEG-based brain-computer interface for hand motor control rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles Damian; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Somers, Thane; Liu, Jenny; Russell, Elizabeth; Kim, DoHyun; Rhoades, Colleen; Dunkley, Jason; Bundy, David; Galboa, Elad; Leuthardt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Stroke and other nervous system injuries can damage or destroy hand motor control and greatly upset daily activities. Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) represent an emerging technology that can bypass damaged nerves to restore basic motor function and provide more effective rehabilitation. A wireless BCI system was implemented to realize these goals using electroencephalographic brain signals, machine learning techniques, and a custom designed orthosis. The IpsiHand Bravo BCI system is designed to reach a large demographic by using non-traditional brain signals and improving on past BCI system pitfalls. PMID:23366248

  7. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Huang, Wei-wei; Xu, Yong; Liu, Lu; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-02-01

    A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas, derived from the biomass gasification. The Cu1Co1Fe1Mo1Zn0.5-6%K catalyst exhibited a higher activity on the space-time yield of mixed alcohols, compared with the other Mo-based catalysts. The carbon conversion significantly increases with rising temperature below 340 °C, but the alcohol selectivity has an opposite trend. The maximum mixed alcohols yield derived from biomass gasification is 494.8 g/(kgcatal·h) with the C2+ (C2—C6 higher alcohols) alcohols of 80.4% under the tested conditions. The alcohol distributions are consistent with the Schulz-Flory plots, except methanol. In the alcohols products, the C2+ alcohols (higher alcohols) dominate with a weight ratio of 70%-85%. The Mo-based catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption/desorption. The clean bio-fules of mixed alcohols derived from bio-syngas with higher octane values could be used as transportation fuels or petrol additives.

  8. Is it time for brushless scrubbing with an alcohol-based agent?

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, B J; Bjerke, N B

    2001-12-01

    The practice of surgical scrubbing in perioperative settings is changing rapidly. This article presents information about eliminating the traditional scrub brush technique and using an alcohol formulation for surgical hand scrubs. Also covered are antimicrobial agents, relevant US Food and Drug Administration classifications, skin and fingernail care, and implementation of changes. The article challenges surgical team members to evaluate a new and different approach to surgical hand scrubbing. PMID:11795059

  9. [Research on proportional control system of prosthetic hand based on FMG signals].

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Li, Panpan; Zhao, Shengnan

    2013-02-01

    The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system. PMID:23488135

  10. Design of a hand-shape acquisition and recognition system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Fu; Gao, Lei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we design a hand-shape image acquisition and processing system based on DSP for solving the problem of hand-shape recognition. Acquisition configuration was designed, and the key parts (encoder, decoder, memory chip etc.) are selected. And a new method for hand-shape recognition based on wavelet moment is presented to overcome some shortage in present method for hand shape recognition. Firstly, image processing including binary processing and segment of hand silhouette are used, and then translation and scale normalization algorithms is implemented on the palms and fingers image. After that the wavelet moment characteristics of image are extracted. At last, support vector is achieved by training 100 images data in images database, 10 testing images were selected randomly to verify validity and feasibility of algorithms. Experimental results indicate that the 10 testing images are all classified correctly. The new method of extracting hand shape wavelet moment as characteristic matrix is easy to realize with characteristic of high utility and accuracy, and solve the problem of translation, rotation and scaling during the image acquisition process without positioning aids.

  11. Human-Computer Interaction Based on Hand Gestures Using RGB-D Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, José Manuel; Sagüés, Carlos; Montijano, Eduardo; Llorente, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for hand gesture recognition based on an RGB-D sensor. The proposed approach takes advantage of depth information to cope with the most common problems of traditional video-based hand segmentation methods: cluttered backgrounds and occlusions. The algorithm also uses colour and semantic information to accurately identify any number of hands present in the image. Ten different static hand gestures are recognised, including all different combinations of spread fingers. Additionally, movements of an open hand are followed and 6 dynamic gestures are identified. The main advantage of our approach is the freedom of the user's hands to be at any position of the image without the need of wearing any specific clothing or additional devices. Besides, the whole method can be executed without any initial training or calibration. Experiments carried out with different users and in different environments prove the accuracy and robustness of the method which, additionally, can be run in real-time. PMID:24018953

  12. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  13. Partner Violence Before and After Couples-Based Alcoholism Treatment for Female Alcoholic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    This study examined partner violence before and in the first and second year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners, and used a demographically matched non-alcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months. Follow-up rates for the treatment sample at years 1 and 2 were 88% and 83%, respectively. In the year before BCT, 68% of female alcoholic patients had been violent toward their male partner, nearly five times the comparison sample rate of 15%. In the year after BCT, violence prevalence decreased significantly to 31% of the treatment sample. Women were classified as remitted after treatment if they demonstrated abstinence or minimal substance use and no serious consequences related to substance use. In year 1 following BCT, 45% were classified as remitted, and 49% were classified as remitted in year 2. Among remitted patients in the year after BCT, violence prevalence of 22% did not differ from the comparison sample and was significantly lower than the rate among relapsed patients (38%). Results for male-perpetrated violence and for the second year after BCT were similar to the first year. Results supported predictions that partner violence would decrease after BCT, and that clinically significant violence reductions to the level of a non-alcoholic comparison sample would occur for patients whose alcoholism was remitted after BCT. These findings replicate previous research among men with alcoholism. PMID:19968389

  14. Pt/Ceria-based Catalysts for Small Alcohol Electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez-Mora, Christian L.

    High emissions of fossil-based energy sources have led to scientists around the world to develop new alternatives for the future. In this sense, fuel cells are a remarkable and promising energy option with less environmental impact. The most used fuels for this technology are hydrogen and small chain alcohols, which can be oxidized to transform their chemical energy into electrical power. To do this, fuel cells need catalysts that will act as an active surface where the oxidation can take place. The problem with platinum catalysts is its possible CO poisoning with intermediates that are produced before the complete oxidation of alcohol to CO2. Different approaches have been taken to try to resolve this issue. In this case, cerium oxide (ceria) was selected as a co-catalyst to mitigate the effect of CO poisoning of platinum. Ceria is a compound that has the ability to work as an "oxygen tank" and can donate oxygen to carbon monoxide that is strongly adsorbed at platinum surface to produce CO2 (carbon dioxide), regenerating the Pt surface for further alcohol oxidation. Therefore, enhancing the current density as well as the power output of a fuel cell. First, an occlusion deposition technique was used to prepare platinum/ceria composite electrodes and tested them towards small chain alcohol oxidation such as methanol oxidation reaction in acidic and alkaline media. The preliminary results demonstrated that the Pt/ceria electrodes were more efficient towards methanol electrooxidation when compared to Pt electrodes. This enhancement was attributed to the presence of ceria. A second preparation method was selected for the synthesis of ceria/Pt catalysts. In this case, a hydrothermal method was used and the catalysis were studied for the effect of MeOH, EtOH and n-BuOH oxidation. The observed effect was that electrodes made of Pt/Pt:CeO2-x showed better catalytic effect than Pt/ceria and platinum electrodes. Moreover, a comparison between ceria nanorods versus

  15. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ankur; Taneja, Davendra Kumar; Badhan, Suresh Kumar; Ingle, Gopal Krishan

    2013-01-01

    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, slogan writing competition; classroom interactions. Data were analyzed in the SPSS 16.0 software and Mcnemar test and Student paired t-test were used. After the program, 95% felt that hand should be washed frequently. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding hand-washing and frequency of hand-washing practices after the intervention. 42% children shared this information with their parents. The intervention proved effective in improving awareness and highlights the potential of school for hand-washing promotion activities. PMID:23873200

  16. Parental Monitoring, Peer Activities and Alcohol Use: A Study Based on Data on Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…

  17. Amino alcohol-based degradable poly(ester amide) elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Bruggeman, Joost P.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Langer, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Currently available synthetic biodegradable elastomers are primarily composed of crosslinked aliphatic polyesters, which suffer from deficiencies including (1) high crosslink densities, which results in exceedingly high stiffness, (2) rapid degradation upon implantation, or (3) limited chemical moieties for chemical modification. Herein, we have developed poly(1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-co-polyol sebacate)s, a new class of synthetic, biodegradable elastomeric poly(ester amide)s composed of crosslinked networks based on an amino alcohol. These crosslinked networks feature tensile Young’s modulus on the order of 1 MPa and reversable elongations up to 92%. These polymers exhibit in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. These polymers have projected degradation half-lives up to 20 months in vivo. PMID:18295329

  18. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  19. Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Guen

    An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by

  20. Left-handed properties dependence versus the interwire distance in Fe-based microwires metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababei, Gabriel; Olariu, Cristina Stefania; Lupu, Nicoleta; Chiriac, Horia

    2016-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on the left-handed properties dependence versus the interwire distance of three new proposed Fe77.5Si7.5B15 glass coated microwires-based metastructures are presented. The left-handed characteristics of the metastructures were determined in the frequency range 8.2 ÷ 12 GHz and external d.c. magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 32 kA/m. The experimental results show that the electromagnetic losses of the metastructures increase with the decreasing of the interwire distance due to the increasing of the long-range dynamic dipole-dipole interaction within inter-wires in the presence of the microwave field. The numerical calculations using Nicolson-Weiss-Ross algorithm are in agreement with the experimental results. The variation of the interwire distance proves to be a useful tool to obtain metastructures with controlled left-handed characteristics.

  1. Hand Gesture Spotting Based on 3D Dynamic Features Using Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmezain, Mahmoud; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Michaelis, Bernd

    In this paper, we propose an automatic system that handles hand gesture spotting and recognition simultaneously in stereo color image sequences without any time delay based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Color and 3D depth map are used to segment hand regions. The hand trajectory will determine in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter to generate 3D dynamic features. Furthermore, k-means clustering algorithm is employed for the HMMs codewords. To spot meaningful gestures accurately, a non-gesture model is proposed, which provides confidence limit for the calculated likelihood by other gesture models. The confidence measures are used as an adaptive threshold for spotting meaningful gestures. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully recognize isolated gestures with 98.33% and meaningful gestures with 94.35% reliability for numbers (0-9).

  2. Vision-Based Pose Estimation for Robot-Mediated Hand Telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Airò Farulla, Giuseppe; Pianu, Daniele; Cempini, Marco; Cortese, Mario; Russo, Ludovico O; Indaco, Marco; Nerino, Roberto; Chimienti, Antonio; Oddo, Calogero M; Vitiello, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based Pose Estimation (VPE) represents a non-invasive solution to allow a smooth and natural interaction between a human user and a robotic system, without requiring complex calibration procedures. Moreover, VPE interfaces are gaining momentum as they are highly intuitive, such that they can be used from untrained personnel (e.g., a generic caregiver) even in delicate tasks as rehabilitation exercises. In this paper, we present a novel master-slave setup for hand telerehabilitation with an intuitive and simple interface for remote control of a wearable hand exoskeleton, named HX. While performing rehabilitative exercises, the master unit evaluates the 3D position of a human operator's hand joints in real-time using only a RGB-D camera, and commands remotely the slave exoskeleton. Within the slave unit, the exoskeleton replicates hand movements and an external grip sensor records interaction forces, that are fed back to the operator-therapist, allowing a direct real-time assessment of the rehabilitative task. Experimental data collected with an operator and six volunteers are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed system and its performances. The results demonstrate that, leveraging on our system, the operator was able to directly control volunteers' hands movements. PMID:26861333

  3. Vision-Based Pose Estimation for Robot-Mediated Hand Telerehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Airò Farulla, Giuseppe; Pianu, Daniele; Cempini, Marco; Cortese, Mario; Russo, Ludovico O.; Indaco, Marco; Nerino, Roberto; Chimienti, Antonio; Oddo, Calogero M.; Vitiello, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based Pose Estimation (VPE) represents a non-invasive solution to allow a smooth and natural interaction between a human user and a robotic system, without requiring complex calibration procedures. Moreover, VPE interfaces are gaining momentum as they are highly intuitive, such that they can be used from untrained personnel (e.g., a generic caregiver) even in delicate tasks as rehabilitation exercises. In this paper, we present a novel master–slave setup for hand telerehabilitation with an intuitive and simple interface for remote control of a wearable hand exoskeleton, named HX. While performing rehabilitative exercises, the master unit evaluates the 3D position of a human operator’s hand joints in real-time using only a RGB-D camera, and commands remotely the slave exoskeleton. Within the slave unit, the exoskeleton replicates hand movements and an external grip sensor records interaction forces, that are fed back to the operator-therapist, allowing a direct real-time assessment of the rehabilitative task. Experimental data collected with an operator and six volunteers are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed system and its performances. The results demonstrate that, leveraging on our system, the operator was able to directly control volunteers’ hands movements. PMID:26861333

  4. Partner Violence before and after Couples-Based Alcoholism Treatment for Female Alcoholic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2009-01-01

    This study examined partner violence before and in the 1st and 2nd year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners; it used a demographically matched nonalcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months.…

  5. HANDS2: accurate assignment of homoeallelic base-identity in allopolyploids despite missing data

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amina; Belfield, Eric J.; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Mithani, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of homoeallelic base-identity in allopolyploids is difficult since homeologous subgenomes are closely related and becomes further challenging if diploid-progenitor data is missing. We present HANDS2, a next-generation sequencing-based tool that enables highly accurate (>90%) genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity in allopolyploids even in the absence of a diploid-progenitor. We applied HANDS2 to the transcriptomes of various cruciferous plants belonging to genus Brassica. Our results suggest that the three C genomes in Brassica are more similar to each other than the three A genomes, and provide important insights into the relationships between various Brassica tetraploids and their diploid-progenitors at a single-base resolution. PMID:27378447

  6. HANDS2: accurate assignment of homoeallelic base-identity in allopolyploids despite missing data.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amina; Belfield, Eric J; Harberd, Nicholas P; Mithani, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of homoeallelic base-identity in allopolyploids is difficult since homeologous subgenomes are closely related and becomes further challenging if diploid-progenitor data is missing. We present HANDS2, a next-generation sequencing-based tool that enables highly accurate (>90%) genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity in allopolyploids even in the absence of a diploid-progenitor. We applied HANDS2 to the transcriptomes of various cruciferous plants belonging to genus Brassica. Our results suggest that the three C genomes in Brassica are more similar to each other than the three A genomes, and provide important insights into the relationships between various Brassica tetraploids and their diploid-progenitors at a single-base resolution. PMID:27378447

  7. Hand gesture guided robot-assisted surgery based on a direct augmented reality interface.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chng, Chin-Boon; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2014-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a good alternative to hepatic resection for treatment of liver tumors. However, accurate needle insertion requires precise hand-eye coordination and is also affected by the difficulty of RF needle navigation. This paper proposes a cooperative surgical robot system, guided by hand gestures and supported by an augmented reality (AR)-based surgical field, for robot-assisted percutaneous treatment. It establishes a robot-assisted natural AR guidance mechanism that incorporates the advantages of the following three aspects: AR visual guidance information, surgeon's experiences and accuracy of robotic surgery. A projector-based AR environment is directly overlaid on a patient to display preoperative and intraoperative information, while a mobile surgical robot system implements specified RF needle insertion plans. Natural hand gestures are used as an intuitive and robust method to interact with both the AR system and surgical robot. The proposed system was evaluated on a mannequin model. Experimental results demonstrated that hand gesture guidance was able to effectively guide the surgical robot, and the robot-assisted implementation was found to improve the accuracy of needle insertion. This human-robot cooperative mechanism is a promising approach for precise transcutaneous ablation therapy. PMID:24438993

  8. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  9. Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Stephanie Ann

    Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.

  10. Optimal tracking of a sEMG based force model for a prosthetic hand.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Yihun, Yimesker; Jensen, Alex; Chiu, Steve; Schoen, Marco P; Naidu, D Subbaram

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a surface electromyographic (sEMG)-based, optimal control strategy for a prosthetic hand. System Identification (SI) is used to obtain the dynamic relation between the sEMG and the corresponding skeletal muscle force. The input sEMG signal is preprocessed using a Half-Gaussian filter and fed to a fusion-based Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) skeletal muscle force model. This MISO system model provides the estimated finger forces to be produced as input to the prosthetic hand. Optimal tracking method has been applied to track the estimated force profile of the Fusion based sEMG-force model. The simulation results show good agreement between reference force profile and the actual force. PMID:22254629

  11. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  12. Influencing Adolescent Social Perceptions of Alcohol Use to Facilitate Change through a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Marya T.; Monreal, Teresa K.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the effectiveness of a voluntary high school-based alcohol intervention by investigating one proposed mechanism of change in adolescent alcohol involvement: perception of peer use. High school students reporting lifetime drinking (N = 2055) completed fall and spring surveys that assessed demographic information,…

  13. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N=150 was…

  14. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  15. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  16. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  17. Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention to Promote Hand Hygiene: Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sascha; Schlotz, Wolff; Little, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Hand-washing is regarded as a potentially important behavior for preventing transmission of respiratory infection, particularly during a pandemic. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a Web-based intervention can encourage more frequent hand-washing in the home, and to examine potential mediators and moderators of outcomes, as a necessary first step before testing effects of the intervention on infection rates in the PRIMIT trial (PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory infection Transmission). Methods In a parallel-group pragmatic exploratory trial design, 517 nonblinded adults recruited through primary care were automatically randomly assigned to a fully automated intervention comprising 4 sessions of tailored motivational messages and self-regulation support (n = 324) or to a no-intervention control group (n = 179; ratio 2:1). Hand-washing frequency and theory of planned behavior cognitions relating to hand-washing were assessed by online questionnaires at baseline (in only half of the control participants, to permit evaluation of effects of baseline assessment on effect sizes), at 4 weeks (postintervention; all participants), and at 12 weeks. Results Hand-washing rates in the intervention group were higher at 4 weeks than in the control group (mean 4.40, n = 285 and mean 4.04, n = 157, respectively; P < .001, Cohen d = 0.42) and remained higher at 12 weeks (mean 4.45, n = 282 and mean 4.12, n = 154, respectively; P < .001, Cohen d = 0.34). Hand-washing intentions and positive attitudes toward hand-washing increased more from baseline to 4 weeks in the intervention group than in the control group. Mediation analyses revealed positive indirect effects of the intervention on change in hand-washing via intentions (coefficient = .15, 95% confidence interval [CI], .08–.26) and attitudes (coefficient = 0.16, 95% CI, .09–.26). Moderator analyses

  18. Fusion of hand vein, iris and fingerprint for person identity verification based on Bayesian theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Deng, Shichao; Wang, Yunxin

    2009-11-01

    Biometric identification is an important guarantee for social security. In recent years, as the development of social and economic, the more accuracy and safety of identification are required. The person identity verification systems that use a single biometric appear inherent limitations in accuracy, user acceptance, universality. Limitations of unimodal biometric systems can be overcome by using multimodal biometric systems, which combines the conclusions made by a number of unrelated biometrics indicators. Aiming at the limitations of unimodal biometric identification, a recognition algorithm for multimodal biometric fusion based on hand vein, iris and fingerprint was proposed. To verify person identity, the hand vein images, iris images and fingerprint images were preprocessed firstly. The region of interest (ROI) of hand vein image was obtained and filtered to reduce image noises. The multiresolution analysis theory was utilized to extract the texture information of hand vein. The iris image was preprocessed through iris localization, eyelid detection, image normalization and image enhancement, and then the feature code of iris was extracted from the detail images obtained using wavelet transform. The texture feature information represented fingerprint pattern was extracted after filtering and image enhancement. The Bayesian theorem was employed to realize the fusion at the matching score level and the fusion recognition result was finally obtained. The experimental results were presented, which showed that the recognition performance of the proposed fusion method was obviously higher than that of single biometric recognition algorithm. It had verified the efficiency of the proposed method for biometrics.

  19. Improvement of Hand Movement on Visual Target Tracking by Assistant Force of Model-Based Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Junko; Sugi, Takenao; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    Human motor control is achieved by the appropriate motor commands generating from the central nerve system. A test of visual target tracking is one of the effective methods for analyzing the human motor functions. We have previously examined a possibility for improving the hand movement on visual target tracking by additional assistant force through a simulation study. In this study, a method for compensating the human hand movement on visual target tracking by adding an assistant force was proposed. Effectiveness of the compensation method was investigated through the experiment for four healthy adults. The proposed compensator precisely improved the reaction time, the position error and the variability of the velocity of the human hand. The model-based compensator proposed in this study is constructed by using the measurement data on visual target tracking for each subject. The properties of the hand movement for different subjects can be reflected in the structure of the compensator. Therefore, the proposed method has possibility to adjust the individual properties of patients with various movement disorders caused from brain dysfunctions.

  20. Localization and Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures Based on Hierarchy of Manifold Classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskaya, M.; Nosov, A.; Popov, A.

    2015-05-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case). Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset "Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results" including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84-91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  1. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  2. Trait-based affective processes in alcohol-involved "risk behaviors".

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Simons, Jeffrey S; Dvorak, Robert D; Gaher, Raluca M

    2012-11-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would primarily exhibit relationships with alcohol use and problems through behavioral dysregulation occurring during extreme affective states. To evaluate these hypotheses, we tested a SEM with three alcohol-related outcomes: "Typical" alcohol use, "blackout" drinking, and risk behavior. High trait negative affect and low tolerance for affective distress contribute to difficulty controlling behavior when negatively aroused and this is directly associated with increased risk behavior when drinking. In contrast, associations between positive urgency and risk behaviors are indirect via increased alcohol consumption. Positive affectivity exhibited both inverse and positive effects in the model, with the net effect on alcohol outcomes being insignificant. These findings contribute important information about the distinct pathways between affect, alcohol use, and alcohol-involved risk behavior among college students. PMID:22770825

  3. The contributions of value-based decision-making and attentional bias to alcohol-seeking following devaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Abigail K; Brown, Kyle; Field, Matt; Hogarth, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the mediating role of attentional bias for alcohol cues on alcohol-seeking following devaluation of alcohol. Design Between subject. Setting Eye-tracking laboratory at the University of Liverpool. Participants Student social drinkers (n = 64). Measurements An operant choice task in which participants chose between simultaneously presented alcohol and non-alcohol drink rewards, while attentional bias for alcohol and non-alcohol drink cues was inferred from eye movements. Participants then consumed 30 mL of an alcoholic beverage, which was either presented alone (no devaluation: n = 32) or had been adulterated to taste unpleasant (devaluation: n = 32). Choice and attentional bias for the alcohol and non-alcohol drink pictures were then measured again. Findings Alcohol devaluation reduced behavioural choice for alcohol (F = 32.64, P < 0.001) and attentional bias for the alcohol pictures indexed by dwell time (F = 22.68, P < 0.001), initial fixation (F = 7.08, P = 0.01) and final fixation (F = 22.44, P < 0.001). Mediation analysis revealed that attentional bias partially mediated the effect of devaluation on alcohol choice; however, the proportion of the variance accounted for by attentional bias is low to moderate (∼30%). Conclusions Among student social drinkers, attentional bias is only a partial mediator of alcohol choice following devaluation of alcohol. Value-based decision-making may be a more important determinant of drinking behaviour among student social drinkers than attentional bias. PMID:23614520

  4. Study of left-handed characteristics of parallel microwires based metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olariu, C. S.; Ababei, G.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a complex experimental and theoretical study of the ferromagnetic resonance frequencies and plasma behavior for CoFe-based, Co-based, Fe-based and FINEMETTM glass covered amorphous microwires (GCAWs), arranged in parallel configurations as free-standing systems, as well as combinations thereof, in order to obtain metastructures with tailored and enlarged left-handed frequency domain. The negative magnetic properties interval of the metastructures is expanded by alternating different types of GCAWs with close natural ferromagnetic resonance (NFMR) and natural antiferromagnetic resonance (NFMAR) domains, respectively.

  5. Human Hand Kinematic Modeling Based on Robotic Concepts for Digit Animation with Dynamic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondu, Bertrand

    The recent development of highly anthropomorphic avatars in computer graphics has emphasized the importance of accurate hand kinematic models. Although kinematic methods derived from robotics have recently been applied to the modeling of hands, we consider that original/new and relevant results can be brought into play with the use of more advanced applications of robotic techniques to human hand kinematic modeling. Our chapter analyses some of these questions both in the non-differential and differential fields. More specifically, we study how to integrate the peculiar natural digit movement constraints into robotics-based inverse kinematic modeling. As a result, we propose an original approach based on an interpretation of each joint dynamic constraint as a linear joint synergy. This leads to defining the considered digit as a serial chain kinematically redundant in position and reducing the dimension of its joint space by associated joint synergies. The method is applied to the Cartesian positioning simulation of a 4 d.o.f. index model; a comparison with a Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based approach emphasizes its relevance.

  6. Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Americas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol problems in the Americas. This is followed by an analysis of 32 prevention strategies and interventions in terms of the evidence for their effectiveness, amount of research support, cost to implement, and other feasibility issues. Overall, the strategies and interventions with the greatest amount of empirical support are low blood alcohol concentration levels for driving while intoxicated, controls on alcohol availability, age limits on alcohol purchases, and relatively high alcohol prices. The implications of the evidence are next discussed in relation to alcohol policy initiatives in the Americas, based on an analysis of the extent to which strategies and interventions currently used in 25 countries of the Americas are likely to have a public health impact on alcohol-related problems. The countries that have adopted the policies with the highest expected impact overall are Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that almost all the countries of the Americas could improve the likelihood of preventing alcohol-related problems. Policy efforts in the developing countries of Latin America should focus on improving countermeasures against driving while intoxicated, measures that alter the drinking context, and limits on physical availability. For the developed, high-income countries of North America the goal should be to prevent deterioration of current drinking patterns and to reduce the overall volume of drinking. Given the low to moderate cost of many of the policies reviewed in this article, it now seems possible for communities and nations to substantially reduce the

  7. Enhancing Team-Based Active Learning Through Hands-On Experience With Nicotine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To enhance tobacco cessation active-learning in an ambulatory care elective course by adding hands-on experience with nicotine replacement therapy to a team-based learning (TBL) session. Design. A hands-on experience that included students chewing a piece of nicotine gum was added to a TBL class session. Student pairs used a skills checklist to evaluate and give peer feedback on appropriate counseling and gum use. Assessment. Students’ scores on a tobacco cessation examination were higher than those of students enrolled in the previous course in which TBL alone had been used. Based on pre- and post-experience survey responses, students’ perceptions regarding their abilities to provide tobacco cessation counseling improved. Subjective student comments regarding the experience were positive. Conclusion. Participating in a TBL session that incorporated hands-on experience with nicotine gum in an ambulatory care elective course increased students’ confidence in their ability to provide tobacco cessation counseling and provided a unique perspective on the product’s characteristics. PMID:23966731

  8. The effect of inquiry-based, hands-on labs on achievement in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donna Kaye Green

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the difference in science achievement between students who had been taught with an inquiry-based, hands-on pedagogical approach and those who had not. Improving student academic achievement and standardized test scores is the major objective of teachers, parents, school administrators, government entities, and students themselves. One major barrier to this academic success in Georgia, and the entire United States, has been the paucity of success in middle level science classes. Many studies have been conducted to determine the learning approaches that will best enable students to not only acquire a deeper understanding of science concepts, but to equip them to apply that new knowledge in their daily activities. Inquiry-based, hands-on learning involves students participating in activities that reflect methods of scientific investigation. The effective utilization of the inquiry-based learning approach demands inclusion of learners in a self-directed learning environment, the ability to think critically, and an understanding of how to reflect and reason scientifically. The treatment group using an inquiry-based, hands-on program did score slightly higher on the CRCT. However, the results revealed that there was not a significant difference in student achievement. This study showed that the traditionally instructed control group had slightly higher interest in science than the inquiry-based treatment group. The findings of this research study indicated that the NCLB mandates might need to be altered if there are no significant academic gains that result from the use of inquiry-based strategies.

  9. A method of recognition based on the feature layer fusion of palmprint and hand vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hua; Yang, Xiaoping; Shi, Guangyuan

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a method of recognition of multi-modal biometrics for palmprint and hand vein based on the feature layer fusion is proposed, combined with the characteristics of an improved canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA). After pretreatment respectively, feature vectors of palmprint and hand vein images are extracted using two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA),then fused in the feature level using the improved canonical correlation analysis(CCA), so identification can be done by a adjacent classifier finally. Using this method, two biometric information can be fused and the redundancy of information between features can effectively eliminated, the problem of the high-dimensional and small sample size can be overcome too. Simulation experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper can effectively improve the recognition rate of identification.

  10. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  11. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    PubMed

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

  12. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would primarily exhibit relationships with alcohol use and problems through behavioral dysregulation occurring during extreme affective states. To evaluate these hypotheses, we tested a SEM with three alcohol–related outcomes: “Typical” alcohol use, “blackout” drinking,” and risk behavior. Results were complex, but generally supported the hypotheses. High trait negative affect and low tolerance for affective distress contribute to difficulty controlling behavior when negatively aroused and this is directly associated with increased risk behavior when drinking. In contrast, associations between positive urgency and risk behaviors are indirect via increased alcohol consumption. Positive affectivity exhibited both inverse and positive effects in the model, with the net effect on alcohol outcomes being insignificant. These findings contribute important information about the distinct pathways between affect, alcohol use, and alcohol-involved risk behavior among college students. PMID:22770825

  13. Relationship between alcohol intake, body fat, and physical activity – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (p<0.05), had significantly lower BMI (P<0.01) and body weight (p<0.01) than controls, non drinkers. Those with hazardous alcohol consumption had significantly less physical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406

  14. Development of an Interface System Based on Hand Gesture Recognition for Electrical Appliance Operation in Daily Life Scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Jun-Ichi; Tozawa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Akio

    We develop an interface system using hand gestures to operate electrical appliances intuitively in a daily life scene. Hand-waving detected in the image is used as a cue to start the system, to distinguish gestures based on the user's intension of operation from other daily-life motions, and to specify the position of the user's hand. Hand-waving detection is implemented based on combination of dynamic background subtraction method and skin color extraction. In addition, we focus on changes of brightness value in each pixel. The user selects a target appliance to operate by pointing out with a hand under a ceiling camera with fisheye lens. The appliance within the region that the user indicates is decided as target one. A PTZ camera is also used to zoom in the user's hand area and to observe hand gestures. The shape of the hand is basically recognized using HLAC features. We add a size of hand region as a new feature to the HLAC and employ a coarse-to-fine strategy using image pyramid. Robustness and the success rate of gesture recognition, consequently, are improved. In this paper, we prepare seven types of hand shapes to operate the channel of TV. Effectiveness of the proposed system is shown through experiments.

  15. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  16. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or

  17. A hand-held electronic tongue based on fluorometry for taste assessment of tea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Richie L C; Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Chen, Po-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Yi; Nieh, Chi-Hua; Cheng, Tzong-Jih

    2010-12-15

    A hand-held electronic tongue was developed for determining taste levels of astringency and umami in tea infusions. The sensing principles are based on quenching the fluorescence of 3-aminophthalate by tannin, and the fluorogenic reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) with amino acids to determine astringency and umami levels, respectively. Both reactions were measured by a single fluorescence sensing system with same excitation and emission wavelengths (340/425 nm). This work describes in detail the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a hand-held fluorometer with an ultra-violet light emitted diode (UVLED) and a photo-detector with a filter built-in. The dimension and the weight of proposed electronic tongue prototype are only 120×60×65 mm(3) and 150 g, respectively. The detection limits of this prototype for theanine and tannic acid were 0.2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients of this prototype compared with a commercial fluorescence instrument are both higher than 0.995 in determinations of tannin acid and theanine. Linear detection ranges of the hand-held fluorometer for tannic acid and theanine are 1-20 μg/ml and 0.2-10 μg/ml (CV<5%, n=3), respectively. A specified taste indicator for tea, defined as ratio of umami to astringency, was adopted here to effectively distinguish flavour quality of partially fermented Oolong teas. PMID:20728331

  18. Children of Alcoholics: A School-Based Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Connie K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines differences between 4th-6th grade children of alcoholics (COAs) and non-COAs on measures of internalized shame, self-esteem, perceived support, and teacher behavior ratings. No significant differences were found on measures of social support and shame; however self-esteem and teacher ratings for COAs were significantly lower. Gender…

  19. Alcohol Expectancy Multiaxial Assessment: A Memory Network-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Mark S.; Darkes, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Despite several decades of activity, alcohol expectancy research has yet to merge measurement approaches with developing memory theory. This article offers an expectancy assessment approach built on a conceptualization of expectancy as an information processing network. The authors began with multidimensional scaling models of expectancy space,…

  20. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  1. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-02-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  2. Triphosgene–Amine Base Promoted Chlorination of Unactivated Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Ayala, Caitlan E.; Watson, Christopher B.; Kartika, Rendy

    2014-01-01

    Unactivated α-branched primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols have been successfully transformed into their corresponding alkyl chlorides in high yields upon treatment with a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine in dichloromethane at reflux. These mild chlorination conditions are high yielding, stereospecific, and well tolerated by numerous sensitive functionalities. Furthermore, no nuisance waste products are generated in the course of the reactions. PMID:23496045

  3. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  4. The Genetics of Alcohol Dependence: Advancing Towards Systems-based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, RHC; McGeary, JE; Francazio, S; Raphael, BJ; Lander, AD; Heath, AC; Knopik, VS

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Personalized treatment for psychopathologies, in particular alcoholism, is highly dependent upon our ability to identify patterns of genetic and environmental effects that influence a person’s risk. Unfortunately, array-based whole genome investigations into heritable factors that explain why one person becomes dependent upon alcohol and another does not, have indicated that alcohol’s genetic architecture is highly complex. That said, uncovering and interpreting the missing heritability in alcohol genetics research has become all the more important, especially since the problem may extend to our inability to model the cumulative and combinatorial relationships between common and rare genetic variants. As numerous studies begin to illustrate the dependency of alcohol pharmacotherapies on an individual’s genotype, the field is further challenged to identify new ways to transcend agnostic genomewide association approaches. We discuss insights from genetic studies of alcohol related diseases, as well as issues surrounding alcohol’s genetic complexity and etiological heterogeneity. Finally, we describe the need for innovative systems-based approaches (Systems Genetics) that can provide additional statistical power that can enhance future gene-finding strategies and help to identify heretofore-unrealized mechanisms that may provide new targets for prevention/treatments efforts. Emerging evidence from early studies suggest that Systems Genetics has the potential to organize our neurological, pharmacological, and genetic understanding of alcohol dependence into a biologically plausible framework that represents how perturbations across evolutionarily robust biological systems determine susceptibility to alcohol dependence. PMID:22854292

  5. Actin-based motility of Listeria: Right-handed helical trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, Murali

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes recruit cellular machinery to move in and between cells. Understanding the mechanism of motility, including force and torque generation and the resultant displacements, holds keys to numerous applications in medicine and biosensing. In this work, a simple back-of-the-envelope calculation is presented to illustrate that a biomechanical model of actin-based motility of a rigid surface through persistently attached filaments propelled by affinity-modulated molecular motors can produce a right-handed helical trajectory consistent with experimental observations. The implications of the mechanism to bacterial motility are discussed.

  6. Family-based study of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphism in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to a family of proteins related to the nerve growth factor family, which are responsible for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of neurons. BDNF is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addiction. We hypothesize that a functionally relevant polymorphism of the BDNF gene promoter may be associated with the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence. We performed an association study of 141 families with alcohol dependence. One hundred and thirty-eight healthy control subjects were matched based on ethnicity and gender. An association between the BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism and alcoholism was not found. PMID:21098877

  7. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  8. Connectivity-Based Predictions of Hand Motor Outcome for Patients at the Subacute Stage After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lindow, Julia; Domin, Martin; Grothe, Matthias; Horn, Ulrike; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Lotze, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Connectivity-based predictions of hand motor outcome have been proposed to be useful in stroke patients. We intended to assess the prognostic value of different imaging methods on short-term (3 months) and long-term (6 months) motor outcome after stroke. Methods: We measured resting state functional connectivity (rsFC), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and grip strength in 19 stroke patients within the first days (5–9 days) after stroke. Outcome measurements for short-term (3 months) and long-term (6 months) motor function was assessed by the Motricity Index (MI) of the upper limb and the box and block test (BB). Patients were predominantly mildly affected since signed consent was necessary at inclusion. We performed a multiple stepwise regression analysis to compare the predictive value of rsFC, DWI and clinical measurements. Results: Patients showed relevant improvement in both motor outcome tests. As expected grip strength at inclusion was a predictor for short- and long-term motor outcome as assessed by MI. Diffusion-based tract volume (DTV) of the tracts between ipsilesional primary motor cortex and contralesional anterior cerebellar hemisphere showed a strong trend (p = 0.05) for a predictive power for long-term motor outcome as measured by MI. DTV of the interhemispheric tracts between both primary motor cortices was predictive for both short- and long-term motor outcome in BB. rsFC was not associated with motor outcome. Conclusions: Grip strength is a good predictor of hand motor outcome concerning strength-related measurements (MI) for mildly affected subacute patients. Therefore additional connectivity measurements seem to be redundant in this group. Using more complex movement recruiting bilateral motor areas as an outcome parameter, DTV and in particular interhemispheric pathways might enhance predictive value of hand motor outcome. PMID:27014032

  9. San Mateo County's Server Information Program (S.I.P.): A Community-Based Alcohol Server Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John

    The field of alcohol server awareness and training has grown dramatically in the past several years and the idea of training servers to reduce alcohol problems has become a central fixture in the current alcohol policy debate. The San Mateo County, California Server Information Program (SIP) is a community-based prevention strategy designed to…

  10. Spatiotemporal representation of 3D hand trajectory based on beta-elliptic models.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Houcine; Rezzoug, Nasser; Kherallah, Monji; Gorce, Philippe; Alimi, Adel M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to model the hand trajectory during grasping by an extension in 3D of the 2D written language beta-elliptic model. The interest of this model is that it takes into account both geometric and velocity information. The method relies on the decomposition of the task space trajectories in elementary bricks. The latter is characterized by a velocity profile modelled with beta functions and a geometry modelled with elliptic shapes. A data base of grasping movements has been constructed and the errors of reconstruction were assessed (distance and curvature) considering two variations of the beta-elliptic model ('quarter ellipse' and 'two tangents points' method). The results showed that the method based on two tangent points outperforms the quarter ellipse method with average and maximum relative errors of 2.73% and 8.62%, respectively, and a maximum curvature error of 9.26% for the former. This modelling approach can find interesting application to characterize the improvement due to a rehabilitation or teaching process by a quantitative measurement of hand trajectory parameters. PMID:25199025

  11. A sensory feedback system for prosthetic hand based on evoked tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Liu, X X; Chai, G H; Qu, H E; Lan, N

    2015-08-01

    The lack of reliable sensory feedback has been one of the barriers in prosthetic hand development. Restoring sensory function from prosthetic hand to amputee remains a great challenge to neural engineering. In this paper, we present the development of a sensory feedback system based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) at the stump skin of residual limb induced by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The system could map a dynamic pattern of stimuli to an electrode placed on the corresponding projected finger areas on the stump skin. A pressure transducer placed at the tip of prosthetic fingers was used to sense contact pressure, and a high performance DSP processor sampled pressure signals, and calculated the amplitude of feedback stimulation in real-time. Biphasic and charge-balanced current pulses with amplitude modulation generated by a multi-channel laboratory stimulator were delivered to activate sensory nerves beneath the skin. We tested this sensory feedback system in amputee subjects. Preliminary results showed that the subjects could perceive different levels of pressure at the tip of prosthetic finger through evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with distinct grades and modalities. We demonstrated the feasibility to restore the perceptual sensation from prosthetic fingers to amputee based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with TENS. PMID:26736798

  12. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  13. Preparation and properties of low boiling point of alcohol and acetone-based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishiyama, H.; Jeyadevan, B.

    1999-07-01

    Ultra-fine magnetic particles are difficult to be dispersed in low boiling point solvents such as alcohol (C 1-C 4) and acetone. In this paper, we report the preparation methods of several alcohol and acetone-based magnetic fluids. The stability of magnetic fluid depended on the HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance) of the solvent and alkyl chain lengths of organic layers. The fluid was most stable only when the HLB value of surfactant and the solvents are similar.

  14. [The resolution of racemic sec-phenethyl alcohol on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP: influence of different alcohols in the mobile phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lü, S; Gao, P; Li, S

    1999-07-01

    Several primary and secondary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as the mobile phase components separately, to investigate their effects on the capacity factor and stereoselectivity of sec-phenethyl alcohol enantiomers on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP. The chiral recognition mechanism for the enantiomeric aromatic alcohols studied may involve: (1) the aromatic portion of the solute may insert into a chiral cavity of the CSP through a hydrogen bonding interaction between the solute's alcoholic hydrogen and the ester carbonyl group on the CSP; (2) the mobile phase modifiers (various alcohols) compete with the solutes for chiral, as well as achiral, binding sites on the CSP; (3) the structure of the modifier has some effect on stereoselectivity through an alteration of the steric environment of the chiral cavity. PMID:12552849

  15. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and

  16. Brain Morphometry on Congenital Hand Deformities based on Teichmüller Space Theory

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Wang, Xu; Duan, Ye; Frey, Scott H.; Gu, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Congenital Hand Deformities (CHD) are usually occurred between fourth and eighth week after the embryo is formed. Failure of the transformation from arm bud cells to upper limb can lead to an abnormal appearing/functioning upper extremity which is presented at birth. Some causes are linked to genetics while others are affected by the environment, and the rest have remained unknown. CHD patients develop prehension through the use of their hands, which affect the brain as time passes. In recent years, CHD have gain increasing attention and researches have been conducted on CHD, both surgically and psychologically. However, the impacts of CHD on brain structure are not well-understood so far. Here, we propose a novel approach to apply Teichmüller space theory and conformal welding method to study brain morphometry in CHD patients. Conformal welding signature reflects the geometric relations among different functional areas on the cortex surface, which is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric, invariant under conformal deformation, and encodes complete information of the functional area boundaries. The computational algorithm is based on discrete surface Ricci flow, which has theoretic guarantees for the existence and uniqueness of the solutions. In practice, discrete Ricci flow is equivalent to a convex optimization problem, therefore has high numerically stability. In this paper, we compute the signatures of contours on general 3D surfaces with surface Ricci flow method, which encodes both global and local surface contour information. Then we evaluated the signatures of pre-central and post-central gyrus on healthy control and CHD subjects for analyzing brain cortical morphometry. Preliminary experimental results from 3D MRI data of CHD/control data demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The statistical comparison between left and right brain gives us a better understanding on brain morphometry of subjects with Congenital Hand Deformities, in particular, missing

  17. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  18. Curvelet filter based prescreener for explosive hazard detection in hand-held ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Julie L.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; Parker, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards, above and below ground, are a serious threat to civilians and soldiers. In an attempt to mitigate these threats, different forms of explosive hazard detection (EHD) exist; e.g., multi-sensor hand-held platforms, downward looking and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. Robust detection of these threats resides in the processing and fusion of different data from multiple sensing modalities, e.g., radar, infrared, electromagnetic induction (EMI), etc. Herein, we focus on a new energy-based prescreener in hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). First, we Curvelet filter B-scan signal data using either Reverse-Reconstruction followed by Enhancement (RRE) or selectivity with respect to wedge information in the Curvelet transform. Next, we aggregate the result of a bank of matched filters and run a size contrast filter with Bhattacharyya distance. Alarms are then combined using weighted mean shift clustering. Results are demonstrated in the context of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve performance on data from a U. S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of the day.

  19. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:21647354

  20. Adaptive estimation of hand movement trajectory in an EEG based brain-computer interface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Neethu; Guan, Cuntai; Vinod, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The various parameters that define a hand movement such as its trajectory, speed, etc, are encoded in distinct brain activities. Decoding this information from neurophysiological recordings is a less explored area of brain-computer interface (BCI) research. Applying non-invasive recordings such as electroencephalography (EEG) for decoding makes the problem more challenging, as the encoding is assumed to be deep within the brain and not easily accessible by scalp recordings. Approach. EEG based BCI systems can be developed to identify the neural features underlying movement parameters that can be further utilized to provide a detailed and well defined control command set to a BCI output device. A real-time continuous control is better suited for practical BCI systems, and can be achieved by continuous adaptive reconstruction of movement trajectory than discrete brain activity classifications. In this work, we adaptively reconstruct/estimate the parameters of two-dimensional hand movement trajectory, namely movement speed and position, from multi-channel EEG recordings. The data for analysis is collected by performing an experiment that involved center-out right-hand movement tasks in four different directions at two different speeds in random order. We estimate movement trajectory using a Kalman filter that models the relation between brain activity and recorded parameters based on a set of defined predictors. We propose a method to define these predictor variables that includes spatial, spectral and temporally localized neural information and to select optimally informative variables. Main results. The proposed method yielded correlation of (0.60 ± 0.07) between recorded and estimated data. Further, incorporating the proposed predictor subset selection, the correlation achieved is (0.57 ± 0.07, p {\\lt }0.004) with significant gain in stability of the system, as well as dramatic reduction in number of predictors (76%) for the savings of computational

  1. Design and Validation of a Morphing Myoelectric Hand Posture Controller Based on Principal Component Analysis of Human Grasping

    PubMed Central

    Segil, Jacob L.; Weir, Richard F. ff.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal myoelectric prosthetic hand should have the ability to continuously morph between any posture like an anatomical hand. This paper describes the design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping. The controller commands continuously morphing hand postures including functional grasps using between two and four surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes pairs. Four unique maps were developed to transform the EMG control signals in the principal component domain. A preliminary validation experiment was performed by 10 nonamputee subjects to determine the map with highest performance. The subjects used the myoelectric controller to morph a virtual hand between functional grasps in a series of randomized trials. The number of joints controlled accurately was evaluated to characterize the performance of each map. Additional metrics were studied including completion rate, time to completion, and path efficiency. The highest performing map controlled over 13 out of 15 joints accurately. PMID:23649286

  2. The use of hand-constructed graphs in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories for kinematics instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbs, Marcus A.

    This study seeks to extend the work done by Brasell and Beichner on the effect of the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) on the quality of instruction in kinematics. In this thesis, we investigate the idea that the automatic graphing process involved in a typical kinematics MBL has a black box effect on student understanding. In order to make students focus on the values that create the graph, a group of students first experienced kinematic graphs by drawing by hand before performing the MBL as normal. After testing this treatment with 246 students (141 received treatment, 105 were kept as a control), the results showed that there was a slightly positive but insignificant difference in gains between the two groups (p = 0.362), as measured by Beichner's Test for Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K).

  3. Improving the discrimination of hand motor imagery via virtual reality based visual guidance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Choi, Kup-Sze; Qin, Jing; Pang, Wai-Man; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-08-01

    While research on the brain-computer interface (BCI) has been active in recent years, how to get high-quality electrical brain signals to accurately recognize human intentions for reliable communication and interaction is still a challenging task. The evidence has shown that visually guided motor imagery (MI) can modulate sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in humans, but how to design and implement efficient visual guidance during MI in order to produce better event-related desynchronization (ERD) patterns is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of using object-oriented movements in a virtual environment as visual guidance on the modulation of sensorimotor EEG rhythms generated by hand MI. To improve the classification accuracy on MI, we further propose an algorithm to automatically extract subject-specific optimal frequency and time bands for the discrimination of ERD patterns produced by left and right hand MI. The experimental results show that the average classification accuracy of object-directed scenarios is much better than that of non-object-directed scenarios (76.87% vs. 69.66%). The result of the t-test measuring the difference between them is statistically significant (p = 0.0207). When compared to algorithms based on fixed frequency and time bands, contralateral dominant ERD patterns can be enhanced by using the subject-specific optimal frequency and the time bands obtained by our proposed algorithm. These findings have the potential to improve the efficacy and robustness of MI-based BCI applications. PMID:27282228

  4. Home-based alcohol prevention program for parents and children: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mares, S H W; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A; Verdurmen, J; Schulten, I; Engels, R C M E

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based alcohol prevention program to delay initiation of alcohol use in children. Methods In 2011, a total of 1349 sixth-grade children (M=12.15, SD=0.47) and their mothers who could read and write Dutch were recruited from primary schools in the northern part of the Netherlands. They participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial with two conditions; (1) intervention group (5 modules which families received by mail every 4weeks over 5months), (2) control group (a factsheet information brochure). An independent statistician allocated the schools to the conditions (allocation ratio (1:1)). Participants and data-analyst were blind to randomization. The primary outcome was alcohol initiation. Results Of the participants, 680 were randomized to the intervention and 669 to the control condition. In the intervention condition (N=540) 5.4% of the children drank alcohol compared to 7.1% in the control condition (N=601). The difference was not significant (OR=.99, 95% CI=.96-1.02, p=52). Conclusion The present study showed no effects of 'In control: No alcohol!' on alcohol initiation. A critical evaluation of program design and content, and future studies in different target groups, are suggested. The trial is registered at trialregister.nl, number NTR2474. PMID:27143498

  5. Reducing youth access to alcohol: findings from a community-based randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Robert L; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, M J; Biglan, Anthony; Kraft, Anne; Black, Carol; Hanley, Sean M; Ringwalt, Christopher; Wiesen, Chris; Ruscoe, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se. PMID:22688848

  6. Reducing Youth Access to Alcohol: Findings from a Community-Based Randomized Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Grube, Joel W.; Paschall, M.J.; Biglan, Anthony; Kraft, Anne; Black, Carol; Hanley, Sean; Ringwalt, Christopher; Wiesen, Chris; Ruscoe, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se. PMID:22688848

  7. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  8. Use of Novel Technology-Based Techniques to Improve Alcohol-Related Outcomes in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Eugenia M.; Kenna, George A.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the biologic basis of alcohol dependence and the considerable financial burden of alcohol abuse and dependence, the number of alcohol-related clinical pharmacotherapy trials has been on the rise. Subsequently, the potential to find efficacious treatments is more promising. Unfortunately, alcohol-related trials face a number of challenges, as a result of the difficulties that arise from traditional and outdated methods to collect data and ensure medication adherence. Novel technology-based assessments, such as ecological momentary assessment, interactive voice response, transdermal sensor and medication-event monitoring system provide a prospective solution—albeit not without possible concerns—to the difficulties faced in alcohol-related clinical trials. Clinical trials are meant to define the efficacy of the treatment and to determine an effective and safe dosage. However, due to lack of adherence a drug could inappropriately or mistakenly be judged as ineffective for treating a specific disorder. The described technologies may be important tools to prevent false negatives in validating drug efficacy, to provide consistency in clinical trials and to improve available data regarding the study of pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:23955872

  9. Feedback from recently returned veterans on an anonymous web-based brief alcohol intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) are at increased risk for alcohol misuse, and innovative methods are needed to improve their access to alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBI). This study adapted an electronic SBI (e-SBI) website shown to be efficacious in college students for OEF/OIF veterans and reported findings from interviews with OEF/OIF veterans about their impressions of the e-SBI. Methods Outpatient veterans of OEF/OIF who drank ≥3 days in the past week were recruited from a US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Deployment Health Clinic waiting room. Veterans privately pretested the anonymous e-SBI then completed individual semistructured audio-recorded interviews. Their responses were analyzed using template analysis to explore domains identified a priori as well as emergent domains. Results During interviews, all nine OEF/OIF veterans (1 woman and 8 men) indicated they had received feedback for risky alcohol consumption. Participants generally liked the standard-drinks image, alcohol-related caloric and monetary feedback, and the website’s brevity and anonymity (a priori domains). They also experienced challenges with portions of the e-SBI assessment and viewed feedback regarding alcohol risk and normative drinking as problematic, but described potential benefits derived from the e-SBI (emergent domains). The most appealing e-SBIs would ensure anonymity and provide personalized transparent feedback about alcohol-related risk, consideration of the context for drinking, strategies to reduce drinking, and additional resources for veterans with more severe alcohol misuse. Conclusions Results of this qualitative exploratory study suggest e-SBI may be an acceptable strategy for increasing OEF/OIF veteran access to evidenced-based alcohol SBI. PMID:23186354

  10. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  11. Novel Composite Right/Left-Handed Metamaterial-Based Leaky-Wave Transmission-Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Mohammed Reza Mahmoodi

    The focus of this dissertation is on the design procedure as well as analysis of a very interesting category of metamaterial-based structures namely composite right/left-handed (CRLH) Leaky-wave (LW) transmission-lines (TL). As a result several unique CRLH-TLs are designed and presented. Each of the discussed CRLH LW-TLs has exceptional and beneficial characteristics, which is only realizable due to their composite right/left-handed nature and dispersion characteristics. The operation mechanism of CRLH-TL is explained in the first chapter by the overview of the theory behind the CRLH concept. The dispersion diagram of a CRLH unit-cell shows that the phase constant (beta) is a non-linear function of frequency with a beta = 0 point at a non-zero frequency. Furthermore, a CRLH-TL supports left-handed slow-wave (guided-wave) and fast-wave (leaky-wave) modes, where the phase velocity and the group velocity are anti-parallel and phase advanced is achievable, as well as right-handed slow-wave and fast-wave modes, where the two velocities are parallel and phase delay can be observed. The subject of the second chapter is conformal CRLH LW-TLs. The effect of conformation of a planar uniform CRLH LW-TL on a convex and a concave surface are investigated. It is shown when the CRLH LW-TL is operating in the fast-wave region the conformation affects its radiation characteristics and the radiation pattern becomes wider in both convex and concave cases. A dispersion engineering method is introduced to modify the conformal structure such that it provides comparable performance to that of the planar version in terms of radiation characteristics. Then taking advantage of the proposed modification method a multifunctional electronically controlled conformal CRLH LW-TL is introduced in a later part of this chapter. Varactor diodes are introduced in the unit-cells to electronically control its guided and radiation characteristics. This CRLH-TL has the ability to operate partially in the

  12. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies. Results We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites containing homeolog-specific polymorphisms (HSPs): ‘HSP base Assignment using NGS data through Diploid Similarity’ (HANDS). We show that HANDS correctly predicts subgenome-specific base-identity at >90% of assayed HSPs in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcriptome, thus providing a substantial increase in accuracy versus previous methods for homeolog-specific base assignment. Conclusion We conclude that HANDS enables rapid and accurate genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity, a capability having multiple applications in polyploid genomics. PMID:24063258

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  14. Evaluation of human hand thermal images using wavelet transform based local spatial features - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Suganthi, S S; Ramakrishnan, S

    2013-01-01

    Transform-based spatial analyses of medical Infrared (IR) images are found to be useful to extract local information, which can be used to identify the abnormalities associated with in region of interest. In this work, human hand infrared images are analyzed by extracting local spatial features using wavelet transform method. The images for this study were acquired using uncooled micro bolometer with focal plane array technology based medical IR camera with dedicated software having high array resolution and spectral response under controlled protocol. The acquired images were decomposed into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition. Extrema points were detected using eight connected neighbor window method and interpolated using thin plate spline interpolation technique to generate IMFs. The edge information were extracted from local phase of the first IMF. Edges were detected using phase congruency measure by applying Gabor function based wavelet transform. The results showed that it was possible to detect edges from only the first IMF without being influenced by other IMFs. It was further observed that the edge intermittence that arises due to noise component was reduced by treating images with local phase distributions. Hence, it appears that the edge information extraction could enhance the diagnostic relevance of thermal image analysis. PMID:23686173

  15. Chlorhexidine alcohol base mouthrinse versus Chlorhexidine formaldehyde base mouthrinse efficacy on plaque control: Double blind, randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Lakhdar, Leila; Bouziane, Amal; Bensouda, Yahia; Abouqal, Redouane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine is well known for its antiplaque effect. However, the mouthrinse based chlorhexidine antiplaque efficiency may vary according to the formulation of the final product. The aim of the present study was to compare anti-plaque effectiveness of two commercial mouthrinses: 0.12 % Chlorhexidine alcohol base (CLX-A) versus a diluted 0.1% Chlorhexidine non-alcohol base with 0.1% of Formaldehyde (CLX-F). Material and Methods: the study was a seven day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 30 volunteers. At the start, all participants received a dental prophylaxis. Over 7 days experimental non-brushing period, during which subjects abstained from all forms of mechanical oral hygiene, one group test rinsed twice daily with 15ml of an alcohol base 0.12% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The second group test used 15ml of alcohol free 0.1% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse base 0.1% formaldehyde twice daily. The negative control group used a placebo. Plaque indexes were recorded in all volunteers prior to treatment at Day 0, 1 and 7. Results: After 7 days, the mean plaque index for the first group was 0.76±0.38 compared with a mean plaque index of 1.43±0.56 for the second group. The difference in plaque scores between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that rinsing with an alcohol base 0.12% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse is significantly different from rinsing with an alcohol free 0.1% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque inhibition. Key words:Chlorhexidine, dental plaque, mouthrinse, alcohol, formaldehyde. PMID:23229237

  16. Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking cannot fully explain the epidemiologic characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, particularly for those who rarely smoke, but COPD risk is not less than men. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women. Methods We used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Bureau claims data in 1999, and cross-checked using criteria set by the American Thoracic Society; there were 33 women with chronic bronchitis, 182 with probable chronic bronchitis, and 205 with no chronic bronchitis during our interview time between 2000 and 2005. We measured second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by self-reported measures (household users and duration of exposure), and validated this by measuring urinary cotinine levels of a subset subjects. Classification of chronic bronchitis was also based on spirometry defined according to the GOLD guidelines to get the severity of COPD. Results Women who smoked and women who had been exposed to a lifetime of SHS were 24.81-fold (95% CI: 5.78-106.38) and 3.65-fold (95% CI: 1.19-11.26) more likely to have chronic bronchitis, respectively, than those who had not been exposed to SHS. In addition, there was a significant increasing trend between the severity of COPD and exposure years of SHS (p < 0.01). The population attributable risk percentages of chronic bronchitis for smokers and those exposed to SHS were 23.2 and 47.3% respectively. Conclusions These findings indicate that, besides cigarette smoking, exposure to SHS is a major risk factor for chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women. PMID:20109222

  17. Two Fully Automated Web-Based Interventions for Risky Alcohol Use: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strüber, Evelin

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is a widespread problem in many countries, especially among young people. To reach more people engaging in high-risk drinking behaviors, a number of online programs have been developed in recent years. Change Your Drinking is a German, diary-based, fully automated alcohol intervention. In 2010, a revised version of the program was developed. It is more strongly oriented to concepts of relapse prevention than the previous version, includes more feedback, and offers more possibilities to interact with the program. Moreover, the program duration was extended from 10 to 14 days. Objective This paper examines whether the revised version of Change Your Drinking is more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than the original version. Methods The effectiveness of both program versions was compared in a Web-based, open, randomized controlled trial with follow-up surveys 6 weeks and 3 months after registration. Participants were recruited online and were randomly assigned to either the original or the revised version of Change Your Drinking. The following self-assessed outcomes were used: alcohol use days, alcohol intake in grams, the occurrence of binge drinking and risky drinking (all referring to the past 7 days prior to each survey), and the number of alcohol-related problems. Results A total of 595 participants were included in the trial. Follow-up rates were 58.0% after 6 weeks and 49.6% after 3 months. No significant group differences were found in any of the outcomes. However, the revised version was used by more participants (80.7%) than the original version (55.7%). A significant time effect was detected in all outcomes (alcohol use days: P=.002; alcohol intake in grams: P<.001; binge drinking: P<.001; alcohol-related problems: P=.004; risky drinking: P<.001). Conclusions The duration and complexity of the program played a minor role in reducing alcohol consumption. However, differences in program usage between the versions

  18. Life cycle-based water assessment of a hand dishwashing product: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Gert; Buyle, Bea; Kounina, Anna; Humbert, Sebastien

    2013-10-01

    It is only recently that life cycle-based indicators have been used to evaluate products from a water use impact perspective. The applicability of some of these methods has been primarily demonstrated on agricultural materials or products, because irrigation requirements in food production can be water-intensive. In view of an increasing interest on life cycle-based water indicators from different products, we ran a study on a hand dishwashing product. A number of water assessment methods were applied with the purpose of identifying both product improvement opportunities, as well as understanding the potential for underlying database and methodological improvements. The study covered the entire life cycle of the product and focused on environmental issues related to water use, looking in-depth at inventory, midpoint, and endpoint methods. "Traditional" water emission driven methods, such as freshwater eutrophication, were excluded from the analysis. The use of a single formula with the same global supply chain, manufactured in 1 location was evaluated in 2 countries with different water scarcity conditions. The study shows differences ranging up to 4 orders in magnitude for indicators with similar units associated with different water use types (inventory methods) and different cause-effect chain models (midpoint and endpoint impact categories). No uncertainty information was available on the impact assessment methods, whereas uncertainty from stochastic variability was not available at the time of study. For the majority of the indicators studied, the contribution from the consumer use stage is the most important (>90%), driven by both direct water use (dishwashing process) as well as indirect water use (electricity generation to heat the water). Creating consumer awareness on how the product is used, particularly in water-scarce areas, is the largest improvement opportunity for a hand dishwashing product. However, spatial differentiation in the inventory and

  19. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  20. Do Hands-On, Technology-Based Activities Enhance Learning by Reinforcing Cognitive Knowledge and Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korwin, Anthony R.; Jones, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The geodesic dome concept was presented to 25 eighth graders through reading and a hands-on group assignment and to 25 via reading and lecture. Pre/posttest results showed that organized hands-on activities increased learning and retention of technological concepts. (SK)

  1. High power efficiency distributed oscillator based on composite-right-/left-handed unit cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, Stefan; Bartolucci, Giancarlo

    2015-09-01

    A microwave oscillator topology based on CRLH (Composite Right-/Left-Handed) unit cells is analyzed theoretically and experimentally tested. The oscillator consists of a CRLH based distributed amplifier and a positive feedback realized by a simple transmission line. The oscillator has two output ports, where the power levels are practically the same. For this topology, we have found the oscillation condition and we demonstrate that each transistor gives the same contribution to the power delivered at the two output ports, in this way, the output power is maximized. The oscillator has been designed for a frequency of oscillation of 2.8 GHz and fabricated in hybrid technology, by using InGaAs HEMTs and microstrip lines. The measured powers at the two output ports are equal to 12.6 dBm and 10.4 dBm, the small difference between these values being given by the insertion loss of the gate line. The experimental frequency of oscillation is 2.77 GHz, with a difference of less than 1% in comparison with the expected value. Due to the frequency selectivity of the CRLH unit cells, numerical simulations predict low phase noise for this configuration of oscillator.

  2. Advanced Maintenance Simulation by Means of Hand-Based Haptic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nappi, Michele; Paolino, Luca; Ricciardi, Stefano; Sebillo, Monica; Vitiello, Giuliana

    Aerospace industry has been involved in virtual simulation for design and testing since the birth of virtual reality. Today this industry is showing a growing interest in the development of haptic-based maintenance training applications, which represent the most advanced way to simulate maintenance and repair tasks within a virtual environment by means of a visual-haptic approach. The goal is to allow the trainee to experiment the service procedures not only as a workflow reproduced at a visual level but also in terms of the kinaesthetic feedback involved with the manipulation of tools and components. This study, conducted in collaboration with aerospace industry specialists, is aimed to the development of an immersive virtual capable of immerging the trainees into a virtual environment where mechanics and technicians can perform maintenance simulation or training tasks by directly manipulating 3D virtual models of aircraft parts while perceiving force feedback through the haptic interface. The proposed system is based on ViRstperson, a virtual reality engine under development at the Italian Center for Aerospace Research (CIRA) to support engineering and technical activities such as design-time maintenance procedure validation, and maintenance training. This engine has been extended to support haptic-based interaction, enabling a more complete level of interaction, also in terms of impedance control, and thus fostering the development of haptic knowledge in the user. The user’s “sense of touch” within the immersive virtual environment is simulated through an Immersion CyberForce® hand-based force-feedback device. Preliminary testing of the proposed system seems encouraging.

  3. Self-powered electrospinning apparatus based on a hand-operated Wimshurst generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wen-Peng; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Yan, Xu; Yu, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Yan, Shi-Ying; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-03-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a self-powered electrospinning setup based on a hand-operated Wimshurst generator. The new device has better applicability and portability than a typical conventional electrospinning setup because it is lightweight and can work without an external power supply. Experimental parameters of the apparatus such as the minimum number of handle turns to generate enough energy to spin, rotation speed of the handle and electrospinning distance were investigated. Different polymers such as polystyrene (PS), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) were electrospun into ultrathin fibers successfully by this apparatus. The stability, reliability, and repeatability of the new apparatus demonstrate that it can be used as not only a demonstrator for an electrospinning process, but also a beneficial complement to conventional electrospinning especially where or when without a power supply, and may be used in wound healing and rapid hemostasis, etc.A conventional electrospinning setup cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a self-powered electrospinning setup based on a hand-operated Wimshurst generator. The new device has better applicability and portability than a typical conventional electrospinning setup because it is lightweight and can work without an external power supply. Experimental parameters of the apparatus such as the minimum number of handle turns to generate enough energy to spin, rotation speed of the handle and electrospinning distance were investigated. Different polymers such as polystyrene (PS), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) were electrospun into ultrathin fibers successfully by this apparatus. The stability, reliability, and repeatability of the new apparatus demonstrate that it can be used as not only a demonstrator

  4. Reducing Children's Susceptibility to Alcohol Use: Effects of a Home-Based Parenting Program.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M; Choi, Seulki; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children's cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; mean age of 9.2 years at baseline) completed telephone interviews prior to randomization and follow-up interviews 12, 24, 36, and 48 months post-baseline. Mothers of children randomized to treatment received a 5-month-long parenting program during year 1, followed by two 1-month-long boosters in years 2 and 3. Exposure to the program was significantly inversely associated with susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline (b = -0.03, p = .04), with no variation in program effects by parental alcohol use or mother's race/ethnicity or education, suggesting broad public health relevance of the parenting program. Path analyses of simple indirect effects through each hypothesized mediator showed that program exposure positively influenced parental communication to counter pro-drinking influences in the family and media domains and parental rule setting 36 months post-baseline; these variables, in turn, predicted reduced susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline. Parallel (multiple) mediation analysis showed that the program had a significant indirect effect on susceptibility through parental rule setting. Together, the findings indicate that internalization of protective alcohol-related expectancies and intentions is possible among children whose mothers provide early exposure to alcohol-specific socialization. Additional research is needed to link alcohol-specific socialization during childhood with adolescent drinking outcomes. PMID:27154767

  5. Alcohol Use to Facilitate a Suicide Attempt: An Event-Based Examination

    PubMed Central

    Bagge, Courtney L.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Reed, Louren; Dawkins, Milton; Murray, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The current study is based on the hypothesis that alcohol-involved suicide attempts are characterized by lower premeditation and intent, but only when the use of alcohol is not motivated by the desire to facilitate the attempt. Test of this idea was conducted by comparing proximal suicide premeditation and intent of suicide attempts among three groups: individuals who (a) drank to facilitate the attempt (e.g., to “numb fears” about attempting), (b) drank for nonfacilitative motives, and (c) did not use alcohol before the attempt. Method: Participants included 324 (62% female) recent suicide attempters presenting to a Level 1 trauma hospital. The Timeline Followback Interview for Suicide Attempts and a novel Suicide Facilitative Drinking Motives Scale were used to assess facilitative motives for drinking and characteristics of the attempt. Results: One third of participants drank before the attempt, and most (73%) who used alcohol did not do so to facilitate the attempt. As hypothesized, attempts carried out by this group had shorter proximal suicide premeditation and lower suicide intent compared with the other study groups; in contrast, individuals who drank to facilitate the attempt were similar to non–alcohol users on these indices. Conclusions: Alcohol-involved suicide attempts are heterogeneous. Motives for drinking are a key source of heterogeneity insofar as fundamental characteristics of attempts (proximal premeditation, intent) differ as a function of drinking motivation. Clinical implications include that individuals making suicide attempts with facilitative motives for drinking cannot be assumed to be at lowered risk upon a drop in blood alcohol level. PMID:25978835

  6. Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Differences in Alcohol-Related Harm: A Population-Based Study of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Antai, D.; Lopez, G. B.; Antai, J.; Anthony, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and associated alcohol-related harm (ARH) are a prevalent and important public health problem, with alcohol representing about 4% of the global burden of disease. A discussion of ARH secondary to alcohol consumption necessitates a consideration of the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking pattern. This study examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and self-reported ARH. Pearson chi-square test (χ2) and logistic regression analyses were used on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). The NCS-R is a cross-sectional nationally representative sample. Data was obtained by face-to-face interviews from 9282 adults aged ≥18 years in the full sample, and 5,692 respondents in a subsample of the full sample. Results presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Alcohol drinking patterns (frequency of drinking, and drinks per occasion) were associated with increased risks of self-reported ARH; binge or “risky” drinking was strongly predictive of ARH than other categories of drinks per occasion or frequency of drinking; and men had significantly higher likelihood of ARH in relation to frequency of drinking and drinks per occasion. Findings provide evidence for public health practitioners to target alcohol prevention strategies at the entire population of drinkers. PMID:25057502

  7. Antimicriobial resistance patterns of colonizing flora on nurses' hands in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Heather A.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of an alcohol-based handrub for health care worker hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hand hygiene product and skin condition on the antimicrobial resistance patterns of colonizing hand flora among nurses. Methods Colonizing hand flora of 119 nurses working in 2 neonatal intensive care units was compared during a 22-month crossover study using alcohol handrub or antiseptic soap. Results Altogether, 1442 isolates from 834 hand cultures (mean, 7 cultures/nurse) were obtained. In 3 of 9 regression analyses modeling for resistant staphylococcal flora, the use of antiseptic soap was a significant predictor of resistance, and nurses with damaged skin were 2.79 times more likely to carry Staphylococcus warneri isolates resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion Hand hygiene product and skin condition may influence resistance patterns of hand flora of care providers. PMID:17482994

  8. Working Hand in Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Sean

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Urban Tech, a New York City-based organization that works with schools to teach students the life skills it believes are necessary for academic achievement and workforce readiness. Its Youth Leadership Academy program uses a variety of computer-based, interactive elements to educate students on such topics…

  9. Robotic Mission to Mars: Hands-on, minds-on, web-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Naomi; Goktogen, Ali; Rankin, John; Anderson, Marion

    2012-11-01

    Problem-based learning has been demonstrated as an effective methodology for developing analytical skills and critical thinking. The use of scenario-based learning incorporates problem-based learning whilst encouraging students to collaborate with their colleagues and dynamically adapt to their environment. This increased interaction stimulates a deeper understanding and the generation of new knowledge. The Victorian Space Science Education Centre (VSSEC) uses scenario-based learning in its Mission to Mars, Mission to the Orbiting Space Laboratory and Primary Expedition to the M.A.R.S. Base programs. These programs utilize methodologies such as hands-on applications, immersive-learning, integrated technologies, critical thinking and mentoring to engage students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and highlight potential career paths in science and engineering. The immersive nature of the programs demands specialist environments such as a simulated Mars environment, Mission Control and Space Laboratory, thus restricting these programs to a physical location and limiting student access to the programs. To move beyond these limitations, VSSEC worked with its university partners to develop a web-based mission that delivered the benefits of scenario-based learning within a school environment. The Robotic Mission to Mars allows students to remotely control a real rover, developed by the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR), on the VSSEC Mars surface. After completing a pre-mission training program and site selection activity, students take on the roles of scientists and engineers in Mission Control to complete a mission and collect data for further analysis. Mission Control is established using software developed by the ACRI Games Technology Lab at La Trobe University using the principles of serious gaming. The software allows students to control the rover, monitor its systems and collect scientific data for analysis. This program encourages

  10. Can the emotion of disgust be harnessed to promote hand hygiene? Experimental and field-based tests.

    PubMed

    Porzig-Drummond, Renata; Stevenson, Richard; Case, Trevor; Oaten, Megan

    2009-03-01

    Two studies carried out in Sydney, Australia explored whether inducing disgust may be a useful addition to hand-hygiene interventions. Experiment 1 employed a novel laboratory measure of hand hygiene, and tested whether a brief (3-min) video-based intervention using disgust/education, improved hand hygiene relative to education alone and a control condition. On test, a week later, the disgust intervention significantly exceeded the education and control condition combined, although the effect size was modest. Experiment 2 examined the generality of this effect in a field study. During a baseline period, soap and paper towel use in a series of washrooms were covertly monitored. This was followed by an intervention period, in which two washrooms received disgust/education-based posters and a further two, educational posters, exhorting participants to wash their hands. A follow-up period, after the posters were removed, was also monitored. The disgust-based intervention was significantly better at promoting hand hygiene. These findings suggest that even brief disgust-based interventions may be successful and that these can be tested and developed under laboratory conditions. PMID:19181428

  11. Self-powered electrospinning apparatus based on a hand-operated Wimshurst generator.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Peng; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Yan, Xu; Yu, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Di; Yan, Shi-Ying; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-03-19

    A conventional electrospinning setup cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a self-powered electrospinning setup based on a hand-operated Wimshurst generator. The new device has better applicability and portability than a typical conventional electrospinning setup because it is lightweight and can work without an external power supply. Experimental parameters of the apparatus such as the minimum number of handle turns to generate enough energy to spin, rotation speed of the handle and electrospinning distance were investigated. Different polymers such as polystyrene (PS), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) were electrospun into ultrathin fibers successfully by this apparatus. The stability, reliability, and repeatability of the new apparatus demonstrate that it can be used as not only a demonstrator for an electrospinning process, but also a beneficial complement to conventional electrospinning especially where or when without a power supply, and may be used in wound healing and rapid hemostasis, etc. PMID:25744100

  12. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Dry Syngas to Ethanol and Higher Alcohols on Cu-Based Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Smith, Miranda L.; Spivey, James J.

    2011-04-19

    Ethanol and higher alcohols have been identified as potential fuel additives or hydrogen carriers for use in fuel cells. One method of ethanol production is catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of CO, H₂, CO₂, and H₂O), derived from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Thermodynamics of CO hydrogenation shows that ethanol is favored as the sole product at conditions of practical interest, but if methane is allowed as product in this analysis, essentially no ethanol is formed at equilibrium. The kinetics of ethanol formation must therefore be maximized. Although rhodium-based catalysts give C{sup 2+} oxygenates with high selectivity, their prohibitive cost has spurred research on less expensive copper-based alternatives. Copper-based catalysts require an optimum amount of promoter to suppress undesired reactions and maximize the yields of ethanol and higher alcohols. Common promoters include alkali, transition metals and their oxides, and rare earth oxides. Careful selection of operating variables is also necessary to achieve the desired activity and selectivity. This review describes the effects of promoters, supports, and operating conditions on the performance of copper-based catalysts for conversion of dry syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols. Proposed mechanisms from the literature for ethanol and higher-alcohol synthesis are outlined.

  13. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  14. Mediators of Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.

    2007-01-01

    A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…

  15. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  16. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and published its most recent previous determination for the 2010 amount in the Federal Register of December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68282). The Commission uses official statistics... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  17. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... its notice instituting this investigation in the Federal Register of March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and..., 2010 (75 FR 82069). By order of the Commission. James R. Holbein, Secretary. BILLING CODE 7020-02-P ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  18. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  19. Static hand gesture recognition based on finger root-center-angle and length weighted Mahalanobis distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinghao; Shi, Chenbo; Liu, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Static hand gesture recognition (HGR) has drawn increasing attention in computer vision and human-computer interaction (HCI) recently because of its great potential. However, HGR is a challenging problem due to the variations of gestures. In this paper, we present a new framework for static hand gesture recognition. Firstly, the key joints of the hand, including the palm center, the fingertips and finger roots, are located. Secondly, we propose novel and discriminative features called root-center-angles to alleviate the influence of the variations of gestures. Thirdly, we design a distance metric called finger length weighted Mahalanobis distance (FLWMD) to measure the dissimilarity of the hand gestures. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of our proposed HGR framework.

  20. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  1. Stable and real-time hand gesture recognition based on RGB-D data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Guijin; Chen, Xinghao; He, Bei

    2013-12-01

    Hand gesture recognition has attracted more interest in computer vision and image processing recently. Recent works for hand gesture recognition confronted 2 major problems. The former one is how to detect and extract the hand region from color-confusing background objects. The latter one is the expensive computational cost by considering the kinematic hand model with up to 27 degrees of freedom. This paper proposes a stable and real-time static hand gesture recognition system. Our contributions are listed as follows. First, to deal with color-confusing background objects, we take the RGB-D (RGB-Depth) information into account, where foreground and background objects can be segmented well. Additionally, a coarse-to-fine model is proposed, which utilizes the skin color and helps us extract the hand region robustly and accurately. Second, considering the principal direction of hand region is random, we introduce the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm to estimate and then compensate the direction. Finally, to avoid the expensive computational cost of traditional optimization, we design a fingertip filter and detect extended fingers via calculating their distances to palm center and curvature easily. Then the number of extended fingers will be reported, which corresponds to the recognition result. Experiments have verified the stability and high-speed of our algorithm. On the data set captured by the depth camera, our algorithm recognizes the 6 pre-defined static hand gestures robustly with average accuracy about 98.0%. Furthermore, the average computational time for each image (with the resolution 640×480) is 37ms, which can be extended to many real-time applications.

  2. Examining Perceptions of a Smartphone-Based Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Samantha; King, Diane K.; Dulin, Patrick; Gonzalez, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study presents results from qualitative interviews conducted with participants in a study on the effectiveness of the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A), a smartphone-based, stand-alone intervention application (app) for adults with alcohol use disorders. Materials and Methods: Participants were provided an LBMI-A-enabled smartphone to use during a 6-week pilot study. The LBMI-A was composed of psychoeducational modules, assessment and feedback of alcohol use patterns, geographic high-risk location monitoring and alerts, and in vivo assessment and intervention for alcohol cravings and help with managing psychological distress. Semistructured interviews were conducted with all participants following 6 weeks of interacting with the LBMI-A app (n=26). Interviews explored user perceptions of the ease and utility of LBMI-A features, module helpfulness, barriers to use, and recommendations for improvements to the program. Researchers applied a systematic qualitative coding process to transcripts that included both a priori themes identified as important by the research team and new themes that emerged during the coding process. Results and Conclusions: Narrative analysis found the emergence of five main themes identified by LBMI-A users as the most helpful functions of the phone: (1) Awareness, (2) Accountability, (3) Skill Transference, (4) Tracking Progress, and (5) Prompts. These themes are explored, and implications of these findings for future smartphone-based interventions are discussed. PMID:25243480

  3. [Quantitative aspects of the percutaneous uptake of wool wax alcohols (cetyl alcohol) and paraffins (octadecane) from different ointment bases].

    PubMed

    Zesch, A; Bauer, E

    1985-01-01

    Since topical vehicles are partly responsible for the effects of active agents--both the wanted and the unwanted effects--attempt was made to obtain quantitative data on the possible penetration of cetyl alcohol contained in an aqueous hydrophilie cream (DAB 8) and in a wool fat alcohol ointment (lanoline) (DAB 8). Also the behaviour of the long-chained hydrocarbon, paraffin (octadecan), in these vehicles and in petrolatum (DAB 8) was studied. We found that the emulsifying agent in a W/O emulsion was detectable in the epidermis in low concentrations after 100 min, but the same agent in O/W emulsions only after 1000 min. It is, therefore, unlikely that cetyl alcohol penetrates the intact skin in allergicologically relevant concentrations. However, with diseased skin, a marked percutaneous absorption of cetyl alcohol, but not with paraffin, must be expected. PMID:3987517

  4. A Systematic Review of School-Based Alcohol and other Drug Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Agabio, Roberta; Trincas, Giuseppina; Floris, Francesca; Mura, Gioia; Sancassiani, Federica; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use in adolescents constitutes a major public health concern. Europe is the heaviest drinking region of the world. Several school-based alcohol prevention programs have been developed but it is not clear whether they are really effective. The present study was aimed at identifying the typology with the best evidence of effectiveness in European studies. Methods: A systematic search of meta-analyses and/or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on interventions school-based prevention programs aimed at preventing alcohol consumption or changing the attitudes to consume alcohol. Results: A meta-analysis published in 2011 and 12 RCTs more recently published were identified. The meta-analysis evaluated 53 RCTs but only 11.3% of them were conducted in Europe. Globally, 23 RCTs (43.4%) showed some evidence of effectiveness, and 30 RCTs (56.6%) did not find significant difference between the groups. According to the conclusions of the meta-analysis, the Unplugged program should be considered as a practice option in Europe. Among the other 12 RCTs, 42% were conducted in Europe. Globally, 7 studies (58.3%) achieved positive results, and 5 studies (41.7%) did not find significant differences or produced a mixed pattern of results. Three of the 5 European trials (60%) used the Unplugged program with positive results. Conclusion: Even if further studies should be conducted to confirm these results, Unplugged appears to be the prevention project with the best evidence of effectiveness in European studies. PMID:25834630

  5. Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A.H.; Abeyasinge, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure the drinking pattern before and at 6 and 24 months after the intervention in males over 18 years of age in both villages. The recall and the impact of various components of the intervention were assessed at 24 months post-intervention. Results: The intervention was associated with the development of an active community action group in the village and a significant reduction in illicit alcohol outlets. The drama component of the intervention had the highest level of recall and preference. Comparing the control and intervention villages, there were no significant difference between baseline drinking patterns and the AUDIT. There was a significant reduction in the AUDIT scores in the intervention village compared with the control at 6 and 24 months (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A community-based education program had high acceptance and produces a reduction in alcohol use that was sustained for 2 years. PMID:23161893

  6. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  7. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  8. Preventing Alcohol Problems Through a Student Assistance Program: A Manual for Implementation Based on the Westchester County, New York Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Gerald; And Others

    This manual was designed to provide school administrators, counselors, teachers, parent groups, and community members with a comprehensive school-based program for preventing alcohol problems. Detection and intervention before the onset of alcohol and drug problems is stressed. Modeled after employees' assistance programs used to identify and aid…

  9. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: 3-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over 9 weeks. Non- and low-risk…

  10. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  11. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1 years.…

  12. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  13. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  14. Depth Camera-Based 3D Hand Gesture Controls with Immersive Tactile Feedback for Natural Mid-Air Gesture Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangtaek; Kim, Joongrock; Choi, Jaesung; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user's hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern) that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE), 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping) gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user's gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback. PMID:25580901

  15. Depth camera-based 3D hand gesture controls with immersive tactile feedback for natural mid-air gesture interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangtaek; Kim, Joongrock; Choi, Jaesung; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user's hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern) that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE), 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping) gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user's gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback. PMID:25580901

  16. Development of a theory-based instrument to identify barriers and levers to best hand hygiene practice among healthcare practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A theoretical approach to assessing the barriers and levers to evidence-based practice (EBP) with subsequent tailoring of theoretically informed strategies to address these may go some way to positively influencing the delay in implementing research findings into practice. Hand hygiene is one such example of EBP, chosen for this study due to its importance in preventing death through healthcare associated infections (HCAI). The development of an instrument to assess barriers and levers to hand hygiene and to allow the subsequent tailoring of theoretically informed implementation strategies is reported here. Methods A comprehensive list of barriers and levers to hand hygiene were categorised to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in a Delphi survey. These items formed the basis of an instrument that was tested to establish validity and reliability. The relationship between self-reported compliance with hand hygiene and barriers and levers to hand hygiene was also examined along with compliance according to where the barriers and levers fit within the domains of the TDF framework. Results A 33-item instrument that tested well for internal consistency (α = 0.84) and construct validity (χ2/df = 1.9 [p < 0.01], RMSEA = 0.05 and CFA = 0.84) was developed. The relationship between self-reported compliance with hand hygiene moderately correlated with barriers identified by participants (total barrier score) (r = 0.41, n = 276, p <0.001). The greater the number of barriers reported, the lower the level of compliance. A one-way between groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed to investigate differences between those adopting high or low compliance with hand hygiene. Compliance was highest for this sample of participants among practitioners with high levels of motivation, strong beliefs about capabilities, when there were positive social influences, when hand hygiene was central to participants’ sense of

  17. Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Ae, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Michiyo; Kimura, Yumiko; Yonekawa, Chikara; Hayashi, Shunji; Morisawa, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care. PMID:27236515

  18. An evaluation, using computerized image analysis, of antimicrobial efficacy of an automatic hand washing machine with ultrasonic wave spraying.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, S; Namura, S; Mitsuya, K; Asada, Y

    1993-10-01

    We studied the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing with a quick-dry hand washing machine [TE-KIREIKI] employing ultrasonic wave spraying and its incidental alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E]. The subjects of this study were 10 males who had been instructed not to use any antimicrobial agent for the previous 2 weeks or any hand soap for the previous 5 hours. They pressed their palms on agar before and after washing their hands. After 48-hour incubation at 37 degrees C, the bacterial colonies grown on the agar were counted using the [ASPECT] image processing system. The colony count was expressed as the post-stamp versus pre-stamp percent (%) reduction. Two patterns of hand washing were examined in this study: [A] a 3-second hand wash using an alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E] and [B] a 30-second hand wash using a nonmedicated detergent soap with running water in addition to hand washing by [A]. The percent (%) reduction after hand washing patterns [A] and [B] were 49.1% and 51.3%. These reduction rates indicated that these patterns did not eradicate bacteria from the hand surface. Therefore, we concluded that this quick-dry hand washing machine employing an ultrasonic wave spraying method combined with an alcohol-based product needs improvement. PMID:8277045

  19. Epidemiological features of alcohol use in rural India: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to estimate the proportion of adults in Sehore District, India, who consumed alcohol, and the proportion who had behaviours consistent with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among men who drank, we identified individual-level, household-level and community-level factors associated with AUDIT scores. Men with AUDs (AUDIT score ≥8) reported on whether and where they had sought treatment, and about alcohol-related internal stigma. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Rural villages and urban wards in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants n=3220 adult (≥18 years of age) residents of Sehore District. Primary outcome measure Score on the AUDIT. Results Nearly one in four men (23.8%) had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, while few (0.6%) women were consumers. Among drinkers, 33.2% (95% CI 28.6% to 38.1%) had AUDIT scores consistent with hazardous drinking, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1% to 5.1%) with harmful drinking and 5.5% (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%) with dependent drinking. We observed that AUDIT scores varied widely by village (intraclass correlation=0.052). Among men who had recently consumed alcohol, AUDIT scores were positively associated with depression, having at least one child, high-quality housing, urban residence, tobacco use and disability. AUDIT scores were negatively associated with land ownership, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and participation in the national employment programme. While 49.2% of men with AUDs felt embarrassed by their problems with alcohol, only 2.8% had sought treatment in the past 12 months. Conclusions A need exists for effectively identifying and treating adults with AUDs. Health promotion services, informed by commonly-expressed stigmatised beliefs held among those affected by AUDs and which are targeted at the most affected communities, may be an effective step in closing the treatment gap. PMID:26685035

  20. A Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkku, Leigh E.; Mengel, Mark B.; Nicholson, Robert A.; Hile, Matthew G.; Morris, Daniel S.; Salas, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Despite warnings that drinking during pregnancy is unsafe, many women are still at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). This article describes the outcomes of a web-based, self-guided change intervention designed to lower the risk for AEPs in a community. A sample of 458 women, between the ages of 18 and 44 years and at risk for an AEP…

  1. Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in alcohol solutions: Calorimetry of solution, IR-spectroscopy and vapor pressure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    The properties of solutes and their reactivity in aliphatic alcohols significantly depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, calorimetric, FTIR-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic vapor pressure studies of hydrogen bonds of weak bases in solution of aliphatic alcohols were carried out. Enthalpies of solutions at infinite dilution of ketones, nitriles and acetates in methanol and octan-1-ol were measured. Obtained from the calorimetric data, the enthalpies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols unexpectedly found to be positive. IR spectra of solutions of ketones in aliphatic alcohols at infinite dilution were measured at different temperatures. Enthalpies of specific interaction in studied systems obtained from the spectroscopic data confirmed the endothermic process and are in good agreement with calorimetric results. Gibbs energies and entropies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols were determined. Obtained results show, that the hydrogen bonding process of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols differs substantially from the formation of complexes 1:1 ROH⋯B (B - weak proton acceptor) in aprotic media. The complicated process of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols apparently is controlled by the entropy factor, because these values are above zero.

  2. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cumore » (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.« less

  3. Catalytic conversion of syngas to mixed alcohols over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongwu; Yu, Fei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2012-04-12

    Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas was studied in a half-inch tubular reactor system after the catalyst was reduced. Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The liquid phase products (alcohol phase and hydrocarbon phase) were analyzed by GC-MS and the gas phase products were analyzed by GC. The results showed that Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst had high catalytic activity and high alcohol selectivity. The maximal CO conversion rate was 72%, and the yield of alcohol and hydrocarbons were also very high. Cu (111) was the active site for mixed alcohols synthesis, Fe2C (101) was the active site for olefin and paraffin synthesis. The reaction mechanism of mixed alcohols synthesis from syngas over Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst was proposed. Here, Zn-Mn promoted Cu-Fe based catalyst can be regarded as a potential candidate for catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas to mixed alcohols.

  4. Quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a split-ring-resonator-based left-handed coplanar waveguide.

    PubMed

    Veldes, G P; Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2011-04-01

    We study the propagation of quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a nonlinear left-handed coplanar waveguide coupled with split-ring resonators. By considering the relevant transmission line analog, we derive a nonlinear lattice model which is studied analytically by means of a quasidiscrete approximation. We derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and find that the system supports bright envelope soliton solutions in a relatively wide subinterval of the left-handed frequency band. We perform systematic numerical simulations, in the framework of the nonlinear lattice model, to study the propagation properties of the quasidiscrete microwave solitons. Our numerical findings are in good agreement with the analytical predictions, and suggest that the predicted structures are quite robust and may be observed in experiments. PMID:21599327

  5. EEG-based discrimination between imagination of left and right hand movements using Adaptive Gaussian Representation.

    PubMed

    Costa, E J; Cabral, E F

    2000-06-01

    This article uses the Adaptive Gaussian Representation (AGR) for human electroencephalogram (EEG) feature extraction aiming the discrimination among mental tasks to be used in a brain computer interface (BCI). It does not focus on the AGR time-frequency representation, but rather on their projection coefficients. Ten volunteers were asked to imagine either right or left hand movement, according to a proper visual stimulus. The features of the resulting EEG signals were characterised by extracting AGR coefficients. Classification was carried out using a Multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with the classical backpropagation algorithm. Overall results show that AGR coefficients representation is able to reveal a significant EEG discrimination between imagination of right and left hand movement with a mean classification performance of 91%+/-5.8% achieved for female subjects and 87%+/-5.0% achieved for male subjects. PMID:11121767

  6. Motivation to change and treatment attendance as predictors of alcohol-use outcomes among project-based Housing First residents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Malone, Daniel K; Larimer, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Collins et al. (2012) indicated that time spent in a project-based Housing First (HF) intervention was associated with improved two-year alcohol-use trajectories among chronically homeless individuals with alcohol problems. To explore potential correlates of these findings, we tested the relative prediction of alcohol-use outcomes by motivation to change (MTC) and substance abuse treatment attendance. Participants (N=95) were chronically homeless individuals with alcohol problems receiving a project-based HF intervention in the context of a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (Larimer et al., 2009). Participants were interviewed regularly over the two-year follow-up. Treatment attendance and MTC were measured using items from the Addiction Severity Index and the SOCRATES, respectively. Alcohol-use outcomes included alcohol quantity, problems and dependence. Generalized estimating equation modeling indicated that MTC variables and not treatment attendance consistently predicted alcohol-use outcomes over the two-year follow-up. Findings suggest that the importance of motivation to change may outweigh treatment attendance in supporting alcohol behavior change in this population. PMID:22513197

  7. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape. PMID:24085070

  8. Superficial circumflex iliac artery pure skin perforator-based superthin flap for hand and finger reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hara, Hisako; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Araki, Jun; Yamashita, Shuji; Koshima, Isao

    2016-06-01

    For hand and finger reconstruction, thin and flexible skin coverage is ideally required. A free flap is one of the surgical options used for large defects. However, a flap containing the fat layer is bulky. Several debulking surgeries are often needed for aesthetic and functional purposes. To overcome this disadvantage, we herein report our experience of six cases of hand and finger reconstruction using a pure skin perforator (PSP) flap concept. A PSP flap is a thin skin flap that is vascularized by a perforator branch penetrating the dermis. The thickness of the PSP flap could be approximately ≤2 mm as needed. The superficial circumflex iliac artery and superficial inferior epigastric artery were used as a flap pedicle. Secondary defatting operations were not required. For the success of PSP flap elevation, we applied three techniques: the microdissection technique for vessel separation, thin flap elevation at the superficial fascial layer, and the temporary clamping method. Temporary clamping was applied for the main trunk of pedicle vessels during debulking to prevent unwanted bleeding, which allowed us to freely perform three-dimensional defatting. Using these three techniques, the PSP flap can be elevated and adjusted for complex contouring of the hand and finger. Although the use of the PSP flap requires further study, the PSP flap is an effective, superthin flap with the advantages of both skin graft and perforator flaps. PMID:27085610

  9. Differentiating prenatal exposure to methamphetamine and alcohol versus alcohol and not methamphetamine using tensor based brain morphometry and discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Leow, Alex D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Smith, Lynne M.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Kan, Eric; Rosso, Carly; Houston, Suzanne; Dinov, Ivo D.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) on local brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Because many who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined whether local brain volumes differed among 61 children (ages 5 to 15), 21 with prenatal MA exposure, 18 with concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but not MA exposure (ALC group), and 27 unexposed controls (CON group). Volume reductions were observed in both exposure groups relative to controls in striatal and thalamic regions bilaterally, and right prefrontal and left occipitoparietal cortices. Striatal volume reductions were more severe in the MAA group than in the ALC group, and within the MAA group, a negative correlation between full-scale IQ (FSIQ) scores and caudate volume was observed. Limbic structures including the anterior and posterior cingulate, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral and lateral temporal lobes bilaterally were increased in volume in both exposure groups. Further, cingulate and right IFG volume increases were more pronounced in the MAA than ALC group. Discriminant function analyses using local volume measurements and FSIQ were used to predict group membership, yielding factor scores that correctly classified 72% of participants in jackknife analyses. These findings suggest that striatal and limbic structures, known to be sites of neurotoxicity in adult MA abusers, may be more vulnerable to prenatal MA exposure than alcohol exposure, and that more severe striatal damage is associated with more severe cognitive deficit. PMID:20237258

  10. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  11. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  12. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  13. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  14. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  15. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol based multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Nagy, L.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition over an Fe-Co/alumina catalyst. Nanotubes were then oxidized and grafted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained nanostructure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, SEM, TEM and TGA methods. FTIR confirmed the presence of the characteristic peaks of the anticipated ester group. The formation of polymer nanocomposites based on polyvinyl alcohol and multiwalled carbon nanotubes was confirmed by SEM and TEM. High resolution electron micrographs revealed that the primary binding sites for PVA grafting are the sidewall defects of the nanotubes. The novelty of this work is the use of the Fischer esterification reaction for creating the permanent link between the nanotubes and the PVA matrix.

  16. [Reducing the burden of disease caused by alcohol use in Peru: evidence- based approaches].

    PubMed

    Fiestas, Fabián

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol use is one the most important risk factors for illness and early death in Peru. Measures aimed at decreasing or controlling the great impact caused by alcohol in the Peruvian society are urgently needed. This article identifies and promotes the implementation of public health measures supported by sound scientific evidence of effectiveness or, in some cases, cost-effectiveness. The 10 evidence-based public health measures identified and described here represent a set if measures with high probability of success if implemented, as they are supported by scientific evidence. We recommend that governments, at the national or local levels, apply these measures not individually, but in combination, arranging them into a plan or roadmap, where the framework in which they will be applied must be established according to each context. Considering the available resources, some of these measures could be implemented in the short and medium term while the others can be set in the long-term. PMID:22510916

  17. Polarographic assay based on hydrogen peroxide scavenging in determination of antioxidant activity of strong alcohol beverages.

    PubMed

    Gorjanović, Stanislava Z; Novaković, Miroslav M; Vukosavljević, Predrag V; Pastor, Ferenc T; Tesević, Vele V; Suznjević, Desanka Z

    2010-07-28

    Total antioxidant (AO) activity of strong alcohol beverages such as wine and plum brandies, whiskeys, herbal and sweet fruit liqueurs have been assessed using a polarographic assay based on hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS). Rank of order of total AO activity, expressed as percentage of decrease of anodic oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide, was found analogous with total phenolic content estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) assay and radical scavenging capacity against the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Application of the assay for surveying of a quarter century long maturation of plum brandy in oak barrel was demonstrated. In addition, influence of different storage conditions on preservation of AO activity of some herbal liqueurs was surveyed. Wide area of application of this simple, fast, low cost and reliable assay in analysis and quality monitoring of various strong alcohol beverages was confirmed. PMID:20604507

  18. Producing K indices by the interactive method based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Fridrich; Váczyová, Magdaléna; Revallo, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an interactive computer method for producing K indices. The method is based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology that had been practised at Hurbanovo Geomagnetic Observatory till the end of 1997. Here, the performance of the method was tested on the data of the Kakioka Magnetic Observatory. We have found that in some ranges of the K-index values our method might be a beneficial supplement to the computer-based methods approved and endorsed by IAGA. This result was achieved for both very low (K=0) and high (K ≥ 5) levels of the geomagnetic activity. The method incorporated an interactive procedure of selecting quiet days by a human operator (observer). This introduces a certain amount of subjectivity, similarly as the traditional hand-scaling method.

  19. Awareness and Treatment of Alcohol Dependence in Japan: Results from Internet-Based Surveys in Persons, Family, Physicians and Society

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Yurie; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sasai, Ryoko; Murteira, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To understand current awareness of, and views on, treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan. Methods: (a) Nationwide internet-based survey of 520 individuals, consisting of 52 diagnosed alcohol-dependent (AD) persons, 154 potentially alcohol-dependent (ADP) persons, 104 family members and 106 friends/colleagues of AD persons, and 104 general individuals, derived from a consumer panel where the response rate was 64.3%. We enquired into awareness about the treatment of alcohol dependence and patient pathways through the healthcare network. (b) Nationwide internet-based survey of physicians (response rate 10.1% (2395/23,695) to ask 200 physicians about their management of alcohol use disorders). Results: We deduced that 10% of alcohol-dependent Japanese persons had ever been diagnosed with alcohol dependence, with only 3% ever treated. Regarding putative treatment goals, 20–25% of the AD and ADP persons would prefer to attempt to abstain, while 60–75% preferred ‘reduced drinking.’ A half of the responding physicians considered abstinence as the primary treatment goal in alcohol dependence, while 76% considered reduced drinking as an acceptable goal. Conclusion: AD and ADP persons in Japan have low ‘disease awareness’ defined as ‘understanding of signs, symptoms and consequences of alcohol use disorders,’ which is in line with the overseas situation. The Japanese drinking culture and stigma toward alcohol dependence may contribute to such low disease awareness and current challenging treatment environment. While abstinence remains the preferred treatment goal among physicians, reduced drinking seems to be an acceptable alternative treatment goal to many persons and physicians in Japan. PMID:24893604

  20. W-Disjoint Orthogonality Based Residual Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Hands-Free Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoonjae; Kim, Kihyeon; Yoon, Jongsung; Ko, Hanseok

    A simple and novel residual acoustic echo cancellation method that employs binary masking is proposed to enhance the speech quality of hands-free communication in an automobile environment. In general, the W-disjoint orthogonality assumption is used for blind source separation using multi-microphones. However, in this Letter, it is utilized to mask the residual echo component in the time-frequency domain using a single microphone. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of the echo return loss enhancement and speech enhancement.

  1. Masking Property Based Residual Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Hands-Free Communication in Automobile Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoonjae; Jeong, Seokyeong; Ko, Hanseok

    A residual acoustic echo cancellation method that employs the masking property is proposed to enhance the speech quality of hands-free communication devices in an automobile environment. The conventional masking property is employed for speech enhancement using the masking threshold of the desired clean speech signal. In this Letter, either the near-end speech or residual noise is selected as the desired signal according to the double-talk detector. Then, the residual echo signal is masked by the desired signal (masker). Experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method by deriving the echo return loss enhancement and by examining speech waveforms and spectrograms.

  2. Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity of a Computer Based Hand Function Test Protocol in People with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Srikesavan, Cynthia S.; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A computer based hand function assessment tool has been developed to provide a standardized method for quantifying task performance during manipulations of common objects/tools/utensils with diverse physical properties and grip/grasp requirements for handling. The study objectives were to determine test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the test protocol in people with arthritis. Methods: Three different object manipulation tasks were evaluated twice in forty people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or hand osteoarthritis (HOA). Each object was instrumented with a motion sensor and moved in concert with a computer generated visual target. Self-reported joint pain and stiffness levels were recorded before and after each task. Task performance was determined by comparing the object movement with the computer target motion. This was correlated with grip strength, nine hole peg test, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Results: The test protocol indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability of performance measures for three manipulation tasks, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0.5 to 0.84, p<0.05. Strength of association between task performance measures with self- reported activity/participation composite scores was low to moderate (Spearman rho <0.7). Low correlations (Spearman rho < 0.4) were observed between task performance measures and grip strength; and between three objects’ performance measures. Significant reduction in pain and joint stiffness (p<0.05) was observed after performing each task. Conclusion: The study presents initial evidence on the test retest reliability and convergent validity of a computer based hand function assessment protocol in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. The novel tool objectively measures overall task performance during a variety of object manipulation tasks done by tracking a

  3. Particle size distribution of aerosols sprayed from household hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based and silicone-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Japan has published safety guideline on waterproof aerosol sprays. Furthermore, the Aerosol Industry Association of Japan has adopted voluntary regulations on waterproof aerosol sprays. Aerosol particles of diameter less than 10 µm are considered as "fine particles". In order to avoid acute lung injury, this size fraction should account for less than 0.6% of the sprayed aerosol particles. In contrast, the particle size distribution of aerosols released by hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based or silicone-based compounds have not been investigated in Japan. Thus, the present study investigated the aerosol particle size distribution of 16 household hand-pump sprays. In 4 samples, the ratio of fine particles in aerosols exceeded 0.6%. This study confirmed that several hand-pump sprays available in the Japanese market can spray fine particles. Since the hand-pump sprays use water as a solvent and their ingredients may be more hydrophilic than those of aerosol sprays, the concepts related to the safety of aerosol-sprays do not apply to the hand pump sprays. Therefore, it may be required for the hand-pump spray to develop a suitable method for evaluating the toxicity and to establish the safety guideline. PMID:26821469

  4. Actuator based on sulfonated comb copolymer of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) grafted by poly (ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guifen; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yujun

    2007-07-01

    Comb copolymer consisting of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) as backbone and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as side chains (EVAL-g-PEG) has been synthesized, then it was sulfonated by 1,3-propane sultone to get the final ionomer (EVAL-g-SPEG), and ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) based on EVAL-g-SPEG was prepared through electroless deposition of platinum onto the surfaces of EVAL-g-SPEG membrane. The graft copolymers were characterized with respect to molecular weight using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and composition using 1H-NMR. The results showed that the No. of PEG graft of the side chains is n=1, 2 and others. Thermal properties were examined by DSC and TG. The melt temperature (T m) and glass transition temperature (T g) of the comb copolymer increase with the increasing length and the number of the side chains. Moreover, the deformation performance of IPMC material was tested and its results show that the starting response voltage of IPMC actuator decreases with the increasing IEC value. On the other hand, the starting response voltage increases with the decreased side chain length. The IPMC with n=2 side chain length of PEG has the maximum tip displacement, and the maximum tip displacement of IPMC membrane generally decreases with the side chain length of EVAL-g-SPEG. This feature may be the reflection of two opposite effects, namely the decreasing ion densities and increasing water sorption of the membrane.

  5. Promoting an Alcohol-Free Childhood: A Novel Home-Based Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Denise M.; Hayes, Kim A.; Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Lawson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Few alcohol prevention programs focus on elementary school-aged youth, yet children develop expectancies and norms about alcohol use during the elementary school years, and many elementary school children are allowed to have sips or tastes of alcohol at home. Research on consequences of early alcohol use indicates that it can put children at…

  6. Intent Inference for Hand Pointing Gesture-Based Interactions in Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashar I; Murphy, James K; Langdon, Patrick M; Godsill, Simon J; Hardy, Robert; Skrypchuk, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Using interactive displays, such as a touchscreen, in vehicles typically requires dedicating a considerable amount of visual as well as cognitive capacity and undertaking a hand pointing gesture to select the intended item on the interface. This can act as a distractor from the primary task of driving and consequently can have serious safety implications. Due to road and driving conditions, the user input can also be highly perturbed resulting in erroneous selections compromising the system usability. In this paper, we propose intent-aware displays that utilize a pointing gesture tracker in conjunction with suitable Bayesian destination inference algorithms to determine the item the user intends to select, which can be achieved with high confidence remarkably early in the pointing gesture. This can drastically reduce the time and effort required to successfully complete an in-vehicle selection task. In the proposed probabilistic inference framework, the likelihood of all the nominal destinations is sequentially calculated by modeling the hand pointing gesture movements as a destination-reverting process. This leads to a Kalman filter-type implementation of the prediction routine that requires minimal parameter training and has low computational burden; it is also amenable to parallelization. The substantial gains obtained using an intent-aware display are demonstrated using data collected in an instrumented vehicle driven under various road conditions. PMID:25935053

  7. Haptic-Based Neurorehabilitation in Poststroke Patients: A Feasibility Prospective Multicentre Trial for Robotics Hand Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Daud Albasini, Omar A.; Oboe, Roberto; Tonin, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Piron, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Background. Haptic robots allow the exploitation of known motor learning mechanisms, representing a valuable option for motor treatment after stroke. The aim of this feasibility multicentre study was to test the clinical efficacy of a haptic prototype, for the recovery of hand function after stroke. Methods. A prospective pilot clinical trial was planned on 15 consecutive patients enrolled in 3 rehabilitation centre in Italy. All the framework features of the haptic robot (e.g., control loop, external communication, and graphic rendering for virtual reality) were implemented into a real-time MATLAB/Simulink environment, controlling a five-bar linkage able to provide forces up to 20 [N] at the end effector, used for finger and hand rehabilitation therapies. Clinical (i.e., Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale; nine hold pegboard test) and kinematics (i.e., time; velocity; jerk metric; normalized jerk of standard movements) outcomes were assessed before and after treatment to detect changes in patients' motor performance. Reorganization of cortical activation was detected in one patient by fMRI. Results and Conclusions. All patients showed significant improvements in both clinical and kinematic outcomes. Additionally, fMRI results suggest that the proposed approach may promote a better cortical activation in the brain. PMID:24319496

  8. Haptic-based neurorehabilitation in poststroke patients: a feasibility prospective multicentre trial for robotics hand rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Turolla, Andrea; Daud Albasini, Omar A; Oboe, Roberto; Agostini, Michela; Tonin, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Venneri, Annalena; Piron, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Background. Haptic robots allow the exploitation of known motor learning mechanisms, representing a valuable option for motor treatment after stroke. The aim of this feasibility multicentre study was to test the clinical efficacy of a haptic prototype, for the recovery of hand function after stroke. Methods. A prospective pilot clinical trial was planned on 15 consecutive patients enrolled in 3 rehabilitation centre in Italy. All the framework features of the haptic robot (e.g., control loop, external communication, and graphic rendering for virtual reality) were implemented into a real-time MATLAB/Simulink environment, controlling a five-bar linkage able to provide forces up to 20 [N] at the end effector, used for finger and hand rehabilitation therapies. Clinical (i.e., Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale; nine hold pegboard test) and kinematics (i.e., time; velocity; jerk metric; normalized jerk of standard movements) outcomes were assessed before and after treatment to detect changes in patients' motor performance. Reorganization of cortical activation was detected in one patient by fMRI. Results and Conclusions. All patients showed significant improvements in both clinical and kinematic outcomes. Additionally, fMRI results suggest that the proposed approach may promote a better cortical activation in the brain. PMID:24319496

  9. Combining variational and model-based techniques to register PET and MR images in hand osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Derek; Tanner, Steven F.; Waller, Michael; Tan, Ai Lyn; McGonagle, Dennis; Jeavons, Alan P.

    2010-08-01

    Co-registration of clinical images acquired using different imaging modalities and equipment is finding increasing use in patient studies. Here we present a method for registering high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) data of the hand acquired using high-density avalanche chambers with magnetic resonance (MR) images of the finger obtained using a 'microscopy coil'. This allows the identification of the anatomical location of the PET radiotracer and thereby locates areas of active bone metabolism/'turnover'. Image fusion involving data acquired from the hand is demanding because rigid-body transformations cannot be employed to accurately register the images. The non-rigid registration technique that has been implemented in this study uses a variational approach to maximize the mutual information between images acquired using these different imaging modalities. A piecewise model of the fingers is employed to ensure that the methodology is robust and that it generates an accurate registration. Evaluation of the accuracy of the technique is tested using both synthetic data and PET and MR images acquired from patients with osteoarthritis. The method outperforms some established non-rigid registration techniques and results in a mean registration error that is less than approximately 1.5 mm in the vicinity of the finger joints.

  10. Cost Minimisation Using Clinic-Based Treatment for Common Hand Conditions – A Prospective Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Webb, JA; Stothard, J

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to compare the cost of treatment of Dupuytren's disease, ganglia and trigger digits in the out-patient department with the operating theatre. PATIENTS AND METHODS All patients seen in a new patient hand clinic with a diagnosis of Dupuytren's disease, trigger digit or ganglion of the wrist or hand requiring treatment were prospectively identified over a 6-month period. The numbers undergoing a procedure in the out-patient clinic or theatre were recorded. Costings of theatre time and out-patient time, as well as national tariff income, were obtained from the hospital management. RESULTS Over the 6-month period, 80, 26, and 52 patients were treated with regard to Dupuytren's disease, ganglia and trigger digits, respectively. Of these, 37, 23, and 44 were treated by an out-patient procedure, and 43, 3 and 8 underwent a formal operation. The total cost of the out-patient procedures was calculated at £1560 over 6 months. To perform these as formal operations would have cost £64,896. The cost savings were, therefore, £63,336, or £126,672 per annum. CONCLUSIONS Out-patient interventions for Dupuytren's disease, ganglia and trigger digits result in significant cost savings over formal surgical treatment. PMID:19102823

  11. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  12. [Study of the bacterial reduction effects of dry hand rubbing without disinfectant].

    PubMed

    Hira, Daichi; Ogawa, Midori; Ishii, Tatsuya; Gono, Kaishi; Sakamoto, Takuro; Yamamura, Sohei; Masumoto, Naoya; Yasutomi, Masamichi; You, Chunlin; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2014-03-01

    Handwashing is the most basic method of preventing infection. Hand rubbing with an alcohol-based handrub, is the most efficient and popular method. We found in several case studies that 3 minutes of dry hand rubbing without any disinfectant decreases the number of hand bacteria. In this study of 54 samples taken from 47 test subjects, we tried to determine how effectively this method decreases hand bacterial numbers. Except for 12 samples that were indeterminate, the number of hand bacteria in 36 (85.7%) out of 42 samples decreased. The average rate of decrease was 49.4% and the maximum rate was 98.3%. Although the most effective duration of dry hand rubbing varied among individuals, we estimated that 2 minutes is optimal. As dry hand rubbing without disinfectants decreases hand bacteria, we suggest that it can be an effective alternate method in emergency situations when water, soap or disinfectants are unavailable. PMID:24633181

  13. An automated time and hand motion analysis based on planar motion capture extended to a virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco, Hector A.; Ovalle, Alex M.; Vargas, Carlos A.; Cardona, María J.

    2015-03-01

    In the context of industrial engineering, the predetermined time systems (PTS) play an important role in workplaces because inefficiencies are found in assembly processes that require manual manipulations. In this study, an approach is proposed with the aim to analyze time and motions in a manual process using a capture motion system embedded to a virtual environment. Capture motion system tracks IR passive markers located on the hands to take the positions of each one. For our purpose, a real workplace is virtually represented by domains to create a virtual workplace based on basic geometries. Motion captured data are combined with the virtual workplace to simulate operations carried out on it, and a time and motion analysis is completed by means of an algorithm. To test the methodology of analysis, a case study was intentionally designed using and violating the principles of motion economy. In the results, it was possible to observe where the hands never crossed as well as where the hands passed by the same place. In addition, the activities done in each zone were observed and some known deficiencies were identified in the distribution of the workplace by computational analysis. Using a frequency analysis of hand velocities, errors in the chosen assembly method were revealed showing differences in the hand velocities. An opportunity is seen to classify some quantifiable aspects that are not identified easily in a traditional time and motion analysis. The automated analysis is considered as the main contribution in this study. In the industrial context, a great application is perceived in terms of monitoring the workplace to analyze repeatability, PTS, workplace and labor activities redistribution using the proposed methodology.

  14. Assessing the Usability of Web-Based Alcohol Education for Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Lorna; Osterweil, Dan; Van Draanen, Jenna; Cooke, Alexis; Beck, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults can experience unfavorable health effects from drinking at relatively low consumption levels because of age-related physiological changes and alcohol’s potentially adverse interactions with declining health, increased medication-use and diminishing functional status. At the same time, alcohol use in older adults may be protective against heart disease, stroke, and other disorders associated with aging. We developed “A Toast to Health in Later Life! Wise Drinking as We Age,” a web-based educational intervention to teach older adults to balance drinking risks and benefits. Objective To examine the intervention’s feasibility in a sample of community-dwelling current drinkers ≥55 years of age and examine its effects on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, adherence to standard drinking guidelines, and alcohol-related risks. Methods Participants were recruited in person, by mail and by telephone between September and October 2014 from a community-based social services organization serving Los Angeles County. Once enrolled, participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a control group. The conceptual frameworks for the intervention were the Health Belief Model, models of adult learning, and the US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for designing easy-to-use websites. The intervention’s content focuses on the relationship between drinking and its effects on older adults’ medical conditions, use of medications, and ability to perform daily activities. It also addresses quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking and driving and binge drinking. The control group did not receive any special intervention. Data on alcohol use and risks for both groups came from the online version of the Alcohol-Related Problems Survey and were collected at baseline and four weeks later. Data on usability were collected online from the intervention group immediately after it completed its review of the website

  15. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  16. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. PMID:25119420

  17. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  18. Difficulties with telephone-based surveys on alcohol consumption in high-income countries: the Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Accurate information concerning alcohol consumption level and patterns is vital to formulating public health policy. The objective of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which survey design, response rate and alcohol consumption coverage obtained in random digit dialling, telephone-based surveys impact on conclusions about alcohol consumption and its patterns in the general population. Our analysis will be based on the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) 2008, a national survey intended to be representative of the general population. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) ignoring people who are homeless, institutionalized and/or do not have a home phone may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related problems; (2) weighting of observations to population demographics may lead to a increase in the design effect, does not necessarily address the underlying selection bias, and may lead to overly influential observations; and (3) the accurate characterization of alcohol consumption patterns obtained by triangulating the data with the adult per capita consumption estimate is essential for comparative analyses and intervention planning especially when the alcohol coverage rate is low like in the CADUMS with 34%. PMID:22337654

  19. Severe alcoholic relapse after liver transplantation: What consequences on the graft? A study based on liver biopsies analysis.

    PubMed

    Erard-Poinsot, Domitille; Guillaud, Olivier; Hervieu, Valérie; Thimonier, Elsa; Vallin, Mélanie; Chambon-Augoyard, Christine; Boillot, Olivier; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Dumortier, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major indication for liver transplantation (LT), but up to 20% of patients experience severe alcoholic relapse. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of severe alcoholic relapse on the graft (based on histological examination) and to identify predictive factors associated with recurrent alcoholic cirrhosis (RAC). From 1990 to 2010, 369 patients underwent LT for ALD at Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France) and survived more than 1 year. All patients who presented severe alcoholic relapse and histological follow-up were included. Liver biopsies were performed at 1 and 5 years and at every 5 years after LT, and when clinically indicated. The median follow-up after LT was 11 years (range, 3-18 years). Severe alcoholic relapse was observed in 73 (20%) of the 369 patients, from whom 56 patients with histological evaluation were included. RAC was diagnosed in 18 (32%) of the 56 patients included, which represents 5% of the 369 patients transplanted for ALD. The median delay between LT and RAC was 6 years (range, 3-10 years) and 4.5 years (range, 2-8 years) after severe alcoholic relapse. The median cumulated years of alcohol use before RAC was 3.5 years (range, 2-7 years). The cumulative risk for F4 fibrosis was 15% at 3 years, 32% at 5 years, and 54% at 10 years after severe alcoholic relapse. A young age at LT (≤50 years old) and an early onset of heavy drinking (within the first 3 years after LT) were associated with RAC. In conclusion, severe alcoholic relapse usually occurs in the first years after LT and is responsible for accelerated severe graft injury. Liver Transplantation 22 773-784 2016 AASLD. PMID:26929100

  20. Hydrological landscape classification: investigating the performance of HAND based landscape classifications in a central European meso-scale catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a detailed performance and sensitivity analysis of a recently developed hydrological landscape classification method based on dominant runoff mechanisms. Three landscape classes are distinguished: wetland, hillslope and plateau, corresponding to three dominant hydrological regimes: saturation excess overland flow, storage excess sub-surface flow, and deep percolation. Topography, geology and land use hold the key to identifying these landscapes. The height above the nearest drainage (HAND) and the surface slope, which can be easily obtained from a digital elevation model, appear to be the dominant topographical controls for hydrological classification. In this paper several indicators for classification are tested as well as their sensitivity to scale and resolution of observed points (sample size). The best results are obtained by the simple use of HAND and slope. The results obtained compared well with the topographical wetness index. The HAND based landscape classification appears to be an efficient method to ''read the landscape'' on the basis of which conceptual models can be developed.

  1. Outcomes of a Pilot Hand Hygiene Randomized Cluster Trial to Reduce Communicable Infections Among US Office-Based Employees

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Cathy L.Z.; Grey, Scott F.; Kingsbury, Diana M.; Shakya, Sunita; Scofield, Jennifer; Slenkovich, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of an office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention in reducing self-reported communicable infections and work-related absence. Methods: A randomized cluster trial including an electronic training video, hand sanitizer, and educational posters (n = 131, intervention; n = 193, control). Primary outcomes include (1) self-reported acute respiratory infections (ARIs)/influenza-like illness (ILI) and/or gastrointestinal (GI) infections during the prior 30 days; and (2) related lost work days. Incidence rate ratios calculated using generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson distribution, adjusted for confounders and random cluster effects. Results: A 31% relative reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections (incidence rate ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.98). A 21% nonsignificant relative reduction in lost work days. Conclusions: An office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention demonstrated a substantive reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections. PMID:25719534

  2. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  3. UPLC/Q-TOFMS-Based Metabolomics Studies on the Protective Effect of Panax notoginseng Saponins on Alcoholic Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Bai, Xu; Ding, Ren-Bo; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Consistent, excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver injury. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible efficacy of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury using LC-MS-based urinary metabolomics. Mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as a control diet with or without PNS (200 mg/kg/BW) for 4 weeks. Treatment with PNS significantly reduced the increases in plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which induced by chronic alcohol exposure. Conversely, PNS was also found to restore the glutathione (GSH) depletion and increase the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The end-point urine sample of each mouse was collected overnight (24 h) in metabolic cages and their metabolic profiling changes were analyzed using UPLC/Q-TOFMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. After 4 week of Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet feeding, the metabolic profile experienced great perturbation in PCA score plot, and the treatment of PNS could assist to regulate the disturbed metabolic profile induced by alcohol exposure. Additionally, sixteen potential biomarkers responsible for derivations of the metabolic profile induced by alcohol exposure were identified, and the alcohol-induced changes in these biomarkers, except hexanoylglycine, could be partially or nearly reversed by PNS treatment. Taken together, PNS protects against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. Our findings demonstrated that the LC-MS-based metabolomics approach is a useful tool to investigate the efficacy of Chinese medicines. PMID:26133752

  4. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  5. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  6. Haplotype-Based Study of the Association of Alcohol Metabolizing Genes with Alcohol Dependence in Four Independent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jixia; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Mulligan, Connie J.; Wang, Alex; Gray, Rebecca R.; Roy, Alec; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David; Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by two rate limiting reactions: alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, subsequently metabolized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Approximately 50% of East Asians have genetic variants that significantly impair this pathway and influence alcohol dependence (AD) vulnerability. We investigated whether variation in alcohol metabolism genes might alter the AD risk in four non-East Asian populations by performing systematic haplotype association analyses in order to maximize the chances of capturing functional variation. Methods Haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Genotypes were available for 40 SNPs across the ADH genes cluster and 24 SNPs across the two ALDH genes in four diverse samples that included cases (lifetime AD) and controls (no Axis 1 disorders). The case, control sample sizes were: Finnish Caucasians: 232, 194; African Americans: 267, 422; Plains American Indians: 226, 110; Southwestern American (SW) Indians: 317, 72. Results In all four populations, as well as HapMap populations, five haplotype blocks were identified across the ADH gene cluster: (1) ADH5-ADH4; (2) ADH6-ADH1A-ADH1B; (3) ADH1C; (4) intergenic; (5) ADH7. The ALDH1A1 gene was defined by four blocks and ALDH2 by one block. No haplotype or SNP association results were significant after correction for multiple comparisons; however several results, particularly for ALDH1A1 and ADH4, replicated earlier findings. There was an ALDH1A1 block 1 and 2 (extending from intron 5 to the 3′ UTR) yin yang haplotype (haplotypes that have opposite allelic configuration) association with AD in the Finns driven by SNPs rs3764435 and rs2303317 respectively, and an ALDH1A1 block 3 (including the promoter region) yin yang haplotype association in SW Indians driven by 5 SNPs, all in allelic identity. The ADH4 SNP rs3762894 was associated with AD in Plains Indians. Conclusions The systematic evaluation of

  7. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-10-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  8. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  9. A relative humidity sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber coated with polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Yang, Zaihang; Zhou, Libin; Liu, Nan; Gang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Hu, Manli

    2015-12-01

    A relative humidity (RH) sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber (TCF) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.This sensor is constructed by splicing a section of TCF with a single mode fiber (SMF), then part of the TCF's cladding is etched by hydrofluoric acid solution and finally the tip of TCF is coated with PVA. Experimental results demonstrate that this sensor can measure the ambient RH by demodulating the power variation of reflection spectrum. The power demodulation method make this sensor can ignore the temperature cross-sensitivity and have an extensive application prospect.

  10. School-Based Staff Development Puts Teachers' Hands on the Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gregg; Patterson, John

    2004-01-01

    A study of those involved in school-based staff development in Australia yielded important points to consider in implementation. The school-based staff development model was most successful in schools that established support structures, created school-based staff development plans, selected their own staff development content, delivered staff…

  11. Compact planar far-field superlens based on anisotropic left-handed metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Nian-Hai; Foteinopoulou, Stavroula; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Ozbay, Ekmel; Economou, Eleftherios N.; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2009-09-01

    Pendry’s perfect lens has spurred intense interest for its practical realization at visible frequencies. However, fabrication of low-loss isotropic left-handed metamaterials is a current challenge. In this work, we theoretically show that under specific conditions anisotropic metamaterial slabs can emulate Pendry’s perfect-lens phenomenon on a plane. Geometric optics leads to a new lens formula for this special anisotropic metamaterial superlens, which allows significant shrinkage of the metamaterial slab thickness for a certain range of far-field operation. Conversely, such anisotropic metamaterial superlens with the same thickness as its isotropic analog can operate for much larger distances between object and lens. We present numerical simulations which confirm our theoretical calculations. In particular, we find subdiffraction focusing that rivals the perfect isotropic negative-index metamaterial lens performance and obeys the new lens formula as predicted. In addition, we demonstrate that it is possible to attain far-field superfocusing with a metamaterial slab as thin as half the free-space wavelength. We believe this work will inspire new anisotropic metamaterial designs and opens a promising route for the realization of compact far-field superlenses in the visible regime.

  12. Give me a sign: decoding four complex hand gestures based on high-density ECoG.

    PubMed

    Bleichner, M G; Freudenburg, Z V; Jansma, J M; Aarnoutse, E J; Vansteensel, M J; Ramsey, N F

    2016-01-01

    The increasing understanding of human brain functions makes it possible to directly interact with the brain for therapeutic purposes. Implantable brain computer interfaces promise to replace or restore motor functions in patients with partial or complete paralysis. We postulate that neuronal states associated with gestures, as they are used in the finger spelling alphabet of sign languages, provide an excellent signal for implantable brain computer interfaces to restore communication. To test this, we evaluated decodability of four gestures using high-density electrocorticography in two participants. The electrode grids were located subdurally on the hand knob area of the sensorimotor cortex covering a surface of 2.5-5.2 cm(2). Using a pattern-matching classification approach four types of hand gestures were classified based on their pattern of neuronal activity. In the two participants the gestures were classified with 97 and 74% accuracy. The high frequencies (>65 Hz) allowed for the best classification results. This proof-of-principle study indicates that the four gestures are associated with a reliable and discriminable spatial representation on a confined area of the sensorimotor cortex. This robust representation on a small area makes hand gestures an interesting control feature for an implantable BCI to restore communication for severely paralyzed people. PMID:25273279

  13. Feasibility of caregiver-directed home-based hand-arm bimanual intensive training: A brief report

    PubMed Central

    Ferre, Claudio L.; Brandão, Marina B.; Hung, Ya-Ching; Carmel, Jason B.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine feasibility of a home-based, intensive bimanual intervention with children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Methods Eleven children (aged 29–54 months) received 90 hours of home hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy (H-HABIT) provided by their trained caregivers. Parenting stress levels and compliance were monitored using the Parenting Stress Index and daily logs. Quality of bimanual performance and changes in performance/satisfaction of functional goals were assessed using the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), respectively, at two pretreatment baseline sessions and two posttreatment sessions (immediate and six months). Results Ten children completed the study with caregivers completing on average 85.6 hours of H-HABIT. Daily logs indicated high caregiver compliance. Stress levels remained stable across the intervention. Children demonstrated significant improvements in the AHA and COPM. Conclusion H-HABIT is a feasible intervention for improving hand function and merits further investigation in a randomized-control trial. PMID:25180530

  14. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students’ stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students’ patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol-­related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  15. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  16. An online EEG-based brain-computer interface for controlling hand grasp using an adaptive probabilistic neural network.

    PubMed

    Hazrati, Mehrnaz Kh; Erfanian, Abbas

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a new online single-trial EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) for controlling hand holding and sequence of hand grasping and opening in an interactive virtual reality environment. The goal of this research is to develop an interaction technique that will allow the BCI to be effective in real-world scenarios for hand grasp control. One of the major challenges in the BCI research is the subject training. Currently, in most online BCI systems, the classifier was trained offline using the data obtained during the experiments without feedback, and used in the next sessions in which the subjects receive feedback. We investigated whether the subject could achieve satisfactory online performance without offline training while the subjects receive feedback from the beginning of the experiments during hand movement imagination. Another important issue in designing an online BCI system is the machine learning to classify the brain signal which is characterized by significant day-to-day and subject-to-subject variations and time-varying probability distributions. Due to these variabilities, we introduce the use of an adaptive probabilistic neural network (APNN) working in a time-varying environment for classification of EEG signals. The experimental evaluation on ten naïve subjects demonstrated that an average classification accuracy of 75.4% was obtained during the first experiment session (day) after about 3 min of online training without offline training, and 81.4% during the second session (day). The average rates during third and eighth sessions are 79.0% and 84.0%, respectively, using previously calculated classifier during the first sessions, without online training and without the need to calibrate. The results obtained from more than 5000 trials on ten subjects showed that the method could provide a robust performance over different experiment sessions and different subjects. PMID:20510641

  17. Suicide and Other-Cause Mortality after Early Exposure to Smoking and Second Hand Smoking: A 12-Year Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Wei J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Tsai, Duujian; Lai, Te-Jen; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between smoking and suicide is still controversial, particular for early life cigarette smoking exposure. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescents using population-based cohorts, and the relationship with second hand smoking (SHS) exposure has not been addressed. Methods and Findings In this study, we followed a large population-based sample of younger people to investigate the association between smoking, SHS exposure and suicide mortality. Between October 1995 and June 1996, 162,682 junior high school students ages 11 to 16 years old living in a geographic catchment area in Taiwan were enrolled and then followed till December 2007 (1,948,432 person-years) through linkage to the National Death Certification System. Participants who were currently smoking at baseline had a greater than six-fold higher suicide mortality than those who did not smoke (29.5 vs. 4.8 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001) as well as higher natural mortality (33.7 vs. 10.3 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001). After controlling for gender, age, parental education, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and alcohol consumption, the adjusted hazard ratios for suicide were 3.69 (95% CI 1.85-7.39) in current smokers, and 1.47 (95% CI 0.94-2.30) and 2.83 (95% CI 1.54-5.20) respectively in adolescents exposed to SHS of 1-20 cigarettes and >20 cigarettes/per day. The estimated depression-adjusted odds ratio did not change substantially. The population attributable fractions for suicide associated with smoking and heavy SHS exposure (>20 cigarettes/per day) were 9.6% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions This study showed evidence of excess suicide mortality among young adults exposed to active or passive early life cigarette smoking. PMID:26222448

  18. Community-based approaches for the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Molina, M; Gorman, D M

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about community-based approaches for the prevention of ATOD problems and how the current practices in the field reflect these approaches. The first section of the chapter provides a brief summary of events early in this century when community-based approaches were central to addressing alcohol and other public health problems. The second section contains an overview of current research and empirical findings that yield consensus as to what conceptually and in practice constitutes a comprehensive, community-based prevention program for the prevention of ATOD problems. The third section reviews the literature of existing programs to assess the extent to which they include the salient elements and employ interventions determined to be fundamental to comprehensive community-based prevention programs. The final section discusses some of the challenges that confront researchers and practitioners when developing prevention initiatives and programs in high-risk environments. PMID:8724231

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Relation to Risk and Severity of Chronic Widespread Pain: Results From a UK Population‐Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Marcus; Prescott, Gordon J.; McNamee, Paul; Hannaford, Philip C.; McBeth, John; Lovell, Karina; Keeley, Phil; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; Woby, Steve; Norrie, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the reported level of alcohol consumption is associated with the likelihood of reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) and, among persons with CWP, the associated disability. Methods In a population‐based study in 2 areas of the UK, participants self‐completed a postal questionnaire. They were classified according to whether they met the American College of Rheumatology definition of CWP and whether the pain was disabling (Chronic Pain Grade III or IV). They reported their usual level of alcohol consumption. Potential confounding factors on which information was available included age, sex, cigarette smoking, employment status, self‐reported weight and height, and level of deprivation. Results A total of 13,574 persons participated (mean age 55 years, 57% women) of whom 2,239 (16.5%) had CWP; 28% reported never regularly consuming alcohol, 28% reported consuming up to 5 units/week, 20% reported 6–10 units/week, and 24% reported >10 units/week. Among persons with CWP, disability was strongly linked to level of alcohol consumption. Prevalence of disability decreased with increasing alcohol consumption up to 35 units/week (odds ratio [OR]21–35 units alcohol/week versus never drinkers 0.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.19–0.58]) adjusted for confounders. A similar relationship was found between reporting CWP and level of alcohol consumption (adjusted OR21–35 units alcohol/week versus never drinkers 0.76 [95% CI 0.61–0.94]). Conclusion This study has demonstrated strong associations between level of alcohol consumption and both CWP and related disabilities. However, the available evidence does not allow us to conclude that the association is causal. The strength of the associations means that specific studies to examine this potential relationship are warranted. PMID:26212017

  20. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  1. Incretin based therapies: A novel treatment approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaslov, Kristina; Bulum, Tomislav; Zibar, Karin; Duvnjak, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MS). The current treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) principally includes amelioration of MS components by lifestyle modifications but the lack of success in their implementation and sustainment arises the need for effective pharmacological agent in fatty liver treatment. Incretins are gut derived hormones secreted into the circulation in response to nutrient ingestion that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is the most important incretin. Its receptor agonist and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are used in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DPP-4 serum activity and hepatic expression are shown to be elevated in several hepatic diseases. There are several experimental and clinical trials exploring the efficacy of incretin based therapies in NAFLD treatment. They suggest that GLP-1 analogues might have beneficial effect on hepatic steatosis acting as insulin sensitizers and directly by stimulating GLP-1 receptors expressed on hepatocytes. The use of DPP-4 inhibitors also results in hepatic fat reduction but the mechanism of action remains unclear. There is growing evidence that incretin based therapies have beneficial effects on hepatocytes, however further study analysis are needed to assess the long term effect of incretin based therapies on NAFLD. PMID:24966606

  2. Alcohol-induced blackout as a criminal defense or mitigating factor: an evidence-based review and admissibility as scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Mark R; Caudill, David S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol-related amnesia--alcohol blackout--is a common claim of criminal defendants. The generally held belief is that during an alcohol blackout, other cognitive functioning is severely impaired or absent. The presentation of alcohol blackout as scientific evidence in court requires that the science meets legal reliability standards (Frye, FRE702/Daubert). To determine whether "alcohol blackout" meets these standards, an evidence-based analysis of published scientific studies was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were identified including nine in which an alcohol blackout was induced and directly observed. No objective or scientific method to verify the presence of an alcoholic blackout while it is occurring or to confirm its presence retrospectively was identified. Only short-term memory is impaired and other cognitive functions--planning, attention, and social skills--are not impaired. Alcoholic blackouts would not appear to meet standards for scientific evidence and should not be admissible. PMID:23692320

  3. Selective antibacterial activity of patchouli alcohol against Helicobacter pylori based on inhibition of urease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Jian-Hui; Wang, Yong-Hong; Li, Yu-Cui; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Ji-Yan; Liang, Ye-er; Liang, Jin-Zhi; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and urease inhibitory effects of patchouli alcohol (PA), the bioactive ingredient isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, which has been widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The activities of PA against selected bacteria and fungi were determined by agar dilution method. It was demonstrated that PA exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori, without influencing the major normal gastrointestinal bacteria. Noticeably, the antibacterial activity of PA was superior to that of amoxicillin, with minimal inhibition concentration value of 78 µg/mL. On the other hand, PA inhibited ureases from H.pylori and jack bean in concentration-dependent fashion with IC50 values of 2.67 ± 0.79 mM and 2.99 ± 0.41 mM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that the type of inhibition was non-competitive against H.pylori urease whereas uncompetitive against jack bean urease. Reactivation of PA-inactivated urease assay showed DL-dithiothreitol, the thiol reagent, synergistically inactivated urease with PA instead of enzymatic activity recovery. In conclusion, the selective H.pylori antibacterial activity along with urease inhibitory potential of PA could make it a possible drug candidate for the treatment of H.pylori infection. PMID:25243578

  4. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent. PMID:25057467

  5. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  6. Effect of an alcohol-based caries detector on the surface tension of sodium hypochlorite preparations.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Guastalli, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an alcohol-based caries detector (Kurakay) on the surface tension of a conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparation, and a product containing a surface-active agent (Chlor-XTRA). The surface tensions of the following solutions were tested: NaOCl, a mixture of NaOCl and Kurakay 9:1 w/w, Chlor-XTRA, a mixture of Chlor-XTRA and Kurakay 9:1 w/w. Ten measurements per test solution were made at 20°C, using an optical method called the "Pendant drop method", with a commercially available apparatus. The addition of Kurakay reduced the surface tension for NaOCl (p<0.05) whilst no significant difference was detected for Chlor-XTRA (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences between the NaOCl and Chlor-XTRA groups were found (p<0.05). The addition of an alcohol-based caries detector resulted in a reduction of the original surface tension values for NaOCl only. Taking into account the fact that mixtures of NaOCl and Kurakay have been used to assess the penetration of root canal irrigants in vitro, the related changes in surface tension are a possible source of bias. PMID:25672387

  7. Full-hand 3D non-contact scanner using sub-window-based structured light-illumination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalla, Veeraganesh; Hassebrook, Laurence; Daley, Ray; Boles, Colby; Troy, Mike

    2012-06-01

    Fingerprint identification is a well-regarded and widely accepted modality in the field of biometrics for its high recognition rates. Legacy 2D contact based methods, though highly evolved in terms of technology suffer from certain drawbacks. Being contact based, there are many known issues which affect the recognition rates. Flashscan3D/University of Kentucky (UKY) developed state of the art 3D non-contact fingerprint scanners using different structured light illumination (SLI) techniques namely SLI single Point Of View (POV) and the SLI Subwindowing techniques. Capturing the fingerprints by non-contact means in 3D gives much higher quality fingerprint data which ultimately improves matching rates over a traditional 2D approach. In this paper, we present a full hand 3D non-contact scanner using the SLI Sub-windowing technique. Sample fingerprint data and experimental results for fingerprint matching based on a small sample 3D fingerprint test set are presented.

  8. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; Bieber, Nora; Kampf, Guenter; Toma, Cyril D; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A), 85% (hand-rub B) and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w). For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A), 630 mg (B), and 358 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.9% (C). After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A), 1542 mg (B), and 477 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.5% (C). The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min), after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes). Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe. PMID:17927841

  9. “The 3/3 Strategy”: A Successful Multifaceted Hospital Wide Hand Hygiene Intervention Based on WHO and Continuous Quality Improvement Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gabriel; Berbel, Cristina; Tortajada, Purificación; Alarcia, Margarita; Coca, Roser; Gallemi, Gema; Garcia, Irene; Fernández, Mari Mar; Aguilar, Mari Carmen; Martínez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Background Only multifaceted hospital wide interventions have been successful in achieving sustained improvements in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Methodology/Principal Findings Pre-post intervention study of HH performance at baseline (October 2007– December 2009) and during intervention, which included two phases. Phase 1 (2010) included multimodal WHO approach. Phase 2 (2011) added Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) tools and was based on: a) Increase of alcohol hand rub (AHR) solution placement (from 0.57 dispensers/bed to 1.56); b) Increase in frequency of audits (three days every three weeks: “3/3 strategy”); c) Implementation of a standardized register form of HH corrective actions; d) Statistical Process Control (SPC) as time series analysis methodology through appropriate control charts. During the intervention period we performed 819 scheduled direct observation audits which provided data from 11,714 HH opportunities. The most remarkable findings were: a) significant improvements in HH compliance with respect to baseline (25% mean increase); b) sustained high level (82%) of HH compliance during intervention; c) significant increase in AHRs consumption over time; c) significant decrease in the rate of healthcare-acquired MRSA; d) small but significant improvements in HH compliance when comparing phase 2 to phase 1 [79.5% (95% CI: 78.2–80.7) vs 84.6% (95% CI:83.8–85.4), p<0.05]; e) successful use of control charts to identify significant negative and positive deviations (special causes) related to the HH compliance process over time (“positive”: 90.1% as highest HH compliance coinciding with the “World hygiene day”; and “negative”:73.7% as lowest HH compliance coinciding with a statutory lay-off proceeding). Conclusions/Significance CQI tools may be a key addition to WHO strategy to maintain a good HH performance over time. In addition, SPC has shown to be a powerful methodology to detect special causes in HH performance (positive

  10. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  11. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  12. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  13. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  14. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  15. Designing and Implementing a Hands-On, Inquiry-Based Molecular Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regassa, Laura B.; Morrison-Shetlar, Alison I.

    2007-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning was used to enhance an undergraduate molecular biology course at Georgia Southern University, a primarily undergraduate institution in rural southeast Georgia. The goal was to use a long-term, in-class project to accelerate higher-order thinking, thereby enabling students to problem solve and apply their knowledge to novel…

  16. All Hands on Deck: Ten Lessons from Early Adopters of Competency-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The perceived value of postsecondary education to economic competitiveness and individual success is driving innovation in higher education. Competency-based education (CBE) is the latest disruption that seeks to respond to the growing sense of national urgency to boost education attainment. The target audience generally includes those adult…

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROSOLS FROM A WATER-BASED CLEANER APPLIED WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests that were performed in a controlled-environment test room to measure particle concentrations and size distributions and concentrations of selected volatily organic compounds during, and following, application of water-based cleaners to realistic s...

  18. Synthesis of higher alcohols over highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts derived from layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinyou; Fang, Kegong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-05-15

    Highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts with Fe/Cu molar ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1 were prepared via thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors and tested for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) via CO hydrogenation. The catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, and H2-TPR. It was demonstrated that the Cu and Fe ions were highly dispersed in the brucite-like layers of the LDHs. With increased Fe/Cu atomic ratio, the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content, Cu reduction temperatures, and the spacing of layers initially increase until the Fe/Cu ratio reaches 0.5 and then decrease. In addition to the catalytic evaluation for CO hydrogenation and catalyst characterization, the relationships between the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and their catalytic performances were also investigated. It was also found that the alcohols/hydrocarbons ratios correlate linearly with the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content. Moreover, higher reduction temperatures of Cu species as well as larger spacing between the layers in the catalyst are favorable for the synthesis of alcohols. The incorporation of a suitable amount of Fe is beneficial for the production of higher alcohols, with the best catalytic performance (alcohol selectivity of 20.77% and C2+ alcohol selectivity of 48.06%) obtained from a Fe/Cu atomic ratio of 0.5. PMID:26943001

  19. Hand hygiene compliance in Penang, Malaysia: Human audits versus product usage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew Fong; Merican, Hassan; Nallusamy, Revathy; Ong, Loke Meng; Mohamed Nazir, Paa; Hamzah, Hafizah Binti; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology. PMID:26897697

  20. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  1. Free-standing gallium nitride membrane-based sensor for the impedimetric detection of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifragis, Y.; Roussos, G.; Pantazis, A. K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Chaniotakis, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of single-crystal Gallium Nitride (GaN) membrane organic gas sensor. The sensing device is based on the highly stable free-standing III-nitride membrane, and it is probed using non-destructive impedance spectroscopy. Monitoring the effect of a series of polar organic molecules on the electrochemical impedance spectrum of the sensing membrane in the frequency range of 1 mHz to 0.1 MHz at room temperature, we concluded that the sensor is highly sensitive to alcohols, in the gas phase, with selectivity that depends on the molecular weight and vapor pressure of the molecules. The highly robust and stable GaN crystalline membrane and the ability to test these sensors using impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical probing techniques suggest that single crystal GaN-based sensors can find a wide range of applications in harsh and extreme environments.

  2. Drinking Goal Choice and Outcomes in a Web-based Alcohol Intervention: Results from VetChange

    PubMed Central

    Enggasser, Justin L.; Hermos, John A.; Rubin, Amy; Lachowicz, Mark; Rybin, Denis; Brief, Deborah J.; Roy, Monica; Helmuth, Eric; Rosenbloom, David; Keane, Terence M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe characteristics of participants who chose moderation and abstinence drinking goals, and to examine post-treatment drinking outcomes based on patterns of goal choice during a Web-based alcohol intervention for returning U.S. Veterans. Method We conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of a subsample of 305 of 600 Veterans who participated in a clinical trial of VetChange, an 8-module, cognitive-behavioral intervention. Participants self-selected abstinence or moderation drinking goals, initially at Module 3, and weekly during subsequent modules. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Quick Drink Screen (QDS), and Short Inventory of Problems (SIP-2R). Results Initial goal choices were 86.9% moderation and 13.1% abstinence. Approximately 20% of participants from each initial choice changed goals during the intervention; last goal choices were 68.6% moderation and 31.4% abstinence. Participants who initially chose moderation reported higher percent heavy drinking days at baseline; participants who initially chose abstinence were more likely to report recent substance abuse treatment and were older. Post-intervention levels of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were significantly reduced in all goal-choice patterns (i.e., Moderation Only, Abstinence Only, Moderation to Abstinence, and Abstinence to Moderation; all measures p < 0.05 or less). Baseline drinking severity did not differentially relate to outcomes across goal-choice patterns. Conclusions Participants in a Web-based alcohol intervention for returning U.S. Veterans demonstrated improvements in drinking regardless of whether they chose an abstinence or moderation drinking goal, and whether the goal was maintained or changed over the course of the intervention. PMID:25671224

  3. Free-hand CT-based electromagnetically guided interventions: accuracy, efficiency and dose usage.

    PubMed

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter; Schoth, Felix; Günther, Rolf W; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetically tip-tracked (EMT) interventions in various clinical applications. An EMT system was utilized to perform percutaneous interventions based on CT datasets. Procedure times and spatial accuracy of needle placement were analyzed using logging data in combination with periprocedurally acquired CT control scans. Dose estimations in comparison to a set of standard CT-guided interventions were carried out. Reasons for non-completion of planned interventions were analyzed. Twenty-five procedures scheduled for EMT were analyzed, 23 of which were successfully completed using EMT. The average time for performing the procedure was 23.7 ± 17.2 min. Time for preparation was 5.8 ± 7.3 min while the interventional (skin-to-target) time was 2.7 ± 2.4 min. The average puncture length was 7.2 ± 2.5 cm. Spatial accuracy was 3.1 ± 2.1 mm. Non-completed procedures were due to patient movement and reference fixation problems. Radiation doses (dosis-length-product) were significantly lower (p = 0.012) for EMT-based interventions (732 ± 481 mGy x cm) in comparison to the control group of standard CT-guided interventions (1343 ± 1054 mGy x cm). Electromagnetic navigation can accurately guide percutaneous interventions in a variety of indications. Accuracy and time usage permit the routine use of the utilized system. Lower radiation exposure for EMT-based punctures provides a relevant potential for dose saving. PMID:21395458

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  5. Web-based self-help intervention reduces alcohol consumption in both heavy-drinking and dependent alcohol users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Sartes, Laisa Marcorela Andreoli; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Bedendo, André; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    As part of a multicenter project supported by the World Health Organization, we developed a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol use and related problems. We evaluated the predictors of adherence to, and the outcomes of the intervention. Success was defined as a reduction in consumption to low risk levels or to <50% of the baseline levels of number of drinks. From the 32,401 people who accessed the site, 3389 registered and 929 completed the full Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a necessary condition to be considered eligible to take part in the intervention. Based on their AUDIT scores, these participants were classified into: low risk users (LRU; n=319) harmful/hazardous users (HHU; n=298) or suggestive of dependence users (SDU; n=312). 29.1% of the registered users (LRU=42; HHU=90; SDU=82) completed the evaluation form at the end of the six-week period, and 63.5% reported low-risk drinking levels. We observed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in the HHU (62.5%) and SDU (64.5%) groups in relation to baseline. One month after the intervention, in the follow-up, 94 users filled out the evaluation form, and their rate of success was similar to the one observed in the previous evaluation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HHU participants presented higher adherence than LRU. Despite a relatively low adherence to the program, its good outcomes and low cost, as well as the high number of people that can be reached by a web-based intervention, suggest it has good cost-effectiveness. PMID:27424165

  6. Hand-gesture-based sterile interface for the operating room using contextual cues for the navigation of radiological images.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Mithun George; Wachs, Juan Pablo; Packer, Rebecca A

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a method to improve the navigation and manipulation of radiological images through a sterile hand gesture recognition interface based on attentional contextual cues. Computer vision algorithms were developed to extract intention and attention cues from the surgeon's behavior and combine them with sensory data from a commodity depth camera. The developed interface was tested in a usability experiment to assess the effectiveness of the new interface. An image navigation and manipulation task was performed, and the gesture recognition accuracy, false positives and task completion times were computed to evaluate system performance. Experimental results show that gesture interaction and surgeon behavior analysis can be used to accurately navigate, manipulate and access MRI images, and therefore this modality could replace the use of keyboard and mice-based interfaces. PMID:23250787

  7. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  8. Comparison of a Smartphone App for Alcohol Use Disorders With an Internet-based Intervention Plus Bibliotherapy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Dulin, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To date no research has evaluated the efficacy of a stand-alone, smartphone-based intervention for individuals with an alcohol use disorder. The current pilot study evaluated the short-term outcomes of a smartphone-based intervention for alcohol use disorders compared with an internet-based brief motivational intervention plus bibliotherapy. Method Adults (18 to 45 years old) with an alcohol use disorder received either the Location-Based Monitoring and Intervention for Alcohol Use Disorders (LBMI-A; n = 28), a smartphone-based intervention, or the online Drinker’s Check-up plus bibliotherapy (DCU+bib; n = 26). These groups were compared using the Timeline Followback interview for percent days abstinent (PDA), percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), and drinks per week (DPW) from baseline to six weeks after the introduction of the interventions. Results Multilevel models revealed that the LBMI-A resulted in a significant increase in PDA over the course of the study, while the DCU+bib did not. Effect sizes for change from baseline for PDA suggest that the DCU+bib resulted in moderate a decrease, while the LBMI-A resulted in a large increase in PDA. Both interventions resulted in significant decreases in PHDD and DPW. The LBMI-A produced larger reductions in the first three to four weeks after the intervention was introduced than the DCU+bib. On weeks with greater LBMI-A usage, participants reported less DPW and PHDD. Conclusions Both interventions resulted in significant decreases in alcohol use over the 6-week trial, which is promising for stand-alone technology-based intervention systems aimed at individuals with an alcohol use disorder. PMID:25622202

  9. Implementing Evidence-Based Alcohol Interventions in a Resource-Limited Setting: Novel Delivery Strategies in Tomsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sonya S; Livchits, Viktoriya; Nelson, Adrianne K; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Yanova, Galina V; Yanov, Sergey A; Mishustin, Sergey P; Connery, Hilary S; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2012-01-01

    Effective implementation of evidence-based interventions in “real-world” settings can be challenging. Interventions based on externally valid trial findings can be even more difficult to apply in resource-limited settings, given marked differences—in provider experience, patient population, and health systems—between those settings and the typical clinical trial environment. Under the auspices of the Integrated Management of Physician-Delivered Alcohol Care for Tuberculosis Patients (IMPACT) study, a randomized, controlled effectiveness trial, and as an integrated component of tuberculosis treatment in Tomsk, Russia, we adapted two proven alcohol interventions to the delivery of care to 200 patients with alcohol use disorders. Tuberculosis providers performed screening for alcohol use disorders and also delivered naltrexone (with medical management) or a brief counseling intervention either independently or in combination as a seamless part of routine care. We report the innovations and challenges to intervention design, training, and delivery of both pharmacologic and behavioral alcohol interventions within programmatic tuberculosis treatment services. We also discuss the implications of these lessons learned within the context of meeting the challenge of providing evidence-based care in resource-limited settings. (Harv Rev Psychiatry 2012;20:58–67.) PMID:22335183

  10. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  11. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Pittet, Didier

    2002-12-01

    The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included. PMID:12461507

  12. Skin care: an essential component of hand hygiene and infection control.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Skin care is an important component of hand hygiene and also infection prevention education programmes relating to hand hygiene (Bissett, 2007a,b). Hand hygiene is the term commonly used to describe hand washing using plain soap or antiseptic soaps and hand rubbing using waterless antiseptic products or alcohol-based products. The importance of effective hand hygiene is well documented (Larson, 1997; Boyce et al, 2002; Horton and Parker, 2002) and can be achieved by following the six-step technique used for hand washing as illustrated by the Royal College of Nursing (2000). During hand washing, hand soaps not only remove soils, but also the natural oils that protect the skin. This can vary depending on the frequency of hand washing, the temperature of the water and the ability of the soap to be rinsed from the surface of the hands (Starobin, 2007). This article aims to examine the evidence available to enable healthcare staff to make an informed decision on the importance of following a skin care regime to reduce the risk of bacterial loading on the hands caused by damaged skin. This would consequently lead to an improvement in hand hygiene efficacy. PMID:18026035

  13. Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind–dirty hands

    PubMed Central

    Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher–community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a ‘clean mind’ approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate ‘a dirty hand’. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence. PMID:23872385

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  15. Smartphone-Based, Self-Administered Intervention System for Alcohol Use Disorders: Theory and Empirical Evidence Basis

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Patrick L.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.; King, Diane K.; Giroux, Danielle; Bacon, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology provide an opportunity to deliver in-the-moment interventions to individuals with alcohol use disorders, yet availability of effective “apps” that deliver evidence-based interventions is scarce. We developed an immediately available, portable, smartphone-based intervention system whose purpose is to provide stand-alone, self-administered assessment and intervention. In this paper, we describe how theory and empirical evidence, combined with smartphone functionality contributed to the construction of a user-friendly, engaging alcohol intervention. With translation in mind, we discuss how we selected appropriate intervention components including assessments, feedback and tools, that work together to produce the hypothesized outcomes. PMID:24347811

  16. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  17. Leaky wave antenna with amplitude controlled beam steering based on composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspächer, M. A.; Eibert, T. F.

    2010-09-01

    An antenna comprising two different composite right/left-handed transmission line structures is proposed which enables easy beam steering at an operation frequency of 10 GHz. The composite right/left-handed transmission lines are based on planar, periodically arranged via free unit cells, implemented in microstrip technology. Both transmission lines exhibit the infinite wavelength phenomenon which occurs at 9.72 GHz and 9.89 GHz, respectively. Thus, operating the different leaky wave structures at 10 GHz, radiation with azimuth angles of ±8° and ±17° can be achieved depending on the selected input port. In order to obtain a tunable main beam direction, the radiation patterns of both structures are superimposed by feeding them simultaneously. The influence of each guiding structure, and hence the direction of the main beam, can be controlled via the feeding amplitude. As a result of this, the beam can be steered between ±17° with a gain of up to 10 dBi. The guiding structures are arranged in parallel with a clearance of a=12.2 mm which is less than half of the wavelength in free space. This allows in a further step the attachment of additional guiding structures in order to increase the tunable angle range or creating an antenna array with a small beamwidth in the elevation plane without the occurrence of grating lobes. An antenna prototype was fabricated and validated by measurements.

  18. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%), community programs (61.4%) and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%). Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%), community programs (33.8%) and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%). Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated. PMID:22233608

  19. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  20. Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Cunningham, John A.; Faouzi, Mohamed; Gaume, Jacques; Gmel, Gerhard; Burnand, Bernard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is one of the leading modifiable morbidity and mortality risk factors among young adults. Study Design 2 parallel-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1 and 6 months. Setting/Participants Internet based study in a general population sample of young men with low-risk drinking, recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Intervention: Internet-based brief alcohol primary prevention intervention (IBI). The IBI aims at preventing an increase in alcohol use: it consists of normative feedback, feedback on consequences, calorific value alcohol, computed blood alcohol concentration, indication that the reported alcohol use is associated with no or limited risks for health. Intervention group participants received the IBI. Control group (CG) participants completed only an assessment. Main Outcome Measures Alcohol use (number of drinks per week), binge drinking prevalence. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results Of 4365 men invited to participate, 1633 did so; 896 reported low-risk drinking and were randomized (IBI: n = 451; CG: n = 445). At baseline, 1 and 6 months, the mean (SD) number of drinks/week was 2.4(2.2), 2.3(2.6), 2.5(3.0) for IBI, and 2.4(2.3), 2.8(3.7), 2.7(3.9) for CG. Binge drinking, absent at baseline, was reported by 14.4% (IBI) and 19.0% (CG) at 1 month and by 13.3% (IBI) and 13.0% (CG) at 6 months. At 1 month, beneficial intervention effects were observed on the number of drinks/week (p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed at 6 months. Conclusion We found protective short term effects of a primary prevention IBI. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55991918 PMID:26642329

  1. Acute Alcohol Effects on Contextual Memory BOLD Response: Differences Based on Fragmentary Blackout History

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Schnyer, David M.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual memory, or memory for source details, is an important aspect of episodic memory and has been implicated in alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts (FB). Little is known, however, about how neural functioning during contextual memory processes may differ between individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts. This study examined whether neural activation during a contextual memory task differed by history of fragmentary blackout and acute alcohol consumption. Methods Twenty-four matched individuals with (FB+; n = 12) and without (FB−; n = 12) a history of FBs were recruited from a longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks and completed a laboratory beverage challenge followed by two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions under no alcohol and alcohol [breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) = 0.08%] conditions. Task performance and brain hemodynamic activity during a block design contextual memory task were examined across 48 fMRI sessions. Results Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the contextual memory task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns after alcohol intoxication. A significant FB group by beverage interaction emerged in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex with FB− individuals showing greater BOLD response after alcohol exposure (p < .05). Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on neural activity for FB+ and FB− individuals during recollection of contextual information, perhaps suggesting a neurobiological mechanism associated with alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts. PMID:22420742

  2. Applying mathematical concepts with hands-on, food-based science curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Roseno, Ashley T.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Hoerdeman, Callan; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Eugene, Geist; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the current state of the mathematics education system in the United States and provides a possible solution to the contributing issues. As a result of lower performance in primary mathematics, American students are not acquiring the necessary quantitative literacy skills to become successful adults. This study analyzed the impact of the FoodMASTER Intermediate curriculum on fourth-grade student’s mathematics knowledge. The curriculum is a part of the FoodMASTER Initiative, which is a compilation of programs utilizing food, a familiar and necessary part of everyday life, as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Students exposed to the curriculum completed a 20-item researcher-developed mathematics knowledge exam (Intervention n=288; Control n=194). Overall, the results showed a significant increase in mathematics knowledge from pre- to post-test. These findings suggest that students engaged in food-based science activities provided them with the context in which to apply mathematical concepts to an everyday experience. Therefore, the FoodMASTER approach was successful at improving students’ mathematics knowledge while building a foundation for becoming quantitatively literate adults. PMID:26494927

  3. The analysis of hand movement distinction based on relative frequency band energy method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Gang; Teng, Chaolin; Sun, Zhongjiang; Wang, Jue

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of successfully developing a prosthetic control system, many attempts have been made to improve the classification accuracy of surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals. Nevertheless, the effective feature extraction is still a paramount challenge for the classification of SEMG signals. The relative frequency band energy (RFBE) method based on wavelet packet decomposition was proposed for the prosthetic pattern recognition of multichannel SEMG signals. Firstly, the wavelet packet energy of SEMG signals in each subspace was calculated by using wavelet packet decomposition and the RFBE of each frequency band was obtained by the wavelet packet energy. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index were used to perform the feature selection. Lastly, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied for the classification of SEMG signals. Our results demonstrated that the RFBE approach was suitable for identifying different types of forearm movements. By comparing with other classification methods, the proposed method achieved higher classification accuracy in terms of the classification of SEMG signals. PMID:25431766

  4. The Analysis of Hand Movement Distinction Based on Relative Frequency Band Energy Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanyan; Teng, Chaolin; Sun, Zhongjiang; Wang, Jue

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of successfully developing a prosthetic control system, many attempts have been made to improve the classification accuracy of surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals. Nevertheless, the effective feature extraction is still a paramount challenge for the classification of SEMG signals. The relative frequency band energy (RFBE) method based on wavelet packet decomposition was proposed for the prosthetic pattern recognition of multichannel SEMG signals. Firstly, the wavelet packet energy of SEMG signals in each subspace was calculated by using wavelet packet decomposition and the RFBE of each frequency band was obtained by the wavelet packet energy. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index were used to perform the feature selection. Lastly, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied for the classification of SEMG signals. Our results demonstrated that the RFBE approach was suitable for identifying different types of forearm movements. By comparing with other classification methods, the proposed method achieved higher classification accuracy in terms of the classification of SEMG signals. PMID:25431766

  5. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  6. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  7. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving. PMID:26628164

  8. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. An International Asteroid Search Campaign: Internet-Based Hands-On Research Program for High Schools and Colleges, in Collaboration with the Hands-On Universe Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Patrick; Davis, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Robert E., Jr.; Devore, Harlan; Raab, Herbert; Pennypacker, Carlton R.; White, Graeme L.; Gould, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The International Asteroid Search Campaign (IASC, fondly nicknamed "Isaac") is an Internet-based program for high schools and colleges. Within hours of acquisition, astronomical CCD images are made available via the Internet to participating schools around the world. Under the guidance of their teachers, students analyze the images with free…

  11. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhudesai, S. A.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Mitra, S.; Desa, J. A. E.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2015-06-01

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D2O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10-5 cm2/sec.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene/Graphene Oxide-Based Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu; Long, Nguyen Huynh Bach Son; Kieu, Dang Thi Minh; Nhiem, Ly Tan

    2016-05-01

    Graphene (GE)- or graphene oxide (GO)-based poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes have been prepared by the solution blending method. Raman spectra and atomic force microscopy images confirmed that GE and GO were synthesized with average thickness of 0.901 nm and 0.997 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated good exfoliation of GE or GO in the PVA matrix. Fourier-transform infrared spectra revealed the chemical fractions of the nanocomposite membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry results proved that the thermal stability of the nanocomposite membranes was enhanced compared with neat PVA membrane. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed good dispersion of GE or GO sheets in the PVA matrix with thickness in the range of 19 nm to 39 nm. As a result, good compatibility between GE or GO and PVA was obtained at 0.5 wt.% filler content.

  13. Novel polyvinyl alcohol-bioglass 45S5 based composite nanofibrous membranes as bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kumar, Manishekhar; Mandal, Biman B; Srinivasan, A

    2016-12-01

    Composite nanofibrous membranes based on sol-gel derived 45SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 (bioglass, BG) and 43SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 2Fe2O3 (magnetic bioglass, MBG) blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been electrospun. These low cost membranes were mostly amorphous in structure with minor crystalline (sodium calcium phosphate) precipitates. All membranes were biodegradable. Among these, the composites exhibited higher tensile strength, better proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells and higher alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity than the bare PVA membrane, indicating their potential in bone tissue engineering. The magnetic PVA-MBG scaffold was also found to be a promising candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. PMID:27612814

  14. Effect of different polyol-based plasticizers on thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol:starch blends.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Ilberg, Vladimir

    2016-01-20

    A series of gelatinized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):starch blends were prepared with various polyol-based plasticizers in 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% ratios via solution casting method. The obtained films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkable changes have been observed in glass-transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the samples containing varying concentrations of different plasticizers and they have been discussed in detail with respect to the conducted thermal and chemical analyses. The observed order of Tg point depression of the samples containing 15 wt% plasticizer is 1,4-butanediol - 1,2,6-hexanetriol--pentaerythriyol--xylitol--mannitol, which is similar to the sequence of the thermal stability changes of the samples. PMID:26572374

  15. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  16. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, S. A. Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.

  17. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an intelligent wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jin Sun; Shin, Yunhee; Kim, Eun Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs) have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW) control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1) accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2) robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination. To prove these

  18. Artificial sensibility of the hand based on cortical audiotactile interaction: a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Göran; Björkman, Anders; Hansson, Thomas; Nylander, Lotta; Nyman, Torbjörn; Rosén, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of the central nervous system for plastic alterations is the base for our ability to adapt to environmental needs. The crossmodal capacity of the brain makes interaction between senses possible, and deprivation of one sense leads to compensatory changes in other senses. We have recently shown how hearing can substitute for sensation in a transplanted insensitive hand by using a sensor glove equipped with small microphones that pick up the sound of friction, which is elicited by active touch. Here we have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy people to illustrate their capacity for cortical audiotactile interaction with activation of the somatosensory cortex induced by auditory stimuli. The phenomenon occurred only in subjects trained to substitute sensibility by hearing, and no audiotactile interaction was found in untrained subjects. PMID:16298810

  19. HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI,Y.

    2007-05-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

  20. Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Based on High-Efficiency Frisch-Ring Cdznte Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R; DeGeronimo, G; Fried, J; O'Connor, P; Kargar, A; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated both good energy resolution, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency in detecting gamma rays, highlighting the strong potential of CdZnTe materials for such applications. We are designing a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8 times 8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so greatly improving detection efficiency. By using the front-end application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy-resolution. It includes a signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuits, a high-voltage module, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. In this paper, we detail the system's structure and report the results of our tests with it.

  1. Thematic Review Series: Sphingolipids. Biodiversity of sphingoid bases (“sphingosines”) and related amino alcohols*

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, Sarah T.; Bushnev, Anatoliy; Hagedorn, Kerri; Adiga, Madhura; Haynes, Christopher A.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Liotta, Dennis C.; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2008-01-01

    “Sphingosin” was first described by J. L. W. Thudichum in 1884 and structurally characterized as 2S,3R,4E-2-aminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol in 1947 by Herb Carter, who also proposed the designation of “lipides derived from sphingosine as sphingolipides.” This category of amino alcohols is now known to encompass hundreds of compounds that are referred to as sphingoid bases and sphingoid base-like compounds, which vary in chain length, number, position, and stereochemistry of double bonds, hydroxyl groups, and other functionalities. Some have especially intriguing features, such as the tail-to-tail combination of two sphingoid bases in the α,ω-sphingoids produced by sponges. Most of these compounds participate in cell structure and regulation, and some (such as the fumonisins) disrupt normal sphingolipid metabolism and cause plant and animal disease. Many of the naturally occurring and synthetic sphingoid bases are cytotoxic for cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms or have other potentially useful bioactivities; hence, they offer promise as pharmaceutical leads. This thematic review gives an overview of the biodiversity of the backbones of sphingolipids and the broader field of naturally occurring and synthetic sphingoid base-like compounds. PMID:18499644

  2. Cellphone-Based Hand-Held Microplate Reader for Point-of-Care Testing of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays.

    PubMed

    Berg, Brandon; Cortazar, Bingen; Tseng, Derek; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Wei, Qingshan; Chan, Raymond Yan-Lok; Burbano, Jordi; Farooqui, Qamar; Lewinski, Michael; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-08-25

    Standard microplate based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are widely utilized for various nanomedicine, molecular sensing, and disease screening applications, and this multiwell plate batched analysis dramatically reduces diagnosis costs per patient compared to nonbatched or nonstandard tests. However, their use in resource-limited and field-settings is inhibited by the necessity for relatively large and expensive readout instruments. To mitigate this problem, we created a hand-held and cost-effective cellphone-based colorimetric microplate reader, which uses a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment to hold and illuminate a 96-well plate using a light-emitting-diode (LED) array. This LED light is transmitted through each well, and is then collected via 96 individual optical fibers. Captured images of this fiber-bundle are transmitted to our servers through a custom-designed app for processing using a machine learning algorithm, yielding diagnostic results, which are delivered to the user within ∼1 min per 96-well plate, and are visualized using the same app. We successfully tested this mobile platform in a clinical microbiology laboratory using FDA-approved mumps IgG, measles IgG, and herpes simplex virus IgG (HSV-1 and HSV-2) ELISA tests using a total of 567 and 571 patient samples for training and blind testing, respectively, and achieved an accuracy of 99.6%, 98.6%, 99.4%, and 99.4% for mumps, measles, HSV-1, and HSV-2 tests, respectively. This cost-effective and hand-held platform could assist health-care professionals to perform high-throughput disease screening or tracking of vaccination campaigns at the point-of-care, even in resource-poor and field-settings. Also, its intrinsic wireless connectivity can serve epidemiological studies, generating spatiotemporal maps of disease prevalence and immunity. PMID:26159546

  3. Adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program to create an Authentic, Hands- on, Field based Curriculum in Environmental Science at Barnard College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Mailloux, B. J.; Martin, S.; Kelsey, R.; Bower, P.

    2008-12-01

    Adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program to create an Authentic, Hands-on, Field based Curriculum in Environmental Science at Barnard College T. C. Kenna, S. Pfirman, B. J. Mailloux, M. Stute, R. Kelsey, and P. Bower By adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program (SEA semester) to the typical college format of classes, we are improving the technical and quantitative skills of undergraduate women and minorities in environmental science and improving their critical thinking and problem-solving by exposing our students to open-ended real-world environmental issues. Our approach uses the Hudson River Estuary as a natural laboratory. In a series of hands-on inquiry-based activities, students use advanced equipment to collect data and samples. Each class session introduces new analytical and data analysis techniques. All classes have the connecting theme of the river. Working with real data is open-ended. Our major findings as indicated by surveys as well as journaling throughout the semester are that the field- based experience significantly contributed to student learning and engagement. Journaling responses indicated that nearly all students discussed the importance and excitement of an authentic research experience. Some students were frustrated with data irregularities, uncertainty in methods and data, and the general challenge of a curriculum with inherent ambiguity. The majority were satisfied with the aims of the course to provide an integrative experience. All students demonstrated transfer of learned skills. This project has had a significant impact on our undergraduate female students: several students have pursued senior thesis projects stemming from grant activities, stating that the field activities were the highlight of their semester. Some students love the experience and want more. Others decide that they want to pursue a different career. All learn how science is conducted and have a better foundation to understand concepts such

  4. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers. PMID:27296611

  5. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior. PMID:22526526

  6. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  7. Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Service: Impact on Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Transports at a Small Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…

  8. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  9. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

    2014-11-01

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. PMID:25241068

  10. A novel method to quantify the activity of alcohol acetyltransferase Using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiu; Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Huxuan; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2016-07-15

    Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATFase) extensively catalyzes the reactions of alcohols to acetic esters in microorganisms and plants. In this work, a novel method has been proposed to quantify the activity of AATFase using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose, which was determined on the basis of its higher sensitivity to the reducing alcohol than the oxidizing ester. The maximum value of the first-derivative of the signals from the SnO2-based sensor was therein found to be an eigenvalue of isoamyl alcohol concentration. Quadratic polynomial regression perfectly fitted the correlation between the eigenvalue and the isoamyl alcohol concentration. The method was used to determine the AATFase activity in this type of reaction by calculating the conversion rate of isoamyl alcohol. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the AATFase activity of a cider yeast strain. Compared with GC-MS, the method shows promises with ideal recovery and low cost. PMID:26948643

  11. Time-frequency optimization for discrimination between imagination of right and left hand movements based on two bipolar electroencephalography channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan; Chevallier, Sylvain; Wiart, Joe; Bloch, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    To enforce a widespread use of efficient and easy to use brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), the inter-subject robustness should be increased and the number of electrodes should be reduced. These two key issues are addressed in this contribution, proposing a novel method to identify subject-specific time-frequency characteristics with a minimal number of electrodes. In this method, two alternative criteria, time-frequency discrimination factor ( TFDF) and F score, are proposed to evaluate the discriminative power of time-frequency regions. Distinct from classical measures (e.g., Fisher criterion, r 2 coefficient), the TFDF is based on the neurophysiologic phenomena, on which the motor imagery BCI paradigm relies, rather than only from statistics. F score is based on the popular Fisher's discriminant and purely data driven; however, it differs from traditional measures since it provides a simple and effective measure for quantifying the discriminative power of a multi-dimensional feature vector. The proposed method is tested on BCI competition IV datasets IIa and IIb for discriminating right and left hand motor imagery. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our method based on both criteria led to comparable or even better classification results, while using fewer electrodes (i.e., only two bipolar channels, C3 and C4). This work indicates that time-frequency optimization can not only improve the classification performance but also contribute to reducing the number of electrodes required in motor imagery BCIs.

  12. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. III. Exon sequences confirm most dendrograms based on protein sequences: calmodulin dendrograms show significant lack of parallelism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakayama, S.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    In the first report in this series we presented dendrograms based on 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand family. In the second we used sequences from 228 proteins, containing 835 domains, and showed that eight of the 29 subfamilies are congruent and that the EF-hand domains of the remaining 21 subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories. In this study we have computed dendrograms within and among the EF-hand subfamilies using the encoding DNA sequences. In most instances the dendrograms based on protein and on DNA sequences are very similar. Significant differences between protein and DNA trees for calmodulin remain unexplained. In our fourth report we evaluate the sequences and the distribution of introns within the EF-hand family and conclude that exon shuffling did not play a significant role in its evolution.

  13. Bringing the Evidence Base to the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelling, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The National Drug Sector Information Service is committed to supporting those who work to prevent or reduce the harm to individuals, families, communities and the nation caused by alcohol and other drugs. This paper describes a project to assist particular members of the alcohol and other drugs sector to improve quality and the transfer of…

  14. Recovery for the Alcoholic Mother and Family Through Home-Based Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry S.; And Others

    Alcoholic women living with their children are recognized as a treatment population needing special environmental support as part of their recovery. The Family Rehabilitation Coordinator Project is a pilot research and training effort to aid the recovery of alcoholic women and their children and families. Trainees work in the home of an alcoholic…

  15. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  16. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  17. Synthesis, micellization behavior and alcohol induced amphipathic cellulose film of cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Liu, Ya-nan; Yu, Jian-ling; Li, Hai-peng; Li, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presented a novel preparation method of the cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant, and the surfactant was used to prepare amphipathic cellulose membrane. The native cotton cellulose was tailored to cellulose segments in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Then, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification of cellulose segments were carried out by esterification and graft polymerization of the ɛ-caprolactone (ɛ-CL) monomer onto the hydroxyl group of cellulose as well as sulphonation with sulfamic acid. The amphipathic cellulose membrane was made by cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The molecular structure of amphipathic cellulose surfactant was confirmed by FT-IR, and its surface active properties were investigated by Wilhelmy plate method and Steady-state fluorescence probe method, respectively. Experimental results showed that cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant caused low interfacial tension of 48.62 mN/m and its critical micelle concentration (cmc) value was 0.65 wt% when the grafting ratio of cellulose-g-PCL (poly-caprolactone) was 25.40%. The contact angle between a droplet of water and the surface of membrane was 90.84o, and the surface free energy of the alcohol induced cellulose membrane was 15.7 mJ/m2. This study may help increase using natural and biodegradable surface-activity materials with improved properties as surfactants.

  18. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:26276763

  19. Alcohol based fixatives provide excellent tissue morphology, protein immunoreactivity and RNA integrity in paraffin embedded tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Milcheva, Rositsa; Janega, Pavol; Celec, Peter; Russev, Russy; Babál, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Fixation techniques preserving morphological fidelity, protein antigenicity and integrity of nucleic acids can have a high impact on both basic and applied biomedical sciences and diagnostic pathology. Different types of mouse tissues were fixed with neutral buffered formalin, ethanol supplemented with acetic acid and modified methacarn (methanol-Carnoy) fixative. The alcohol-fixed samples were processed in an Autotechnicon tissue processor or in an incubator. The preservation of tissue morphology was assessed in all specimens and the immunoreactivity was evaluated with antibodies specific for proteins with nuclear, membrane or cytoplasmic localization. RNA was extracted from all groups of fixed hind limb skeletal muscle specimens and was assessed versus unfixed tissue for preservation of its quantity and quality by amplification of gene-specific fragments of different lengths. Both alcohol-based fixatives preserved the tissue architecture and the specificity of immunoreactivity in excellent quality; the trimming approach did not result in detectable differences. Oligonucleotide fragments of length between 108 and 577 base pairs were amplified from all groups of alcohol-fixed skeletal muscle specimens in amounts comparative to the unfixed muscle tissue. We conclude that both alcohol-based fixatives are an excellent tool for storage of tissue samples designed for immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies when the access to fresh samples is limited. PMID:22921675

  20. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    , data acquisition optimization, quality control, data archival, log-keeping, real-time data processing, laboratory sediment analysis, and even boat-handling. Teams are rotated through the two vessels and the onshore field laboratory to ensure that each student has hands-on experience with each aspect of the process. Although all students work on all data areas in the field, after returning from the field each team is assigned a particular region or geologic problem to interpret. Each team prepares and presents a formal presentation to UTIG researchers and industry representatives, explaining and defending their interpretations. This unique approach to hands-on field training, real-world science, and project-based teamwork helps prepare students for direct entry into the workforce, giving them a leg up on competitors for positions. This course has an impressive success ratio to show, with many students receiving job offers directly as a result of their participation in the course.

  1. Learning about Modes in Atomic Force Microscopy by Means of Hands-On Activities Based on a Simple Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuapaiboon, Unchada; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Osotchan, Tanakorn

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the results of using a low-cost hands-on setup in combination with accompanying activities to promote understanding of the contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM). This contact mode setup enabled learners to study how AFM works by hand scanning using probing cantilevers with different characteristics on…

  2. Neural Bases of Peri-Hand Space Plasticity through Tool-Use: Insights from a Combined Computational-Experimental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Ladavas, Elisabetta; Serino, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Visual peripersonal space (i.e., the space immediately surrounding the body) is represented by multimodal neurons integrating tactile stimuli applied on a body part with visual stimuli delivered near the same body part, e.g., the hand. Tool use may modify the boundaries of the peri-hand area, where vision and touch are integrated. The neural…

  3. Movement error rate for evaluation of machine learning methods for sEMG-based hand movement classification.

    PubMed

    Gijsberts, Arjan; Atzori, Manfredo; Castellini, Claudio; Muller, Henning; Caputo, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in applying learning algorithms to improve the dexterity of myoelectric prostheses. In this work, we present a large-scale benchmark evaluation on the second iteration of the publicly released NinaPro database, which contains surface electromyography data for 6 DOF force activations as well as for 40 discrete hand movements. The evaluation involves a modern kernel method and compares performance of three feature representations and three kernel functions. Both the force regression and movement classification problems can be learned successfully when using a nonlinear kernel function, while the exp- χ(2) kernel outperforms the more popular radial basis function kernel in all cases. Furthermore, combining surface electromyography and accelerometry in a multimodal classifier results in significant increases in accuracy as compared to when either modality is used individually. Since window-based classification accuracy should not be considered in isolation to estimate prosthetic controllability, we also provide results in terms of classification mistakes and prediction delay. To this extent, we propose the movement error rate as an alternative to the standard window-based accuracy. This error rate is insensitive to prediction delays and it allows us therefore to quantify mistakes and delays as independent performance characteristics. This type of analysis confirms that the inclusion of accelerometry is superior, as it results in fewer mistakes while at the same time reducing prediction delay. PMID:24760932

  4. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  5. Effectiveness of brief school-based interventions for adolescents: A meta-analysis of alcohol use prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of school-based brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) among adolescents, and to examine possible iatrogenic effects due to deviancy training in group-delivered interventions. Method A systematic search for eligible studies was undertaken, current through December 31, 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they used an experimental/quasi-experimental design; focused on school-based BAIs; enrolled adolescent participants; and reported an alcohol-related outcome measure. Studies were coded for key variables, and outcome effect sizes were analyzed as standardized mean differences adjusted for small samples (Hedges’ g). Analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted mixed effects meta-regression models. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results Across all 17 studies eligible for inclusion, school-based BAIs were associated with significant improvements among adolescents, whereby adolescents in the BAI groups reduced their alcohol consumption relative to the control groups (ḡ = 0.34, 95% CI [0.11, 0.56]). Subgroup analyses indicated that whereas individually-delivered BAIs were effective (ḡ = 0.58, 95% CI [0.23, 0.92]), there was no evidence that group-delivered BAIs were associated with reductions in alcohol use (ḡ = −0.02, 95% CI [−0.17, 0.14]). Delivery format was confounded with program modality, however, such that motivational enhancement therapy was the most effective modality, but was rarely implemented in group-delivered interventions. Conclusions Some school-based BAIs are effective in reducing adolescent alcohol consumption, but may be ineffective if delivered in group settings. Future research should explore whether group-delivered BAIs that use motivational enhancement therapy components may yield beneficial outcomes like those observed in individually-delivered programs. PMID:25294110

  6. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  7. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  8. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  9. Risk assessment of hand washing efficacy using literature and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Chen, Yuhuan; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-03-01

    This study simulated factors that influence the levels of bacteria on foodservice workers' hands. Relevant data were collected from the scientific literature and from laboratory experiments. Literature information collected included: initial bacterial counts on hands and water faucet spigots, bacterial population changes during hand washing as effected by soap type, sanitizing agent, drying method, and the presence of rings. Experimental data were also collected using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for transient bacteria. Both literature and experimental data were translated into appropriate discrete or probability distribution functions. The appropriate statistical distribution for each phase of the hand washing process was determined. These distributions were: initial count on hands, beta (2.82, 2.32, 7.5); washing reduction using regular soap, beta (3.01, 1.91, -3.00, 0.60); washing reduction using antimicrobial soap, beta (4.19, 2.99, -4.50, 1.50); washing reduction using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triangular (-4.75, -1.00, 0); reductions from hot air drying, beta (3.52, 1.92, -0.20, 1.00); reduction from paper towel drying, triangular (-2.25, -0.75, 0); reduction due to alcohol sanitizer, gamma (-1.23, 4.42) -5.8; reduction due to alcohol-free sanitizer, gamma (2.22, 5.38) -5.00; and the effect of rings, beta (8.55, 23.35, 0.10, 0.45). Experimental data were fit to normal distributions (expressed as log percentage transfer rate): hand-to-spigot transfer, normal (-0.80, 1.09); spigot to hand, normal (0.36, 0.90). Soap with an antimicrobial agent (in particular, CHG) was observed to be more effective than regular soap. Hot air drying had the capacity to increase the amount of bacterial contamination on hands, while paper towel drying caused a slight decrease in contamination. There was little difference in the efficacy of alcohol and alcohol-free sanitizers. Ring wearing caused a slight decrease in the efficacy of hand washing. The experimental data

  10. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  11. Chemorheology of aqueous-based alumina-poly(vinyl alcohol) gelcasting suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, S.L.; Lewis, J.A.

    1999-03-01

    A new gelcasting system based on aqueous-based alumina-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) suspensions cross-linked by an organotitanate coupling agent has been developed. The chemorheological properties of this system exhibited a strong compositional dependence. A sol-gel phase diagram was established, which yielded the critical titanium concentration ([Ti]{sub c}) required for gelation at a given PVA volume fraction as well as the minimum PVA volume fraction ({Phi}{sub PVA}{sup min} = 0.0245) and titanium concentration ([Ti]{sub min} = 9.984 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g of Ti/mL) below which gelation was not observed irrespective of solution composition. The gelation time of suspensions of constant PVA volume fraction ({Phi}{sub PVA}{sup soln}) decreased with increased cross-linking agent concentration, temperature, and solids volume fraction. The steady-state viscosity and elastic modulus of polymer solutions ({Phi}{sub PVA}{sup soln} = 0.05) of varying [Ti] were well described by the percolation model, giving scaling exponents of 0.84 and 1.79, respectively. The steady-state elastic modulus of gel-casting suspensions, which provided a measure of their handling strength in the as-gelled state, increased with increased solids volume fraction.

  12. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods. PMID:22163450

  13. Selection of an autochthonous Saccharomyces strain starter for alcoholic fermentation of Sherry base wines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palero, María Jesús; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Valcárcel, Manuel J

    2013-06-01

    Several indigenous Saccharomyces strains from musts were isolated in the Jerez de la Frontera region, at the end of spontaneous fermentation, in order to select the most suitable autochthonous yeast starter, during the 2007 vintage. Five strains were chosen for their oenological abilities and fermentative kinetics to elaborate a Sherry base wine. The selected autochthonous strains were characterized by molecular methods: electrophoretic karyotype and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and by physiological parameters: fermentative power, ethanol production, sugar consumption, acidity and volatile compound production, sensory quality, killer phenotype, desiccation, and sulphur dioxide tolerance. Laboratory- and pilot-scale fermentations were conducted with those autochthonous strains. One of them, named J4, was finally selected over all others for industrial fermentations. The J4 strain, which possesses exceptional fermentative properties and oenological qualities, prevails in industrial fermentations, and becomes the principal biological agent responsible for winemaking. Sherry base wine, industrially manufactured by means of the J4 strain, was analyzed, yielding, together with its sensory qualities, final average values of 0.9 g/l sugar content, 13.4 % (v/v) ethanol content and 0.26 g/l volatile acidity content; apart from a high acetaldehyde production, responsible for the distinctive aroma of "Fino". This base wine was selected for "Fino" Sherry elaboration and so it was fortified; it is at present being subjected to biological aging by the so-called "flor" yeasts. The "flor" velum formed so far is very high quality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study covering from laboratory to industrial scale of characterization and selection of autochthonous starter intended for alcoholic fermentation in Sherry base wines. Since the 2010 vintage, the indigenous J4 strain is employed to industrially manufacture a

  14. Guided and Unguided Internet-Based Treatment for Problematic Alcohol Use – A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Johansson, Magnus; Blankers, Matthijs; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Stenlund-Gens, Erik; Berman, Anne H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. Methods An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of ≥ 6 for women and ≥ 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. Results In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Conclusion Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more

  15. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  16. Alcohol-Mediated Resistance-Switching Behavior in Metal-Organic Framework-Based Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Hong; Shi, Wenxiong; Zhang, Weina; Yu, Jiancan; Chandran, Bevita K; Cui, Chenlong; Zhu, Bowen; Liu, Zhiyuan; Li, Bin; Xu, Cai; Xu, Zhiling; Li, Shuzhou; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-07-25

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn increasing attentions as promising candidates for functional devices. Herein, we present MOF films in constructing memory devices with alcohol mediated resistance switching property, where the resistance state is controlled by applying alcohol vapors to achieve multilevel information storage. The ordered packing mode and the hydrogen bonding system of the guest molecules adsorbed in MOF crystals are shown to be the reason for the alcohol mediated electrical switching. This chemically mediated memory device can be a candidate in achieving environment-responsive devices and exhibits potential applications in wearable information storage systems. PMID:27311703

  17. Development of polymer optical waveguide-type alcohol sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Junichi; Honma, Satoshi; Morisawa, Masayuki; Muto, Shinzo

    2008-03-01

    Recently, alcohols such as methanol and ethanol have a wide attention as important fuel in next generation. However, As is known, many alcohols have a toxic and explosive nature. To prevent accidents caused by alcohol, development of a safety and highly sensitive sensor is required strongly. In addition, it is desired to be simple and low-cost. So, in this paper, polymer waveguide-type optical alcohol sensors such as fiber-type and channel waveguide-type have been studied. In these sensor head, refractive index n II of cladding layer was set at slightly larger value than that of core (n I). Therefore, in the state without alcohol, the sensor head operate as a leaky waveguide. On the other hand in the state with alcohol, cladding polymer causes swelling and its refractive index becomes lower than n I in core. Based on this principle, large change in output light intensity occurs and detection of alcohol concentration becomes possible even for vapor phase alcohol. In the experiment using a fiber-type sensor with a core size of 0.25 mm, detection of 1% methanol vapor could easily be obtained. Furthermore, using a channel waveguide-type sensor head with a core size of about 50μm×40μm, large increase in sensitivity was observed.

  18. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  19. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of >or=160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log(10) reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log(10) reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log(10) reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log(10) compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  20. Biosensors based on porous cellulose nanocrystal-poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Schyrr, Bastien; Pasche, Stéphanie; Voirin, Guy; Weder, Christoph; Simon, Yoan C; Foster, E Johan

    2014-08-13

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which offer a high aspect ratio, large specific surface area, and large number of reactive surface groups, are well suited for the facile immobilization of high density biological probes. We here report functional high surface area scaffolds based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and demonstrate that this platform is useful for fluorescence-based sensing schemes. Porous CNC/PVA nanocomposite films with a thickness of 25-70 nm were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating with an aqueous mixture of the CNCs and PVA, and the porous nanostructure was fixated by heat treatment. In a subsequent step, a portion of the scaffold's hydroxyl surface groups was reacted with 2-(acryloxy)ethyl (3-isocyanato-4-methylphenyl)carbamate to permit the immobilization of thiolated fluorescein-substituted lysine, which was used as a first sensing motif, via nucleophile-based thiol-ene Michael addition. The resulting sensor films exhibit a nearly instantaneous and pronounced change of their fluorescence emission intensity in response to changes in pH. The approach was further extended to the detection of protease activity by immobilizing a Förster-type resonance energy transfer chromophore pair via a labile peptide sequence to the scaffold. This sensing scheme is based on the degradation of the protein linker in the presence of appropriate enzymes, which separate the chromophores and causes a turn-on of the originally quenched fluorescence. Using a standard benchtop spectrometer to monitor the increase in fluorescence intensity, trypsin was detected at a concentration of 250 μg/mL, i.e., in a concentration that is typical for abnormal proteolytic activity in wound fluids. PMID:24955644

  1. The Effects of Surgical Hand Scrubbing Protocols on Skin Integrity and Surgical Site Infection Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang Qin; Mehigan, Sinead

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review aimed to critically appraise and synthesize updated evidence regarding the effect of surgical-scrub techniques on skin integrity and the incidence of surgical site infections. Databases searched include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central. Our review was limited to eight peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials and two nonrandomized controlled trials published in English from 1990 to 2015. Comparison models included traditional hand scrubbing with chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine against alcohol-based hand rubbing, scrubbing with a brush versus without a brush, and detergent-based antiseptics alone versus antiseptics incorporating alcohol solutions. Evidence showed that hand rubbing techniques are as effective as traditional scrubbing and seem to be better tolerated. Hand rubbing appears to cause less skin damage than traditional scrub protocols, and scrub personnel tolerated brushless techniques better than scrubbing using a brush. PMID:27129749

  2. Kids Making Sense of Air Quality Around Them Through a Hands-On, STEM-Based Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in many parts of the world is harming millions of people, shortening lives, and taking a toll on our ecosystem. Cities in India, China, and even the United States frequently exceed air quality standards. The use of localized data is a powerful enhancement to regulatory monitoring site data. Learning about air quality at a local level is a powerful driver for change. The Kids Making Sense program unites Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education with a complete measurement and environmental education system that teaches youth about air pollution and empowers them to drive positive change in their communities. With this program, youth learn about particle pollution, its sources, and health effects. A half-day lecture is followed by hands-on activity using handheld air sensors paired with an app on smartphones. Students make measurements around schools to discover pollution sources and cleaner areas. Next, the data they collect are crowdsourced on a website for guided discussion and data interpretation. This program meets Next Generation Science Standards, encourages project-based learning and deep understanding of applied science, and allows students to practice science like real scientists. The program has been successfully implemented in several schools in the United States and Asia, including New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento in the United States, and Taipei and Taichung in Taiwan. During this talk, we'll provide an overview of the program, discuss some of the challenges, and lay out the next steps for Kids Making Sense.

  3. A 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos based on the Δ ( 27) family symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Long, H. N.; Vien, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first multiscalar singlet extension of the original 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos, based on the Δ ( 27) family symmetry, supplemented by the Z4⊗ Z8⊗ Z_{14} flavor group, consistent with current low energy fermion flavor data. In the model under consideration, the light active neutrino masses are generated from a double seesaw mechanism and the observed pattern of charged fermion masses and quark mixing angles is caused by the breaking of the Δ ( 27) ⊗ Z4⊗ Z8⊗ Z_{14} discrete group at very high energy. Our model has only 14 effective free parameters, which are fitted to reproduce the experimental values of the 18 physical observables in the quark and lepton sectors. The obtained physical observables for the quark sector agree with their experimental values, whereas those for the lepton sector also do, only for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. The normal neutrino mass hierarchy scenario of the model is disfavored by the neutrino oscillation experimental data. We find an effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay of m_{β β }= 22 meV, a leptonic Dirac CP violating phase of 34°, and a Jarlskog invariant of about 10^{-2} for the inverted neutrino mass spectrum.

  4. The Influence of Curricular-Based Interventions within First-Year "Success" Courses on Student Alcohol Expectancies and Engagement in High-Risk Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Hourigan, Aimee J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of curricular-based interventions housed within first-year success courses on alcohol expectancies and high-risk drinking behaviors. Specifically, we longitudinally assessed 173 students enrolled in one of ten first-year success courses, including five that received the alcohol intervention and…

  5. Psycho-physiological assessment of a prosthetic hand sensory feedback system based on an auditory display: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues) have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user’s mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting. Methods 10 male subjects (26+/-years old), participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF), Visual Feedback only control (VF), and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF). For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject’s EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA), and respiration rate were measured. Results The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback). Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality. Conclusions The performance improvements when using

  6. Local production of WHO-recommended alcohol-based handrubs: feasibility, advantages, barriers and costs

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Savage, Joanna; Kim, EunMi; Allegranzi, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reduction of health-care-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries is hampered by inadequate supplies of soap and water and the lack or high cost of alcohol-based handrubs (ABHs). Approach In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed and tested two formulations for ABHs that were suitable for production in health-care facilities. In 2011, the feasibility, advantages and costs of the local production of the two formulations – and the barriers to such production – were evaluated in an online survey. Local setting The survey included 34 health-care facilities and 5 private companies in 29 countries. Relevant changes Local production of one of the WHO formulations was feasible in every participating site. Twenty-one (54%) of the sites had replaced a previously used ABH with one of the WHO formulations. In 32 sites, the WHO formulation that had been produced was well tolerated and accepted by health-care workers. The WHO formulations were found to be less expensive than marketed ABHs. Barriers to local production included difficulty in identifying staff with adequate skills, the need for staff training, and constraints in ingredient and dispenser procurement. Lessons learnt The WHO formulations can be easily produced locally at low cost. They are well tolerated and accepted by health-care workers. Potential barriers to their local production – such as their smell and problems in the procurement of ingredients and dispensers and in performing quality control – require further investigation. PMID:24347736

  7. Radiation sensitive indicator based on tetrabromophenol blue dyed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshir, W. B.

    2013-05-01

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing acid- sensitive dye (tetrabromophenol blue, TBPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl3·CH·(OH)2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo color change from blue (the alkaline form of TBPB) to yellow (the acidic form of TBPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maximum of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 8 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 0 to 70% as good post irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature. The overall combined uncertainty (at 2σ) associated with measurement of response (ΔA mm-1) at 623 nm for dose range 1-8 kGy is 4.53%.

  8. Nonvolatile memory devices based on poly(vinyl alcohol) + graphene oxide hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanmei; Lu, Junguo; Ai, Chunpeng; Wen, Dianzhong

    2016-04-20

    Nonvolatile memory devices based on active layers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) + graphene oxide (GO) hybrid composites have been fabricated. The performance of the ITO/PVA + GO/Al device was compared with that of the ITO/PVA/Al device. The ITO/PVA + GO/Al device showed excellent performance compared to the ITO/PVA/Al device (an ON/OFF resistance ratio of 1.2 × 10(2) at 1 V, VSET ∼ -1.45 V and VRESET ∼ 3.6 V), with a higher ON/OFF resistance ratio of 3 × 10(4) at 1 V and lower operating voltages of VSET ∼ -0.75 V and VRESET ∼ 3.0 V. Furthermore, endurance performance and write-read-erase-reread (WRER) cycle tests manifest that the presence of GO in ITO/PVA + GO/Al devices makes them have better stability and repeatability. The results show that the performance of hybrid devices can be effectively enhanced by the introduction of GO into the PVA matrix. PMID:27056548

  9. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  10. Ionic liquids-based crosslinked copolymer sorbents for headspace solid-phase microextraction of polar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Wang, Xusheng; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2012-07-01

    Halogen-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) fibers, which have proved efficient for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polar compounds, were with very limited fiber lifetimes. In this work, a novel crosslinked PIL sorbent with satisfactory stability and durability was prepared in situ via crosslinking polymerization processes on microstructured-silver coated stainless steel wire. 1,1'-(1,6-Hexanediyl)bis(1-vinylimidazolium) bibromide ionic liquid was synthesized and used as the crosslinking agent, with 1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide as monomer. Extraction properties of the fiber for polar alcohols in polar aqueous matrix were examined using headspace SPME (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions, the established method exhibited high extraction capacity. Wide linear ranges were obtained with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.9947 to 0.9999. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-20 μg L⁻¹. Compared with the non-crosslinked PIL fiber, the proposed crosslinked PIL fiber was with higher thermal stability and durability and longer lifetime. Four different liquor beverages were analyzed as real samples and good results were obtained. PMID:22673810

  11. Synthesis of magnetic and multiferroic materials from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes results on the synthesis of the magnetic materials including modified nickel ferrite (Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ), yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12), lanthanum-containing manganites (MxLa1-xMnO3 (M=Pb, Ba or Sr; x=0.3-0.35)), and multiferroics (BiFeO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3) from polyvinyl alcohol-based gels. It is shown that the ammonium nitrate accelerates destruction of organic components of xerogels and thus Ni0.9Co0.1Cu0.1Fe1.9O4-δ and BiFeO3 can be prepared at record low temperatures (100 and 250 °C, respectively) which are 200-300 °C lower compared to the process where air is used as an oxidizing agent. As for the synthesis of Y3Fe5O12, MxLa1-xMnO3 and BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3, the presence of NH4NO3 favors formation of foreign phases, which ultimately complicate reaction mechanisms and lead to the higher temperature to synthesize target products. Developed methods provide nanoscale magnetic and multiferroic materials with an average particle size of ∼20-50 nm.

  12. Computer control by hand gestures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemel, Intidhar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2015-12-01

    This work fits into the context of the interpretation of automatic gestures based on computer vision. The aim of our work is to transform a conventional screen in a surface that allows the user to use his hands as pointing devices. These can be summarized in three main steps. Hand detection in a video, monitoring detected hands and conversion paths made by the hands to computer commands. To realize this application, it is necessary to detect the hand to follow. A classification phase is essential, at the control part. For this reason, we resorted to the use of a neuro-fuzzy classifier for classification and a pattern matching method for detection.

  13. Cortical and subcortical gray matter shrinkage in alcohol-use disorders: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Tian, Fangfang; Zhang, Handi; Zeng, Jianguang; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Song; Jia, Zhiyun; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-07-01

    Although gray matter (GM) damages caused by long term and excessive alcohol consumption have long been reported, the structural neuroimaging findings on alcohol-use disorders (AUD) are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis, using a novel voxel-based meta-analytic method effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM), to characterize GM changes in AUD patients. Twelve studies including 433 AUD patients and 498 healthy controls (HCs) were retrieved. The AUD group demonstrated significant GM reductions in the corticostriatal-limbic circuits, including bilateral insula, superior temporal gyrus, striatum, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left thalamus and right hippocampus compared to HCs. GM reduction in the right striatum is significantly negatively related to duration of alcohol dependence, while GM shrinkage of the left superior, middle frontal gyrus, and left thalamus is related to lifetime alcohol consumption. The findings demonstrate that the GM abnormalities caused by AUD are in corticostriatal-limbic circuits whose dysfunctions may involve in craving and observed functional deficits. PMID:27108216

  14. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE) are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776) subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a) had daily use, (b) commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c) those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day). Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:22204498

  15. Family-based and case-control association studies of glutamate receptor GRIK3 Ser310Ala polymorphism in Polish patients and families with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Samochowiec, Jerzy; Grzywacz, Anna; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Horodnicki, Jan; Pelka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Syrek, Szymon

    2006-03-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the GRIK3 functional polymorphism (Ser310Ala) in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. This polymorphism was investigated in two types of studies: (1) the association study in a whole group of alcoholics (116 patients fulfilling ICD-10 alcohol dependence (AD) criteria and 255 controls, Polish descent) and homogenous overlapping subgroups of patients with: a history of delirium tremens and/or alcohol seizures, early age of onset of alcoholism (AOO<26 years), a co-occurrence of dissocial personality disorder, a history of familial alcoholism; (2) the family-based study (using Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) in 100 Polish families with alcohol dependence). The history of alcoholism was obtained using SSAGA (Polish version). GRIK3 functional polymorphism was determined using PCR. TDT revealed an adequate transmission of both alleles to the affected offspring in the whole group of alcohol families (29 x Ser, 24 x Ala; chi2=0.472; d.f.=1; p=0.492) and in the homogenous subgroups of families. No significant associations between any of the above mentioned alcohol phenotypes and Ser310 allele were observed (the whole AD group: p=0.66 AD with delirium and/or seizures: p=0.521; early onset AD: p=0.868; AD with familial history of alcoholism: p=0.798 and AD with dissocial personality disorder: p=0.618). These findings do not seem to support the hypothesis of the role of this polymorphism in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. PMID:16356644

  16. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  17. Partner Violence Before and After Couples-Based Alcoholism Treatment for Male Alcoholic Patients: The Role of Treatment Involvement and Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Fals-Stewart, William; Murphy, Marie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined partner violence before and after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 303 married or cohabiting male alcoholic patients and used a demographically matched nonalcoholic comparison sample. In the year before BCT, 60% of alcoholic patients had been violent toward their female partner, 5 times the comparison sample rate of 12%. In…

  18. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  19. Alcohol use and spousal mental distress in a population sample: the nord-trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is a widely held notion that alcohol abuse is related to mental distress in the spouse. Research has substantiated this notion by showing a tendency for spouses of alcohol abusers to experience more mental distress than spouses of non-abusers. However, the picture seems to be more complex, as some results do not show a significant effect or even less mental distress among spouses of alcohol abusers with the highest alcohol consumption. The present study investigates the association between spousal mental distress and both a high consumption of alcohol and having experienced alcohol related problems. Methods Norwegian population-based questionnaire data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2) were analyzed. In total 11,584 couples were eligible for analysis. Alcohol consumption was measured by numerical indicators of alcohol amount and frequency of drinking, whereas alcohol-related problems (i.e. having been criticized for excessive drinking) were measured by the CAGE Alcohol Screening Questionnaire. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results Results revealed that alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in spousal mental distress, whereas alcohol-related problems were associated with an increase in spousal mental distress when adjusted for each other. Interaction effects indicated that couples discordant for drinking problems experienced more mental distress than spouses concordant for drinking problems. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that alcohol-related problems constitute a clear risk factor for spousal mental distress. On the other hand, a high consumption of alcohol per se was related to lower levels of spousal mental distress, after adjusting for the alcohol-related problems perceived by the alcohol consumer him/herself. All effect sizes were small, but the trends were clear, challenging the notion that a high consumption of alcohol is exclusively and under all

  20. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  1. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  2. Participants’ Perceptions of a Group Based Program Incorporating Hands-On Meal Preparation and Pedometer-Based Self-Monitoring in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Jarvandi, Soghra; De Civita, Mirella; Pillay, Sabrina; Hajna, Samantha; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Bader, Abeer; Da Costa, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition education (portion sizes, balanced meals) is a cornerstone of diabetes management; however, moving from information to behavior change is challenging. Through a single arm intervention study, we recently demonstrated that combining education with group-based meal preparation training has measureable effects on weight, eating behaviour, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we conducted an in-depth examination of participants’ perceptions of this strategy, through focus group discussion, to delineate effective elements of the strategy from participants’ perspectives. Methods Participants who had completed the nutrition education/meal preparation training program were invited to attend one of four focus group discussions. These were led by experienced facilitators and guided by questions addressing experiences during the intervention and their perceived impact. Audiotapes were transcribed and qualitative content analysis of transcripts was performed. We report herein themes that achieved saturation across the four discussions. Results Twenty-nine (80.6%, 29/36) attended a focus group discussion. The program elements perceived as effective by participants included the hands-on interactive learning approach to meal preparation, the grocery store tour, pedometer-based self-monitoring, experiencing the link between food consumption/physical activity and glucose changes during the program, and peer support. Discussants reported changes in eating and walking behaviour, greater confidence in ability to self-manage diabetes, reductions in glucose levels and/or need for glucose-lowering medications, and, in some cases, weight loss. Family members and friends were facilitators for some and barriers for others in terms of achieving health behavior changes. Conclusions Among adults with type 2 diabetes, a group based program that included hands-on meal preparation and pedometer-based self-monitoring was perceived as

  3. Digital imaging for the education of proper surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás; Nagy, Melinda; Lehotsky, Akos; Szilágyi, László

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are the undesirable result of a treatment in a hospital, or a health care service unit, not related to the patient's original condition. Despite the evolution of medicine, fundamental problems with hand hygiene remain existent, leading to the spread of nosocomial infections. Our group has been working on a generic solution to provide a method and apparatus to teach and verify proper hand disinfection. The general idea is to mark the skin surfaces that were sufficiently treated with alcoholic hand rub. Digital image processing is employed to determine the location of these areas and overlay it on the segmented hand, visualizing the results in an intuitive form. A non-disruptive ultraviolet marker is mixed to a commercially available hand rub, therefore leaving the original hand washing workflow intact. Digital images are taken in an enclosed device we developed for this purpose. First, robust hand contour segmentation is performed, then a histogram-based formulation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm is employed for the classification of clean versus dirty regions, minimizing the processing time of the images. The method and device have been tested in 3 hospitals in Hungary, Romania and Singapore, on surgeons, residents, medical students and nurses. A health care professional verified the results of the segmentation, since no gold standard is available for the recorded human cases. We were able to identify the hand boundaries correctly in 99.2% of the cases. The device can give objective feedback to medical students and staff to develop and maintain proper hand disinfection practice. PMID:22003751

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  5. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide ‘Na Toll!’ campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12–20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  6. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide 'Na Toll!' campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12-20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  7. Direct voxel-based comparisons between grey matter shrinkage and glucose hypometabolism in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène; Pitel, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Alcoholism is associated with widespread brain structural abnormalities affecting mainly the frontocerebellar and the Papez's circuits. Brain glucose metabolism has received limited attention, and few studies used regions of interest approach and showed reduced global brain metabolism predominantly in the frontal and parietal lobes. Even though these studies have examined the relationship between grey matter shrinkage and hypometabolism, none has performed a direct voxel-by-voxel comparison between the degrees of structural and metabolic abnormalities. Seventeen alcoholic patients and 16 control subjects underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography examinations. Structural abnormalities and hypometabolism were examined in alcoholic patients compared with control subjects using two-sample t-tests. Then, these two patterns of brain damage were directly compared with a paired t-test. Compared to controls, alcoholic patients had grey matter shrinkage and hypometabolism in the fronto-cerebellar circuit and several nodes of Papez's circuit. The direct comparison revealed greater shrinkage than hypometabolism in the cerebellum, cingulate cortex, thalamus and hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Conversely, hypometabolism was more severe than shrinkage in the dorsolateral, premotor and parietal cortices. The distinct profiles of abnormalities found within the Papez's circuit, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the parietal gyrus in chronic alcoholism suggest the involvement of different pathological mechanisms. PMID:26661206

  8. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  9. A compact very wideband amplifying filter based on RTD loaded composite right/left-handed transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Abu-Marasa, Mahmoud O Mahmoud; El-Khozondar, Hala Jarallah

    2015-01-01

    The composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is presented as a general TL possessing both left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) natures. RH materials have both positive permittivity and positive permeability, and LH materials have both negative permittivity and negative permeability. This paper aims to design and analyze nonlinear CRLH-TL transmission line loaded with resonant tunneling diode (RTD). The main application of this design is a very wideband and compact filter that amplifies the travelling signal. We used OrCAD and ADS software to analyze the proposed circuit. CRLH-TL consists of a microstrip line which is loaded with complementary split-rings resonators (CSRRs), series gaps, and shunt inductor connected parallel to the RTD. The designed structure possess a wide band that ranges from 5 to 10.5 GHz and amplifies signal up to 50 %. The proposed design is of interest to microwave compact component designers. PMID:26636021

  10. Perceptions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – an Asian community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, George B.B.; Kwan, Clarence; Lim, Sze Ying; Venkatanarasimha, Nanda KK; Abu-Bakar, Rafidah; Krishnamoorthy, Thinesh L; Shim, Hang Hock; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Chow, Wan Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is closely related to metabolic syndrome and its risk factors. Worldwide, epidemiological studies have reported NAFLD prevalence rates of 5% to 30% depending on geographical variations. While epidemiological data suggest a progressively increasing prevalence of metabolic risk factors in Singapore, there are limited data about NAFLD per se in the community. We aim to explore the prevalence and perceptions of NAFLD in Singapore. Methods: Attendees at a gastroenterology public forum were enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study evaluating demographic, anthropometric and clinical information. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on sonographic criteria. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation guidelines. Perceptions of NAFLD were explored using a self-administered survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 227 subjects were recruited, with NAFLD being diagnosed in 40% of the cohort. Relative to those without NAFLD, subjects with NAFLD had higher male preponderance, older age, higher body mass index, waist circumference and more metabolic syndrome (all P < 0.05). Although 71.2% subjects had heard about NAFLD before, only 25.4% of them felt that they were at risk of NAFLD. Comparable responses were observed in subjects with no metabolic risk factors relative to subjects with one or more metabolic risk factors (P > 0.05). Of note, 75.6% of subjects with one or more metabolic risk factors did not think that they were at risk of NAFLD. Conclusion: Our study suggests a significant local prevalence of NAFLD in the community including non-obese individuals. Considering the tendency to underestimate risk of NAFLD, enhanced public education about NAFLD is warranted to improve understanding. PMID:26463276

  11. Nitrogen and carbon removal efficiency of a polyvinyl alcohol gel based moving bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Singh, Jasdeep; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Ali, Muntjeer; Rose, Vipin; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads in treating domestic wastewater was investigated: a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) configuration (oxic-anoxic and oxic) with 10% filling fraction of biomass carriers was operated in a continuously fed regime at temperatures of 25, 20, 15 and 6 °C with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 32 h, 18 h, 12 h and 9 h, respectively. Influent loadings were in the range of 0.22-1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) (total nitrogen (TN)), 1.48-7.82 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) d(-1) (organic) and 0.12-0.89 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3)d(-1) (ammonia nitrogen). MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3) d(-1) when the temperature and HRT were 6 °C and 9 h, respectively. The carbon removal rate at this temperature and HRT was 6.82 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Ammonium removal rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.75 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) during the study. Total phosphorus and suspended solid removal efficiency ranged from 84 to 98% and 85 to 94% at an influent concentration of 3.3-7.1 mg/L and 74-356 mg/L, respectively. The sludge wasted from the MBBR exhibited light weight features characterized by sludge volume index value of 185 mL/g. Experimental data obtained can be useful in further developing the concept of PVA gel based wastewater treatment systems. PMID:27054722

  12. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  13. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based film potentially suitable for antimicrobial packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Alessandro; Paderni, Katia; Fabbri, Paola; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Fava, Patrizia

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed at developing a thin and water-resistant food-grade poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based matrix able to swell when in contact with high moisture content food products without rupturing to release antimicrobial agents onto the food surface. This film was prepared by blending PVOH and 7.20% (wt/wt of PVOH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with citric acid as crosslinking agent. The film-forming solution was then casted onto a flat surface and the obtained film was 60 μm in thickness and showed a good transparency (close to T = 100%) in the visible region (400 to 700 nm). After immersion in water for 72 h at room temperature, the crosslinked matrix loses only 19.2% of its original weight (the percentage includes the amount of unreacted crosslinking agent, antimicrobial in itself). Water content, degree of swelling, and crosslinking density of the film prove that the presence of PEG diminishes the hydrophilic behavior of the material. Also the mechanical properties of the wet and dry film were assessed. Alongside this, 2.5% (wt/wt of dry film) of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), an antimicrobial agent, was added to the film-forming solution just before casting and the ability of the plastic matrix to release the additive was then evaluated in vitro against 2 GSE-susceptible microorganisms, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua. The results indicate that the developed matrix may be a promising food-grade material for the incorporation of active substances. PMID:24611868

  14. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  15. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  16. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G; Ferro, Jose M; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H; Dowling, Nicole F; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R; Price, Jackie F; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dai, James Y; Lanktree, Matthew B; Siscovick, David S; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Schreiner, Pamela J; Ellison, R Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y; Patel, Sanjay R; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John; Davey Smith, George; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie A; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (−0.88 (−1.19 to −0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (−5.2% (−7.8 to −2.4%)), waist circumference (−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1) cm), and body mass index (−0.17 (−0.24 to −0.10) kg/m2). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P=0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for

  17. Contributions of Studies on Alcohol Use Disorders to Understanding Cerebellar Function

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropathological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies of human alcoholism provide evidence for degradation of frontal, pontine, thalamic, and cerebellar brain sites and disturbed associated functions. Current studies using neuroimaging combined with examination of executive functions, traditionally considered the sole purview of the frontal lobes, have identified a role for the cerebellum serving as a compensatory processing adjunct to enable normal performance on challenging tasks tapping executive functions. This overview proposes that disruption of an executive frontocerebellar network is a major contributor to characteristic behaviors of alcoholism that, on the one hand, enable alcohol use disorders, and on the other hand, lead to compensation for so-called frontally-based dysfunctions in alcoholism. PMID:20809198

  18. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  20. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Moncher, Michael S.; Parms, Clifford A.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schinke, Steven P.; Miller, Samuel O.; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects’ attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions. PMID:17387376

  1. Classification of brain signals associated with imagination of hand grasping, opening and reaching by means of wavelet-based common spatial pattern and mutual information.

    PubMed

    Amanpour, Behzad; Erfanian, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    An important issue in designing a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) is the selection of mental tasks to be imagined. Different types of mental tasks have been used in BCI including left, right, foot, and tongue motor imageries. However, the mental tasks are different from the actions to be controlled by the BCI. It is desirable to select a mental task to be consistent with the desired action to be performed by BCI. In this paper, we investigated the detecting the imagination of the hand grasping, hand opening, and hand reaching in one hand using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. The results show that the ERD/ERS patterns, associated with the imagination of hand grasping, opening, and reaching are different. For classification of brain signals associated with these mental tasks and feature extraction, a method based on wavelet packet, regularized common spatial pattern (CSP), and mutual information is proposed. The results of an offline analysis on five subjects show that the two-class mental tasks can be classified with an average accuracy of 77.6% using proposed method. In addition, we examine the proposed method on datasets IVa from BCI Competition III and IIa from BCI Competition IV. PMID:24110165

  2. Neuropsychological Evidence for Visual- and Motor-Based Affordance: Effects of Reference Frame and Object-Hand Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; Wulff, Melanie; Yoon, Eun Young; Riddoch, M. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that use patients with visual extinction to examine how visual attention is influenced by action information in images. In Experiment 1 patients saw images of objects that were either correctly or incorrectly colocated for action, with the objects held by hands that were congruent or incongruent with those used…

  3. Enhancing the Connection to Undergraduate Engineering Students: A Hands-On and Team-Based Approach to Fluid Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Tie; Ford, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the integration of innovative hands-on activities within a sophomore-level Fluid Mechanics course at New Mexico Tech. The course introduces students to the fundamentals of fluid mechanics with emphasis on teaching key equations and methods of analysis for solving real-world problems. Strategies and examples…

  4. Toward "Reality-Based" Integrative Laboratories in ChE: Introducing Real-Time, Hands-On Troubleshooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of troubleshooting within a pre-existing expository laboratory is described and evaluated. Student feedback indicated that troubleshooting activities are highly effective in providing a hands-on opportunity to exercise problem-solving skills and gain a better understanding of the whole process in addition to effectively…

  5. “I am a Muslim and My Dad is an Alcoholic -- What Should I Do?”: Internet-Based Advice for Muslims about Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Laurence; Trocki, Karen; Katz, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes 113 fatwas (pieces of advice from Muslim scholars) in response to Internet user-contributed questions about correct behavior in situations involving alcohol. The fatwas are from IslamOnline.net, a popular Islamic Web site. Most of the questions on the English site are submitted by individuals living in non-Muslim countries, who are more likely to confront difficult situations relating to alcohol. In spite of the general condemnation of alcohol consumption in Islam, many individuals face ethical dilemmas and feel the need to request advice about proper behavior in situations involving alcohol, relating to the family, society, work, and bodily purity, as well as more abstract theological questions. PMID:20514354

  6. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  7. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol. PMID:17719131

  8. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  9. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  10. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase and lignocellulosic fibres, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste were moulded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Corn starch was introduced as a bio...

  11. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  12. School-Based Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs: Guidelines for the Special Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmquist, Donna L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary approaches of programs to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse are discussed, along with general problems of these programs. Key weaknesses of program evaluations are discussed, and suggestions and recommendations are made for special educators to implement prevention programs with their students with disabilities. (JDD)

  13. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  14. EXPLORING THE BIOTRANSFORMATION POTENTIAL OF FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL-BASED POLYMER FORMULATIONS DURING AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer alcohols have been widely used over the past 50 years in surface protection products for paper, packaging, textile, and carpet goods; in industrial surfactant mixtures; in aqueous fire-fighting foams, and as processing aids during the production of fluoropolymer pla...

  15. Web-Based Intervention for Alcohol Use in Women of Childbearing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Katia Delrahim

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for more effective assessment and primary prevention programs aimed at accurately measuring and reducing alcohol consumption among women before conception in underserved, high-risk populations. Health Information Technology (HIT) may serve this purpose; however, the effectiveness of such tools is not known. We conducted a…

  16. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  17. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  18. Relationship of alcohol drinking pattern to risk of hypertension: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stranges, Saverio; Wu, Tiejian; Dorn, Joan M; Freudenheim, Jo L; Muti, Paola; Farinaro, Eduardo; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between heavy alcohol use and hypertension, but few studies have directly addressed the role of drinking pattern. This study was designed to investigate the association of current alcohol consumption and aspects of drinking pattern with hypertension risk in a sample of 2609 white men and women from western New York, aged 35 to 80 years, and free from other cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension was defined by systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed after adjustment for several covariates. Compared with lifetime abstainers, participants reporting drinking on a daily basis (1.75 [1.13 to 2.72]) or mostly without food (1.64 [1.08 to 2.51]) exhibited significantly higher risk of hypertension. When analyses were restricted to current drinkers, daily drinkers and participants consuming alcohol without food exhibited a significantly higher risk of hypertension compared with those drinking less than weekly (1.65 [1.18 to 2.30]) and those drinking mostly with food (1.49 [1.10 to 2.00]), respectively. After additional adjustment for the amount of alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, the results were follows: 0.90 (0.58 to 1.41) for daily drinkers and 1.41 (1.04 to 1.91) for drinkers without food. For predominant beverage preference, no consistent association with hypertension risk was found across the various types of beverages considered (beer, wine, and liquor). In conclusion, drinking outside meals appears to have a significant effect on hypertension risk independent of the amount of alcohol consumed. PMID:15477381

  19. A randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with college-student alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Wood, Mollie; Frayjo, Kezia; Black, Ryan A.; Surette, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students remains a major public health concern. Universal, Web-based interventions to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption have been found to be effective in changing their alcohol-related behavior. Recent studies also indicate that parent-based interventions, delivered in booklet form, are effective. A parent-based intervention that is also Web-based may be well suited to a dispersed parent population; however, no such tool is currently available. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an online parent-based intervention designed to (1) increase communication between parents and students about alcohol and (2) reduce risks associated with alcohol use to students. A total of 558 participants, comprising 279 parent-teen dyads, were enrolled in the study. The findings suggested that parents who participated in the online intervention were more likely to discuss protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, with their teens, as compared with parents in an e-newsletter control group. Moreover, students whose parents received the intervention were more likely to use a range of protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, as compared with students whose parents did not receive the intervention. A universal, online, parent-based intervention to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption may be an efficient and effective component of a college’s overall prevention strategy. PMID:21963316

  20. [SURGICAL HAND WASHING: HANDSCRUBBING OR HANDRUBBING].

    PubMed

    Santacatalina Mas, Roser; Peix Sagues, Ma Teresa; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Claramunt Jofre, Marta; López López, Alba; Salas Marco, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The importance of protocols for preoperative antisepsis of the hands is given by the risk of transferring bacteria from the hands of the surgical team to the patient during surgery and it is relationship with infection of surgical wound site (SSI). Careful surgical scrub reduces the number of bacteria on the skin, but does not eliminate them completely, remaining transient microorganisms on hands after the surgical scrub. There fore if micropuncture in surgical gloves occurs, the correct preoperative preparation of hands and double gloving will be essential to reduce the risk of bacterial transmission to patients. The protocols for surgical hand antisepsis are two: Surgical scrub with antiseptic soap (hand scrubbing). Surgical scrub by rubbing alcohol (handrubbing). The hand antisepsis by rubbing with an alcohol solution has proved to be significantly more effective compared to soap solutions. We must also see that in surgical hand antisepsis with soap, you must rinse them with water. And often hospitals' taps and keys are contaminated by Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeuinosa. PMID:27101645

  1. Opportunities for prevention of alcohol-related death in primary care: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Margaret; Johnson, David; Morrison, David S

    2012-11-01

    The mortality rate from alcohol-related conditions has risen sharply in the United Kingdom and it is not known whether opportunities for preventive interventions could be improved. The purpose of our study was to identify opportunities to detect, assess, and manage alcohol problems in primary care according to evidence-based guidelines. We carried out a cross-sectional study on patients who died from alcohol-related conditions in the calendar year 2003 within National Health Service Greater Glasgow Health Board area, Scotland (population 920,000). We described patient characteristics and care recorded in health service records, comparing it with best evidence-based practice in Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and Health Technology Board for Scotland recommendations on the management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. 501 deaths occurred from an alcohol-related cause. The mean age at death was 57.5 years and 72% were male. The most common causes of death, recorded by the International Classification of Diseases, revision 10, excluding accidents, were alcoholic liver disease (290, 57.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol (70, 14.0%). Lifetime mean consultations at primary care general practitioner and hospital outpatient departments were 24 in males and 5 in females. All individuals who died from an alcohol-related cause had at least one biochemical or physical indicator suggestive of alcohol misuse. 21% (95% CI 13-33%) had no record of having been advised to abstain from alcohol and 23% (95% CI 15-35%) had received brief interventions. 58% (95% CI 46-70%) had been referred to specialist alcohol services but a third of them did not attend. The majority of patients (83%, 95% CI 72-90%) had no evidence of shared health service and social work care. We concluded that individuals who died from alcohol-related conditions were usually in contact with statutory and voluntary services but further efforts were required to use these

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  3. Trajectories of Drinking Urges During Individual- and Couple-based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, Kevin A.; Owens, Mandy D.; Brovko, Julie M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) often experience urges to drink, and reductions in drinking urges during cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) predict better treatment outcomes. However, little previous work has examined patterns of daily drinking urges during treatment. The present study examined patterns of change in daily drinking urges among participants in two randomized clinical trials of males (N = 80 with 4401 daily recordings) and females (N = 101 with 8011 daily recordings) receiving individual- or couples-based CBT. Drinking urges were common during treatment, occurring on 45.1% percent of days for men and 44.8% for women. Drinking urges and alcohol use for both genders decreased substantially during the course of treatment. Both genders had increases in drinking urges as more time elapsed since attending a treatment session. For men, this increase was most pronounced at the beginning of treatment, but for women it was most pronounced near the end of treatment. Alcohol use and drinking urges were both more likely to occur on weekends. The results suggest that these times may lead to higher risk for drinking, and clients may benefit from high-risk planning that is focused on these times.

  4. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  5. Explicating an evidence-based, theoretically informed, mobile technology-based system to improve outcomes for people in recovery for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; Baker, Timothy; Boyle, Michael G; Levy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Post-treatment relapse to uncontrolled alcohol use is common. Currently available communication technology can use existing models for relapse prevention to cost-effectively improve long-term relapse prevention. This paper describes: (1) research-based elements of alcohol consumption-related relapse prevention and how they can be encompassed in self-determination theory (SDT) and Marlatt's cognitive behavioral relapse prevention model, (2) how technology could help address the needs of people seeking recovery, (3) a technology-based prototype, organized around sexual transmitted disease and Marlatt's model, and (4) how we are testing a system based on the ideas in this article and related ethical and operational considerations. PMID:21190410

  6. Explicating an Evidence-Based, Theoretically Informed, Mobile Technology-Based System to Improve Outcomes for People in Recovery for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Isham, Andrew; Baker, Timothy; Boyle, Michael G.; Levy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Post treatment relapse to uncontrolled alcohol use is common. More cost-effective approaches are needed. We believe currently available communication technology can use existing models for relapse prevention to cost-effectively improve long-term relapse prevention. This paper describes: 1) research-based elements of alcohol related relapse prevention and how they can be encompassed in Self Determination Theory (SDT) and Marlatt’s Cognitive Behavioral Relapse Prevention Model, 2) how technology could help address the needs of people seeking recovery, 3) a technology-based prototype, organized around Self Determination Theory and Marlatt’s model and 4) how we are testing a system based on the ideas in this article and related ethical and operational considerations. PMID:21190410

  7. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  8. Alkali promoted molybdenum (IV) sulfide based catalysts, development and characterization for alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Belinda Delilah

    For more than a century transition metal sulfides (TMS) have been the anchor of hydro-processing fuels and upgrading bitumen and coal in refineries worldwide. As oil supplies dwindle and environmental laws become more stringent, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels and/or synthetic fuels. The depletion of oil reserves and a rapidly increasing energy demand worldwide, together with the interest to reduce dependence on foreign oil makes alcohol production for fuels and chemicals via the Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) very attractive. The original Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction is the heart of all gas-to-liquid technologies; it creates higher alcohols and hydrocarbons from CO/H2 using a metal catalyst. This research focuses on the development of alkali promoted MoS2-based catalysts to investigate an optimal synthesis for their assistance in the production of long chain alcohols (via FTS) for their use as synthetic transportation liquid fuels. Properties of catalytic material are strongly affected by every step of the preparation together with the quality of the raw materials. The choice of a laboratory method for preparing a given catalyst depends on the physical and chemical characteristics desired in the final composition. Characterization methods of K0.3/Cs0.3-MoS2 and K0.3 /Cs0.3-Co0.5MoS2 catalysts have been carried out through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET porosity and surface analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Various characterization methods have been deployed to correlate FTS products versus crystal and morphological properties of these heterogeneous catalysts. A lab scale gas to liquid system has been developed to evaluate its efficiency in testing FT catalysts for their production of alcohols.

  9. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.]. PMID:27018604

  10. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  11. Chapter 4. A self-theoretical perspective on the use-misuse of alcohol and drugs based on qualitative and narrative data.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sam; von Braun, Therese; Lilja, John; Sjöblom, Yvonne; Hamilton, David

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses different self-theoretical perspectives of the self that are of importance in the analysis of the use and misuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs. The self-theories considered here include cognitive, psychodynamic, transpersonal, and social constructivist perspectives. A multidimensional perspective focusing on the connection between identity structures and analyzing the use/misuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs is presented. The article argues for a self-theoretical analysis based on narrative data in order to reach an in-depth understanding of the use and misuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs. PMID:24087866

  12. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  13. A biomimetic pathway for vanadium-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols: evidence for a base-assisted dehydrogenation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wigington, Bethany N; Drummond, Michael L; Cundari, Thomas R; Thorn, David L; Hanson, Susan K; Scott, Susannah L

    2012-11-19

    The first step in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols by molecular O(2), mediated by homogeneous vanadium(V) complexes [LV(V)(O)(OR)], is ligand exchange. The unusual mechanism of the subsequent intramolecular oxidation of benzyl alcoholate ligands in the 8-hydroxyquinolinato (HQ) complexes [(HQ)(2)V(V)(O)(OCH(2)C(6)H(4)-p-X)] involves intermolecular deprotonation. In the presence of triethylamine, complex 3 (X = H) reacts within an hour at room temperature to generate, quantitatively, [(HQ)(2)V(IV)(O)], benzaldehyde (0.5 equivalents), and benzyl alcohol (0.5 equivalents). The base plays a key role in the reaction: in its absence, less than 12% conversion was observed after 72 hours. The reaction is first order in both 3 and NEt(3), with activation parameters ΔH(≠)=(28±4) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(≠)=(-169±4) J K(-1)  mol(-1). A large kinetic isotope effect, 10.2±0.6, was observed when the benzylic hydrogen atoms were replaced by deuterium atoms. The effect of the para substituent of the benzyl alcoholate ligand on the reaction rate was investigated using a Hammett plot, which was constructed using σ(p). From the slope of the Hammett plot, ρ=+(1.34±0.18), a significant buildup of negative charge on the benzylic carbon atom in the transition state is inferred. These experimental findings, in combination with computational studies, support an unusual bimolecular pathway for the intramolecular redox reaction, in which the rate-limiting step is deprotonation at the benzylic position. This mechanism, that is, base-assisted dehydrogenation (BAD), represents a biomimetic pathway for transition-metal-mediated alcohol oxidations, differing from the previously identified hydride-transfer and radical pathways. It suggests a new way to enhance the activity and selectivity of vanadium catalysts in a wide range of redox reactions, through control of the outer coordination sphere. PMID:23080554

  14. Evaluation of two different hand hygiene procedures during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Eksi, F; Mehli, M; Akgun, S; Bayram, A; Balci, I; Aydin, N

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing (HW) and hand washing plus rubbing with an alcohol-based solution (HWR) on numbers of total and transient flora colonies on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) during routine patient care was assessed. Samples were collected, using a standard bag broth technique, from the hands of 154 HCWs, before and immediately after carrying out a hand hygiene procedure. The numbers of total and transient flora colonies per plate were counted and transient pathogens were identified. A significant statistical difference between ward speciality was detected with respect to the isolation rate of transient flora. Transient hand flora were recovered from 25.3% of HCWs before carrying out the hand hygiene procedure. With respect to the disappearance and prevention of regrowth of transient flora after hand hygiene, the HWR technique was significantly more effective than HW. In conclusion, a disinfectant should be added to the hand washing process to achieve optimum protection against nosocomial infections in routine hospital practice. PMID:21227014

  15. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that insomnia and associated sleep disruptions, observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired sleep homeostasis. Based on our findings, we suggest that alcohol may disrupt sleep homeostasis to cause sleep disruptions. PMID:25499829

  16. Highly sensitive alcohol sensor based on a single Er-doped In2O3 nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhaojun; Liu, Yingkai; Chen, Weiwu; Ai, Peng; Wu, Yuemei; Li, Shuanghui; Yu, Dapeng

    2016-02-01

    Pure In2O3 NBs and Er-In2O3 NBs have been successfully synthesized by carbon thermal reduction. The doping of Er leads the optimal temperature of the In2O3 to decrease. The response of the Er-In2O3 sensor to 100 ppm of alcohol is 4.8 at 220 °C, which is twice larger than that of the pure In2O3 sensor. It is also found that the doping of Er has increased the performance of the sensors. Moreover, Er-In2O3 sensor has a fast response (recovery) time to different concentration of alcohol at 220 °C. In addition, the mechanism of pure In2O3 sensor and Er-In2O3 sensor are discussed.

  17. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2009 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2010-12-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting research for the United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). This research has involved the screening of potential catalysts, and optimization of the more promising ones, using laboratory scale reactors. During 2009, the main goal of the testing program focused on optimizing selected supported catalysts containing rhodium (Rh) and manganese (Mn). Optimization involved examining different total concentrations and atomic ratios of Rh and Mn as well as that of the more promising promoters (Ir and Li) identified in the earlier screening studies. Evaluation of catalyst performance focused on attaining improvements with respect to the space-time-yield and converted carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates, with additional consideration given to the fraction of the oxygenates that were C2+ alcohols.

  18. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  19. Evaluation of an Internet-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Course for College Freshmen Findings of a Randomized Multi-Campus Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Antin, Tamar; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention programs are now used by many universities. One popular 2- to 3-hour online course known as AlcoholEdu for College is typically required for all incoming freshmen and thus constitutes a campus-level strategy to reduce student alcohol misuse. Purpose This is the first multi-campus study to evaluate the effectiveness of an Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course. Design RCT with 30 universities: 21 entered the study in Fall 2007, nine in Fall 2008. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive the online course and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. The course was implemented by intervention schools during the late summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university, beginning prior to the intervention in Spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in Fall 2008/09 and Spring 2009/2010. Setting/participants Public and private universities of varying sizes across the U.S. Random samples of 200 freshmen per campus were invited to participate in online surveys for the evaluation. Overall survey response rates ranged from 44% to 48% (M ≈ 90 participants per campus). Intervention The online course includes five modules; the first four (Part I) are typically offered in the late summer before matriculation, and the fifth (Part II) in early fall. Course content includes defining a standard drink, physiologic effects of alcohol, the need to monitor blood alcohol level, social influences on alcohol use, alcohol laws, personalized normative feedback, and alcohol harm-reduction strategies. Students must pass an exam after Part I to advance to Part II. Main outcome measures Past-30-day alcohol use, average number of drinks per occasion, and binge drinking. Results Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use (beta = –0.64, p<0.05) and binge drinking (beta = –0.26, p<0

  20. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  1. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  2. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  3. Hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among health care providers in Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care associated infections are more predominant in developing countries where Hand hygiene compliance is associated with so many factors. However, these factors have not been studied so far in the study area. This study sought to determine Hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among health care providers. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013 in Gondar University Hospital. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 405 health care providers. Standardized questionnaire and world health organization observational checklist was used to collect the data. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model was used to summarize the result. Results A total of 405 study participants were interviewed and observed with a response rate of 96.4%. Good Hand hygiene compliance of healthcare providers was found to be 16.5%. Having knowledge about hand hygiene compliance, (AOR = 3.80, 95% CI 1.60, 8.97), getting training (AOR = 2.60, 95% Cl 1.21, 5.62), the presence of individual towel/tissue paper (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.03, 3.56) presence of alcohol based hand rub for Hand hygiene compliance (AOR = 6.58, 95% CI 2.67, 16.22) and knew the presence of infection prevention committees (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.23, 5.37) were significantly associated with hand hygiene compliance. Conclusions Hand hygiene compliance among health care providers in Gondar University Hospital was found to be low. It is better to give training on Hand hygiene compliance and provide Alcohol based hand rub and individual towel or tissue paper for hand hygiene compliance. PMID:24479696

  4. Development of an Abuse- and Alcohol-Resistant Formulation Based on Hot-Melt Extrusion and Film Coating.

    PubMed

    Jedinger, Nicole; Schrank, Simone; Fischer, Johannes M; Breinhälter, Karlheinz; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the development of flexible (i.e., deformable) multiple-unit pellets that feature (i) a prolonged drug release, (ii) drug abuse deterrence, and (iii) a minimal risk of alcohol-induced dose dumping (ADD). Deformable pellets were prepared via an advanced continuous one-step hot-melt extrusion (HME) technique, with the drug (i.e., antipyrine and codeine phosphate) fed as an aqueous solution into the molten matrix material (i.e., cornstarch, gum arabic, and xanthan). Formulations that had suitable mechanical characteristics (i.e., high compression strength) were coated with a flexible Aquacoat(®) ARC film to ensure prolonged release and to avoid ADD. The pellets were characterized in terms of their mechanical properties and in vitro drug release behavior in alcoholic media. All formulations were abuse deterrent: they had a high compression strength and grinding the pellets into powder was impossible. Since the pellets comprising gum arabic and xanthan as a matrix did not remain intact during dissolution testing, they had a very fast drug release rate. Cornstarch-based pellets that swelled but remained intact in the dissolution media had a slower drug release. Coated cornstarch-based pellets had a prolonged release over 8 h and resistance to dose dumping in 20 and 40% ethanol. Our results indicate that cornstarch-based pellets manufactured via the advanced HME process followed by coating are a promising formulation that makes tampering difficult due to a high compression strength combined with robustness in alcoholic media. PMID:26206403

  5. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Mayara H.; Barbosa, Rafael I.; Marcolino, Alexandre M.; Elui, Valéria M. C.; Rosén, Birgitta; Fonseca, Marisa C. R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score) values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5); 1.96 (SD=0.56) and 1.65 (SD=0.52); 1.51 (SD=0.62), respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26786080

  6. Pre-Trial EEG-Based Single-Trial Motor Performance Prediction to Enhance Neuroergonomics for a Hand Force Task.

    PubMed

    Meinel, Andreas; Castaño-Candamil, Sebastián; Reis, Janine; Tangermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for building electrophysiological predictors of single-trial motor performance variations, exemplified for SVIPT, a sequential isometric force control task suitable for hand motor rehabilitation after stroke. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 20 subjects with mean age of 53 years was recorded prior to and during 400 trials of SVIPT. They were executed within a single session with the non-dominant left hand, while receiving continuous visual feedback of the produced force trajectories. The behavioral data showed strong trial-by-trial performance variations for five clinically relevant metrics, which accounted for reaction time as well as for the smoothness and precision of the produced force trajectory. 18 out of 20 tested subjects remained after preprocessing and entered offline analysis. Source Power Comodulation (SPoC) was applied on EEG data of a short time interval prior to the start of each SVIPT trial. For 11 subjects, SPoC revealed robust oscillatory EEG subspace components, whose bandpower activity are predictive for the performance of the upcoming trial. Since SPoC may overfit to non-informative subspaces, we propose to apply three selection criteria accounting for the meaningfulness of the features. Across all subjects, the obtained components were spread along the frequency spectrum and showed a variety of spatial activity patterns. Those containing the highest level of predictive information resided in and close to the alpha band. Their spatial patterns resemble topologies reported for visual attention processes as well as those of imagined or executed hand motor tasks. In summary, we identified subject-specific single predictors that explain up to 36% of the performance fluctuations and may serve for enhancing neuroergonomics of motor rehabilitation scenarios. PMID:27199701

  7. Pre-Trial EEG-Based Single-Trial Motor Performance Prediction to Enhance Neuroergonomics for a Hand Force Task

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Andreas; Castaño-Candamil, Sebastián; Reis, Janine; Tangermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for building electrophysiological predictors of single-trial motor performance variations, exemplified for SVIPT, a sequential isometric force control task suitable for hand motor rehabilitation after stroke. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 20 subjects with mean age of 53 years was recorded prior to and during 400 trials of SVIPT. They were executed within a single session with the non-dominant left hand, while receiving continuous visual feedback of the produced force trajectories. The behavioral data showed strong trial-by-trial performance variations for five clinically relevant metrics, which accounted for reaction time as well as for the smoothness and precision of the produced force trajectory. 18 out of 20 tested subjects remained after preprocessing and entered offline analysis. Source Power Comodulation (SPoC) was applied on EEG data of a short time interval prior to the start of each SVIPT trial. For 11 subjects, SPoC revealed robust oscillatory EEG subspace components, whose bandpower activity are predictive for the performance of the upcoming trial. Since SPoC may overfit to non-informative subspaces, we propose to apply three selection criteria accounting for the meaningfulness of the features. Across all subjects, the obtained components were spread along the frequency spectrum and showed a variety of spatial activity patterns. Those containing the highest level of predictive information resided in and close to the alpha band. Their spatial patterns resemble topologies reported for visual attention processes as well as those of imagined or executed hand motor tasks. In summary, we identified subject-specific single predictors that explain up to 36% of the performance fluctuations and may serve for enhancing neuroergonomics of motor rehabilitation scenarios. PMID:27199701

  8. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  9. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  10. Effects of Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Feedback on BAC Estimates Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullers, Susan; Ennis, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of self-tested blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback, from personal hand-held breathalyzers, on the accuracy of BAC estimation. Using an e-mail prompted web-based questionnaire, 19 participants were asked to report both BAC estimates and subsequently measured BAC levels over the course of 27 days. Results from…

  11. Communicating Trust between Parents and Their Children: A Case Study of Adolescents' Alcohol Use in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how Danish parents and their children communicate trust. Based on Niklas Luhmann's sociological theory, the article explores new aspects of communication about alcohol-related rules. The analysis shows how the parents emphasize the importance of communicating trust, while the adolescents, on the other hand, observe the…

  12. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  13. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  14. Poly(vinyl alcohol) acetoacetate-based tissue adhesives are non-cytotoxic and non-inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sujata K; Arthur, Samuel D

    2008-08-01

    Polymer-based tissue adhesives composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) acetoacetate (PVOH acac) and cross-linking amines were investigated for their effects on cell survival and inflammatory cell activation using in vitro mouse cell cultures. Cytotoxicity of tissue adhesives was evaluated by placing adhesives in direct contact with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Tissue adhesives formulated from PVOH acac and 3-aminopropyltrialkoxysilane (APS) were non-cytotoxic to fibroblasts; adhesives formulated from PVOH acac and aminated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH amine) were also non-cytotoxic to fibroblasts. In contrast, a commercial adhesive composed of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate was highly cytotoxic to fibroblasts. The inflammatory potential of tissue adhesives was evaluated by exposing J774 macrophage cells to adhesives, and measuring TNF-alpha release from macrophages. PVOH acac-based tissue adhesives did not elicit inflammatory TNF-alpha release from macrophages. These results suggest that PVOH acac-based tissue adhesives are non-cytotoxic and non-inflammatory. Such tissue adhesives represent a promising technology for a variety of medical applications, including surgical wound closure and tissue engineering, and the results are also significant in the design of in vitro cell culture systems to study biomaterials. PMID:18414803

  15. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  17. State-based decoding of hand and finger kinematics using neuronal ensemble and LFP activity during dexterous reach-to-grasp movements

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Davidson, Adam G.; Schieber, Marc H.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that continuously control upper limb neuroprostheses may benefit from distinguishing periods of posture and movement so as to prevent inappropriate movement of the prosthesis. Few studies, however, have investigated how decoding behavioral states and detecting the transitions between posture and movement could be used autonomously to trigger a kinematic decoder. We recorded simultaneous neuronal ensemble and local field potential (LFP) activity from microelectrode arrays in primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) premotor areas of two male rhesus monkeys performing a center-out reach-and-grasp task, while upper limb kinematics were tracked with a motion capture system with markers on the dorsal aspect of the forearm, hand, and fingers. A state decoder was trained to distinguish four behavioral states (baseline, reaction, movement, hold), while a kinematic decoder was trained to continuously decode hand end point position and 18 joint angles of the wrist and fingers. LFP amplitude most accurately predicted transition into the reaction (62%) and movement (73%) states, while spikes most accurately decoded arm, hand, and finger kinematics during movement. Using an LFP-based state decoder to trigger a spike-based kinematic decoder [r = 0.72, root mean squared error (RMSE) = 0.15] significantly improved decoding of reach-to-grasp movements from baseline to final hold, compared with either a spike-based state decoder combined with a spike-based kinematic decoder (r = 0.70, RMSE = 0.17) or a spike-based kinematic decoder alone (r = 0.67, RMSE = 0.17). Combining LFP-based state decoding with spike-based kinematic decoding may be a valuable step toward the realization of BMI control of a multifingered neuroprosthesis performing dexterous manipulation. PMID:23536714

  18. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training. PMID:21096021

  19. Feasibility and User Perception of a Fully Automated Push-Based Multiple-Session Alcohol Intervention for University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, many electronic health behavior interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with unhealthy behaviors, such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant for university students, many of whom are risky drinkers. Objective This study explored the acceptability and feasibility in a nontreatment-seeking group of university students (including both risk and nonrisk drinkers), of a fully automated, push-based, multiple-session, alcohol intervention, comparing two modes of delivery by randomizing participants to receive the intervention either by SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) or by email. Methods A total of 5499 students at Luleå University in northern Sweden were invited to participate in a single-session alcohol assessment and feedback intervention; 28.04% (1542/5499) students completed this part of the study. In total, 29.44% (454/1542) of those participating in the single-session intervention accepted to participate further in the extended multiple-session intervention lasting for 4 weeks. The students were randomized to receive the intervention messages via SMS or email. A follow-up questionnaire was sent immediately after the intervention and 52.9% (240/454) responded. Results No difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention, regardless of the mode of delivery. Approximately 15% in both the SMS (19/136) and email groups (15/104) would have preferred the other mode of delivery. On the other hand, more students in the SMS group (46/229, 20.1%) stopped participating in the intervention during the 4-week period compared with the email group (10/193, 5.2%). Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking. A striking difference was seen regarding when a message was read; 88.2% (120/136) of the SMS group read the messages within 1 hour in

  20. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001) and GGT (p=0.001), and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001) but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001), GGT (p<0.001) and ALP (p=0.001) values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect