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Sample records for alcohol ethanol propanols

  1. Infrared spectroscopic investigations of cationic ethanol, propanol, and butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Harigaya, Hiroyuki; Xie, Min; Takahashi, Kaito; Fujii, Asuka

    2015-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopy of the alcohol cations of ethanol, propanol, and butanol was performed to investigate their structures and hyperconjugation mechanisms. In the ethanol cation, the Csbnd C bond hyperconjugates with the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) at the oxygen atom, so that the Csbnd C bond weakens and the bond length elongates. Multiple hyperconjugations among SOMO, the Csbnd C bond, and the end Csbnd H bond occur in the propanol cation and enhance the acidity of the Csbnd H bond through the delocalization of its bonding σ electron. The butanol cation forms the oxonium-type structure through the proton transfer from the terminal CH bond.

  2. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  3. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  4. Focal-point conformational analysis of ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kalju; Bruice, Thomas C

    2005-03-01

    Conformational analysis of three small alcohols--ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol--was carried out by systematically improving the basis set and the level of electron correlation. Correlation energy contributions to conformational energies are strongly basis-set-dependent but accurate energy contributions can be obtained by extrapolation to the basis-set limit. At the basis-set limit, second- and third-order electron correlation effects play a significant role for rotations around the CC-OH, HC-CO, and CC-CO bonds. Specifically, second- and third-order correlation effects strongly stabilize structures in which the hydroxylic hydrogen eclipses with the adjacent carbon; a lesser stabilization is present in structures where the CC-OH moiety is in the gauche form. Fourth-order correlation effects to the CC-OH rotation are small due to a partial cancellation of the singles, doubles, and quadruples contribution by the triples contribution. Electron correlation significantly lowers barriers for methyl-group rotations in ethanol and isopropanol, and in these cases the fourth-order correlation effects are noticeable. The relatively large overall importance of third-order correlation energy contributions raises a concern that the inability to accurately estimate this slowly converging contribution may become a limiting factor when highly accurate conformational energies in larger molecules are sought. PMID:15799474

  5. Growth of Methanogenic Bacteria in Pure Culture with 2-Propanol and Other Alcohols as Hydrogen Donors

    PubMed Central

    Widdel, Friedrich

    1986-01-01

    Two types of mesophilic, methanogenic bacteria were isolated in pure culture from anaerobic freshwater and marine mud with 2-propanol as the hydrogen donor. The freshwater strain (SK) was a Methanospirillum species, the marine, salt-requiring strain (CV), which had irregular coccoid cells, resembled Methanogenium sp. Stoichiometric measurements revealed formation of 1 mol of CH4 by CO2 reduction, with 4 mol of 2-propanol being converted to acetone. In addition to 2-propanol, the isolates used 2-butanol, H2, or formate but not methanol or polyols. Acetate did not serve as an energy substrate but was necessary as a carbon source. Strain CV also oxidized ethanol or 1-propanol to acetate or propionate, respectively; growth on the latter alcohols was slower, but final cell densities were about threefold higher than on 2-propanol. Both strains grew well in defined, bicarbonate-buffered, sulfide-reduced media. For cultivation of strain CV, additions of biotin, vitamin B12, and tungstate were necessary. The newly isolated strains are the first methanogens that were shown to grow in pure culture with alcohols other than methanol. Bioenergetic aspects of secondary and primary alcohol utilization by methanogens are discussed. Images PMID:16347050

  6. Intermolecular interactions in mixtures of ethyl formate with methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol on density, viscosity, and ultrasonic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for binary mixtures of ethyl formate with methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol at 303 K. From the experimental data, adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance ( Z), viscous relaxation time (τ), free length ( L f), free volume ( V f), internal pressure (πi), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G) have been deduced. It is shown that strength of intermolecular interactions between ethyl formate with selected 1-alcohols were in the order of methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol.

  7. Nucleation of ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol: A systematic experimental study along the homologous series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Alexandra A.; Wedekind, Jan; Ghosh, David; Höhler, Kristina; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard

    2012-08-01

    We present homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation rates of the 1-alcohols (CnH2n+1OH, n = 2-4) measured in the well-established two-valve nucleation pulse chamber as well as in a novel one-piston nucleation pulse chamber at temperatures between 235 and 265 K. The nucleation rates and critical cluster sizes show a very systematic behavior with respect to the hydrocarbon chain length of the alcohol, just as their thermo-physical parameters such as surface tension, vapor pressure, and density would suggest. For all alcohols, except ethanol, predictions of classical nucleation theory lie several orders of magnitude below the experimental results and show a strong temperature-dependence typically found in nucleation experiments. The more recent Reguera-Reiss theory [J. Phys. Chem. B 108(51), 19831 (2004)] achieves reasonably good predictions for 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and independent of the temperature. Ethanol, however, clearly shows the influence of strong association between molecules even in the vapor phase. We also scaled all experimental results with classic nucleation theory to compare our data with other data from the literature. We find the same overall temperature trend for all measurement series together but inverted and inconsistent temperature trends for individual 1-propanol and 1-butanol measurements in other devices. Overall, our data establishe a comprehensive and reliable data set that forms an ideal basis for comparison with nucleation theory.

  8. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of exogenous acetone to 2-propanol in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Sutak, Robert; Hrdy, Ivan; Dolezal, Pavel; Cabala, Radomir; Sedinová, Miroslava; Lewin, Joern; Harant, Karel; Müller, Miklos; Tachezy, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol are readily produced by various anaerobic bacteria that possess secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH), although production of 2-propanol is rare in eukaryotes. Specific bacterial-type S-ADH has been identified in a few unicellular eukaryotes, but its function is not known and the production of secondary alcohols has not been studied. We purified and characterized S-ADH from the human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. The kinetic properties and thermostability of T. vaginalis S-ADH were comparable with bacterial orthologues. The substantial activity of S-ADH in the parasite's cytosol was surprising, because only low amounts of ethanol and trace amounts of secondary alcohols were detected as metabolic end products. However, S-ADH provided the parasite with a high capacity to scavenge and reduce external acetone to 2-propanol. To maintain redox balance, the demand for reducing power to metabolize external acetone was compensated for by decreased cytosolic reduction of pyruvate to lactate and by hydrogenosomal metabolism of pyruvate. We speculate that hydrogen might be utilized to maintain cytosolic reducing power. The high activity of Tv-S-ADH together with the ability of T. vaginalis to modulate the metabolic fluxes indicate efficacious metabolic responsiveness that could be advantageous for rapid adaptation of the parasite to changes in the host environment. PMID:22686835

  9. The enthalpies and entropies of pefloxacin dissolution in methanol, ethanol, 1-Propanol, 2-Propanol, acetone, and chloroform at 293.15-323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.-L.; Cui, S.-J.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The solubilities of pefloxacin in methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetone, and chloroform have been determined from 293.15 to 323.15 K by a static equilibrium method. The experimental data were correlated with the modified Apelblat equation. The positive Δsol H and Δsol S for each system revealed that pefloxacin dissolution in each solvent is an entropy-driven process.

  10. Photooxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol on TiO2(110): evidence for methyl radical ejection.

    PubMed

    Kershis, Matthew D; White, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    The photooxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol was studied under UHV conditions on a single crystal TiO2(110) surface using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and pump-probe laser ionization techniques. Previous studies of these reactions have shown that the first step involves photocatalytic dehydrogenation to either an acetaldehyde or acetone intermediate. In this work, we show that when adsorbed alcohols are irradiated with UV light in the presence of molecular oxygen, methyl radicals are ejected from the surface. Furthermore, it is shown that these radicals possess kinetic energy distributions which are remarkably similar to those measured for the photooxidation of acetaldehyde and acetone. This result suggests that methyl radicals are produced during a second photocatalytic step which involves photooxidation of the aldehyde/ketone intermediates. PMID:24042847

  11. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  12. Homogeneous nucleation of ethanol and n-propanol in a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, F.

    1982-01-01

    The condensation by homogeneous nucleation of ethanol (200 proof) and of n-propanol (99.98%) carried at small mole fraction in dry air (99.995%) was studied in the unsteady, isentropic expansion of a shock tube. Samples of the vapor at different partial pressures in dry air at room temperature were expanded into the liquid coexistence regime of the condensing species. A Kristler pressure transducer and Rayleigh light scattering were used to measure the pressure in the expansion and the onset of condensation. Condensation was observed at different locations between 0.15 and 1 m upstream of the diaphragm location, which correspond to different cooling rates of of the vapor samples about 50 to 10 C/ms.

  13. Ab initio calculations of cooperativity effects on clusters of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and methanethiol

    SciTech Connect

    Sum, A.K.; Sandler, S.I.

    2000-02-17

    The results of ab initio calculations for cyclic clusters of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and methanethiol are presented. Dimer, trimer, and tetramer clusters of all four compounds are studied, as are pentamer and hexamer clusters of methanol. From optimized clusters at HG/6--31G**, total energies and binding energies were calculated with both the HF and MP2 theories using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. Accurate binding energies were also calculated for the dimer and trimer of methanol using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with the same basis set. Intermolecular and intramolecular distances, charge distribution of binding sites, binding energies, and equilibrium constants were computed to determine the hydrogen bond cooperativity effect for each species. The cooperativity effect, exclusive to hydrogen bonding systems, results form specific forces among the molecules, in particular charge-transfer processes and the greater importance of interactions between molecules not directly hydrogen bonded because of the longer range of the interactions. The ratios of equilibrium constants for forming multimer hydrogen bonds to that for dimer hydrogen bond formation increase rapidly with the cluster size, in contrast to the constant value commonly used in thermodynamic models for hydrogen bonding liquids.

  14. Biochemical, genetic, and metabolic engineering strategies to enhance coproduction of 1-propanol and ethanol in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Westbrook, Adam; Akawi, Lamees; Pyne, Michael E; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

    2014-11-01

    We recently reported the heterologous production of 1-propanol in Escherichia coli via extended dissimilation of succinate under anaerobic conditions through expression of the endogenous sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon. In the present work, we demonstrate high-level coproduction of 1-propanol and ethanol by developing novel engineered E. coli strains with effective cultivation strategies. Various biochemical, genetic, metabolic, and physiological factors affecting relative levels of acidogenesis and solventogenesis during anaerobic fermentation were investigated. In particular, CPC-PrOH3, a plasmid-free propanogenic E. coli strain derived by activating the Sbm operon on the genome, showed high levels of solventogenesis accounting for up to 85 % of dissimilated carbon. Anaerobic fed-batch cultivation of CPC-PrOH3 with glycerol as the major carbon source produced high titers of nearly 7 g/L 1-propanol and 31 g/L ethanol, implying its potential industrial applicability. The activated Sbm pathway served as an ancillary channel for consuming reducing equivalents upon anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol, resulting in an enhanced glycerol dissimilation and a major metabolic shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. PMID:25301579

  15. Effect of lipid solubility on the development of chronic cross-tolerance between ethanol and different alcohols and barbiturates.

    PubMed

    Khanna, J M; Lê, A D; Kalant, H; Chau, A; Shah, G

    1997-01-01

    Tolerance to ethanol and cross-tolerance to other alcohols (n-propanol, n-butanol, t-butanol, isobutanol, t-amyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol) and barbiturates (pentobarbital, secobarbital, amobarbital, thiopental, barbital and phenobarbital) that differ in lipid:water partition coefficient was examined in rats after chronic pretreatment with ethanol. Tolerance and cross-tolerance were studied with three different measures (hypothermia, tilt-plane, and rotarod). Tolerance to ethanol resulted in significant cross-tolerance to alcohols with low lipid solubility (n-propanol and t-butanol), whereas no cross-tolerance was seen with alcohols of high lipid solubility (isobutanol, n-amyl alcohol, t-amyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol). Cross-tolerance to n-butanol (which has intermediate lipid solubility) appeared to be metabolic rather than functional. Tolerance to ethanol also resulted in significant cross-tolerance to barbital and phenobarbital, but not to pentobarbital, secobarbital, amobarbital or thiopental. These studies suggest that lipid solubility is an important factor in relation to specificity of cross-tolerance to alcohols and barbiturates. PMID:9164559

  16. Hydrogen bond analysis in alcohol (1-Propanol, 2-Propanol and Glycerol)-DMF mixtures based on dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guo-Zhu; Jie, Qian; Feng, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Dielectric properties of Propanol-DMF, and Glycerol-DMF mixtures at full concentrations have been obtained by the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy method at frequency from 20 MHz to 20 GHz at room temperature. The mixture behavior is described by the Davidson-Cole model using four parameters that relate to molecular structure. The hydrogen bond (HB) numbers and binding energies between two pairs (solute-solute and solute-solvent pairs) are estimated by Luzar model, also the type of dipolar ordering which depends on the extent of DMF is obtained. The combination of the excess inverse permittivity and the Luzar model gives a satisfactory explanation and valuable insights into the underlying of the relaxation acts. The binding energy of solute-solute (E11) and solute-solvent (E12) both decrease with the increased number of hydroxyl in mixture system.

  17. Microbial production of propanol.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; François, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Both, n-propanol and isopropanol are industrially attractive value-added molecules that can be produced by microbes from renewable resources. The development of cost-effective fermentation processes may allow using these alcohols as a biofuel component, or as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of propylene. This review reports and discusses the recent progress which has been made in the biochemical production of propanol. Several synthetic propanol-producing pathways were developed that vary with respect to stoichiometry and metabolic entry point. These pathways were expressed in different host organisms and enabled propanol production from various renewable feedstocks. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimization of fermentation conditions greatly improved process performance, in particular, when continuous product removal prevented accumulation of toxic propanol levels. Although these advanced metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies have facilitated significant progress in the biochemical production of propanol, the currently achieved propanol yields and productivities appear to be insufficient to compete with chemical propanol synthesis. The development of biosynthetic pathways with improved propanol yields, the breeding or identification of microorganisms with higher propanol tolerance, and the engineering of propanol producer strains that efficiently utilize low-cost feedstocks are the major challenges on the way to industrially relevant microbial propanol production processes. PMID:27262999

  18. Vibrational spectra and assignments of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and 3-phenyl-1-propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    The complex conformational behavior of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and its saturated analogue 3-phenyl-1-propanol were investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311G **, MP2 and MP4(SDQ) levels of theory. The unsaturated 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol was predicted to exist in Cg and Gg1 conformational mixture as a result of competitive conjugation and hyperconjugation interactions in the molecule. The saturated 3-phenyl-1-propanol was predicted to exist predominantly in a Ggg structure as a result of predominant steric hindrances in the alcohol. Only the one predominant form was identified in the infrared and Raman spectra of both alcohols. The excellent agreement between the calculated wavenumbers and the observed ones in the infrared and Raman spectra supports the conclusion that each of the two alcohols is present in one predominant form in the condensed phases. The vibrational frequencies of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol and 3-phenyl-1-propanol in their lowest energy forms were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.

  19. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  20. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  1. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation's fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US martket, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  2. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele. PMID:15726639

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols by a carbon-supported Rh porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Yao, Masaru; Fujiwara, Naoko; Siroma, Zyun; Yasuda, Kazuaki; Ioroi, Tsutomu

    2012-05-01

    A Rh porphyrin on carbon black was shown to catalyze the electro-oxidation of several aliphatic alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and benzyl alcohols. The overpotentials for alcohol oxidation were very low. The reaction mechanism and substrate specificity are discussed. PMID:22450541

  4. Hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hojo, Masashi

    2006-10-01

    An alcoholic beverage is a type of water-ethanol solution with flavor and taste. The properties of the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages have not been clarified sufficiently. We investigated factors that could affect the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol on the basis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) chemical shifts of the OH of water-ethanol and Raman OH stretching spectra. Not only acids (H+ and HA: undissociated acids) but also bases (OH- and A-: conjugate-base anions from weak acids) strengthened the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol. It was also demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding is strengthened by chemical components in alcoholic beverages (whiskey, Japanese sake, shochu). It can be suggested that hydrogen-bonding donors as well as acceptors in alcohol beverages, which exist as the initial components or are gained later on, should cause the tight association between water and ethanol molecules. PMID:17116572

  5. Vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements at 101. 32 kPa for binary mixtures of methyl acetate + ethanol or 1-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J.: Susial, P.; de Alfonso, C. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 101.32 {plus minus} 0.02 kPa for methyl acetate (1) + ethane (2) or + 1-propanol (2). The results are compared with those predicted by the UNIFAC and ASOG methods. The methyl acetate (1) + ethanol (2) system forms an azeotrope at 329.8 K and a molar concentration of x{sub 1} = 0.958. Both methods predict the vapor-phase compositions equally well, with overall mean errors of less than 5%.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation and SAFT modeling study of the solvation thermodynamics of dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and 1-propanol in the ionic liquid trimethylbutylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Vahid, A; Maginn, E J

    2015-03-21

    Understanding fundamental solvation phenomena and mixture thermodynamic properties for organic molecules in ionic liquids is essential to the development of ionic liquids in many application areas. In the present work, molecular simulations were used to compute a wide range of properties for the pure ionic liquid trimethylbutylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as well as mixtures of this ionic liquid with ethanol, 1-propanol, dimethylformamide, and dimethylsulfoxide. A new force field for the ionic liquid was developed and validated by computing ionic liquid surface tension and density as a function of temperature. Force fields for ethanol and propanol were taken from the literature, while new force fields were developed for dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide. These force fields were shown to yield vapor-liquid coexistence curves, vapor pressure curves and critical points in excellent agreement with experimental data. Absorption isotherms, enthalpies of mixing and mixture volumes were then computed and shown to agree well with available literature. The simulations help rationalize the observed trends in solubility and enthalpy of mixing in terms of the relative strength of hydrogen bonding between the solutes and the ionic liquid. It was found that the entropy of absorption plays a very important role in the solvation process. The PCIP-SAFT equation of state was able to fit the experimental data (or simulation results when experiments were unavailable) very accurately with only small adjustable binary interaction parameters. PMID:25704844

  7. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed. PMID:25267448

  8. Ligating behaviour of Schiff base ligands derived from heterocyclic β-diketone and ethanol or propanol amine with oxovanadium (IV) metal ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaker, B. T.; Barvalia, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of six new oxovanadium (IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl sulphate pentahydrate and the Schiff base, viz.; (HL 1)-(HL 3) and (HL 4)-(HL 6) such as 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(2-chloro)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (I), 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(3-chloro)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (II) and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(3-sulphoamido)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (III) with ethanol amine and propanol amine, respectively, in aqueous ethanol medium. The ligands and their Schiff base ligands have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H NMR. The resulting complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, mass, electronic, electron spin resonance spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, molar conductance and thermal studies. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as a dibasic bidentate with ON donor sequence towards metal ion. The molar conductivity data show them to be non-electrolytes. From the electronic, magnetic and ESR spectral data suggest that all the oxovanadium (IV) complexes have distorted octahedral geometry.

  9. A comparative study of the mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating ethanol/water, methanol/water, and 1-propanol/water aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Rebecca J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2006-02-23

    The mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating multicomponent alcohol/water droplets have been probed experimentally by examining changes in the near surface droplet composition and average droplet temperature using cavity-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The CERS technique provides a sensitive measure of the concentration of the volatile alcohol component in the outer shell of the droplet, due to the exponential relationship between CERS intensity and species concentration. Such volatile droplets, which are probed on a millisecond time scale, evaporate nonisothermally, resulting in both temperature and concentration gradients, as confirmed by comparisons between experimental measurements and quasi-steady state model calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental evaporation trends and quasi-steady state model predictions is observed. An unexpectedly slow evaporation rate is observed for the evaporation of 1-propanol from a multicomponent droplet when compared to the model; possible explanations for this observation are discussed. In addition, the propagation depth of the CERS signal, and, therefore, the region of the droplet from which compositional measurements are made, can be estimated. Such measurements, when considered in conjunction with quasi-steady state theory, can allow droplet temperature gradients to be measured and vapor pressures and activity coefficients of components within the droplet to be determined. PMID:16494335

  10. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment (PP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  11. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  12. HYPOTHERMIC EFFECTS OF A HOMOLOGOUS SERIES OF SHORT-CHAIN ALCOHOLS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicity of various short-chain alcohols using the thermoregulatory system of the rat as an endpoint. ale Fischer rats developed significant hypothermia following acute administration (i.p.) of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol,...

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Oxidative stress, metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Zima, T; Fialová, L; Mestek, O; Janebová, M; Crkovská, J; Malbohan, I; Stípek, S; Mikulíková, L; Popov, P

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is linked to the metabolism of ethanol. Three metabolic pathways of ethanol have been described in the human body so far. They involve the following enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase, microsomal ethanol oxidation system (MEOS) and catalase. Each of these pathways could produce free radicals which affect the antioxidant system. Ethanol per se, hyperlactacidemia and elevated NADH increase xanthine oxidase activity, which results in the production of superoxide. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide production correlate with the amount of cytochrome P450 2E1. MEOS aggravates the oxidative stress directly as well as indirectly by impairing the defense systems. Hydroxyethyl radicals are probably involved in the alkylation of hepatic proteins. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key factors contributing to the vessel wall homeostasis, an important mediator of the vascular tone and neuronal transduction, and has cytotoxic effects. Stable metabolites--nitrites and nitrates--were increased in alcoholics (34.3 +/- 2.6 vs. 22.7 +/- 1.2 micromol/l, p < 0.001). High NO concentration could be discussed for its excitotoxicity and may be linked to cytotoxicity in neurons, glia and myelin. Formation of NO has been linked to an increased preference for and tolerance to alcohol in recent studies. Increased NO biosynthesis also via inducible NO synthase (NOS, chronic stimulation) may contribute to platelet and endothelial dysfunctions. Comparison of chronically ethanol-fed rats and controls demonstrates that exposure to ethanol causes a decrease in NADPH diaphorase activity (neuronal NOS) in neurons and fibers of the cerebellar cortex and superior colliculus (stratum griseum superficiale and intermedium) in rats. These changes in the highly organized structure contribute to the motor disturbances, which are associated with alcohol abuse. Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) in alcoholic patients seem to reflect membrane lesions, impairment of immunological

  15. Dehydratase mediated 1-propanol production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, the question of meeting the global energy demand is of great importance in the near future. As an effective solution, production of higher alcohols from renewable sources by microorganisms has been proposed to address both energy crisis and environmental concerns. Higher alcohols contain more than two carbon atoms and have better physiochemical properties than ethanol as fuel substitutes. Results We designed a novel 1-propanol metabolic pathway by expanding the well-known 1,2-propanediol pathway with two more enzymatic steps catalyzed by a 1,2-propanediol dehydratase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. In order to engineer the pathway into E. coli, we evaluated the activities of eight different methylglyoxal synthases which play crucial roles in shunting carbon flux from glycolysis towards 1-propanol biosynthesis, as well as two secondary alcohol dehydrogenases of different origins that reduce both methylglyoxal and hydroxyacetone. It is evident from our results that the most active enzymes are the methylglyoxal synthase from Bacillus subtilis and the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae, encoded by mgsA and budC respectively. With the expression of these two genes and the E. coli ydjG encoding methylglyoxal reductase, we achieved the production of 1,2-propanediol at 0.8 g/L in shake flask experiments. We then characterized the catalytic efficiency of three different diol dehydratases on 1,2-propanediol and identified the optimal one as the 1,2-propanediol dehydratase from Klebsiella oxytoca, encoded by the operon ppdABC. Co-expressing this enzyme with the above 1,2-propanediol pathway in wild type E. coli resulted in the production of 1-propanol at a titer of 0.25 g/L. Conclusions We have successfully established a new pathway for 1-propanol production by shunting the carbon flux from glycolysis. To our knowledge, it is the first time that this pathway has been utilized to produce 1

  16. Quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from ethanol-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, B; Frank, J; Duine, J A

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, grown on ethanol, showed dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activities. The enzyme responsible for this activity was purified to homogeneity. It appeared to contain two molecules of pyrroloquinoline quinone per enzyme molecule. In many respects, it resembled other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.99.8), having a substrate specificity intermediate between that of methanol dehydrogenases and ethanol dehydrogenases in this group. On the other hand, it also showed dissimilarities: the enzyme was found to be a monomer (Mr 101 000), to need only one molecule of the suicide substrate cyclopropanol to become fully inactivated, and to have a different aromatic amino acid composition. PMID:6439190

  17. Chronic ethanol consumption alters effects of ethanol in vitro on brain membrane structure of high alcohol sensitivity and low alcohol sensitivity rats.

    PubMed

    Avdulov, N A; Chochina, S V; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Wood, W G

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined if differences in initial membrane sensitivity to ethanol were associated with development of membrane tolerance to ethanol. High Alcohol Sensitivity (HAS) and Low Alcohol Sensitivity (LAS) rats were administered a 15% ethanol solution in water as the sole source of fluid for 30 days. The amount of ethanol consumed per day did not significantly differ between the HAS and LAS rats. Development of membrane tolerance to in vitro effects of ethanol has been previously reported for bulk membrane fluidity and protein-lipid interaction. Our data expands the understanding of "membrane tolerance" phenomenon to protein distribution and bilayer interdigitation. We also introduce genotype-dependent and genotype-independent properties of the membrane tolerance to ethanol. ethanol treatment produced genotype-dependent and genotype-independent membrane tolerance to ethanol. The in vitro effects of ethanol on synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) protein distribution and lipid bilayer interdigitation were abolished or decreased in the SPM of chronic ethanol-treated HAS rats, as compared with the SPM of HAS control rats (genotype-dependent tolerance). Protein distribution and bilayer interdigitation were not affected by ethanol in vitro in either chronic ethanol-treated or control LAS rats. Genotype-independent tolerance to ethanol in vitro was observed for SPM annular and bulk bilayer fluidity in chronic ethanol-treated HAS and LAS rats. It is concluded that initial sensitivity to ethanol contributes to the development of membrane tolerance to ethanol in HAS and LAS rats. PMID:7485835

  18. Prospects for Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  19. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. PMID:24871566

  20. Assessment of the Average Price and Ethanol Content of Alcoholic Beverages by Brand – United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Joanna T.; Siegel, Michael; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Lee, Stephanie; Chen, Kelsey; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Kenney, Jessica; Jernigan, David H.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no existing data on alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the level of alcohol brand. A comprehensive understanding of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level is essential for the development of effective public policy to reduce alcohol use among underage youth. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the brand level. Methods Using online alcohol price data from 15 control states and 164 online alcohol stores, we estimated the average alcohol price and percentage alcohol by volume for 900 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types, in the United States in 2011. Results There is considerable variation in both brand-specific alcohol prices and ethanol content within most alcoholic beverage types. For many types of alcohol, the within-category variation between brands exceeds the variation in average price and ethanol content among the several alcoholic beverage types. Despite differences in average prices between alcoholic beverage types, in 12 of the 16 alcoholic beverage types, customers can purchase at least one brand of alcohol that is under one dollar per ounce of ethanol. Conclusions Relying on data or assumptions about alcohol prices and ethanol content at the level of alcoholic beverage type is insufficient for understanding and influencing youth drinking behavior. Surveillance of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level should become a standard part of alcohol research. PMID:22316218

  1. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  2. Breakdown in vapors of alcohols: methanol and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Sivos, Jelena; Skoro, Nikola; Maric, Dragana; Malovic, Gordana

    2014-10-01

    Breakdown data for vapors of the two simplest alcohols - methanol and ethanol - are presented. The breakdown is achieved between plan-parallel electrodes, where cathode is made of copper and anode is a thin film of platinum deposited on quartz window. Diameter of electrodes is 5.4 cm and electrode gap 1.1 cm. We compare breakdown voltages (Paschen curves) for methyl and ethyl alcohol in the pressure range 0.1--2 Torr. In both vapors, the pressure is kept well below the vapor pressure, to prevent formation of liquid droplets. For each point of Paschen curves corresponding axial profiles of emission are recorded by ICCD camera in visual part of the spectra. Axial intensity distributions reveal important processes of excitation. Both vapors show strong emission peak near the cathode at all pd values covered by measurements, which indicates that excitation by ions and fast neutrals play important role in the discharge. Preliminary spectrally resolved measurements of the discharge structure with optical filters show that dominantly emission comes from CH band at 431 nm. There is a very low intensity of H α emission detected in ethanol vapor at high E/N, while it is much stronger in methanol even at lower E/N. It is interesting to note that H α emission in methanol exhibits exponential increase of intensity from the cathode to the anode, so it comes mainly from excitation by electrons, not heavy particles. Supported by MESTD Projects ON171037 and III41011.

  3. The role of ethanol metabolism in development of alcoholic steatohepatitis in the rat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of ethanol metabolism in the development of alcoholic liver disease remains controversial. The present study examined the effects of selective inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1, compared with the inhibition of overall ethanol metabolism on the development of alcoholic st...

  4. An enzyme-amplified microtiter plate assay for ethanol: Its application to the detection of peanut ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.Y.; Vercellotti, J.R.; Sanders, T.H.

    1995-12-01

    A calorimetric microliter plate assay for ethanol amplified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was developed. In the assay ethanol from a sample took part in a chain-reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and amplified by ALDH in the presence of NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, and p-ibdonitrotetrazolium-violet (INT-violet)(a precursor of red product). The resultant reaction gave a red color, the intensity of which was proportional to the amount of ethanol present. Using the technique, the content of activity from peanuts of differing maturity and curing stages were determined respectively. Data showed that immature peanuts had a higher level of ethanol and a lower ADH activity than mature peanuts, and that the level of ethanol and ADH activity decreased with the curing time. This indicates that peanut maturity and curing have an effect on ethanol. Also, this implies that other peanut volatiles could be affected in the same way as ethanol, a major volatile in peanuts.

  5. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  6. The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiegel, Gene A.; Chaharmohal, Afshin K.

    1997-04-01

    Simple primary and secondary alcohols can easily be distinguished by their rate of oxidation with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCICA).1,2 The TCICA test is conducted by adding the unknown to a solution of TCICA in acetonitrile3 containing hydrochloric acid4 and measuring the time for a precipitate5 to form. Primary alcohols react slowly and secondary alcohols react rapidly. To generate comparison data for primary and secondary alcohols, tests should be first carried out using ethanol and 2-propanol.6

  7. Removal of pooled dense, nonaqueous phase liquid from saturated porous media using upward gradient alcohol floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, Stuart R. D.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    Laboratory experiments employing 90% by volume alcohol solutions are used to compare the abilities of ethanol and 1-propanol to remove pooled tetrachloroethene (PCE) from saturated porous media using low upward hydraulic gradients. Equilibrium ternary phase diagrams measured for the systems water/PCE/ethanol and water/PCE/1-propanol indicate that for alcohol concentrations below the miscibility envelope, 1-propanol will partition predominantly into the dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) phase while ethanol remains in the aqueous phase. Interfacial tension and phase density measurements show that while both systems demonstrate a reduction in interfacial tension with increasing alcohol content, the density difference between the aqueous and DNAPL phases is only reduced for the 1-propanol system. Two-dimensional experiments in saturated porous media using alcohol floods ranging in size from 0.125 pore volumes (PV) to 1.0 PV recovered between 5.7% and 98.7% of the PCE mass. The removal mechanisms for the ethanol floods included enhanced dissolution followed by miscible displacement, while the 1-propanol floods removed PCE by DNAPL swelling and interfacial tension reduction leading to immiscible displacement followed by miscible displacement. Recovery results and effluent composition histories indicate that hydrodynamic instabilities and dispersion cause significant alcohol slug deterioration and confirm the necessity of using an appropriate size alcohol slug of sufficient concentration for efficient PCE mass recovery.

  8. Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. ); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1991-03-11

    The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

  9. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  10. Alcohol-induced insulin resistance in liver: Potential roles in regulation of ADH expression; ethanol clearance and alcohol liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using total enteral nutrition (TEN), we demonstrated that low carbohydrate, high alcohol-containing diets (10-12 g/kg/dO produced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g). Intragastric infusion of this diet generates regular pulses of blood ethanol concentrations (BEC...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14- alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14-alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14-alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14-alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14- alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  16. [Forensic medicine and toxicologic aspects of 2-propanol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Petkovits, T; Bohn, G; Brinkmann, B

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of poisoning with 2-propanol (isopropylalcohol) are reported. In one case, nail polish remover was drunk by a 2-year-old child. The concentration of 2-propanol and its metabolite acetone in the blood could be observed over a period of approximately 50 h. The highest concentration of 2-propanol determined was 4.22 g/l. Acetone reached a maximum value of 2.27 g/l 12 h after ingestion. The child survived without any observable after-effects. In the second case, a 35-year-old man drank ethanol in addition to 2-propanol. The poisoning was lethal. The possible time of intake before death is discussed in relation to the estimated levels of ethanol, 2-propanol and acetone found in the blood and urine. The histomorphological findings are often important as well with regard to time of intake. PMID:2922960

  17. An Indian herbal formula (SKV) for controlling voluntary ethanol intake in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, E R; Shanmugasundaram, K R

    1986-08-01

    Chronic ethanol ingestion in rats showed metabolic and physiological changes similar to alterations reported in human alcoholics. There was a lowering of blood glucose concentration, urea and plasma proteins and elevated concentrations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Administration of SKV, an Ayurvedic formula produced by fermentation of cane sugar with raisins and 12 herbal ingredients brought down voluntary ethanol ingestion in the rats and increased food intake. ECG and EEG studies in alcoholic rats showed cardiac depression, augmentation of frequency and amplitude of the alpha, delta and theta waves and weakness in the beta waves. These changes were reversed during SKV-induced voluntary alcohol restriction. The involvement in the ECG and EEG wave patterns was associated with improvement in blood glucose, plasma protein levels and reduction in gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities. SKV appeared to have no adverse reaction with ethanol (it contains 1-2% ethanol) and appears to be a promising way to combat alcoholism. PMID:3796018

  18. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Dry Syngas to Ethanol and Higher Alcohols on Cu-Based Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Smith, Miranda L.; Spivey, James J.

    2011-04-19

    Ethanol and higher alcohols have been identified as potential fuel additives or hydrogen carriers for use in fuel cells. One method of ethanol production is catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of CO, H₂, CO₂, and H₂O), derived from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Thermodynamics of CO hydrogenation shows that ethanol is favored as the sole product at conditions of practical interest, but if methane is allowed as product in this analysis, essentially no ethanol is formed at equilibrium. The kinetics of ethanol formation must therefore be maximized. Although rhodium-based catalysts give C{sup 2+} oxygenates with high selectivity, their prohibitive cost has spurred research on less expensive copper-based alternatives. Copper-based catalysts require an optimum amount of promoter to suppress undesired reactions and maximize the yields of ethanol and higher alcohols. Common promoters include alkali, transition metals and their oxides, and rare earth oxides. Careful selection of operating variables is also necessary to achieve the desired activity and selectivity. This review describes the effects of promoters, supports, and operating conditions on the performance of copper-based catalysts for conversion of dry syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols. Proposed mechanisms from the literature for ethanol and higher-alcohol synthesis are outlined.

  19. Ethanol-Induced Alcohol Dehydrogenase E (AdhE) Potentiates Pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Eun-Hye; Bak, Jong Phil; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Choi, Sangdun; Briles, David E.; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering the host more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we showed that the S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 strain is ethanol tolerant and that alcohol upregulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (ΔadhE strain) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE level under the ethanol condition conferred an increase in Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than the ΔadhE strain under the ethanol stress condition, and ethanol-fed mice (alcoholic mice) were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than with the ΔadhE strain. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply under the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence. PMID:25312953

  20. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  1. Brucine suppresses ethanol intake and preference in alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-ling; Liu, Qing; Gong, Qi; Li, Jun-xu; Wei, Shou-peng; Wang, Yan-ting; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Jing, Li; Yong, Zheng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Liang, Jian-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Brucine (BRU) extracted from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L is glycine receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that BRU may modify alcohol consumption by acting at glycine receptors, and evaluated the pharmacodynamic profiles and adverse effects of BRU in rat models of alcohol abuse. Methods: Alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rats were administered BRU (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg, sc). The effects of BRU on alcohol consumption were examined in ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigm and 5-d ethanol deprivation test. In addition, open field test was used to assess the general locomotor activity of FH/Wjd rats, and conditioned place preference (CPP) was conducted to assess conditioned reinforcing effect. Results: In ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, treatment with BRU for 10 consecutive days dose-dependently decreased the ethanol intake associated with a compensatory increase of water intake, but unchanged the daily total fluid intake and body weight. In ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigms, BRU (30 mg/kg) administered before each testing session significantly decreased the number of lever presses for ethanol and the ethanol intake, without affecting the number of sucrose (10%) responses, total sucrose intake, and the number of lever presses for water. Acute treatment with BRU (30 mg/kg) completely suppressed the deprivation-induced elevation of ethanol consumption. Treatment with BRU (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) did not alter locomotion of FH/Wjd rats, nor did it produce place preference or aversion. Conclusion: BRU selectively decreases ethanol consumption with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, BRU may represent a new pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. PMID:24909512

  2. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs. PMID:25712038

  3. [Direct metabolites of ethanol as biological markers of alcohol use: basic aspects and applications].

    PubMed

    Thon, N; Weinmann, W; Yegles, M; Preuss, U; Wurst, F M

    2013-09-01

    In addition to self reports and questionnaires, biomarkers are of relevance in the diagnosis of and therapy for alcohol use disorders. Traditional biomarkers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or mean corpuscular volume are indirect biomarkers and are subject to the influence of age, gender and non-alcohol related diseases, among others. Direct metabolites of ethanol such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are direct metabolites of ethanol, that are positive after intake of ethyl alcohol. They represent useful diagnostic tools for identifying alcohol use even more accurately than traditional biomarkers. Each of these drinking indicators remains positive in serum and urine for a characteristic time spectrum after the cessation of ethanol intake - EtG and EtS in urine up to 7 days, EtG in hair for months after ethanol has left the body. Applications include clinical routine use, emergency room settings, proof of abstinence in alcohol rehabilitation programmes, driving under influence offenders, workplace testing, assessment of alcohol intake in the context of liver transplantation and foetal alcohol syndrome. Due to their properties, they open up new perspectives for prevention, interdisciplinary cooperation, diagnosis of and therapy for alcohol-related problems. PMID:23856980

  4. [What ethanol metabolites as biological markers tell us about alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Yegles, Michel; Preuss, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco related disorders are the two leading and most expensive causes of illness in central Europe. In addition to self reports and questionnaires, biomarkers are of relevance in diagnosis and therapy of alcohol use disorders. Traditional biomarkers such as gamma glutamyl transpeptidase or mean corpuscular volume are indirect biomarkers and are subject to influence of age, gender and non alcohol related diseases, among others.Direct ethanol metabolites such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are direct metabolites of ethanol, that are positive after intake of ethyl alcohol. They represent useful diagnostic tools for identifying alcohol use even more accurately than traditional biomarkers. Each of these drinking indicators remains positive in serum and urine for a characteristic time spectrum after the cessation of ethanol intake--EtG and EtS in urine up to 7 days, EtG in hair for months after ethanol has left the body. Applications include clinical routine use, emergency room settings, proof of abstinence in alcohol rehabilitation programs, driving under influence offenders, workplace testing, assessment of alcohol intake in the context of liver transplantation and fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:24322386

  5. Hydrogen bonding in alcoholic beverages (distilled spirits) and water-ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hamasaki, Tensei; Hojo, Masashi; Kato, Ryosuke; Uehara, Kenta; Ueda, Tadaharu

    2005-09-01

    The hydrogen-bonding properties of water-ethanol of alcoholic beverages and water-ethanol mixtures of the corresponding ethanol contents were examined on the basis of OH proton NMR chemical shifts and the Raman OH stretching spectra of water and ethanol. Japanese shochu, an unaged distilled spirit of 25% (v/v) alcoholic content made from various grains, was provided for the samples; it is a high-purity spirit as it contains only small amounts of dissolved components, like typical vodka, gin, and white rum. The hydrogen-bonding structure in shochu containing some acids was found to be different from that of the water-ethanol mixture with corresponding ethanol content. It was concluded that, by the presence of small amounts of organic acids, the water-ethanol hydrogen-bonding structure was strengthened, at the same time, the proton exchange between water and ethanol molecules was promoted in shochu, compared with the water-ethanol mixture. The NMR chemical shifts of fruit cocktail drinks suggested that the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in the solution was developed by organic acids and (poly)phenols from fruit juices. PMID:16131113

  6. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    PubMed

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. PMID:25733499

  7. Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Kuc, Kelly A.; Murphy, James M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J.

    2010-01-01

    High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 5–7 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit ‘loss-of-control’ of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available. PMID:19076927

  8. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  9. Chemiluminescent imaging of transpired ethanol from the palm for evaluation of alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kita, Kazutaka; Wang, Xin; Miyajima, Kumiko; Toma, Koji; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-05-15

    A 2-dimensional imaging system was constructed and applied in measurements of gaseous ethanol emissions from the human palm. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide-horseradish peroxidase system. Conversions of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional chemiluminescence were conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. Thus, a mixture of a high-purity luminol solution of luminol sodium salt HG solution instead of standard luminol solution and an enhancer of eosin Y solution was adapted to refine the chemiluminescent intensity of the imaging system, and improved the detection limit to 3 ppm gaseous ethanol. The highly sensitive imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each site on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions corresponding to the amount of alcohol metabolized upon consumption. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin. PMID:25445620

  10. Glycine and GABAA Ultra-Sensitive Ethanol Receptors as Novel Tools for Alcohol and Brain Research

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H.; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Perkins, Daya I.; Alkana, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABAARs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:25245406

  11. The phytotoxic effect of exogenous ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kátia Aparecida; Pergo, Erica Marusa; Kagami, Fernanda Lima; Arraes, Luis Saraiva; Sert, Maria Aparecida; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenously applied ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L., a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. Ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5% caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of E. heterophylla. Measurements of respiratory activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.1) activity during seed imbibition and initial seedling growth revealed that ethanol induces a prolongation of hypoxic conditions in the growing tissues. In isolated mitochondria, ethanol inhibited the respiration coupled to ADP phosphorylation, an action that probably contributed to modifications observed in the respiratory activity of embryos. A comparison of the effects of methanol, ethanol, propanol and acetaldehyde on germination and growth of E. heterophylla indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase activity is required for the observed effects, with the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde playing a role in the ethanol-induced injuries. PMID:19640725

  12. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effects described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.

  13. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol from alcoholic rats is uniquely able to render membranes tolerant to disordering by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, J.S.; Taraschi, T.F.; Rubin, E.

    1986-05-01

    Rat liver microsomal membranes from rats chronically fed ethanol are resistant (tolerant) to membrane disordering by 50-100 mM ethanol. To identify the molecular basis of tolerance, the authors quantitatively separated microsomal phospholipids (PL's) extracted from control and ethanol-fed rats by preparative HPLC, and examined, by electron spin resonance, the structural properties of multilamellar vesicles (MLV's) prepared by recombining control and alcoholic PL's. MLV's made from alcoholic PL's (mixed in same molar ratios as in microsomes) were tolerant to disordering by ethanol, whereas control MLV's were not. If alcoholic phosphatidylcholine (66.5%), phosphatidylethanolamine (21%) or phosphatidylserine (4.0%) replaced their respective PL in control MLV's, the membranes were not tolerant. In contrast, when 8.5% alcoholic phosphatidylinositol (PI) replaced control PI, the MLV's were tolerant. Alcoholic rat PI (8.5%) also conferred tolerance to MLV's containing 91.5% bovine PL's. The authors conclude that the acquisition of membrane tolerance in alcoholic liver microsomes is related to changes in PI.

  15. USING EXPRESSION GENETICS TO STUDY THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF ETHANOL AND ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sean P.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Miles, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent simultaneous progress in human and animal model genetics and the advent of microarray whole genome expression profiling have produced prodigious data sets on genetic loci, potential candidate genes, and differential gene expression related to alcoholism and ethanol behaviors. Validated target genes or gene networks functioning in alcoholism are still of meager proportions. Genetical genomics, which combines genetic analysis of both traditional phenotypes and whole genome expression data, offers a potential methodology for characterizing brain gene networks functioning in alcoholism. This chapter will describe concepts, approaches, and recent findings in the field of genetical genomics as it applies to alcohol research. PMID:20813241

  16. In vivo ethanol elimination in man, monkey and rat: A lack of relationship between the ethanol metabolism and the hepatic activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Zorzano, A. ); Herrera, E. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo ethanol elimination in human subjects, monkeys and rats was investigated after an oral ethanol dosage. After 0.4 g. ethanol/kg of body weight, ethanol elimination was much slower in human subjects than in monkeys. In order to detect a rise in monkey plasma ethanol concentrations as early as observed in human subjects, ethanol had to be administered at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight. Ethanol metabolism in rats was also much faster than in human subjects. However, human liver showed higher alcohol dehydrogenase activity and higher low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than rat liver. Thus, our data suggest a lack of relationship between hepatic ethanol-metabolizing activities and the in vivo ethanol elimination rate.

  17. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic

  18. Prior Binge Ethanol Exposure Potentiates the Microglial Response in a Model of Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Simon Alex; Geil, Chelsea Rhea; Nixon, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption results in neurodegeneration which some hypothesize is caused by neuroinflammation. One characteristic of neuroinflammation is microglial activation, but it is now well accepted that microglial activation may be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Recent work indicates that the Majchrowicz model of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration results in anti-inflammatory microglia, while intermittent exposure models with lower doses and blood alcohol levels produce microglia with a pro-inflammatory phenotype. To determine the effect of a repeated binge alcohol exposure, rats received two cycles of the four-day Majchrowicz model. One hemisphere was then used to assess microglia via immunohistochemistry and while the other was used for ELISAs of cytokines and growth factors. A single binge ethanol exposure resulted in low-level of microglial activation; however, a second binge potentiated the microglial response. Specifically, double binge rats had greater OX-42 immunoreactivity, increased ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1+) cells, and upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with the single binge ethanol group. These data indicate that prior ethanol exposure potentiates a subsequent microglia response, which suggests that the initial exposure to alcohol primes microglia. In summary, repeated ethanol exposure, independent of other immune modulatory events, potentiates microglial activity. PMID:27240410

  19. Prior Binge Ethanol Exposure Potentiates the Microglial Response in a Model of Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Simon Alex; Geil, Chelsea Rhea; Nixon, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption results in neurodegeneration which some hypothesize is caused by neuroinflammation. One characteristic of neuroinflammation is microglial activation, but it is now well accepted that microglial activation may be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Recent work indicates that the Majchrowicz model of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration results in anti-inflammatory microglia, while intermittent exposure models with lower doses and blood alcohol levels produce microglia with a pro-inflammatory phenotype. To determine the effect of a repeated binge alcohol exposure, rats received two cycles of the four-day Majchrowicz model. One hemisphere was then used to assess microglia via immunohistochemistry and while the other was used for ELISAs of cytokines and growth factors. A single binge ethanol exposure resulted in low-level of microglial activation; however, a second binge potentiated the microglial response. Specifically, double binge rats had greater OX-42 immunoreactivity, increased ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1+) cells, and upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with the single binge ethanol group. These data indicate that prior ethanol exposure potentiates a subsequent microglia response, which suggests that the initial exposure to alcohol primes microglia. In summary, repeated ethanol exposure, independent of other immune modulatory events, potentiates microglial activity. PMID:27240410

  20. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  1. Serotonergic Systems in the Pathophysiology of Ethanol Dependence: Relevance to Clinical Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A

    2015-07-15

    Alcoholism is a progressive brain disorder that is marked by increased sensitivity to the positive and negative reinforcing properties of ethanol, compulsive and habitual use despite negative consequences, and chronic relapse to alcohol drinking despite repeated attempts to reduce intake or abstain from alcohol. Emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicates serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) systems in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, suggesting that drugs targeting 5-HT systems may have utility in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. In this Review, we discuss the role of 5-HT systems in alcohol dependence with a focus on 5-HT interactions with neural circuits that govern all three stages of the addiction cycle. We attempt to clarify how 5-HT influences circuit function at these different stages with the goal of identifying neural targets for pharmacological treatment of this debilitating disorder. PMID:25654315

  2. [Rapid tolerance to ethanol and high voluntary alcohol consumption in mice selected for brain weight].

    PubMed

    Salimov, R M; Markina, N V; Perepelkina, O V; Maĭskiĭ, A I; Poletaeva, I I

    2003-01-01

    Mice of two strains selected for small and large brain weight (SB and LB, respectively) had free access to 10% alcohol and water within three months. At the end of this period, they consumed alcohol in daily dose of 6.9 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 0.8 g/kg, respectively. After a period of imposed three-day abstinence, the alcohol consumption by the mice of these strains increased by 68.6 and 49.3%, respectively. Exploratory behavior of independent groups of mice from these strains was studied in the closed cross-maze. The animals were injected with ethanol (2.4 g/kg, i.p.) or vehicle twice with a weekly interval. In SB mice, the first ethanol administration increased the total time of maze exploration and the number of stereotyped visits. The second ethanol administration did not increase the time of exploration but increased the number of stereotyped visits even to the greater extent. The latter indicates the development of rapid tolerance and sensitization of these behaviors to the drug, respectively. The ethanol administration inhibited exploratory patrolling behavior and defecations. In LB mice, both the first and second ethanol administrations increased the number of stereotyped visits and decreased the exploration time and the number of defecations. The results do not support the psychomotor stimulant hypothesis of alcohol addiction. It is proposed that SB and LB mice may serve as models for Cloninger's types 1 and 2 alcoholics and may be useful for investigation of neuropharmacological mechanisms of stimulatory and inhibitory effects of ethanol. PMID:12669510

  3. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Strother, Wendy N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-hr dark-cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24 hr/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hr after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p < 0.01; Storey false discovery rate = 0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity® analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal. PMID:19666046

  4. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  5. Performance of 2-propanol in direct-oxidation fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhigang; Kaufman, Arthur

    A direct-oxidation fuel cell using 2-propanol as fuel has been evaluated. The cell performance, open circuit voltage (OCV), and alcohol crossover were measured at various alcohol concentration, cell temperature, and air/nitrogen flow rate. The cell shows much higher performance than a direct methanol fuel cell, especially at current densities less than ca. 200 mA/cm 2. This performance is the highest among any direct-liquid-oxidation fuel cells. The cell open circuit voltage can be as much as 0.27 V higher than that of a methanol cell, while the amount of 2-propanol crossing through the membrane can be as low as 1/7 of that of methanol. Therefore, a direct 2-propanol fuel cell can have much higher fuel and fuel cell efficiencies. One problem associated with using 2-propanol as fuel is the anode poisoning by reaction intermediates and a frequent cleaning of the electrode surface is needed.

  6. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  7. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  8. Cyclic ethanol metabolism in hypophysectomized rats continuously infused alcohol-containing diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) intake induces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) expression via disruption of insulin signaling in liver (JBC 2006; 281:1126-34). Total enteral nutrition (TEN) is a method of slow and continuous (approx. 23/day) feeding patients through an intragastric tube. Rats fed EtOH-co...

  9. Disruption of Circulation by Ethanol Promotes Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuhui; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Dasmahapatra, Asok K.

    2008-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to ethanol have developed craniofacial, cardiovascular and skeletal defects which can be compared with the phenotypic features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) observed in human. The present experiment was designed to show that the disruption in circulation by ethanol during embryogenesis is a potential cause of FASD. Fertilized eggs were exposed to ethanol (0, 100 and/or 400 mM) for 24 or 48 h at various developmental stages (Iwamatsu stages 4–30) and were analyzed at 6 day post fertilization (dpf). It was observed that controls and the embryos exposed to 100 mM ethanol were in circulating state; however, a significant number of embryos of stages 4–24 exposed to 400 mM ethanol had disrupted circulation. Compared to controls, protein and RNA contents were significantly reduced in non-circulating embryos. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) analysis was made at 3, 6, 24, 48, 96 and 144 hour post fertilization (hpf). LPO was increased with the advancement of morphogenesis; however, ethanol or the circulation status had no effect. We further analyzed alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh 5 and adh8) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh9A and Aldh1A2) enzyme mRNAs in the embryos exposed to 400 mM ethanol for 24h. A developmental stage specific reduction in these enzyme mRNAs by ethanol was observed. We conclude that ethanol-induced disruption in circulation during embryogenesis is a potential cause of the development of FASD features in medaka. PMID:18621148

  10. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    PubMed

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children. PMID:27405361

  11. Carbon monoxide bioconversion to butanol-ethanol by Clostridium carboxidivorans: kinetics and toxicity of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Naveira, Ánxela; Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Butanol production from carbon monoxide-rich waste gases or syngas is an attractive novel alternative to the conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Solvent toxicity is a key factor reported in ABE fermentation with carbohydrates as substrates. However, in the gas-fermentation process, kinetic aspects and the inhibition effect of solvents have not thoroughly been studied. Therefore, different batch bottle experiments were carried out with the bacterial species Clostridium carboxidivorans using CO as carbon source for butanol-ethanol fermentation. A maximum specific growth rate of 0.086 ± 0.004 h(-1) and a biomass yield of 0.011 gbiomass/gCO were found, which is significantly lower than in other clostridia grown on sugars. Besides, three assays were carried out to check the inhibitory effect of butanol, ethanol, and their mixtures. Butanol had a higher inhibitory effect on the cells than ethanol and showed a lower IC50, reduced growth rate, and slower CO consumption with increasing alcohol concentrations. A concentration of 14-14.50 g/L butanol caused 50 % growth inhibition in C. carboxidivorans, and 20 g/L butanol resulted in complete inhibition, with a growth rate of 0 h(-1). Conversely, 35 g/L ethanol decreased by 50 % the final biomass concentration respect to the control and yielded the lowest growth rate of 0.024 h(-1). The inhibitory effect of mixtures of both alcohols was also checked adding similar, near identical, concentrations of each one. Growth decreased by 50 % in the presence of a total concentration of alcohols of 16.22 g/L, consisting of similar amounts of each alcohol. Occasional differences in initially added concentrations of alcohols were minimal. The lowest growth rate (0.014 h(-1)) was observed at the highest concentration assayed (25 g/L). PMID:26921183

  12. Alcohol fuels from biomass in Brazil: a comparative assessment of methanol and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The prospect of an unprecedented production of ethanol for use as fuel has raised two general types of questions: (a) is sugar cane/ethanol the most cost-effective feedstock/product combination for a Brazilian alcohol-fuels program. (b) What are the potential environmental impacts of increased alcohol-fuels production, especially with respect to water quality and land use. This study uses a linear-programming model to evaluate options for future alcohol-fuels production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results indicate that: (a) the expansion of alcohol distilleries located adjacent to sugar refineries was the best strategy for the first phase of the Program; (b) in the future, the use of wood methanol could be less costly than sugar ethanol produced in independent distilleries; (c) ethanol from manioc can be competitive only if the cost of manioc falls to half of its current value, but manioc could be used immediately as a backup feedstock in the sugar-cane off-season; (d) the displacement of other crops by sugar cane, as measured by current land prices, seems to have little impact on the cost of ethanol, but could pose problems in terms of increased food prices and loss of foreign exchange; (e) the enforcement of regional water-quality standards would require relocation of distilleries in order to protect areas which already show high levels of pollution; (f) from the standpoint of gasoline substitution, the use of pure alcohol fuels should be expanded as much as possible.

  13. Comparison of enteral ethanol and benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal in neurocritical care patients.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Gregory; Tran, Kim; Hoang, Cuong; Treggiari, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    We designed a study to evaluate the use of benzodiazepines and ethanol in patients being assessed for alcohol withdrawal and compare outcomes between the two agents. This is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to neurocritical care or neurosurgical services who were at risk for ethanol withdrawal between June 2011 and September 2015. Patients were divided into two groups based on the first medication administered for alcohol withdrawal management, either benzodiazepine (n=50) or enteral ethanol (n=50). The primary endpoint was the maximum change in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol scale (CIWA) score within the first 24hours. Secondary endpoints included maximum and minimum CIWA score in 5days, length of stay, and change in Glasgow Coma Scale. Study groups differed by mortality risk, level of coma at admission, and other clinical characteristics, with the ethanol group appearing less severely ill. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the maximum change in CIWA score at 24hours (-0.97, 95%CI: -3.21 to 1.27, p=0.39). Hospital and intensive care unit length of stay was 6.5 days and 1 day shorter for the ethanol group (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). In summary, enteral ethanol was preferentially used in patients who are more likely to be capable of tolerating oral intake. We found that the change from baseline in CIWA score or other physiologic variables was not substantially different between the two agents. The overall utility of benzodiazepines and enteral ethanol remains unclear for this population and further study is needed to determine superiority. PMID:27262870

  14. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  15. Effects of prenatal and postnatal maternal ethanol on offspring response to alcohol and psychostimulants in long evans rats.

    PubMed

    Barbier, E; Houchi, H; Warnault, V; Pierrefiche, O; Daoust, M; Naassila, M

    2009-06-30

    An important factor that may influence addiction liability is exposure during the early life period. Exposure to ethanol, early in life, can have long-lasting implications on brain function and drugs of abuse response later in life. In the present study we investigated the behavioral responses to ethanol and to psychostimulants in Long Evans rats that have been exposed to pre- and postnatal ethanol. Since a relationship between heightened drug intake and susceptibility to drug-induced locomotor activity/sensitization has been demonstrated, we tested these behavioral responses, in control and early life ethanol-exposed animals. The young adult male and female progeny were tested for locomotor response to alcohol, cocaine and d-amphetamine. Sedative, rewarding effects of alcohol and alcohol consumption were measured. Our results show that early life ethanol exposure behaviorally sensitized animals to subsequent ethanol and psychostimulants exposure. Ethanol-exposed animals were also more sensitive to the hyperlocomotor effects of all drugs of abuse tested and to those of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Locomotor sensitization to repeated injections of cocaine was facilitated in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-induced conditioned place preference was also facilitated in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol consumption and preference were increased after early life ethanol exposure and this was associated with decreased sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. The altered behavioral responses to drugs of abuse were associated with decreased striatal dopamine transporter and hippocampal NMDAR binding. Our results outline an increased vulnerability to rewarding and stimulant effects of ethanol and psychostimulants and support the epidemiological and clinical data that suggested that early chronic exposure to ethanol may increase the propensity for later self-administration of ethanol or other substances. PMID:19348874

  16. Ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are required for unfolded protein response activation and steatosis in zebrafish with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Vacaru, Ana M.; Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Secretory pathway dysfunction and lipid accumulation (steatosis) are the two most common responses of hepatocytes to ethanol exposure and are major factors in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the mechanisms by which ethanol elicits these cellular responses are not fully understood. Recent data indicates that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to secretory pathway dysfunction can cause steatosis. Here, we examined the relationship between alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, secretory pathway stress and steatosis using zebrafish larvae. We found that ethanol was immediately internalized and metabolized by larvae, such that the internal ethanol concentration in 4-day-old larvae equilibrated to 160 mM after 1 hour of exposure to 350 mM ethanol, with an average ethanol metabolism rate of 56 μmol/larva/hour over 32 hours. Blocking alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (Cyp2e1), the major enzymes that metabolize ethanol, prevented alcohol-induced steatosis and reduced induction of the UPR in the liver. Thus, we conclude that ethanol metabolism causes ALD in zebrafish. Oxidative stress generated by Cyp2e1-mediated ethanol metabolism is proposed to be a major culprit in ALD pathology. We found that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in larvae exposed to ethanol, whereas inhibition of the zebrafish CYP2E1 homolog or administration of antioxidants reduced ROS levels. Importantly, these treatments also blocked ethanol-induced steatosis and reduced UPR activation, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acted as a pro-oxidant that synergized with low doses of ethanol to induce the UPR. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are conserved mechanisms required for the development of steatosis and hepatic dysfunction in ALD, and that these processes contribute to ethanol-induced UPR activation and secretory pathway stress in hepatocytes. PMID

  17. Ecophysiological consequences of alcoholism on human gut microbiota: implications for ethanol-related pathogenesis of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsuruya, Atsuki; Kuwahara, Akika; Saito, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Tsubo, Takahisa; Suga, Shogo; Inai, Makoto; Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Eri; Suwa, Yoshihide; Morita, Hidetoshi; Kinoshita, Kenji; Totsuka, Yukari; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Chronic consumption of excess ethanol increases the risk of colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer (ER-CRC) is thought to be partly mediated by gut microbes. Specifically, bacteria in the colon and rectum convert ethanol to acetaldehyde (AcH), which is carcinogenic. However, the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the human gut microbiome are poorly understood, and the role of gut microbes in the proposed AcH-mediated pathogenesis of ER-CRC remains to be elaborated. Here we analyse and compare the gut microbiota structures of non-alcoholics and alcoholics. The gut microbiotas of alcoholics were diminished in dominant obligate anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroides and Ruminococcus) and enriched in Streptococcus and other minor species. This alteration might be exacerbated by habitual smoking. These observations could at least partly be explained by the susceptibility of obligate anaerobes to reactive oxygen species, which are increased by chronic exposure of the gut mucosa to ethanol. The AcH productivity from ethanol was much lower in the faeces of alcoholic patients than in faeces of non-alcoholic subjects. The faecal phenotype of the alcoholics could be rationalised based on their gut microbiota structures and the ability of gut bacteria to accumulate AcH from ethanol. PMID:27295340

  18. Ecophysiological consequences of alcoholism on human gut microbiota: implications for ethanol-related pathogenesis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruya, Atsuki; Kuwahara, Akika; Saito, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Tsubo, Takahisa; Suga, Shogo; Inai, Makoto; Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Eri; Suwa, Yoshihide; Morita, Hidetoshi; Kinoshita, Kenji; Totsuka, Yukari; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Chronic consumption of excess ethanol increases the risk of colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer (ER-CRC) is thought to be partly mediated by gut microbes. Specifically, bacteria in the colon and rectum convert ethanol to acetaldehyde (AcH), which is carcinogenic. However, the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the human gut microbiome are poorly understood, and the role of gut microbes in the proposed AcH-mediated pathogenesis of ER-CRC remains to be elaborated. Here we analyse and compare the gut microbiota structures of non-alcoholics and alcoholics. The gut microbiotas of alcoholics were diminished in dominant obligate anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroides and Ruminococcus) and enriched in Streptococcus and other minor species. This alteration might be exacerbated by habitual smoking. These observations could at least partly be explained by the susceptibility of obligate anaerobes to reactive oxygen species, which are increased by chronic exposure of the gut mucosa to ethanol. The AcH productivity from ethanol was much lower in the faeces of alcoholic patients than in faeces of non-alcoholic subjects. The faecal phenotype of the alcoholics could be rationalised based on their gut microbiota structures and the ability of gut bacteria to accumulate AcH from ethanol. PMID:27295340

  19. Characterization of reactive impurities in methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol by monitoring the activities of added ionic probes with ion selective electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, B.K.; Coetzee, J.F.

    1984-11-01

    The presence of reactive impurities compromises many important applications of solvents. It is shown that a wide variety of impurities can be detected and determined by adding such highly reactive probes as hydrogen, methoxide, copper(II), mercury(II), and fluoride ions and monitoring their activities over an appropriately wide range with the corresponding ion selective electrodes. The results for the alcohols show that typical reagent grades of these solvents contain amines at the 10/sup -5/ - 10/sup -4/ M (1-10 ppm) level as well as other reactive impurities. This approach is applicable to most polar solvents. It has the overriding merits that it detects impurities on the basis on their reactivities (rather than only their concentrations) and that its lower detection limit is self-adjusting in that it is lowest (most favorable) in the very solvents in which impurities are most harmful, i.e., relatively inert solvent. In such solvents, its lower detection limit can be much lower than that attainable with gas chromatography.

  20. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  1. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  2. Interactions of ethanol and folate deficiency in development of alcoholic liver disease in the micropig.

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H; Villanueva, Jesus A; Devlin, Angela M; James, S Jill

    2002-01-01

    Folate deficiency is present in most patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), whereas folate regulates and alcoholism perturbs intrahepatic methionine metabolism, and S-adenosyl-methionine prevents the development of experimental ALD. Our studies explored the hypothesis that abnormal methionine metabolism is exacerbated by folate deficiency and promotes the development of ALD in the setting of chronic ethanol exposure. Using the micropig animal model, dietary combinations of folate deficiency and a diet containing 40% of kcal as ethanol were followed by measurements of hepatic methionine metabolism and indices of ALD. Alcoholic liver injury, expressed as steatohepatitis in terminal 14 week liver specimens, was evident in micropigs fed the combined ethanol containing and folate deficient diet but not in micropigs fed each diet separately. Perturbations of methionine metabolism included decreased hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and glutathione with increased products of DNA and lipid oxidation. Thus, the development of ALD is linked to abnormal methionine metabolism and is accelerated in the presence of folate deficiency. PMID:12053707

  3. Shock Hugoniot equations of state for binary water-alcohol liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, David; Bolme, Cynthia; Brown, Kathryn; McGrane, Shawn; Schulze, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Shock Hugoniot data were obtained using laser generated shock and ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) methods for several non-ideal water-alcohol liquid mixtures, using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and t-butanol (a.k.a., 2-methyl-2-propanol or tert-butanol). The sound speeds of the mixtures were obtained using Brillouin scattering when not available in the literature. The shock and particle velocities obtained from the UDE data were compared to expectations of the universal liquid Hugoniot (ULH) and to literature shock (plate impact) data where available. The shock Hugoniot trends for all these mixtures, represented as deviations from predictions of the ULH, versus fraction of alcohol are quite similar to each other and suggest that complex hydrogen bonding networks in water-alcohol mixtures alter the compressibility of the mixtures. Data and trends will be presented. LA-UR-15-20328.

  4. Contribution of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase to Metabolism of Alcohols in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Leidal, Kevin G.; Murch, Bruce P.; Green, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5–20 mmole/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmole/kg•h. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5–10 mmole/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmole/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6 ± 1 mmole/kg•h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD+ for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD+ for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD+ is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  5. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  6. Three alcohol dehydrogenase genes and one acetyl-CoA synthetase gene are responsible for ethanol utilization in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Gatter, Michael; Ottlik, Stephanie; Kövesi, Zsolt; Bauer, Benjamin; Matthäus, Falk; Barth, Gerold

    2016-10-01

    The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to utilize a wide range of different substrates like glucose, glycerol, ethanol, acetate, proteins and various hydrophobic molecules. Although most metabolic pathways for the utilization of these substrates have been clarified by now, it was not clear whether ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenases or by an alternative oxidation system inside the cell. In order to detect the genes that are required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica, eight alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and one alcohol oxidase gene (FAO1) have been identified and respective deletion strains were tested for their ability to metabolize ethanol. As a result of this, we found that the availability of ADH1, ADH2 or ADH3 is required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica. A strain with deletions in all three genes is lacking the ability to utilize ethanol as sole carbon source. Although Adh2p showed by far the highest enzyme activity in an in vitro assay, the availability of any of the three genes was sufficient to enable a decent growth. In addition to ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, an acetyl-CoA synthetase encoding gene (ACS1) was found to be essential for ethanol utilization. As Y. lipolytica is a non-fermenting yeast, it is neither able to grow under anaerobic conditions nor to produce ethanol. To investigate whether Y. lipolytica may produce ethanol, the key genes of alcoholic fermentation in S. cerevisiae, ScADH1 and ScPDC1, were overexpressed in an ADH and an ACS1 deletion strain. However, instead of producing ethanol, the respective strains regained the ability to use ethanol as single carbon source and were still not able to grow under anaerobic conditions. PMID:27486067

  7. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    PubMed Central

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  8. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  9. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of n-propanol and iso-propanol combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Frassoldati, Alessio; Cuoci, Alberto; Faravelli, Tiziano; Ranzi, Eliseo; Niemann, Ulrich; Seiser, Reinhard; Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram

    2010-01-15

    A kinetic model is developed to describe combustion of n-propanol and iso-propanol. It is validated by comparing predictions made using this kinetic model with new experimental data on structures of counterflow non-premixed flames and previously reported data over a wide range of configurations and conditions. The elementary pyrolysis reactions of methanol and ethanol are well-known and were used as a starting point for extension to propanol. A detailed description leading to evaluation of rate constants for initiation reactions, metathesis reactions, decomposition reactions, and four-center molecular dehydration reactions are given. Decomposition and oxidation of primary intermediate products are described using a previously developed semi-detailed kinetic model for hydrocarbon fuels. The kinetic mechanism is made up of more than 7000 reactions among 300 species. The structures of counterflow non-premixed flames were measured by removing gas samples from the flame and analyzing the samples using a gas chromatograph. The flame structures were measured under similar conditions for both fuels to elucidate the similarities and differences in combustion characteristics of the two isomers. The profiles measured include those of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, and acetone. These species are considered to be pollutants. Validation of the kinetic model was first performed by comparing predictions with experimental data reported in the literature obtained in flow reactors and shock tubes. In these configurations, combustion is not influenced by molecular transport. The agreement between the kinetic model and experimental data was satisfactory. The predictions of the kinetic model were then compared with new and previously reported experimental data on structures of counterflow non-premixed flames of both isomers. The agreement between the kinetic model and experimental data was again satisfactory. Satisfactory agreement was also obtained when the predictions of the

  10. Ethanol-derived acetaldehyde: pleasure and pain of alcohol mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Muggironi, Giulia; Fois, Giulia R.; Diana, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), has been implicated in several actions of alcohol, including its reinforcing effects. Previously considered an aversive compound, ACD was useful in alcoholic’s pharmacological treatment aimed at discouraging alcohol drinking. However, it has recently been shown that EtOH-derived ACD is necessary for EtOH-induced place preference and self-administration, thereby suggesting a possible involvement of ACD in EtOH motivational properties. In addition, EtOH-stimulating properties on DA neurons are prevented by pharmacological blockade of local catalase H2O2 system, the main metabolic step for biotransformation of EtOH into ACD within the central nervous system. It was further shown that pretreatment with thiol compounds, like L-Cysteine or D-Penicillamine, reduced EtOH and ACD-induced motivational effects, in fact preventing self-administration of both EtOH and ACD, thus suggesting a possible role for ACD as a biomarker useful in evaluating potential innovative treatments of alcohol abuse. These findings suggest a key role of ACD in the EtOH reinforcing effects. In the present paper we review the role of EtOH-derived ACD in the reinforcing effects of EtOH and the possibility that ACD may serve as a therapeutically targetable biomarker in the search for novel treatments in alcohol abuse and alcoholism. PMID:23882197

  11. [The resolution of racemic sec-phenethyl alcohol on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP: influence of different alcohols in the mobile phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lü, S; Gao, P; Li, S

    1999-07-01

    Several primary and secondary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol) were used as the mobile phase components separately, to investigate their effects on the capacity factor and stereoselectivity of sec-phenethyl alcohol enantiomers on cellulose tribenzoate-based CSP. The chiral recognition mechanism for the enantiomeric aromatic alcohols studied may involve: (1) the aromatic portion of the solute may insert into a chiral cavity of the CSP through a hydrogen bonding interaction between the solute's alcoholic hydrogen and the ester carbonyl group on the CSP; (2) the mobile phase modifiers (various alcohols) compete with the solutes for chiral, as well as achiral, binding sites on the CSP; (3) the structure of the modifier has some effect on stereoselectivity through an alteration of the steric environment of the chiral cavity. PMID:12552849

  12. Fragrance material review on 2-phenyl-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenyl-2-propanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenyl-2-propanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenyl-2-propanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033099

  13. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production. PMID:27321949

  14. Effects of intravenous ethanol on basal bile-pancreatic secretion in nonalcoholic and alcohol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Tiscornia, O M; Iovanna, J; Tumilasci, O; Perec, C J; Cresta, M A; Celener, D; Dreiling, D A

    1990-11-01

    In nonalcoholic (NA) and alcohol-fed rats (AF), intravenous-ethanol-induced percentage changes in bile-pancreatic-secretion (BPS) were evaluated, with and without gastric juice diversion (GJD) and with and without BPS duodenal recirculation (DR). Even with GJD, ethanol elicited a slight increase in BPS. These changes were greater in AF animals even when performed without GJD. When intravenous ethanol was given under conditions of GJD and DR, there were marked differences between the NA and AF animals in the ethanol-elicited post-plateau percentage changes of BPS. NA animals evidenced no significant difference from controls. But in the AF rats, ethanol triggered a marked and significant increase of flow, protein concentration, and output that became progressively greater in successive collection periods. It is postulated that without DR, and the resulting lack of negative duodeno-pancreatic reflexes (DPR), there occurs a change in reactivity to intravenous ethanol of the hypothalamic-bulbar nuclei (HBN) and in the mechanisms that modulate the flow of cholinergic impulses through the intrapancreatic ganglia (IPG). The postulated consequence is predominance (slight in NA rats receiving intravenous ethanol, greater in AF rats) in discharge of positive impulses from HBN and flowing unimpeded through the IPG to the "pancreon" units. In the NA animal with DR, ethanol may enhance BPS values, but in the AF rats, impairment of the negative DPR elicited by chronic alcohol intoxication might, after an acute intravenous ethanol injection, favor the discharge of positive impulses from the HBN flowing unimpeded through the IPG. In the AF rats also, ethanol would activate the nonnicotinic receptors of the neurons of the "antral," "duodenal," and "celiac" autonomic brains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2079953

  15. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production. PMID:27321949

  16. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Laura R; Ather, Jennifer L; Randall, Matthew J; DePuccio, Daniel P; Landry, Christopher C; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-15

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol, and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation or N-methyl-d-asparate receptor inhibition but were associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other

  17. Effect of alcohol-water exchange and surface scanning on nanobubbles and the attraction between hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Marc A; Donose, Bogdan C; Nguyen, Anh V

    2008-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine how different alcohols affect the hydrophobic attraction between a hydrophobic silica colloidal probe and a hydrophobic silica wafer. The experiments were performed in water and in water after rinsing alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or 1-propanol) throughout the AFM system. In all three cases the range of the attractive force increased after alcohol-water exchange, with 1-propanol showing the largest increase in range followed by ethanol and methanol. Additionally, experiments were performed before and after scanning the flat substrate with the colloidal probe. The range of the attractive force substantially increased with increasing scanning area. The attraction was explained by nanobubble bridging with a capillary force model with constant bridge volume proposed. The bridge volume (constant during each of the force curve measurements), contact angle and rupture distance were also determined for different scan sizes. The correlation between the rupture distance and bridge volume agreed with the available prediction. PMID:18547582

  18. Detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages or vapor phase using fluorescent molecules embedded in a nanofibrous polymer.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Mori, Taizo; Okamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Ken; Shiratori, Seimei; Yamamura, Masaki; Nabeshima, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-25

    An alcohol sensor was developed using the solid-state fluorescence emission of terphenyl-ol (TPhOH) derivatives. Admixtures of TPhOH and sodium carbonate exhibited bright sky-blue fluorescence in the solid state upon addition of small quantities of ethanol. A series of terphenol derivatives was synthesized, and the effects of solvent polarities and the structures of these π-conjugated systems on their fluorescence were systematically investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. In particular, π-extended TPhOHs and TPhOHs containing electron-withdrawing groups exhibited significant solvatochromism, and fluorescence colors varied from blue to red. Detection of ethanol contents in alcohol beverages (detection limit ∼ 5 v/v %) was demonstrated using different TPhOHs revealing the effect of molecular structure on sensing properties. Ethanol contents in alcoholic beverages could be estimated from the intensity of the fluorescence elicited from the TPhOHs. Moreover, when terphenol and Na2CO3 were combined with a water-absorbent polymer, ethanol could be detected at lower concentrations. Detection of ethanol vapor (8 v/v % in air) was also accomplished using a nanofibrous polymer scaffold as the immobilized sensing film. PMID:25756646

  19. Ginsenoside-free molecules from steam-dried ginseng berry promote ethanol metabolism: an alternative choice for an alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yu, Jung Min; Jang, Su Kil; Joo, Seong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Ethanol metabolism produces harmful compounds that contribute to liver damage and cause an alcohol hangover. The intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for alcohol hangover and CYP2E1-induced reactive oxygen species damage liver tissues. In this study, we examined whether ginsenoside-free molecules (GFMs) from steam-dried ginseng berries promote ethanol metabolism and scavenge free radicals by stimulating primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CYP2E1, and catalase) and antioxidant effects using in vitro and in vivo models. The results revealed that GFM effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Notably, GFM significantly enhanced the expression of primary enzymes within 2 h in HepG2 cells. GFM clearly removed the consumed ethanol and significantly reduced the level of acetaldehyde as well as enhancement of primary gene expression in BALB/c mice. Moreover, GFM successfully protected HepG2 cells from ethanol attack. Of the major components identified in GFM, it was believed that linoleic acid was the most active ingredient. Based on these findings, we conclude that GFM holds promise for use as a new candidate for ethanol metabolism and as an antihangover agent. PMID:24962619

  20. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  1. Catalytic activity of carbon nanotubes in the conversion of aliphatic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Tveritinova, E. A.; Chernyak, S. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained via the catalytic pyrolysis of hexane at 750°C were studied as the catalysts in conversion of C2-C4 alcohols. The efficiency of CNTs as catalysts in dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol was studied by means of pulse microcatalysis. The surface and structural characteristics of CNTs are investigated via SEM, TEM, DTA, BET, and XPS. CNTs are shown to be effective catalysts in the conversion of alcohols and do not require additional oxidative treatment. The regularities of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, related to the properties of the CNTs surface and the structure of the alcohols are identified.

  2. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  3. Interstellar Alcohols and the Chemistry of Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, M. E.; Charnley, S. B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1994-12-01

    Gas-phase methanol and ethanol have been observed in hot cores, the warm remnants of a molecular cloud in which massive star formation has recently occurred. The newborn stars heat the surrounding gas and dust, evaporating ice mantles containing alcohols which can then participate in gas-phase reactions. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry which can form several esters and ethers; our models show that methyl ethyl ether and diethyl ether should form in detectable quantities in cores rich in methanol and ethanol. These reactions can also explain the low observed abundance of gas-phase ethanol in some hot core sources. Possible grain surface mechanisms for the formation of these alcohols will also be presented. We acknowledge support via a DOE fellowship (MEK), a NAS/NRC research associateship at NASA Ames (SBC), a SERC grant to the UMIST Astrophysics Group (TJM), and a grant from NASA's Astrophysics Theory Program (AGGMT).

  4. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  5. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  6. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol. PMID:25790020

  7. A novel alcohol/iron (III) fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Zou, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Guorong; Nie, Huidong; Zhou, Xiulin

    2016-07-01

    A novel alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using Fe3+ as the oxidation agent instead of the conventional O2. Various alcohols as the fuels are tested, including methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. In this fuel cell, the anode catalysts tested are PdSn/β-cd-CNT, PdSn/CNT, Pd/β-cd-CNT, Pd/CNT and Pd/β-cd-C, prepared by using multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon powder (C), as well as β-cyclodexdrin (β-cd) modified CNT (β-cd-CNT) and β-cd modified C (β-cd-C), as the substrates to immobilize PdSn and Pd nanoparticles in glycol solvent. The as-synthesized PdSn/β-cd-CNT catalyst presents significantly higher electroactivity for alcohol oxidation than the conventional Pd/C catalyst. Fe3+ reduction reaction is carried out on the cathode made of carbon powder. The anolyte (alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH) and catholyte (Fe3+ in 0.5 mol L-1 NaCl) are separated with a Nafion 117 membrane. Open circuit voltage (OCV) of the cell with the anode PdSn/β-cd-CNT is 1.14-1.22 V, depending upon the used alcohol. The maximum power densities with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol fuels are 15.2, 16.1, 19.9 and 12.2 mW cm-2, respectively.

  8. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  9. THE CYCLIC PATTERN OF BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS DURING CONTINUOUS ETHANOL FEEDING IN RATS. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE

    PubMed Central

    Bardag-Gorce, F; Li, J; Oliva, J; Lu, SC; French, BA; French, SW

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for one month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver. The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in liver SAMe levels and its metabolites and ADH. SAMe changed the type of fatty liver, reduced liver ALT levels and prevented the BAL cycle caused by intragastric ethanol feeding. Microarray analysis showed that SAMe feeding prevented most of the changes in gene expression induced by ethanol feeding, presumably by inducing H3K27me3 and gene silencing. H3K27me3 was significantly increased by SAMe with or without ethanol feeding. It is concluded that SAMe feeding stabilized global gene expression so that the changes in gene expression involved in the blood alcohol cycle were prevented. PMID:20303346

  10. Effect of the composition of a water-alcohol solvent on the thermodynamics of dissolution of DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    Enthalpies of solution for DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine in H2O-ethanol, H2O-1-propanol, and H2O-2-propanol mixed solvents with the alcohol mole fraction x 2 = 0-0.3 are measured at 298.15 K. Standard enthalpies of solution (Δsol H ∘), standard enthalpies of transfer of DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine from water to binary solvent (Δtr H ∘), and coefficients of enthalpies of pair interactions with alcohol molecules ( h xy) are calculated. The effect the structure and properties of alcohols and the composition of a water-alcohol mixture have on the enthalpy of dissolution for DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine are discussed. The h xy values for dipeptides of the alanine series in water-alcohol binary solvents are compared.

  11. The thermochemistry of solution of L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine in water-alcohol mixtures at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2008-07-01

    The integral enthalpies of solution of L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine in water-ethanol, water- n-propanol, and water-isopropanol mixtures were measured calorimetrically at alcohol concentrations x 2 ranging from 0 to 0.4 mole fractions. The standard enthalpy of peptide solution Δsol H o and transfer Δtr H o from water into a mixed solvent were calculated. The effect of the structure and properties of peptides and mixture composition on the enthalpy characteristics is discussed. The enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions h xy between L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine and alcohol molecules were calculated; these coefficients were positive and increased in the series ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol. The analysis performed allowed the differences in the thermodynamic characteristics of solution of L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine and DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-alanine in water-alcohol mixtures to be determined.

  12. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol). PMID:25035710

  13. Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol < 2-propanol for the monohydric alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ≈ xylitol ≈ meso-erythritol < glycerol < ethylene glycol < methanol for the polyhydric alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration. PMID:24921669

  14. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS. PMID:26675916

  15. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  16. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc., Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains a summary of the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic factors involved in the siting, construction and operation of the plant.

  17. A novel membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Yang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Membrane-less fuel cell possesses such advantages as simplified design and lower cost. In this paper, a membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) supported Pd and ternary PdSnNi composites as the anode catalysts and Fe/C-PANI composite, produced by direct pyrolysis of Fe-doped polyaniline precursor, as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The alcohols investigated in the present study are methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol and sec-butanol. The cathode catalyst Fe/C-PANI is electrochemically inactive to oxidation of the alcohols. The performance of the cell with various alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH solution on either Pd/MWCNT or PdSnNi/MWCNT catalyst has been evaluated. In any case, the performance of the cell using the anode catalyst PdSnNi/MWCNT is considerably better than Pd/MWCNT. For the PdSnNi/MWCNT, the maximum power densities of the cell using methanol (0.5 mol L-1), ethanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), iso-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-butanol (0.2 mol L-1), iso-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) and sec-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) are 0.34, 1.03, 1.07, 0.44, 0.50, 0.31 and 0.15 mW cm-2, respectively.

  18. The Effect of Alcohol Solvents on the Porosity and Phase Composition of Titania.

    PubMed

    Song; Pratsinis

    2000-11-15

    Bimodally porous titania powders were made by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) dissolved in various alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and sec-butanol). The specific surface area (SSA) of the powders dried at 150 degrees C ranged from 332 to 624 m(2)/g as determined by nitrogen adsorption. At excess alcohol concentration, the SSA of the dried powders decreased in the order of sec-butanol, iso-propanol, ethanol, and methanol at a constant alcohol/TTIP molar ratio. The pore size distribution was bimodal with fine intraparticle pore diameters at 1-6 nm and larger interparticle pore diameters at 30-120 nm as determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The average intraparticle pore diameter decreased with increasing alcohol concentration for methanol and ethanol, while it was rather constant at 3.3 nm, irrespective of alcohol concentration for iso-propanol and sec-butanol. The evolution of particle phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction ranging from amorphous to crystalline anatase and rutile largely proportional to the calcination temperature and to a lesser extent on the type and concentration of alcohols. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11049679

  19. Carbon Dioxide Effects on Ethanol Production, Pyruvate Decarboxylase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities in Anaerobic Sweet Potato Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling A.; Hammett, Larry K.; Pharr, David M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varied anaerobic atmospheres on the metabolism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) roots was studied. The internal gas atmospheres of storage roots changed rapidly when the roots were submerged under water. O2 and N2 gases disappeared quickly and were replaced by CO2. There were no appreciable differences in gas composition among the four cultivars that were studied. Under different anaerobic conditions, ethanol concentration in the roots was highest in a CO2 environment, followed by submergence and a N2 environment in all the cultivars except one. A positive relationship was found between ethanol production and pyruvate decarboxylase activity from both 100% CO2-treated and 100% N2-treated roots. CO2 atmospheres also resulted in higher pyruvate decarboxylase activity than did N2 atmospheres. Concentrations of CO2 were higher within anaerobic roots than those in the ambient anaerobic atmosphere. The level of pyruvate decarboxylase and ethanol in anaerobic roots was proportional to the ambient CO2 concentration. The measurable activity of pyruvate decarboxylase that was present in the roots was about 100 times less than that of alcohol dehydrogenase. Considering these observations, it is suggested that the rate-limiting enzyme for ethanol biosynthesis in sweet potato storage roots under anoxia is likely to be pyruvate decarboxylase rather than alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:16662798

  20. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  1. Adsorption and Reaction of C1-C3 Alcohols over CeOx(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    D Mullins; S Senanayake; T Chen

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub x}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

  2. Alcohol dehydrogenase activities and ethanol tolerance in Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) fruit-fly species and their hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) system is one of the earliest known models of molecular evolution, and is still the most studied in Drosophila. Herein, we studied this model in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae). Due to the remarkable advantages it presents, it is possible to cross species with different Adh genotypes and with different phenotype traits related to ethanol tolerance. The two species studied here each have a different number of Adh gene copies, whereby crosses generate polymorphisms in gene number and in composition of the genetic background. We measured certain traits related to ethanol metabolism and tolerance. ADH specific enzyme activity presented gene by environment interactions, and the larval protein content showed an additive pattern of inheritance, whilst ADH enzyme activity per larva presented a complex behavior that may be explained by epistatic effects. Regression models suggest that there are heritable factors acting on ethanol tolerance, which may be related to enzymatic activity of the ADHs and to larval mass, although a pronounced environmental effect on ethanol tolerance was also observed. By using these data, we speculated on the mechanisms of ethanol tolerance and its inheritance as well as of associated traits. PMID:21637665

  3. Oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol with human alcohol dehydrogenases and the inhibition by ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Shih, Hsuan-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chou; Li, Yeung-Pin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2011-05-30

    Human alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) include multiple isozymes with broad substrate specificity and ethnic distinct allozymes. ADH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in metabolism of various primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols. The oxidation of common toxic alcohols, that is, methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol by the human ADHs remains poorly understood. Kinetic studies were performed in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5 and 25°C, containing 0.5 mM NAD(+) and varied concentrations of substrate. K(M) values for ethanol with recombinant human class I ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, and ADH1C2, and class II ADH2 and class IV ADH4 were determined to be in the range of 0.12-57 mM, for methanol to be 2.0-3500 mM, for ethylene glycol to be 4.3-2600mM, and for isopropanol to be 0.73-3400 mM. ADH1B3 appeared to be inactive toward ethylene glycol, and ADH2 and ADH4, inactive with methanol. The variations for V(max) for the toxic alcohols were much less than that of the K(M) across the ADH family. 4-Methylpyrazole (4MP) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to ethanol for ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1C1 and ADH1C2, and a noncompetitive inhibitor for ADH1B3, ADH2 and ADH4, with the slope inhibition constants (K(is)) for the whole family being 0.062-960 μM and the intercept inhibition constants (K(ii)), 33-3000 μM. Computer simulation studies using inhibition equations in the presence of alternate substrate ethanol and of dead-end inhibitor 4MP with the determined corresponding kinetic parameters for ADH family, indicate that the oxidation of the toxic alcohols up to 50mM are largely inhibited by 20 mM ethanol or by 50 μM 4MP with some exceptions. The above findings provide an enzymological basis for clinical treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning by 4MP or ethanol with pharmacogenetic perspectives. PMID:21167143

  4. Neutron diffraction studies of liquid iso-propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterström, P.; Dahlborg, U.; Delaplane, R. G.; Howells, W. S.

    1991-07-01

    The structure of deuterated liquid iso-propanol has been studied with neutron diffraction at the LAD diffractometer at the ISIS spallation source. Measurements were performed at temperatures 190, 220, 250 and 275 K. To correct for inelastic effects a model for the dynamic structure factor which obeys detailed balance and included recoil effects was used. The static molecular structure factor SM(Q) exhibits a pre-peak at about 0.75 Å-1. The origin of the pre-peak, which increases in amplitude with temperature, is presently unknown. The structure of the iso-propanol molecule was obtained from the total pair distribution function and from a fit of the intramolecular form factor f1(Q) to the measured SM(Q) at large Q. The obtained values of the bond length and Debye-Waller factors are in good agreement to those obtained from lower alcohols.

  5. Effects of water-alcohol binary solvents on the thermochemical characteristics of L-tryptophane dissolution at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Smirnov, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    The enthalpies of L-tryptophane solution in water-methanol, water-ethanol, water-1-propanol, and water-2-propanol mixtures at alcohol concentrations of x 2 = 0-0.4 mole fractions were measured by calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of L-tryptophane solution (Δsol H ∘) and transfer (Δtr H ∘) from water to the binary solvent were calculated. The influence of the composition of the water-alcohol mixture and the structure and properties of L-tryptophane on the enthalpy characteristics of the latter was considered. The enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions ( h xy ) of L-tryptophane with alcohol molecules were calculated. The coefficients were positive and increased in the series: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), 1-propanol (1-PrOH), and 2-propanol (2-PrOH). The solution and transfer enthalpies of L-tryptophane were compared with those of aliphatic amino acids (glycine, L-threonine, DL-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine) in similar binary solvents.

  6. A study of the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol).

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M

    2012-02-15

    The conformational stability of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol) was investigated by the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G**, MP2/6-311+G** and MP4(SDQ)/6-311+G** levels of theory. From the calculations chlorobutanol was predicted to exist in a non-planar gauche structure. The planar cis and trans structures of chlorobutanol were calculated to be about 3kcal/mol higher in energy than the gauche structure. From the calculations 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol was predicted to exist in a Ggg1 and Ggg conformational mixture at ambient temperature. In the low energy structures of both alcohols the non-bonded Cl⋯H(O) distance was calculated to be of about 2.6-2.7Å. The observation of a broad and very intense band at about 3400cm(-1) in the infrared spectra of the two alcohols supports the presence of strong intermolecular Cl⋯H(O) dipolar interactions in their condensed phases. The analysis of the Raman spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol suggests the presence of a second high energy Ggg structure of the dichloride at room temperature. The vibrational frequencies of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and chlorobutanol in their low energy structures were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were made for their normal modes on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data. PMID:22154261

  7. A study of the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.

    2012-02-01

    The conformational stability of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol) was investigated by the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G**, MP2/6-311+G** and MP4(SDQ)/6-311+G** levels of theory. From the calculations chlorobutanol was predicted to exist in a non-planar gauche structure. The planar cis and trans structures of chlorobutanol were calculated to be about 3 kcal/mol higher in energy than the gauche structure. From the calculations 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol was predicted to exist in a Ggg1 and Ggg conformational mixture at ambient temperature. In the low energy structures of both alcohols the non-bonded Cl⋯H(O) distance was calculated to be of about 2.6-2.7 Å. The observation of a broad and very intense band at about 3400 cm -1 in the infrared spectra of the two alcohols supports the presence of strong intermolecular Cl⋯H(O) dipolar interactions in their condensed phases. The analysis of the Raman spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol suggests the presence of a second high energy Ggg structure of the dichloride at room temperature. The vibrational frequencies of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and chlorobutanol in their low energy structures were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were made for their normal modes on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.

  8. Manipulating the sleeping beauty mutase operon for the production of 1-propanol in engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While most resources in biofuels were directed towards implementing bioethanol programs, 1-propanol has recently received attention as a promising alternative biofuel. Nevertheless, no microorganism has been identified as a natural 1-propanol producer. In this study, we manipulated a novel metabolic pathway for the synthesis of 1-propanol in the genetically tractable bacterium Escherichia coli. Results E. coli strains capable of producing heterologous 1-propanol were engineered by extending the dissimilation of succinate via propionyl-CoA. This was accomplished by expressing a selection of key genes, i.e. (1) three native genes in the sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon, i.e. sbm-ygfD-ygfG from E. coli, (2) the genes encoding bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from several microbial sources, and (3) the sucCD gene encoding succinyl-CoA synthetase from E. coli. Using the developed whole-cell biocatalyst under anaerobic conditions, production titers up to 150 mg/L of 1-propanol were obtained. In addition, several genetic and chemical effects on the production of 1-propanol were investigated, indicating that certain host-gene deletions could abolish 1-propanol production as well as that the expression of a putative protein kinase (encoded by ygfD/argK) was crucial for 1-propanol biosynthesis. Conclusions The study has provided a novel route for 1-propanol production in E. coli, which is subjected to further improvement by identifying limiting conversion steps, shifting major carbon flux to the productive pathway, and optimizing gene expression and culture conditions. PMID:24074355

  9. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  10. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  11. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Heiberger, John J.

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  12. The thermochemical characteristics of solution of DL-α-alanylglycine and DL-α-alanylalanine in water-alcohol mixtures at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2007-05-01

    The integral enthalpies of solution of DL-α-alanylglycine and DL-α-alanylalanine in water-ethanol, water-n-propanol, and water-isopropanol mixtures were measured calorimetrically at alcohol concentrations x 2 = 0-0.4 mole fractions. The standard enthalpies of solution (Δsol H°) of the peptides and their transfer (Δtr H°) from water into the mixed solvents were calculated. The influence of the structure and properties of the solutes and mixture composition on the enthalpy characteristics were considered. The Δsol H° = f(x 2) and Δtr H° = f(x 2) dependences were found to have extrema. The enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions (h xy ) between the peptide and alcohol molecules were calculated. The coefficients were positive and increased in the series ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol.

  13. A rapid and sensitive alcohol oxidase/catalase conductometric biosensor for alcohol determination.

    PubMed

    Hnaien, M; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2010-04-15

    A new conductometric biosensor has been developed for the determination of short chain primary aliphatic alcohols. The biosensor assembly was prepared through immobilization of alcohol oxidase from Hansenula sp. and bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of interdigitated microelectrodes. The local conductivity increased rapidly after alcohol addition, reaching steady-state within 10 min. The sensitivity was maximal for methanol (0.394+/-0.004 microS microM(-1), n=5) and decreased by increasing the alcohol chain length. The response was linear up to 75 microM for methanol, 70 microM for ethanol and 65 microM for 1-propanol and limits of detection were 0.5 microM, 1 microM and 3 microM, respectively (S/N=3). No significant loss of the enzyme activities was observed after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C in a 20mM phosphate buffer solution pH 7.2 (two or three measurements per week). After 4 months, 95% of the initial signal still remained. The biosensor response to ethanol was not significantly affected by acetic, lactic, ascorbic, malic, oxalic, citric, tartaric acids or glucose. The bi-enzymatic sensor was successfully applied to the determination of ethanol in different alcoholic beverages. PMID:20188912

  14. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  15. Reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol by ethanologenic strains of bacteria and its effect on ethanol production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tony; Buszko, Marian L; Ingram, Lonnie O; Preston, James F

    2002-01-01

    The ethanologenic bacteria Escherichia coli strains KO11 and LYO1, and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2, were investigated for their ability to metabolize furfural. Using high performance liquid chromatography and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, furfural was found to be completely biotransformed into furfuryl alcohol by each of the three strains with tryptone and yeast extract as sole carbon sources. This reduction appears to be constitutive with NAD(P)H acting as electron donor. Glucose was shown to be an effective source of reducing power. Succinate inhibited furfural reduction, indicating that flavins are unlikely participants in this process. Furfural at concentrations >10 mM decreased the rate of ethanol formation but did not affect the final yield. Insight into the biochemical nature of this furfural reduction process may help efforts to mitigate furfural toxicity during ethanol production by ethanologenic bacteria. PMID:12018260

  16. How Alcohol Chain-Length and Concentration Modulate Hydrogen Bond Formation in a Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Allison N.; Faller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to measure the change in properties of a hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer when solvated with ethanol, propanol, and butanol solutions. There are eight oxygen atoms in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine that serve as hydrogen bond acceptors, and two of the oxygen atoms participate in hydrogen bonds that exist for significantly longer time spans than the hydrogen bonds at the other six oxygen atoms for the ethanol and propanol simulations. We conclude that this is caused by the lipid head group conformation, where the two favored hydrogen-bonding sites are partially protected between the head group choline and the sn-2 carbonyl oxygen. We find that the concentration of the alcohol in the ethanol and propanol simulations does not have a significant influence on the locations of the alcohol/lipid hydrogen bonds, whereas the concentration does impact the locations of the butanol/lipid hydrogen bonds. The concentration is important for all three alcohol types when the lipid chain order is examined, where, with the exception of the high-concentration butanol simulation, the alcohol molecules having the longest hydrogen-bonding relaxation times at the favored carbonyl oxygen acceptor sites also have the largest order in the upper chain region. The lipid behavior in the high-concentration butanol simulation differs significantly from that of the other alcohol concentrations in the order parameter, head group rotational relaxation time, and alcohol/lipid hydrogen-bonding location and relaxation time. This appears to be the result of the system being very near to a phase transition, and one occurrence of lipid flip-flop is seen at this concentration. PMID:17218462

  17. Adsorption and Reaction of C(1)-C(3) Alcohols over CeO(x)(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Chen, Tsung-Liang

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub X}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

  18. Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Petrosino, Joseph; Ajami, Nadim; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Barve, Shirish S; Yin, Xinmin; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; McClain, Craig J

    2016-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were seen in animals fed an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol but not a saturated fat diet and ethanol. Compared with a saturated fat diet and ethanol, an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol caused major fecal metabolomic changes. Moreover, a decrease in certain fecal amino acids was noted in both alcohol-fed groups. These data support an important role of dietary lipids in ALD pathogenesis and provide insight into mechanisms of ALD development. A diet enriched in unsaturated fats enhanced alcohol-induced liver injury and caused major fecal metagenomic and metabolomic changes that may play an etiologic role in observed liver injury. Dietary lipids can potentially serve as inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD. PMID:27012191

  19. HEPATOTOXIC INTERACTIONS OF ETHANOL WITH ALLYL ALCOHOL OR CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess interactive toxicity following subacute, concurrent chemical exposure, male Fischer-344 rats, approximately 70 days of age, were given ethanol at 0, 0.'05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 ml/kg in corn oil daily by gavage for 14 days ([TON group), or the same levels of ethanol with 21...

  20. Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzymatic reaction was investigated and typical Michaelis-Mentin kinetics was observed during the first week. The first order reaction at relatively low concentrations of ethanol and the pseudo zero-order reaction at high concentrations of ethanol were emphasized.

  1. Ethanol inhibition of aspartyl-asparaginyl-β-hydroxylase in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Potential link to the impairments in central nervous system neuronal migration

    PubMed Central

    de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Tong, Ming; Carlson, Rolf I.; Carter, Jade J.; Longato, Lisa; Silbermann, Elizabeth; Wands, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol and associated with hypoplasia and impaired neuronal migration in the cerebellum. Neuronal survival and motility are stimulated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), whose signaling pathways are major targets of ethanol neurotoxicity. To better understand the mechanisms of ethanol-impaired neuronal migration during development, we examined the effects of chronic gestational exposure to ethanol on aspartyl (asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase (AAH) expression, because AAH is regulated by insulin/IGF and mediates neuronal motility. Pregnant Long—Evans rats were pair-fed isocaloric liquid diets containing 0, 8, 18, 26, or 37% ethanol by caloric content from gestation day 6 through delivery. Cerebella harvested from postnatal day 1 pups were used to examine AAH expression in tissue, and neuronal motility in Boyden chamber assays. We also used cerebellar neuron cultures to examine the effects of ethanol on insulin/IGF—stimulated AAH expression, and assess the role of GSK-3β—mediated phosphorylation on AAH protein levels. Chronic gestational exposure to ethanol caused dose-dependent impairments in neuronal migration and corresponding reductions in AAH protein expression in developing cerebella. In addition, prenatal ethanol exposure inhibited insulin and IGF-I—stimulated directional motility in isolated cerebellar granule neurons. Ethanol-treated neuronal cultures (50 mM × 96 h) also had reduced levels of AAH protein. Mechanistically, we showed that AAH protein could be phosphorylated on Ser residues by GSK-3β, and that chemical inhibition of GSK-3β and/or global Caspases increases AAH protein in both control- and ethanol-exposed cells. Ethanol-impaired neuronal migration in FASD is associated with reduced AAH expression. Because ethanol increases the activities of both GSK-3β and Caspases, the inhibitory effect of ethanol on neuronal migration could be mediated by increased

  2. Ethanolic Extract of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai Alleviates Alcoholic Liver Damage Combined with a High-Fat Diet in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haein; Park, Minyoung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Oran

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver steatosis have an indistinguishable spectrum of histological features and liver enzyme elevations. In this study, we investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (AK) to protect against experimental alcoholic liver disease in a mouse model that couples diet and daily ethanol bolus gavage. Fifty-six C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into seven groups: normal control (NC), alcohol control (AC), alcohol/HFD control (AH), low-dose (1%) AK in alcohol group (ACL), high-dose (3%) AK in alcohol group (ACH), low-dose AK in alcohol/HFD group (AHL), and high-dose AK in alcohol/HFD group (AHH). The AH group showed more severe damage than the AC group in terms of biochemical and molecular data that were observed in this study. The administration of AK exerted remarkable effects in: plasma ALT (p < 0.0001), total lipid (p = 0.014), TG (p = 0.0037) levels; CPT-1α (p = 0.0197), TLR4 (p < 0.0001), CD14 (p = 0.0002), IL-6 (p = 0.0264) and MCP-1 (p = 0.0045) gene expressions; and ALDH (p < 0.0001) and CAT (p = 0.0076) activities. The data suggested that at least the high dose AK might confer protection against alcoholic liver damage combined with an HFD by accelerating lipid oxidation and alcohol metabolism and by suppressing the inflammatory response, including the TLR pathway. PMID:27231887

  3. Drinking modulates monocyte migration in healthy subjects: a randomised intervention study of water, ethanol, red wine and beer with or without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Armin; Blagieva, Roza; Marx, Nikolaus; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality compared to non-consumption of alcohol and heavy drinking. Experimental data suggest a direct effect of alcohol on atherosclerotic lesion development. We assessed the effect of consumption of moderate amounts of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages on monocyte migration, a crucial step in atherogenesis. Forty-nine healthy men and women (aged 22-56 years) were enrolled in this randomised controlled trial. After wash-out, participants were assigned to either ethanol (concentration 12.5%), beer (5.6%) or red wine (12.5%) equivalent to 30 grams of ethanol per day (g/d) for men and 20 g/d for women, or to the same amount of de-alcoholised beer or red wine, or to water. Monocyte migration was evaluated ex vivo using a modified Boyden chamber. Intake of ethanol or de-alcoholised red wine significantly reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-induced monocyte migration by 58% (p<0.05; n=6) and 36% (p<0.05; n=7) and FMLP (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine)-induced migration by 41% (p<0.05) and 36% (p<0.05), respectively. MCP-1 receptor expression was not affected by these interventions, as shown by flow cytometry. Short-term intervention with moderate amounts of ethanol and de-alcoholised red wine inhibits monocyte migration ex vivo. This might represent one mechanism by which alcoholic beverages lower cardiovascular risk. PMID:18398813

  4. Purification and characterization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Wieser, M; Morita, H; Sugio, T; Nagasawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107 was purified to apparent homogeneity as shown by SDS-PAGE and gel-permeation HPLC. The enzyme is a homodimeric flavoenzyme consisting of two 58 kDa subunits. It catalyzes the dehydrogenation of different 4-hydroxybenzylic structures, including the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols such as vanillyl alcohol to the corresponding aldehydes, eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, and 4-alkylphenols to 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alcohols. The latter reaction was S-stereospecific and was used for the synthesis of S-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol and -propanol with enantiomeric excesses of 81.9 and 86.0%, respectively. The catalytic and structural similarities to a Penicillium vanillyl-alcohol oxidase and Pseudomonas 4-alkylphenol methylhydroxylases are discussed. PMID:16232469

  5. Equation of state for water-alcohol mixtures over a wide range of state variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabekova, B. K.; Bazaev, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Coefficients of the three-parameter polynomial equation of states are determined from experimental data on the ( p, ρ, T, x) relationship for water-aliphatic alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol) mixtures in the liquid and vapor phases and in the supercritical state: expansions of compressibility factor Z = p/ RTρ m into series in powers of reduced density ω = ρm/ρmcr; reduced temperature τ = T/T cr and composition x (as the mole fraction of alcohol), . The mean percentage errors of the calculated pressure values relative to the experimental values are 2% (liquid phase), 0.7% (vapor phase), and 0.5% (supercritical fluid).

  6. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Barger, Paul T.

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  7. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  8. Noradrenergic mediation of the positive reinforcing properties of ethanol: II. Extinction of ethanol-drinking behavior in laboratory rats by inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Implications for treatment procedures in human alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Z W; Amit, Z; Levitan, D E; Ogren, S O; Sutherland, E A

    1977-11-01

    Following stabilization of consumption of a 15% (v/v) ethanol solution in a free-choice with water, rats were presented with a forced-choice of ethanol for 10 consecutive alternate days. Prior to each forced-choice presentation experimental animals were injected with the non-toxic dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor FLA-57 (30 mg/kg i.p.) while control animals received only vehicle injections. At the termination of the injection phase when ethanol was again made available in a free-choice with water, ethanol consumption for the FLA-57 treated animals was markedly suppressed. These data are interpreted in terms of extinction resulting from the procedure whereby performance of the ethanol drinking response was perpetuated by force with the pharmacological reinforcing properties being blocked by FLA-57-induced depletions of norepinephrine. Applications of these procedures in the treatment of human alcoholics are discussed. PMID:603311

  9. Studies on the oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H 2O 2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in alcohol-water medium by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liang, Huiling; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Xiwen; Shen, Hanxi

    2006-03-01

    An oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H 2O 2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry in the alcohol(methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and isopropanol)-water mutual solubility system. Compared with the enzymatic-catalyzed reaction in the water medium, the fluorescence intensities of the product weakened, even extinguished. Because the addition of alcohols made the conformation of HRP change, the catalytic reaction shifted to the side of polymerization and the polymer (A nH 2, n ≥ 3) exhibited no fluorescence. The four alcohols cannot deactivate HRP. Moreover isopropanol activated HRP remarkably.

  10. Ethanol Inhibits Activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes in Human Macrophages–A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Action of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Nurmi, Katariina; Virkanen, Juhani; Rajamäki, Kristiina; Niemi, Katri; Kovanen, Petri T.; Eklund, Kari K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis, local macrophage-driven inflammation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in particular, are recognized as key factors. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease mortality. Here we examined in cultured human macrophages whether ethanol modulates the intracellular processes involved in the secretion of IL-1β. Results Ethanol decreased dose-dependently the production of mature IL-1β induced by activators of the NLRP3 inflammasome, i.e. ATP, cholesterol crystals, serum amyloid A and nigericin. Ethanol had no significant effect on the expression of NLRP3 or IL1B mRNA in LPS-primed macrophages. Moreover, secretion of IL-1β was decreased in parallel with reduction of caspase-1 activation, demonstrating that ethanol inhibits inflammasome activation instead of synthesis of pro-IL-1β. Acetaldehyde, a highly reactive metabolite of ethanol, had no effect on the ATP-induced IL-1β secretion. Ethanol also attenuated the secretion of IL-1β triggered by synthetic double-stranded DNA, an activator of the AIM2 inflammasome. Ethanol conferred the inhibitory functions by attenuating the disruption of lysosomal integrity and ensuing leakage of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B and by reducing oligomerization of ASC. Conclusion Ethanol-induced inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages may represent a biological pathway underlying the protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease. PMID:24244322

  11. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partial pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.

  12. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partialmore » pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.« less

  13. Enthalpies of Mixing for Binary Liquid Mixtures of Monocarbonic Acids and Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, R.; Lorenz, R.

    1985-09-01

    We present the results of calorimetric measurements of the molar enthalpy of mixing (molar excess enthalpy) H¯E as a function of temperature and composition (described by the mole fraction x of the alcohol) for 18 binary liquid systems consisting of an aliphatic monocarbonic acid (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids) and an aliphatic alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol. 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol). The experiments cover temperatures between 298.15 K and 318.15 K and the whole range of compositions (usually nearly 40 compositions at each temperature). There is a great variety of behaviour as far as the function H¯E(x) for T= const is concerned. Many systems show endothermic mixing ( H¯E > 0), other systems exothermic mixing (H¯E < 0), again other systems partly endothermic, partly exothermic behaviour. There is one case (acetic acid + 2-methyl-2-propanol) where H¯E(x) changes its sign twice and the molar excess heat capacity exhibits unusually large negative values.

  14. Studies with cDNA probes on the in vivo effect of ethanol on expression of the genes of alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bond, S L; Singh, S M

    1990-01-01

    Mice (Mus musculus) from three genetic strains with variable responses to ethanol challenge (BALB/c, C57BL/6J and 129/ReJ) were used to evaluate the effect of ethanol feeding on hepatic mRNA specific to the two primary enzymes of ethanol metabolism; alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E.C. 1.1.1.1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; E.C. 1.2.1.3). Adh-1 (ADH) and Ahd-2 (ALDH) specific mRNA were evaluated on the livers of ethanol-fed mice and from their age, sex and genotype matched controls (using an isocaloric liquid diet). C57BL/6J (alcohol resistant) mice show a significant (approx. 200%) increase in ADH-1 mRNA levels after ethanol treatment, compared to their matched controls. BALB/c (alcohol sensitive) mice have approximately a 20% increase with ethanol treatment while 129/ReJ (alcohol sensitive) mice show a slight reduction in the ADH-1 specific mRNA following ethanol feeding. A strain-specific pattern is also apparent in the AHD-2 mRNA as a result of ethanol feeding in the experimental animals. C57BL/6J mice have an increase and BALB/c mice show no apparent change in the AHD-2 mRNA. 129/ReJ mice fed an ethanol diet, on the other hand, appear to have a decrease in the level of AHD-2 hepatic mRNA as compared to their matched controls. The relative mRNA levels of the two genes correlate well with the respective enzyme activity levels, but for mice on the control diet only. Ethanol feeding, which causes an apparent reduction in hepatic ADH enzyme activity in BALB/c and 129/ReJ and an apparent increase in ALDH activity in C57BL/6J (under the experimental protocols used) also alters the mRNA levels specific to the two genes. However, changes in the mRNA levels after ethanol feeding cannot be directly related to the changes seen in enzyme activity. The observed steady state level of AHD-2 mRNA and the increase in ALDH activity after ethanol feeding, which is unique to C57BL/6J mice, is expected to offer a faster clearance (metabolism) of acetaldehyde, the toxic metabolite

  15. Production and Utilization of Ethanol by the Homoacetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Buschhorn, H; Dürre, P; Gottschalk, G

    1989-07-01

    Acetobacterium woodii formed ethanol as a fermentation product in addition to acetate when the phosphate concentration of the medium was between 0.2 and 8.4 mM. Considerable amounts of alanine were also found (2 to 11 mM). Supplementation with phosphate caused a shift to acetate as the only end product. Ethanol could also serve as a substrate for A. woodii. The fermentation yielded predominantly acetate and was strictly dependent on high bicarbonate concentrations. 1-Propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol were converted to the corresponding fatty acids but allowed only marginal growth. A. wieringae and A. carbinolicum grown under identical conditions were also able to form ethanol, and A. wieringae could use ethanol as a substrate, too. Alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in A. woodii. Activity stains of polyacrylamide gels with crude extracts allowed the detection of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase but not of alcohol dehydrogenase. Trace amounts of methane were detected during growth of A. woodii on glucose and ethanol. PMID:16347978

  16. Moderate ingestion of alcohol is associated with acute ethanol-induced suppression of circulating CTX in a PTH-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Mander, Adrian; Davidson, Sarah L; Thompson, Richard Ph; Powell, Jonathan J

    2009-08-01

    The "J shape" curve linking the risk of poor bone health to alcohol intake is now well recognized from epidemiological studies. Ethanol and nonethanol components of alcoholic beverages could influence bone remodeling. However, in the absence of a solid underlying mechanism, the positive association between moderate alcoholic intake and BMD remains questionable because of confounding associated social factors. The objective of this work was to characterize the short-term effects of moderate alcohol consumption on circulating bone markers, especially those involved in bone resorption. Two sequential blood-sampling studies were undertaken in fasted healthy volunteers (age, 20-47 yr) over a 6-h period using beer of different alcohol levels (<0.05-4.6%), solutions of ethanol or orthosilicic acid (two major components of beer), and water +/- calcium chloride (positive and negative controls, respectively). Study 1 (24 subjects) assessed the effects of the different solutions, whereas study 2 (26 subjects) focused on ethanol/beer dose. Using all data in a "mixed effect model," we identified the contributions of the individual components of beer, namely ethanol, energy, low-dose calcium, and high-dose orthosilicic acid, on acute bone resorption. Markers of bone formation were unchanged throughout the study for all solutions investigated. In contrast, the bone resorption marker, serum carboxy terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), was significantly reduced after ingestion of a 0.6 liters of ethanol solution (>2% ethanol; p ethanol; p < 0.02), or a solution of calcium (180 mg calcium; p < 0.001), but only after calcium ingestion was the reduction in CTX preceded by a significant fall in serum PTH (p < 0.001). Orthosilicic acid had no acute effect. Similar reductions in CTX, from baseline, were measured in urine after ingestion of the test solutions; however, the biological variability in urine CTX was greater

  17. A Nonadhesive Liquid Embolic Agent of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer and Ethanol Mixture for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, JI.; Kai, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Morioka, M.; Kazekawa, K.; Iwata, H.; Ushio, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report our experience using our new non-adhesive liquid embolic agent, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL)/Ethanol mixture, to treat human arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Between June 1995 and April 2001, 57 patients with confirmed AVM underwent embolization with the EVAL/Ethanol mixture. Using 87 procedures consisting of one to three stages, we embolized 185 feeding arteries to occlude as much of the AVM as possible. Repeated injections under fluoroscopic control could be performed smoothly without encountering cementing of the catheter in the vessel wall. Among 87 procedures undertaken in 57 patients, seven (8.0%) procedures in six patients produced new postembolization symptoms. Resolution of these symptoms occurred within hours or days following four of the seven procedures; permanent neurological deficits remained after three embolization procedures (3.4%). Of the 57 patients, three underwent postembolization radiosurgery, 54 were radically treated with microsurgical extirpation. Histopathological examinations of the 54 specimens disclosed mild inflammation within the embolized lumen without inflammatory reactions in the media or adventitia. Follow-up angiograms obtained three years after they underwent radiosurgery showed that in all three patients the nidus had completely disappeared. The EVAL/Ethanol mixture is handled easily and appears to be an effective and safe embolic agent for the preoperative embolization of AVM. PMID:20587289

  18. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M; Jones, Patrik R; Akhtar, M Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability. PMID:26301219

  19. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M.; Jones, Patrik R.; Akhtar, M. Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability. PMID:26301219

  20. Efficient yet accurate approximations for ab initio calculations of alcohol cluster thermochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer, Muhammad; Kopp, Wassja A.; Leonhard, Kai

    2015-12-01

    We have calculated the binding enthalpies and entropies of gas phase alcohol clusters from ethanol to 1-decanol. In addition to the monomers, we have investigated dimers, tetramers, and pentamers. Geometries have been obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level and single point energy calculations have been performed with the Resolution of the Identity-MP2 (RIMP2) method and basis set limit extrapolation using aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets. Thermochemistry is calculated with decoupled hindered rotor treatment for large amplitude motions. The results show three points: First, it is more accurate to transfer the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator entropies from propanol to longer alcohols than to compute them with an ultra-fine grid and tight geometry convergence criteria. Second, the computational effort can be reduced considerably by using dimerization energies of longer alcohols at density functional theory (B3LYP) level plus a RIMP2 correction obtained from 1-propanol. This approximation yields results almost with the same accuracy as RIMP2 — both methods differ for 1-decanol only 0.4 kJ/mol. Third, the entropy of dimerization including the hindered rotation contribution is converged at 1-propanol with respect to chain length. This allows for a transfer of hindered rotation contributions from smaller alcohols to longer ones which reduces the required computational and man power considerably.

  1. Efficient yet accurate approximations for ab initio calculations of alcohol cluster thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Umer, Muhammad; Kopp, Wassja A; Leonhard, Kai

    2015-12-01

    We have calculated the binding enthalpies and entropies of gas phase alcohol clusters from ethanol to 1-decanol. In addition to the monomers, we have investigated dimers, tetramers, and pentamers. Geometries have been obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level and single point energy calculations have been performed with the Resolution of the Identity-MP2 (RIMP2) method and basis set limit extrapolation using aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets. Thermochemistry is calculated with decoupled hindered rotor treatment for large amplitude motions. The results show three points: First, it is more accurate to transfer the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator entropies from propanol to longer alcohols than to compute them with an ultra-fine grid and tight geometry convergence criteria. Second, the computational effort can be reduced considerably by using dimerization energies of longer alcohols at density functional theory (B3LYP) level plus a RIMP2 correction obtained from 1-propanol. This approximation yields results almost with the same accuracy as RIMP2 - both methods differ for 1-decanol only 0.4 kJ/mol. Third, the entropy of dimerization including the hindered rotation contribution is converged at 1-propanol with respect to chain length. This allows for a transfer of hindered rotation contributions from smaller alcohols to longer ones which reduces the required computational and man power considerably. PMID:26646881

  2. Evidence for the generation of transaminase inhibitor(s) during ethanol metabolism by rat liver homogenates: a potential mechanism for alcohol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L R

    1987-08-01

    Since ethanol consumption decreases hepatic aminotransferase activities in vivo, mechanisms of ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition were explored in vitro using mitochondria-depleted rat liver homogenates. When homogenates were incubated at 37 degrees with 50 mM ethanol for 1 hr, alanine aminotransferase decreased by 20%, while aspartate aminotransferase was unchanged. After 2 hr, aspartate aminotransferase decreased by 20% and by 3 hr, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were decreased by 31 and 23%, respectively. Levels of acetaldehyde generated during ethanol oxidation were 525 +/- 47 microM at 1 hr, 855 +/- 14 microM at 2 hr, and 1293 +/- 140 microM at 3 hr. Although inhibition of alcohol oxidation with methylpyrazole or cyanide markedly decreased ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition, neither incubation with acetate nor generation of reducing equivalents by oxidation of lactate, malate, xylitol, or sorbitol altered the activity of either enzyme. However, semicarbazide, an aldehyde scavenger, prevented inhibition of both aminotransferases by ethanol. Moreover, incubation with 5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 hr inhibited alanine and aspartate aminotransferases by 36 and 26%, respectively. Cyanamide, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, had little effect on ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition. Thus, metabolism of ethanol by rat liver homogenates produces transaminase inhibition similar to that described in vivo and this effect requires acetaldehyde generation but not acetaldehyde oxidation. Since addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to assay mixes did not reverse ethanol effects, aminotransferase inhibition does not result from displacement of vitamin B6 coenzymes. PMID:3663401

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  4. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring. PMID:25940002

  5. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  6. Ethanol Exposure Alters Protein Expression in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Stephen; Anthony, Bruce; Lai, Xianyin; Ringham, Heather N.; Wang, Mu; Witzmann, Frank A.; You, Jin-Sam; Zhou, Feng C.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development can result in variable growth retardation and facial dysmorphology known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Although the mechanisms underlying the disorder are not fully understood, recent progress has been made that alcohol induces aberrant changes in gene expression and in the epigenome of embryos. To inform the gene and epigenetic changes in alcohol-induced teratology, we used whole-embryo culture to identify the alcohol-signature protein profile of neurulating C6 mice. Alcohol-treated and control cultures were homogenized, isoelectrically focused, and loaded for 2D gel electrophoresis. Stained gels were cross matched with analytical software. We identified 40 differentially expressed protein spots (P < 0.01), and 9 spots were selected for LC/MS-MS identification. Misregulated proteins include serotransferrin, triosephosphate isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N. Misregulation of serotransferrin and triosephosphate isomerase was confirmed with immunologic analysis. Alteration of proteins with roles in cellular function, cell cycle, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was induced by alcohol. Several misregulated proteins interact with effectors of the NF-κB and Myc transcription factor cascades. Using a whole-embryo culture, we have identified misregulated proteins known to be involved in nervous system development and function. PMID:22745907

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  8. MAMMALIAN METABOLISM AND DISTRIBUTION OF PERFLUOROOCTYL ETHANOL (8-2 TELOMER ALCOHOL) AND ITS OXIDATION METABOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds have been shown to be globally distributed, bioaccumulative, persistent and potentially toxic. It has been hypothesized that many precursor fluorinated compounds, including the telomer alcohols, degrade or metabolize to the common metabolite PFOA.

  9. A Study of the Solvation Structure of L-Leucine in Alcohol-Water Binary Solvents through Molecular Dynamics Simulations and FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Hatomoto, Yohei; Tonegawa, Junko; Tsutsumi, Youichi; Umecky, Tatsuya

    2015-10-26

    The solvation structures of l-leucine (Leu) in aliphatic-alcohol-water and fluorinated-alcohol-water solvents are elucidated for various alcohol contents by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and IR, and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The aliphatic alcohols included methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, whereas the fluorinated alcohols were 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The MD results show that the hydrophobic alkyl moiety of Leu is surrounded by the alkyl or fluoroalkyl groups of the alcohol molecules. In particular, TFE and HFIP significantly solvate the alkyl group of Leu. IR spectra reveal that the Leu C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in fluorinated alcohol solutions with increasing alcohol content, whereas the vibration redshifts in aliphatic alcohol solutions. When the C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in the fluorinated alcohol solutions, the hydrogen and carbon atoms of the Leu alkyl group are magnetically shielded. Consequently, TFE and HFIP molecules may solvate the Leu alkyl group through the blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. PMID:26289908

  10. Neutrophil elastase activity in differentiating HL-60 promyelocytes is decreased by culture with ethanol and elastase deficient neutrophils are produced in alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, C.; Christianson, R.; Pratt, P.; Lynn, W.

    1987-05-01

    Serum-free culture of HL-60 in the presence of recombinant Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in four days elicits a five-fold increase in esterolytic neutrophil elastase (NE) like activity measured with methoxy-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-val p-nitroanilide and purified NE standard but does not cause terminal differentiation. Simultaneous exposure to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6% (vol./vol.) ethanol blocks this increase in NE activity. Exposure to 0.85% ethanol promotes terminal differentiation to elastase-deficient granulocytes which as been described using DMSO. To ascertain if ethanol may have similar effects on granulocytic differentiation in vivo, they compared oxidase and elastase activities of PMN's in male alcoholics on a binge (ethanol > 200 mg/dl.). In 29 patients an average of 872 (+/- 237) (SD) ng./10/sup 6/ PMN's of active NE was found compared to 1571 (+/- 177) in 13 controls. Patients admitted for treatment of alcoholism had similar NE activity in 3-4 days, showed a slight increase in activity within one week and had NE activity comparable to controls within 2-3 weeks. These findings support the previous observation that smoking related emphysema is less prevalent and severe in patients who regularly consume alcohol. They conclude that ethanol may visibly alter responsiveness of promyelocytic precursors to regulatory differentiating factors.

  11. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Chemo-Biology and OMICS: Ethanol Effects on Vitamin Metabolism During Neurodevelopment as Measured by Systems Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feltes, Bruno César; de Faria Poloni, Joice; Nunes, Itamar José Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a prenatal disease characterized by fetal morphological and neurological abnormalities originating from exposure to alcohol. Although FAS is a well-described pathology, the molecular mechanisms underlying its progression are virtually unknown. Moreover, alcohol abuse can affect vitamin metabolism and absorption, although how alcohol impairs such biochemical pathways remains to be elucidated. We employed a variety of systems chemo-biology tools to understand the interplay between ethanol metabolism and vitamins during mouse neurodevelopment. For this purpose, we designed interactomes and employed transcriptomic data analysis approaches to study the neural tissue of Mus musculus exposed to ethanol prenatally and postnatally, simulating conditions that could lead to FAS development at different life stages. Our results showed that FAS can promote early changes in neurotransmitter release and glutamate equilibrium, as well as an abnormal calcium influx that can lead to neuroinflammation and impaired neurodifferentiation, both extensively connected with vitamin action and metabolism. Genes related to retinoic acid, niacin, vitamin D, and folate metabolism were underexpressed during neurodevelopment and appear to contribute to neuroinflammation progression and impaired synapsis. Our results also indicate that genes coding for tubulin, tubulin-associated proteins, synapse plasticity proteins, and proteins related to neurodifferentiation are extensively affected by ethanol exposure. Finally, we developed a molecular model of how ethanol can affect vitamin metabolism and impair neurodevelopment. PMID:24816220

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome, chemo-biology and OMICS: ethanol effects on vitamin metabolism during neurodevelopment as measured by systems biology analysis.

    PubMed

    Feltes, Bruno César; de Faria Poloni, Joice; Nunes, Itamar José Guimarães; Bonatto, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a prenatal disease characterized by fetal morphological and neurological abnormalities originating from exposure to alcohol. Although FAS is a well-described pathology, the molecular mechanisms underlying its progression are virtually unknown. Moreover, alcohol abuse can affect vitamin metabolism and absorption, although how alcohol impairs such biochemical pathways remains to be elucidated. We employed a variety of systems chemo-biology tools to understand the interplay between ethanol metabolism and vitamins during mouse neurodevelopment. For this purpose, we designed interactomes and employed transcriptomic data analysis approaches to study the neural tissue of Mus musculus exposed to ethanol prenatally and postnatally, simulating conditions that could lead to FAS development at different life stages. Our results showed that FAS can promote early changes in neurotransmitter release and glutamate equilibrium, as well as an abnormal calcium influx that can lead to neuroinflammation and impaired neurodifferentiation, both extensively connected with vitamin action and metabolism. Genes related to retinoic acid, niacin, vitamin D, and folate metabolism were underexpressed during neurodevelopment and appear to contribute to neuroinflammation progression and impaired synapsis. Our results also indicate that genes coding for tubulin, tubulin-associated proteins, synapse plasticity proteins, and proteins related to neurodifferentiation are extensively affected by ethanol exposure. Finally, we developed a molecular model of how ethanol can affect vitamin metabolism and impair neurodevelopment. PMID:24816220

  14. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) net petroleum gain; (2) net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end user.

  15. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    PubMed

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods. PMID:24331037

  16. Effects of alcohols on the reactivity and stability of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Arp, D J

    1988-02-15

    The effects of alcohols on the reactivity of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase were investigated. Hydrogenase catalyzed H2 oxidation coupled to methylene blue, benzyl viologen, or phenazine methosulfate when in the presence of solvents containing 15 or 40% ethanol or 40% methanol or 2-propanol. In general, the Km's for the electron acceptors were increased substantially by the presence of the alcohols, while the Km for H2 was not altered in a solvent containing 40% ethanol. Calculation of the apparent maximum velocities for H2 oxidation in the presence of alcohols indicated that the maximum velocity was not decreased in most cases. In contrast, the rates of both H2 evolution and isotope exchange by hydrogenase were substantially decreased when solvent containing alcohol. Hydrogenase was inactivated by 100% ethanol with a half-life of 17 s. Hydrogenase from A. vinelandii was stable when stored in alcohol/buffer solvents at 20 degrees C or below. However, the thermal stability of hydrogenase was greatly decreased by inclusion of an alcohol in the solvent. When incubated at 55 degrees C in a solvent containing 40% ethanol, activity decreased in a first-order process with a half-life of 7 min. When incubated at the same temperature in aqueous buffer, no loss of activity was observed over 30 min. PMID:3277540

  17. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism. PMID:26169446

  18. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  19. Selectivity of Candida antarctica B lipase toward fatty acid and (Iso)propanol substrates in esterification reactions in organic media.

    PubMed

    Arsan, J; Parkin, K L

    2000-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) selectivity of immobilized Candida antarctica B lipase was assessed as influenced by various cosubstrate systems for ester synthesis. Reaction mixtures contained a homologous series of even-chain n-acyl donor (C(4)(-)(16)) substrates (FA or their methyl esters, FAME) and a single alcohol cosubstrate (propanol, 2-propanol, or their acetate derivatives) in hexane. Multiple FA optima were often observed, with preferences for C(6) (or C(4)) followed by C(14) and sometimes C(10). The degree of selectivity among acyl donors was modest (up to 1.28-2.60, based on ratios of selectivity constants) and was dependent on the choice of cosubstrate system. Acyl group selectivity ranged up to 1.31-1.36 for [FA + alcohol], 1. 48-2.60 for [FAME + alcohol], 1.30-1.72 for [FA + alcohol acetate], and 1.28-1.88 [FAME + alcohol acetate] reaction systems. General shifts in selectivity were observed between short-chain (C(4)(-)(8)) and long-chain (C(10)(-)(16)) FA as groups with propanol cosubstrate, whereas shifts in reaction selectivity were observed toward specific FA(s) for 2-propanol cosubstrate. Selectivity among a series of alcohol cosubstrates ranged up to 13-fold in esterification reactions with C(6) FA. PMID:10956180

  20. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  1. Platelet uptake of serotonin (5-HT) during ethanol withdrawal in male alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Neiman, J.; Beving, H.; Malmgren, R.

    1987-06-15

    Changes in the kinetic variables of the platelet serotonin uptake, Km and Vmax, were studied in 7 male alcoholics, admitted for detoxification and in sex- and age-matched volunteers. On admission the alcoholics had lower Km values than reference subjects (p less than 0.05). During detoxification the Km values normalized. Vmax was normal throughout the study in spite of the changes in platelet count. The results of the study suggest that the affinity of serotonin to its uptake receptor is transiently increased after a period of heavy drinking.

  2. Alcohol-induced drying of carbon nanotubes and its implications for alcohol/water separation: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xingling; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Bo; Xiu, Peng; Tu, Yusong

    2013-05-01

    Alcohols are important products in chemical industry, but separating them from their aqueous solutions is very difficult due to the hydrophilic nature of alcohols. Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we observe a striking nanoscale drying phenomenon and suggest an energy-saving and efficient approach toward alcohol/water separation by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We use various common linear alcohols including C1-C6 1-alcohols and glycerol for demonstration (the phenol is also used as comparison). Our simulations show that when SWNTs are immersed in aqueous alcohols solutions, although the alcohols concentration is low (1 M), all kinds of alcohols can induce dehydration (drying) of nanotubes and accumulate inside wide [(13, 13)] and narrow [(6, 6) or (7, 7)] SWNTs. In particular, most kinds of alcohols inside the narrow SWNTs form nearly uniform 1D molecular wires. Detailed energetic analyses reveal that the preferential adsorption of alcohols over water inside nanotubes is attributed to the stronger dispersion interactions of alcohols with SWNTs than water. Interestingly, we find that for the wide SWNT, the selectivity for 1-alcohols increases with the number of alcohol's carbon atoms (Ncarbon) and exhibits an exponential law with respect to Ncarbon for C1-C5 1-alcohols; for narrow SWNTs, the selectivity for 1-alcohols is very high for methanol, ethanol, and propanol, and reaches a maximum when Ncarbon = 3. The underlying physical mechanisms and the implications of these observations for alcohol/water separation are discussed. Our findings provide the possibility for efficient dehydration of aqueous alcohols (and other hydrophilic organic molecules) by using SWNT bundles/membranes.

  3. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1. PMID:26002627

  4. The use of positron spectroscopy for revealing the nanosized structures in liquid mixtures. Identification of n-propanol nanoagglomerates in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, P. S.; Byakov, V. M.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.

    2014-04-01

    The potential of positron spectroscopy for identification of nanosized structures in liquid mixtures, which is a difficult problem that still remains a challenge in physical chemistry of liquids, was demonstrated. The water- n-propanol mixtures were chosen as an example. An analysis of the concentration dependences of the mean lifetime of ortho-positronium atoms in water- n-propanol binary mixtures and water-propanol mixtures containing CoCl2 (0.4 M) and Co(ClO4)2 (0.6 M) suggested that the water- n-propanol mixture with ˜0.1 to ˜0.4 mole fractions of propanol resembled an emulsion of alcohol nanodrops suspended in water.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Determination of Ethanol in Alcohol Samples Using a Modular Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Caryn L.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer for use in the undergraduate laboratory. An Ar+ ion laser operating at 105-mW is used as the source. A small, computer-controlled CCD spectrometer is used as the detector. The instrumental design is simple enough that students can readily assemble the components themselves, but they require assistance to align the optics. Because of the samples chosen, no sample preparation is necessary. The analytical performance of the instrument was evaluated by determining the ethanol content in vodka, gin, Everclear, rum, and whiskey .

  8. Water miscible mono alcohols' effect on the proteolytic performance of Bacillus clausii serine alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Yonca Avci; Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Erarslan, Altan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the Vm, kcat and kcat/Km values of Bacillus clausii GMBE 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. However, the Km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. Whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. The inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 1.32-3.10 M, and the order of the inhibitory effect was 1-propanol>2-propanol>methanol>ethanol. The ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased at increasing concentrations of all alcohols examined, but the ΔG(≠)ES value of the enzyme remained almost the same. The constant Km and ΔG(≠)ES values in the presence and absence of mono alcohols indicated the existence of different binding sites for mono alcohols and casein on enzyme the molecule. The kcat of the enzyme decreased linearly by increasing log P and decreasing dielectric constant (D) values, but the ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased by increasing log P and decreasing D values of the reaction medium containing mono alcohols. PMID:24092453

  9. Ethanol exposure modulates hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine levels in the isolated perfused rat liver through changes in the redox state of the NADH/NAD+ system

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Walter H.; Song, Zhenyuan; Kirpich, Irina A.; Deaciuc, Ion V.; Chen, Theresa; McClain, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Methionine metabolism is disrupted in patients with alcoholic liver disease, resulting in altered hepatic concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and other metabolites. The present study tested the hypothesis that reductive stress mediates the effects of ethanol on liver methionine metabolism. Isolated rat livers were perfused with ethanol or propanol to induce a reductive stress by increasing the NADH/NAD+ ratio, and the concentrations of SAM and SAH in the liver tissue were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio induced by ethanol or propanol was associated with a marked decrease in SAM and an increase in SAH liver content. 4-Methylpyrazole, an inhibitor the NAD+-dependent enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, blocked the increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio and prevented the alterations in SAM and SAH. Similarly, co-infusion of pyruvate, which is metabolized by the NADH-dependent enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, restored the NADH/NAD+ ratio and normalized SAM and SAH levels. The data establish an initial link between the effects of ethanol on the NADH/NAD+ redox couple and the effects of ethanol on methionine metabolism in the liver. PMID:21296661

  10. Modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission by ethanol in the developing neocortex: an in vitro test of the excessive inhibition hypothesis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Partridge, L. Donald; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Summary Exposure to ethanol during development triggers neuronal cell death and this is thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Studies suggest that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration during the period of synaptogenesis results from widespread potentiation of GABAA receptors and inhibition of NMDA receptors throughout the brain, with neocortical layer II being particularly sensitive. Here, we tested whether ethanol modulates the function of these receptors during this developmental period using patch-clamp electrophysiological and Ca2+ imaging techniques in acute slices from postnatal day 7–9 rats. We focused on pyramidal neurons in layer II of the parietal cortex (with layer III as a control). Ethanol (70 mM) increased spontaneous action potential-dependent GABA release in layer II (but not layer III) neurons without affecting postsynaptic GABAA receptors. Protein and mRNA expression for both the Cl− importer, NKCC1, and the Cl− exporter KCC2, were detected in layer II/III neurons. Perforated-patch experiments demonstrated that ECl− is shifted to the right of Em; activation of GABAA receptors with muscimol depolarized Em, decreased action potential firing, and minimally increased [Ca2+]i. However, the ethanol-induced increase of GABAergic transmission did not affect neuronal excitability. Ethanol had no effect on currents exogenously evoked by NMDA or AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Acute application of ethanol in the absence of receptor antagonists minimally increased [Ca2+]i. These findings are inconsistent with the excessive inhibition model of ethanol-induced neurodegeneration, supporting the view that ethanol damages developing neurons via more complex mechanisms that vary among specific neuronal populations. PMID:19027758

  11. Structure and thermodynamics of core-softened models for alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Munaò, Gianmarco; Urbic, Tomaz

    2015-06-07

    The phase behavior and the fluid structure of coarse-grain models for alcohols are studied by means of reference interaction site model (RISM) theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, we model ethanol and 1-propanol as linear rigid chains constituted by three (trimers) and four (tetramers) partially fused spheres, respectively. Thermodynamic properties of these models are examined in the RISM context, by employing closed formulæ for the calculation of free energy and pressure. Gas-liquid coexistence curves for trimers and tetramers are reported and compared with already existing data for a dimer model of methanol. Critical temperatures slightly increase with the number of CH{sub 2} groups in the chain, while critical pressures and densities decrease. Such a behavior qualitatively reproduces the trend observed in experiments on methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol and suggests that our coarse-grain models, despite their simplicity, can reproduce the essential features of the phase behavior of such alcohols. The fluid structure of these models is investigated by computing radial distribution function g{sub ij}(r) and static structure factor S{sub ij}(k); the latter shows the presence of a low−k peak at intermediate-high packing fractions and low temperatures, suggesting the presence of aggregates for both trimers and tetramers.

  12. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Al-Rabiai, S.; Gilani, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes in the metabolism of the essential metals copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium using an animal model of AC. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; an ad libitum control group (AL), a pair-fed control group (PF), and an ethanol-dosed group (ETOH). The latter group received gradually increasing concentrations (5-25%) of ethanol in the drinking water for 15 wk. Food intake was monitored and urine and feces collected for a 4-d period during the study to determine ethanol effects on trace-element balance. Growth of both the PF and ETOH animals was inhibited. Ethanol produced substantial increases in liver manganese and decreases in liver copper and zinc. Metal concentrations in heart and concentrations in other tissues studied (spleen, testes, brain, bone, kidney, and muscle) did not differ significantly among the groups, except for testes selenium and kidney zinc. Reduced food intake and ethanol ingestion were associated with a reduced percentage of ingested selenium excreted in the urine. Deficiencies of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in myocardial tissue are not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AC in the rat. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  13. A spectroscopic and theoretical study in the near-infrared region of low concentration aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Beć, Krzysztof B; Futami, Yoshisuke; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-05-11

    The near-infrared (NIR) spectra of low-concentration (5 × 10(-3) M) solutions in CCl4 of basic aliphatic alcohols, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol were, for the first time, calculated by second-order vibrational perturbation theory computations and were compared with the corresponding experimental data. Density functional theory (DFT) using single hybrid (B3LYP) and double hybrid (B2PLYP) density functionals and their derivatives with additional empirical dispersion correction (B3LYP-D3 and B2PLYP-D, respectively) and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory were used in combination with selected basis sets including fairly new basis sets from the "spectroscopic" SNS family, double-ζ SNSD and triple-ζ SNST basis sets. Each time, anharmonic vibrational modes and intensities were calculated by using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. The effect of solvent cavity on the calculated results was included by the application of a self-consistent reaction field with a polarized continuum model. Ethanol and 1-propanol have conformational isomerism; following a conformational analysis, theoretical spectra of all isomers were calculated and their final predicted NIR spectra were obtained as Boltzmann-averaged spectra of resolved conformers. For ethanol and 1-propanol, the observed broadening of the overtone band of the OH stretching mode was well reflected by the differences in the position of the relevant band among conformational isomers of these alcohols; the effect of solvent on broadening was also discussed. Detailed band assignments in the experimental NIR spectra of the studied alcohols were proposed based on the calculation of potential energy distributions. The final accuracy of the predicted NIR spectra for each of the theoretical methods was estimated based on the errors in calculated frequencies of overtones and combination bands. PMID:27137865

  14. The influence of oxygen on the selectivity of alcohol conversion on the Pd(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.; Barteau, M. A.

    The reactions of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol were examined on a Pd(111) surface containing one-quarter monolayer of adsorbed oxygen atoms. The presence of surface oxygen led to the oxidation of the primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylate species, with carboxylate production the major reaction pathway. Methanol was oxidized on the oxygen-dosed Pd(111) surface to formaldehyde and surface formate species. Formaldehyde desorbed at 240 K and adsorbed formate species decomposed at 280 K to produce CO 2, HCOOH, and surface hydrogen. The adsorption of ethanol on the oxygen-dosed Pd(111) surface resulted in the desorption of acetaldehyde at 220 K and the formation of surface acetate species. Adsorbed acetate species reacted via either decomposition at 410 K or hydrogenation to acetic acid at 280 K. The relative importance of the two acetate reaction channels was found to depend on the availability of surface hydrogen. Similarly, the adsorption of 1-propanol on O/Pd(111) produced both propanal and adsorbed propanoate species. The propanoate species were removed from the surface by either decomposition at 360 K or hydrogenation at 280 K. In contrast, oxidation of the secondary alcohol 2-propanol resulted mainly in the production of acetone, with acetate formation a relatively minor reaction pathway. The roles of oxygen adatoms in these reactions include(1) direct reaction as Brønsted bases with proton donors; (2) stabilization of surface alkoxide species; (3) alteration of the interaction of carbonyl compounds with the surface; (4) nucleophilic oxidation of adsorbed aldehydes to carboxylates; and (5) scavenging of surface hydrogen which would otherwise be available for hydrogenation reactions.

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  16. Gastroprotective effect and mechanism of patchouli alcohol against ethanol, indomethacin and stress-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Feng; Xie, Jian-Hui; Xu, Yi-Fei; Liang, Yong-Zhuo; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Jiang, Wei-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Yu-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Huang, Ping; Su, Zi-Ren

    2014-10-01

    Pogostemonis Herba is an important Chinese medicine widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is the major active constituent of Pogostemonis Herba. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of PA and the underlying mechanism against ethanol, indomethacin and water immersion restraint-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Gross and histological gastric lesions, biochemical and immunological parameters were taken into consideration. The gastric mucus content and the antisecretory activity were analyzed through pylorus ligature model in rats. Results indicated that oral administration with PA significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by ethanol, indomethacin and water immersion restraint. PA pretreatment significantly promoted gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) levels, upregulated the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression, and considerably boosted the gastric blood flow (GBF) and gastric mucus production in comparison with vehicle. In addition, PA modulated the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and malonaldehyde (MDA) were also restored by PA. However, the gastric secretion parameters (pH, volume of gastric juice and pepsin) did not show any significant alteration. These findings suggest that PA exhibited significant gastroprotective effects against gastric ulceration. The underlying mechanisms might involve the stimulation of COX-mediated PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, preservation of GBF and NP-SH, as well as boost of gastric mucus production. PMID:25168850

  17. Characterization of the products formed by the reaction of trichlorocyanuric acid with 2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P Mark L; Barnett, Julie S

    2009-11-01

    We report a recent investigation into the death of a cat that was initially thought to involve intentionally burning the animal via the use of an ignitable liquid. The exposure of the animal to flame was ruled out. Instead, forensic investigation revealed the intentional mixing together of a common outdoor swimming pool chlorinator, trichlorocyanuric acid (TCCA), and 2-propanol (aka, isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol). The reaction of these two chemicals resulted in the formation of cyanuric acid residue, hydrochloric acid, and the evolution of a significant volume of chlorine gas. Further alpha-chlorination side reactions also occurred between 2-propanol and TCCA to produce a variety of chlorinated 2-propanone species that were detected on the submitted evidence. The identification of the products of both the main reaction and the side reactions allowed the authors to determine what chemicals were originally mixed together by the culprit. PMID:19818110

  18. Student Preparation of Acetone from 2-Propanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and materials needed are provided for an experiment in which acetone is produced from 2-propanol. The experiment does not use magnetic stirring, avoids the necessity for exhaustive extractions with ether, and produces a 60-percent yield of redistilled acetone within a two-and-one-half-hour laboratory period.…

  19. Thermally excited capillary waves at vapor/liquid interfaces of water-alcohol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Vaknin, David; Bu, Wei; Sung, Jaeho; Jeon, Yoonnam; Kim, Doseok

    2009-02-02

    The density profiles of liquid/vapor interfaces of water–alcohol (methanol, ethanol and propanol) mixtures were studied by surface-sensitive synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements, from the pure and mixed liquids, were analyzed in the framework of capillary wave theory to address the characteristic length scales of the intrinsic roughness and the shortest capillary wavelength (alternatively, the upper wavevector cutoff in capillary wave theory). Our results establish that the intrinsic roughness is dominated by average interatomic distances. The extracted effective upper wavevector cutoff indicates capillary wave theory breaks down at distances of the order of bulk correlation lengths.

  20. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  1. Development of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase Biosensor for Ethanol Determination with Toluidine Blue O Covalently Attached to a Cellulose Acetate Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Alpat, Şenol; Telefoncu, Azmi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a novel voltammetric ethanol biosensor was constructed using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Firstly, alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified by cellulose acetate (CA) bonded to toluidine blue O (TBO). Secondly, the surface was covered by a glutaraldehyde/bovine serum albumin (BSA) cross-linking procedure to provide a new voltammetric sensor for the ethanol determination. In order to fabricate the biosensor, a new electrode matrix containing insoluble Toluidine Blue O (TBO) was obtained from the process, and enzyme/coenzyme was combined on the biosensor surface. The influence of various experimental conditions was examined for the characterization of the optimum analytical performance. The developed biosensor exhibited sensitive and selective determination of ethanol and showed a linear response between 1 × 10−5 M and 4 × 10−4 M ethanol. A detection limit calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio was 5.0 × 10−6 M. At the end of the 20th day, the biosensor still retained 50% of its initial activity. PMID:22315566

  2. Genetic improvement of Escherichia coli for ethanol production: Chromosomal integration of Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Beall, D.S.; Mejia, J.P.; Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O. )

    1991-04-01

    Zymomonas mobilis genes for pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) were integrated into the Escherichia coli chromosome within or near the pyruvate formate-lyase gene (pfl). Integration improved the stability of the Z. mobilis genes in E. coli, but further selection was required to increase expression. Spontaneous mutants were selected for resistance to high levels of chloramphenicol that also expressed high levels of the Z. mobilis genes. Analogous mutants were selected for increased expression of alcohol dehydrogenase on aldehyde indicator plates. These mutants were functionally equivalent to the previous plasmid-based strains for the fermentation of xylose and glucose to ethanol. Ethanol concentrations of 54.4 and 41.6 g/liter were obtained from 10% glucose and 8% xylose, respectively. The efficiency of conversion exceeded theoretical limits (0.51 g of ethanol/g of sugar) on the basis of added sugars because of the additional production of ethanol from the catabolism of complex nutrients. Further mutations were introduced to inactivate succinate production (frd) and to block homologous recombination (recA).

  3. The Oxidative Fermentation of Ethanol in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Is a Two-Step Pathway Catalyzed by a Single Enzyme: Alcohol-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ADHa)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Escamilla, José E.; González-Valdez, Abigail; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Vanoye-Carlo, América; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Contreras-Zentella, Martha Lucinda; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Sosa-Torres, Martha Elena

    2015-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a N2-fixing bacterium endophyte from sugar cane. The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid of this organism takes place in the periplasmic space, and this reaction is catalyzed by two membrane-bound enzymes complexes: the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We present strong evidence showing that the well-known membrane-bound Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHa) of Ga. diazotrophicus is indeed a double function enzyme, which is able to use primary alcohols (C2–C6) and its respective aldehydes as alternate substrates. Moreover, the enzyme utilizes ethanol as a substrate in a reaction mechanism where this is subjected to a two-step oxidation process to produce acetic acid without releasing the acetaldehyde intermediary to the media. Moreover, we propose a mechanism that, under physiological conditions, might permit a massive conversion of ethanol to acetic acid, as usually occurs in the acetic acid bacteria, but without the transient accumulation of the highly toxic acetaldehyde. PMID:25574602

  4. The oxidative fermentation of ethanol in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a two-step pathway catalyzed by a single enzyme: alcohol-aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ADHa).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Escamilla, José E; González-Valdez, Abigail; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Vanoye-Carlo, América; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Contreras-Zentella, Martha Lucinda; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Kroneck, Peter M H; Sosa-Torres, Martha Elena

    2015-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a N2-fixing bacterium endophyte from sugar cane. The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid of this organism takes place in the periplasmic space, and this reaction is catalyzed by two membrane-bound enzymes complexes: the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We present strong evidence showing that the well-known membrane-bound Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHa) of Ga. diazotrophicus is indeed a double function enzyme, which is able to use primary alcohols (C2-C6) and its respective aldehydes as alternate substrates. Moreover, the enzyme utilizes ethanol as a substrate in a reaction mechanism where this is subjected to a two-step oxidation process to produce acetic acid without releasing the acetaldehyde intermediary to the media. Moreover, we propose a mechanism that, under physiological conditions, might permit a massive conversion of ethanol to acetic acid, as usually occurs in the acetic acid bacteria, but without the transient accumulation of the highly toxic acetaldehyde. PMID:25574602

  5. Gene-specific of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1a) by ethanol probably leads to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental ethanol exposure is able to induce Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). This study investigated possible differential expression of cannabinoid receptor (cnr) mRNAs during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis and variability to ethanol-...

  6. Comparison of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnanolone with existing pharmacotherapies for alcohol abuse on ethanol- and food-maintained responding in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Mary W; Lawrence, Michelle N; Amato, Russell J; Weed, Peter F; Winsauer, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The present study compared two putative pharmacotherapies for alcohol abuse and dependence, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnanolone, with two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapies, naltrexone and acamprosate. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of different doses of DHEA, pregnanolone, naltrexone, and acamprosate on both ethanol- and food-maintained responding under a multiple fixed-ratio (FR)-10 FR-20 schedule, respectively. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of different mean intervals of food presentation on responding for ethanol under a FR-10 variable-interval (VI) schedule, whereas Experiment 3 assessed the effects of a single dose of each drug under a FR-10 VI-80 schedule. In Experiment 1, all four drugs dose-dependently decreased response rate for both food and ethanol, although differences in the rate-decreasing effects were apparent among the drugs. DHEA and pregnanolone decreased ethanol-maintained responding more potently than food-maintained responding, whereas the reverse was true for naltrexone. Acamprosate decreased responding for both reinforcers with equal potency. In Experiment 2, different mean intervals of food presentation significantly affected the number of food reinforcers obtained per session; however, changes in the number of food reinforcements did not significantly affect responding for ethanol. Under the FR-10 VI-80 schedule in Experiment 3, only naltrexone significantly decreased both the dose of alcohol presented and blood ethanol concentration (BEC). Acamprosate and pregnanolone had no significant effects on any of the dependent measures, whereas DHEA significantly decreased BEC, but did not significantly decrease response rate or the dose presented. In summary, DHEA and pregnanolone decreased ethanol-maintained responding more potently than food-maintained responding under a multiple FR-10 FR-20 schedule, and were more selective for decreasing ethanol self-administration than either naltrexone or

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  9. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  10. Bond dissociation mechanism of ethanol during carbon nanotube synthesis via alcohol catalytic CVD technique: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Tomoya; Shimamura, Kohei; Shibuta, Yasushi; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Yamaguchi, Shu

    2014-03-01

    Dissociation of ethanol on a nickel cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to reveal the bond dissociation mechanism of carbon source molecules during carbon nanotube synthesis. C-C bonds in only CHxCO fragments are dissociated on the nickel cluster, whereas there is no preferential structure among the fragments for C-O bond dissociation. The dissociation preference is uncorrelated with the bond dissociation energy of corresponding bonds in freestanding molecules but is correlated with the energy difference between fragment molecules before and after dissociation on the nickel surface. Moreover, carbon-chain formation occurs after C-C bond dissociation in a continuous simulation. What determines the chirality of CNTs? What happens at the dissociation stage of carbon source molecules? Regarding the former question, many researchers have pointed out the good epitaxial relationship between a graphite network and a close-packed facet (i.e., fcc(1 1 1) or hcp(0 0 0 1)) of transition metals [17-19]. Therefore, the correlation between the chirality of CNTs and the angle of the step edge on metal (or metal carbide) surfaces has been closely investigated [20-22]. In association with this geometric matching, the epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(1 1 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces has recently been achieved via CCVD technique [23-25], which is a promising technique for the synthesis of large-area and monolayer graphene.Regarding the latter question, it is empirically known that the yield and quality of CNT products strongly depend on the choice of carbon source molecules and additives. For example, it is well known that the use of ethanol as carbon source molecules yields a large amount of SWNTs without amorphous carbons (called the alcohol CCVD (ACCVD) technique) compared with the CCVD process using hydrocarbons [4]. Moreover, the addition of a small amount of water dramatically enhances the activity and lifetime of the catalytic metal (called the

  11. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 2, appendices A and B: Ethanol from grain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinblatt, H.; Reddy, T. S.; Turhollow, A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Energy currently used in grain production, the effect of ethanol production on agricultural energy consumption, energy credits for ethanol by-products, and land availability and the potential for obtaining ethanol from grain are discussed. Dry milling, wet milling, sensitivity analysis, potential for reduced energy consumption are also discussed.

  12. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  13. Dissociative ionization of the 1-propanol dimer in a supersonic expansion under tunable synchrotron VUV radiation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yanmin; Hu, Yongjun; Xiao, Weizhan; Guan, Jiwen; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

    2016-05-11

    Photoionization and dissociation of the 1-propanol dimer and subsequent fragmentations have been investigated by synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the protonated monomer cation (C3H7OH)·H(+) (m/z = 61) and Cα-Cβ bond cleavage fragment CH2O·(C3H7OH)H(+) (m/z = 91), the measured mass spectrum at an incident photon energy of 13 eV suggests a new dissociation channel resulting in the formation of the (C3H7OH)·H(+)·(C2H5OH) (m/z = 107) fragment. The appearance energies of the fragments (C3H7OH)·H(+), CH2O·(C3H7OH)H(+) and (C3H7OH)·H(+)·(C2H5OH) are measured at 10.05 ± 0.05 eV, 9.48 ± 0.05 eV, and 12.8 ± 0.1 eV, respectively, by scanning photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra. The 1-propanol ion fragments as a function of VUV photon energy were interpreted with the aid of theoretical calculations. In addition to O-H and Cα-Cβ bond cleavage, a new dissociation channel related to Cβ-Cγ bond cleavage opens. In this channel, molecular rearrangement (proton transfer and hydrogen transfer after surmounting an energy barrier) gives rise to the generated complex, which then dissociates to produce the mixed propanol/ethanol proton bound cation (C3H7OH)·H(+)·(C2H5OH). This new dissociation channel has not been reported in previous studies of ethanol and acetic acid dimers. The photoionization and dissociation processes of the 1-propanol dimer are described in the photon energy range of 9-15 eV. PMID:27141555

  14. Ni(II) salts and 2-propanol effect catalytic reductive coupling of epoxides and alkynes.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Matthew G; Jamison, Timothy F

    2011-08-01

    A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)(2) and Et(3)B, this system has several advantages including the use of air-stable and inexpensive Ni(II) precatalysts (e.g., NiBr(2)·3H(2)O) as the source of Ni(0) and simple alcohols (e.g., 2-propanol) as the reducing agent. Deuterium-labeling experiments are consistent with oxidative addition of an epoxide C-O bond that occurs with inversion of configuration. PMID:21718038

  15. Inhibition of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by aspirin and salicylate: assessment of the effects on first-pass metabolism of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Lee, Yung-Pin; Wu, Min-Li; Chi, Yu-Chou; Liu, Chiu-Ming; Lai, Ching-Long; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that aspirin significantly reduced the first-pass metabolism (FPM) of ethanol in humans thereby increasing adverse effects of alcohol. The underlying causes, however, remain poorly understood. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol, are complex enzyme families that exhibit functional polymorphisms among ethnic groups and distinct tissue distributions. We investigated the inhibition profiles by aspirin and its major metabolite salicylate of ethanol oxidation by recombinant human ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, ADH1C2, ADH2, and ADH4, and acetaldehyde oxidation by ALDH1A1 and ALDH2, at pH 7.5 and 0.5 mM NAD(+). Competitive inhibition pattern was found to be a predominant type among the ADHs and ALDHs studied, although noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibitions were also detected in a few cases. The inhibition constants of salicylate for the ADHs and ALDHs were considerably lower than that of aspirin with the exception of ADH1A that can be ascribed to a substitution of Ala-93 at the bottom of substrate pocket as revealed by molecular docking experiments. Kinetic inhibition equation-based simulations show at higher therapeutic levels of blood plasma salicylate (1.5 mM) that the decrease of activities at 2-10 mM ethanol for ADH1A/ADH2 and ADH1B2/ADH1B3 are predicted to be 75-86% and 31-52%, respectively, and that the activity decline for ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 at 10-50 μM acetaldehyde to be 62-73%. Our findings suggest that salicylate may substantially inhibit hepatic FPM of alcohol at both the ADH and ALDH steps when concurrent intaking aspirin. PMID:25772736

  16. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 ameliorates alcoholic liver disease in ethanol-containing diet-fed C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Shuichi; Wakita, Yoshihisa; Hirata, Hiroshi; Watari, Junji

    2008-12-10

    We examined the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) SBC8803 on the development of alcoholic liver disease using ethanol-containing diet-fed mice. Heat-killed L. brevis was orally administered at a dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg once a day for 35 days. Alcoholic liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a serum, and the alcoholic fatty liver was assessed from the content of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol in the liver. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, SREBP-2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the liver, as well as E-cadherin, Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), and heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 in the small intestine. Oral administration of L. brevis significantly inhibited an increase in the level of serum ALT and AST, as well as the content of TG and total cholesterol in the liver caused by ethanol intake. L. brevis supplementation suppressed the overexpression of TNF-alpha, SREBP-1, and SREBP-2 mRNA in the liver induced by ethanol intake and up-regulated the expression of Hsp25 mRNA in the small intestine. These results suggest that L. brevis ameliorated the ethanol-induced liver injury and the fatty liver by suppressing the up-regulation of TNF-alpha and SREBPs in the liver. We speculate that the inhibition of TNF-alpha and SREBPs up-regulation by L. brevis is due to the inhibition of gut-derived endotoxin migration into the liver through the enhancement of intestinal barrier function by the induction of cytoprotective Hsps. PMID:18976829

  17. Characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and 3 from Neurospora crassa FGSC2489.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Cheol; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2007-08-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a key enzyme in the production and utilization of alcohols. Some also catalyze the formation of carboxylate esters from alcohols and aldehydes. The ADH1 and ADH3 genes of Neurospora crassa FGSC2489 were cloned and expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate their alcohol dehydrogenation and carboxylate ester formation abilities. Homology analysis and sequence alignment of amino acid sequence indicated that ADH1 and ADH3 of N. crassa contained a zinc-binding consensus sequence and a NAD(+)-binding motif and showed 54-75% identity with fungi ADHs. N. crassa ADH1 was expressed in E. coli to give a specific activity of 289 +/- 9 mU/mg using ethanol and NAD(+) as substrate and cofactor, respectively. Corresponding experiments on the expression and activity of ADH3 gave 4 mU/mg of specific activity. N. crassa ADH1 preferred primary alcohols containing C3-C8 carbons to secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol and 2-butanol. N. crassa ADH1 possessed 5.3 mU/mg of specific carboxylate ester-forming activity accumulating 0.4 mM of ethyl acetate in 18 h. Substrate specificity of various linear alcohols and aldehydes indicated that short chain-length alcohols and aldehydes were good substrates for carboxylate ester production. N. crassa ADH1 was a primary alcohol dehydrogenase using cofactor NAD(+) preferably and possessed carboxylate ester-forming activity with short chain alcohols and aldehydes. PMID:17516063

  18. Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Williams, D.

    1979-01-01

    The spectral reflectances at near-normal incidence for methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol are reported for the spectral range 6700-350 kaysers. The real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction of these liquids are obtained in the range 4000-400 kaysers by use of Kramers-Kronig phase-shift analysis. For all of the alcohols studied, the strength for the OH-stretch bands is directly proportional to the number of OH groups per unit volume; similar relations are established for CH- and CO-stretch bands. Absorption cross sections for stretch vibrations of the three groups are considered, and the role of characteristic group intensities in intensity spectroscopy is discussed.

  19. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  20. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming". PMID:24275070

  1. Hydrogen production from alcohol reforming in a microwave ‘tornado’-type plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarova, E.; Bundaleska, N.; Dias, F. M.; Tsyganov, D.; Saavedra, R.; Ferreira, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation of microwave plasma-assisted reforming of different alcohols is presented. A microwave (2.45 GHz) ‘tornado’-type plasma with a high-speed tangential gas injection (swirl) at atmospheric pressure is applied to decompose alcohol molecules, namely methanol, ethanol and propanol, and to produce hydrogen-rich gas. The reforming efficiency is investigated both in Ar and Ar+ water vapor plasma environments. The hydrogen yield dependence on the partial alcohol flux is analyzed. Mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to detect the outlet gas products from the decomposition process. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and solid carbon are the main decomposition by-products. A significant increase in the hydrogen production rate is observed with the addition of a small amount of water. Furthermore, optical emission spectroscopy is applied to detect the radiation emitted by the plasma and to estimate the gas temperature and electron density.

  2. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  3. Effects of Amoxicillin and Augmentin on Cystine-Glutamate Exchanger and Glutamate Transporter 1 Isoforms as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Alqassem Y; Hammad, Alaa M; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with alteration of glutamate transport and glutamate neurotransmission. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a major transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate concentration, which is also regulated by cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT). Importantly, we recently reported that amoxicillin and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) upreglulated GLT-1 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as reduced ethanol consumption in male P rats. In this study, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b), xCT, and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) expression in NAc and PFC as well as ethanol intake in male P rats. We found that both compounds significantly reduced ethanol intake, and increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in NAc. However, only Augmentin increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in PFC. There were no effects of these compounds on GLAST expression in NAc and PFC. These findings demonstrated that Augmentin and amoxicillin have the potential to upregulate GLT-1 isoforms and xCT expression, and consequently attenuate ethanol dependence. PMID:27199635

  4. Effects of Amoxicillin and Augmentin on Cystine-Glutamate Exchanger and Glutamate Transporter 1 Isoforms as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Alqassem Y.; Hammad, Alaa M.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with alteration of glutamate transport and glutamate neurotransmission. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a major transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate concentration, which is also regulated by cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT). Importantly, we recently reported that amoxicillin and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) upreglulated GLT-1 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as reduced ethanol consumption in male P rats. In this study, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b), xCT, and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) expression in NAc and PFC as well as ethanol intake in male P rats. We found that both compounds significantly reduced ethanol intake, and increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in NAc. However, only Augmentin increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in PFC. There were no effects of these compounds on GLAST expression in NAc and PFC. These findings demonstrated that Augmentin and amoxicillin have the potential to upregulate GLT-1 isoforms and xCT expression, and consequently attenuate ethanol dependence. PMID:27199635

  5. Stability of fluctuating and transient aggregates of amphiphilic solutes in aqueous binary mixtures: Studies of dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-10-01

    In aqueous binary mixtures, amphiphilic solutes such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), etc., are known to form aggregates (or large clusters) at small to intermediate solute concentrations. These aggregates are transient in nature. Although the system remains homogeneous on macroscopic length and time scales, the microheterogeneous aggregation may profoundly affect the properties of the mixture in several distinct ways, particularly if the survival times of the aggregates are longer than density relaxation times of the binary liquid. Here we propose a theoretical scheme to quantify the lifetime and thus the stability of these microheterogeneous clusters, and apply the scheme to calculate the same for water-ethanol, water-DMSO, and water-TBA mixtures. We show that the lifetime of these clusters can range from less than a picosecond (ps) for ethanol clusters to few tens of ps for DMSO and TBA clusters. This helps explaining the absence of a strong composition dependent anomaly in water-ethanol mixtures but the presence of the same in water-DMSO and water-TBA mixtures.

  6. Stability of fluctuating and transient aggregates of amphiphilic solutes in aqueous binary mixtures: studies of dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and tert-butyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Saikat; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-10-28

    In aqueous binary mixtures, amphiphilic solutes such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), etc., are known to form aggregates (or large clusters) at small to intermediate solute concentrations. These aggregates are transient in nature. Although the system remains homogeneous on macroscopic length and time scales, the microheterogeneous aggregation may profoundly affect the properties of the mixture in several distinct ways, particularly if the survival times of the aggregates are longer than density relaxation times of the binary liquid. Here we propose a theoretical scheme to quantify the lifetime and thus the stability of these microheterogeneous clusters, and apply the scheme to calculate the same for water-ethanol, water-DMSO, and water-TBA mixtures. We show that the lifetime of these clusters can range from less than a picosecond (ps) for ethanol clusters to few tens of ps for DMSO and TBA clusters. This helps explaining the absence of a strong composition dependent anomaly in water-ethanol mixtures but the presence of the same in water-DMSO and water-TBA mixtures. PMID:24182023

  7. Investigation on the structure of water/AOT/IPM/alcohols reverse micelles by conductivity, dynamic light scattering, and small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Chen, Yingjun; Liu, Jiexiang; Zhao, Chuanzhuang; Zhang, Haijiao

    2012-03-29

    We have systematically investigated the effect of alcohols (ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol) on the structure of the water/AOT/IPM system using conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The results show that no percolation phenomenon is observed in the water/AOT/IPM system, whereas the addition of ethanol (propanol and butanol) induces apparently percolation. The threshold water content (W(p)) depends closely on the alcohol type and concentration. The effect of alcohols on the conductance behavior is discussed from the physical properties of alcohols, the interfacial flexibility, and the attractive interactions between droplets. The hydrodynamic diameter of droplets (d(H)) obtained from DLS increases markedly with the increase in water content (W(0)); however, it decreases gradually with increasing alcohol chain length and concentration. SAXS measurements display distinctly the shoulder, the low hump peaks, and the heavy tail phenomenon in the pair distance distribution function p(r) profile, which rely strongly on the alcohol species and its concentration. The gyration radius (R(g)) increases with increasing W(0), and decreases with the increase of alcohol chain length and concentration. Schematic diagram of the conductance mechanism of water/AOT/IPM/alcohol systems is primarily depicted. Three different phases of the discrete droplets, the oligomers, and the isolated ellipsoidal droplets existed in the different W(0) ranges correspond to three different stages in the conductivity-W(0) curve. Coupling the structure characteristics of reverse micelles obtained from DLS and SAXS techniques with conductivity could be greatly helpful to deeply understand the percolation mechanism of water/AOT/IPM/alcohols systems. PMID:22380931

  8. Inhibition of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity by histamine H2-receptor antagonists has no influence on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol after a moderate dose.

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, A; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Bergmann, J F; Trout, H; Simonneau, G; Dutreuil, C; Blanc, L E; Dhumeaux, D; Delchier, J C

    1994-01-01

    Ethanol undergoes gastric first pass metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We have shown that cimetidine and famotidine both cause competitive inhibition of human gastric ADH in vitro. However, in a randomized 4-way cross-over study in 12 healthy subjects a 7-day course of treatment with cimetidine (800 mg day-1), ranitidine (300 mg day-1) or famotidine (40 mg day-1), did not modify the pharmacokinetics of ethanol given as a post-prandial 0.3 g kg-1 dose. We conclude that gastric mucosal concentrations of histamine H2-receptor blockers achieved after oral dosing are probably too low to cause significant inhibition of gastric ADH in vivo. PMID:7910473

  9. A Characterization Of Alcohol Fuel Vapor For Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Applied To Microgravity Flame Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Perry, David S.; Miller, Fletcher; Piltch, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A diode laser diagnostic is being developed for use in an ongoing investigation of flame spread in microgravity at NASA Glenn Research Center. Flame spread rates through non-homogenous gas mixtures are significantly different in a microgravity environment because of buoyancy and possibly hydrostatic pressure effects. These effects contribute to the fuel vapor concentration ahead of the flame being altered so that flame spread is more rapid in microgravity. This paper describes spectral transmission measurements made through mixtures of alcohol, water vapor, and nitrogen in a gas cell that was designed and built to allow measurements at temperatures up to 500 C. The alcohols considered are methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. The basic technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy for gas species measurements in microgravity was developed by Silver et al. For this technique to be applicable, one must carefully choose the spectral features over which the diode laser is modulated to provide good sensitivity and minimize interference from other molecular lines such as those in water. Because the methanol spectrum was not known with sufficient resolution in the wavelength region of interest, our first task was to perform high-resolution transmission measurements with an FTIR spectrometer for methanol vapor in nitrogen, followed recently by ethanol and n-propanol. A computer program was written to generate synthesized data to mimic that expected from the experiment using the laser diode, and results from that simulation are also presented.

  10. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  11. The role of aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) in ethanol production from glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Baek-Rock; Hong, Won-Kyung; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Joe, Min-ho; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptome analysis of a K. pneumoniae GEM167 mutant strain derived by irradiation with gamma rays, which exhibited high-level production of ethanol from glycerol, showed that the mutant expressed AdhE at a high level. Ethanol production decreased significantly, from 8.8 to 0.5 g l(-1), when an adhE-deficient derivative of that strain was grown on glycerol. Bacterial growth was also reduced under such conditions, showing that AdhE plays a critical role in maintenance of redox balance by catalyzing ethanol production. Overexpression of AdhE enhanced ethanol production, from pure or crude glycerol, to a maximal level of 31.9 g l(-1) under fed-batch fermentation conditions; this is the highest level of ethanol production from glycerol reported to date. PMID:23296976

  12. Impact of alcohols on the formation and stability of protein-stabilized nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Herz, Eva; McClements, David Julian; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-11-01

    Nanoemulsions are increasingly being used for encapsulation, protection, and delivery of bioactive lipids, however, their formation from natural emulsifiers is still challenging. We investigated the impact of alcohol on the formation and stability of protein-stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The influence of different alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol) at various concentrations (0-25% w/w) on the formation and stability of emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, and fish gelatin was investigated. The mean particle diameter decreased with increasing alcohol concentrations from 0 to 10%w/w, but extensive droplet aggregation occurred at higher levels. This phenomenon was attributed to enhanced protein-protein interactions between the adsorbed emulsifier molecules in the presence of alcohol leading to droplet flocculation. The smallest droplets (d<100nm) were obtained when 10%w/w 1-butanol was added to sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions, but relatively small droplets (d<150nm) could also be obtained in the presence of a food-grade alcohol (ethanol). This study demonstrated that alcohol addition might be a useful tool for producing protein-stabilized nanoemulsions suitable for use as delivery systems of lipophilic bioactive agents. PMID:25129338

  13. Reprint of: Impact of alcohols on the formation and stability of protein-stabilized nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Herz, Eva; McClements, David Julian; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    Nanoemulsions are increasingly being used for encapsulation, protection, and delivery of bioactive lipids, however, their formation from natural emulsifiers is still challenging. We investigated the impact of alcohol on the formation and stability of protein-stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The influence of different alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol) at various concentrations (0-25% w/w) on the formation and stability of emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, and fish gelatin was investigated. The mean particle diameter decreased with increasing alcohol concentrations from 0 to 10%w/w, but extensive droplet aggregation occurred at higher levels. This phenomenon was attributed to enhanced protein-protein interactions between the adsorbed emulsifier molecules in the presence of alcohol leading to droplet flocculation. The smallest droplets (d<100 nm) were obtained when 10%w/w 1-butanol was added to sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions, but relatively small droplets (d<150 nm) could also be obtained in the presence of a food-grade alcohol (ethanol). This study demonstrated that alcohol addition might be a useful tool for producing protein-stabilized nanoemulsions suitable for use as delivery systems of lipophilic bioactive agents. PMID:25865241

  14. Conversion of starch to ethanol in a recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing rice [alpha]-amylase from a novel Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, M.H.; Sverlow, G.G.; della-Cioppa, G.; Grill, L.K. )

    1993-05-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing and secreting rice [alpha]-amylase, converts starch to ethanol. The rice [alpha]-amylase gene (OS103) was placed under the transcriptional control of the promoter from a newly described Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase genomic clone. The nucleotide sequences of ZZA1 and other methanol-regulated promoters were analyzed. A highly conserved sequence (TTG-N[sub 3]-GCTTCCAA-N[sub 5]-TGGT) was found in the 5' flanking regions of alcohol oxidase, methanol oxidase, and dihydroxyacetone synthase genes in Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, and Candida biodinii S2. The yeast strain containing the ZZA1-OS103 fusion secreted biologically active enzyme into the culture media while fermenting soluble starch. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Ethanol and neuronal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mandel, P; Ledig, M; M'Paria, J R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on membrane enzymes (Na+, K+ and Mg2+ ATPases, 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate cyclase) alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were studied in nerve cells (established cell lines, primary cultures of chick and rat brain) cultured in the presence of 100 mM ethanol, and in total rat brain, following various ethanol treatments of the rats (20% ethanol as the sole liquid source, intraperitoneal injection). The results show a difference between neuronal and glial cells. Most of the observed changes in enzymatic activities returned rapidly to control values when ethanol was withdrawn from the culture medium or from the diet. Alcohol dehydrogenase was more stimulated by ethanol than aldehyde dehydrogenase; therefore acetaldehyde may be accumulated. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity may allow an accumulation of cytotoxic O2- radicals in nervous tissue and may explain the polymorphism of lesions brought about by alcohol intoxication. PMID:6264495

  16. In vivo roles of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), catalase and the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) in deermice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, T.; Alderman, J.; Lieber, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The relative importance of ADH and MEOS for ethanol oxidation in the liver has yet to be elucidated. The discovery of a strain of deermice genetically lacking ADH (ADH-) which can consume ethanol at greater than 50% of the rates seen in deermice having ADH (ADH+) suggested a significant role for non-ADH pathways in vivo. To quantitate contributions of the various pathways, the authors examined first the ethanol oxidation rates with or without 4-methylpyrazole in isolated deermice hepatocytes. 4-Methylpyrazole significantly reduced the ethanol oxidation in both ADH+ and ADH- hepatocytes. The reduction seen in ADH- cells can be applied to correct for the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on non-ADH pathways of ADH+ deermouse hepatocytes. After correction, non-ADH pathways were found to contribute 28% of ethanol metabolism at 10 mM and 52% at 50 mM. When using a different approach namely measurement of the isotope effect, MEOS was calculated to account for 35% at low and about 70% at high blood ethanol concentrations. Thus, they found that two different complementary approaches yielded similar results, namely that non-ADH pathways play a significant role in ethanol oxidation even in the presence of ADH.

  17. 40 CFR 721.525 - 1-propanol, 3-propoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.525 1-propanol, 3-propoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanol, 3-propoxy- (PMN P-00-0827; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.525 - 1-propanol, 3-propoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.525 1-propanol, 3-propoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanol, 3-propoxy- (PMN P-00-0827; CAS No....

  19. A direct 2-propanol polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dianxue; Bergens, Steven H.

    We report the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane direct 2-propanol fuel cell (DPFC). The cell consisted of a Pt-Ru (atomic ratio of 1:1) black anode, a Pt black cathode, and a Nafion ®-117 membrane electrolyte. The cell was operated at 90 °C with aqueous 2-propanol as fuel and with oxygen as oxidant. The performance of the cell operating on 2-propanol is substantially higher than when it was operating on methanol at current densities lower than ˜200 mA/cm 2. The electrical efficiency of the direct 2-propanol fuel cell is nearly 1.5 times that of the direct methanol fuel cell at power densities below 128 mW/cm 2. Studies on the effects of electrocatalyst loading, of 2-propanol concentration, and of oxygen pressure on cell performance indicate that the cells operating on 2-propanol require lower anode and cathode loadings than cells operating on methanol. Cathode poisoning by 2-propanol is less severe than by methanol. Hydrogen gas evolution observed at the anode at low current densities indicated that catalytic dehydrogenation of 2-propanol occurred over the anode catalyst. A rapid voltage drop occurred at high current densities and after operating the cell for extended periods of time at constant current. The rapid voltage drop is an anode phenomenon.

  20. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  1. Reliability of a flushing questionnaire and the ethanol patch test in screening for inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and alcohol-related cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Ohmori, T; Kumagai, Y; Higuchi, S; Ishii, H

    1997-12-01

    Molecular epidemiology of esophageal and upper aerodigestive tract cancers revealed that alcohol is more carcinogenic in persons with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) than in those with active ALDH2. A simple questionnaire has been developed to screen for the facial flushing that occurs in persons with inactive ALDH2 when they drink even a single glass of beer. In this study, 266 of 284 consecutive male Japanese clinic patients (age > or = 50 years) completed the flushing questionnaire, and 239 underwent the ethanol patch test (a cutaneous model for the flushing response). Blinded genotyping showed inactive ALDH2 for 94.4% (102 of 108) of subjects who reported always flushing (early in their drinking history or currently) and for 47.7% (21 of 44) of those who reported sometimes flushing, whereas 95.6% (109 of 114) of subjects reporting that they never exhibited facial flushing had active ALDH2. When all three categories of flushing (current always, former always, and sometimes) were collapsed into one, the questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for identifying inactive ALDH2 were 96.1 and 79.0%, respectively, compared with 72.4 and 71.4% for the ethanol patch test. The results suggest the utility of this simple flushing questionnaire in daily practice, as well as large-scale studies to assess cancer risks associated with drinking and ALDH2 and for activities aimed at preventing alcohol-related cancer. PMID:9419411

  2. Alcohol action on a neuronal membrane receptor: evidence for a direct interaction with the receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1994-01-01

    For almost a century, alcohols have been thought to produce their effects by actions on the membrane lipids of central nervous system neurons--the well known "lipid theory" of alcohol action. The rationale for this theory is the correlation of potency with oil/water or membrane/buffer partition coefficient. Although a number of recent studies have shown that alcohols can affect the function of certain neuronal neurotransmitter receptors, there is no evidence that the alcohols interact directly with these membrane proteins. In the present study, we report that inhibition of a neuronal neurotransmitter receptor, an ATP-gated ion channel, by a series of alcohols exhibits a distinct cutoff effect. For alcohols with a molecular volume of < or = 42.2 ml/mol, potency for inhibiting ATP-activated current was correlated with lipid solubility (order of potency: 1-propanol = trifluoroethanol > monochloroethanol > ethanol > methanol). However, despite increased lipid solubility, alcohols with a molecular volume of > or = 46.1 ml/mol (1-butanol, 1-pentanol, trichloroethanol, and dichloroethanol) were without effect on the ATP-activated current. The results suggest that alcohols inhibit the function of this neurotransmitter receptor by interacting with a small hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. PMID:8058780

  3. Liquid 1-propanol studied by neutron scattering, near-infrared, and dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sillrén, P.; Matic, A.; Karlsson, M.; Koza, M.; Maccarini, M.; Fouquet, P.; Götz, M.; Bauer, Th.; Gulich, R.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Mattsson, J.; Gainaru, C.; Vynokur, E.; Schildmann, S.; Bauer, S.; Böhmer, R.

    2014-03-28

    Liquid monohydroxy alcohols exhibit unusual dynamics related to their hydrogen bonding induced structures. The connection between structure and dynamics is studied for liquid 1-propanol using quasi-elastic neutron scattering, combining time-of-flight and neutron spin-echo techniques, with a focus on the dynamics at length scales corresponding to the main peak and the pre-peak of the structure factor. At the main peak, the structural relaxation times are probed. These correspond well to mechanical relaxation times calculated from literature data. At the pre-peak, corresponding to length scales related to H-bonded structures, the relaxation times are almost an order of magnitude longer. According to previous work [C. Gainaru, R. Meier, S. Schildmann, C. Lederle, W. Hiller, E. Rössler, and R. Böhmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 258303 (2010)] this time scale difference is connected to the average size of H-bonded clusters. The relation between the relaxation times from neutron scattering and those determined from dielectric spectroscopy is discussed on the basis of broad-band permittivity data of 1-propanol. Moreover, in 1-propanol the dielectric relaxation strength as well as the near-infrared absorbance reveal anomalous behavior below ambient temperature. A corresponding feature could not be found in the polyalcohols propylene glycol and glycerol.

  4. Liquid 1-propanol studied by neutron scattering, near-infrared, and dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillrén, P.; Matic, A.; Karlsson, M.; Koza, M.; Maccarini, M.; Fouquet, P.; Götz, M.; Bauer, Th.; Gulich, R.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Mattsson, J.; Gainaru, C.; Vynokur, E.; Schildmann, S.; Bauer, S.; Böhmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    Liquid monohydroxy alcohols exhibit unusual dynamics related to their hydrogen bonding induced structures. The connection between structure and dynamics is studied for liquid 1-propanol using quasi-elastic neutron scattering, combining time-of-flight and neutron spin-echo techniques, with a focus on the dynamics at length scales corresponding to the main peak and the pre-peak of the structure factor. At the main peak, the structural relaxation times are probed. These correspond well to mechanical relaxation times calculated from literature data. At the pre-peak, corresponding to length scales related to H-bonded structures, the relaxation times are almost an order of magnitude longer. According to previous work [C. Gainaru, R. Meier, S. Schildmann, C. Lederle, W. Hiller, E. Rössler, and R. Böhmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 258303 (2010)] this time scale difference is connected to the average size of H-bonded clusters. The relation between the relaxation times from neutron scattering and those determined from dielectric spectroscopy is discussed on the basis of broad-band permittivity data of 1-propanol. Moreover, in 1-propanol the dielectric relaxation strength as well as the near-infrared absorbance reveal anomalous behavior below ambient temperature. A corresponding feature could not be found in the polyalcohols propylene glycol and glycerol.

  5. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  6. Phosphatidyl alcohols: effect of head group size on domain forming properties and interactions with sterols.

    PubMed

    Jaikishan, Shishir; Björkbom, Anders; Slotte, J Peter

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we have examined the membrane properties and sterol interactions of phosphatidyl alcohols varying in the size of the alcohol head group coupled to the sn-3-linked phosphate. Phosphatidyl alcohols of interest were dipalmitoyl derivatives with methanol (DPPMe), ethanol (DPPEt), propanol (DPPPr), or butanol (DPPBu) head groups. The Phosphatidyl alcohols are biologically relevant, because they can be formed in membranes by the phospholipase D reaction in the presence of alcohol. The melting behavior of pure phosphatidyl alcohols and mixtures with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or cholesterol was assessed using high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DPPMe had the highest melting temperature ( approximately 49 degrees C), whereas the other phosphatidyl alcohols had similar melting temperatures as DPPC ( approximately 40-41 degrees C). All phosphatidyl alcohols, except DPPMe, also showed good miscibility with DPPC. The effects of cholesterol on the melting behavior and membrane order in multilamellar bilayer vesicles were assessed using steady-state anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and DSC. The ordering effect of cholesterol in the fluid phase was lower for all phosphatidyl alcohols as compared to DPPC and decreased with increasing head group size. The formation of ordered domains containing the phosphatidyl alcohols in complex bilayer membranes was determined using fluorescence quenching of DPH or the sterol analogue cholesta-5,7,(11)-trien-3-beta-ol (CTL). The phosphatidyl alcohols did not appear to form sterol-enriched ordered domains, whereas DPPMe, DPPEt appeared to form ordered domains in the temperature window examined (10-50 degrees C). The partitioning of CTL into bilayer membranes containing phosphatidyl alcohols was to a small extent increased for DPPMe and DPPEt, but in general, sterol interactions were weak or unfavorable for the phosphatidyl alcohols. Our results show that the biophysical

  7. Efficient Visible Light-Driven Splitting of Alcohols into Hydrogen and Corresponding Carbonyl Compounds over a Ni-Modified CdS Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhigang; Zeng, Ting-Ting; Li, Qi; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing; Xu, Dongsheng

    2016-08-17

    Splitting of alcohols into hydrogen and corresponding carbonyl compounds has potential applications in hydrogen production and chemical industry. Herein, we report that a heterogeneous photocatalyst (Ni-modified CdS nanoparticles) could efficiently split alcohols into hydrogen and corresponding aldehydes or ketones in a stoichiometric manner under visible light irradiation. Optimized apparent quantum yields of 38%, 46%, and 48% were obtained at 447 nm for dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively. In the case of dehydrogenation of 2-propanol, a turnover number of greater than 44 000 was achieved. To our knowledge, these are unprecedented values for photocatalytic splitting of liquid alcohols under visible light to date. Besides, the current catalyst system functions well with other aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, affording the corresponding carbonyl compounds with good to excellent conversion and outstanding selectivity. Moreover, mechanistic investigations suggest that an interface between Ni nanocrystal and CdS plays a key role in the reaction mechanism of the photocatalytic splitting of alcohol. PMID:27477237

  8. The enthalpy of solution of DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine depending on the composition of water-alcohol binary solvents at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2008-12-01

    The integral enthalpies of solution of DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine in water-ethanol, water- n-propanol, and water-isopropanol mixtures at alcohol concentrations x 2 = 0-0.4 mole fractions were measured calorimetrically. The enthalpies of solution of the peptide Δsol H° and transfer from water to a mixed solvent Δtr H° were calculated. The effect of the structure and properties of the peptide and mixture composition on the enthalpy characteristics of the peptide are discussed. The enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions h xy of DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine with alcohol molecules were calculated. It was found that they were positive and increased in the series ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol. An analysis of the results allows the general features of changes in the thermodynamic parameters of solution of peptides of the DL-α-alanine series with different amino acid residues in water-alcohol mixtures to be established.

  9. One-electron oxidation of alcohols by the 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene radical cation in the excited state during two-color two-laser flash photolysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xichen; Sakamoto, Masanori; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2007-03-15

    One-electron oxidation of alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol by 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene radical cation (TMB*+) in the excited state (TMB*+*) was observed during the two-color two-laser flash photolysis. TMB*+ was formed by the photoinduced bimolecular electron-transfer reaction from TMB to 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCQ) in the triplet excited-state during the first 355-nm laser flash photolysis. Then, TMB*+* was generated from the selective excitation of TMB*+ during the second 532 nm laser flash photolysis. Hole transfer rate constants from TMB*+* to methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol were calculated to be (5.2 +/- 0.5) x 10(10), (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(11), and (3.2 +/- 0.6) x 10(11) M-1 s-1, respectively. The order of the hole transfer rate constants is consistent with oxidation potentials of alcohol. Formation of TCQH radical (TCQH*) with a characteristic absorption peak at 435 nm was observed in the microsecond time scale, suggesting that deprotonation of the alcohol radical cation occurs after the hole transfer and that TCQ radical anion (TCQ*-), generated together with TMB*+ by the photoinduced electron-transfer reaction, reacts with H+ to give TCQH*. PMID:17295459

  10. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  11. Ethanol administration dampens the prolactin response to psychosocial stress exposure in sons of alcohol-dependent fathers.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Buchmann, Arlette F; Spring, Constance; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    Genetic predisposition and exposure to alcohol and stress increase the risk for alcoholism, possibly by forming a threefold interaction. This is suggested by various aspects of alcohol-induced stress response dampening in offspring of alcoholics. We tested whether such an interaction is also revealed by prolactin secretion, which is predominantly controlled by hypothalamic dopamine. Plasma prolactin was measured during four experimental days in 26 young males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHA) and in 22 family history negative (FHN) controls. A public speaking stress paradigm was applied on the first 2 days, and a non-stress acoustic startle experiment on the others. Before the tests, subjects drank alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. During placebo experiments, prolactin levels significantly increased after stress, but not after startle, and did not differ between risk groups. Alcohol administration significantly increased prolactin before stress and during startle in both groups, did not alter stress-induced prolactin stimulation in FHN, but significantly attenuated the prolactin stress response in PHA subjects. The alcohol effects on prolactin, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin stress response were positively interrelated with each other. These data confirm that alcohol specifically dampens the stress response in PHA but not FHN subjects. Since prolactin responses to stress alone and alcohol alone were normal in PHA, we conclude that this genetic effect is not related to altered physiology of the hypothalamic dopaminergic system, but to risk-group specific alcohol effects on hierarchically higher brain areas controlling the stress response in general. PMID:19243891

  12. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  13. CARDIAC OVEREXPRESSION OF ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE EXACERBATES CARDIAC CONTRACTILE DYSFUNCTION, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND PROTEIN DAMAGE AFTER CHRONIC ETHANOL INGESTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is manifested as ventricular dysfunction although its specific toxic mechanism(s) remains obscure. This study was designed to examine the impact of enhanced acetaldehyde (ACA) exposure on cardiac function via cardiac-specific over-expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) fo...

  14. ETHANOL INDUCES AND INSULIN INHIBITS ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE CLASS 1 IN FGC-4 CELLS: BOTH APPEAR TO WORK THROUGH SREBP-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported that chronic feeding of alcohol-containing diets (via intragastric infusion) to Sprague-Dawley rats induces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) Class 1 by interfering with signaling via the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1). We have studied the effects ...

  15. A generalized corresponding states method for predicting the limits of superheat of mixtures: application to the normal alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Avedisian, C.T.; Sullivan, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    The limits of superheat of the normal alcohols from methanol to octanol and of ethanol/n-propanol, n-propanol/n-butanol, and n-butanol/n-pentanol mixtures were measured at atmospheric pressure. The results were correlated using a new method based on the generalized corresponding states principle in which the properties of two reference substances were used to predict the superheat limits of the liquids studied. Ethanol and n-butanol, and the two components of each mixture studied, were used as reference fluids for predicting the superheat limits of the pure alcohols and mixtures respectively. Results showed that it is possible to predict superheat limits to well within the accuracy of experimental measurements (< 1%). The method requires only accurate vapor pressure correlations and accentric factors of the reference fluids, and an accurate method for predicting the true critical temperature and pressure of the mixture. Considerable simplification using the present method over the approach based on classical homogeneous nucleation theory is derived from the fact that no mixture surface tension or bubble point pressure data are required.

  16. Directed evolution of Methanococcus jannaschii citramalate synthase for biosynthesis of 1-propanol and 1-butanol by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Shota; Liao, James C

    2008-12-01

    Biofuels synthesized from renewable resources are of increasing interest because of global energy and environmental problems. We have previously demonstrated production of higher alcohols from Escherichia coli using a 2-keto acid-based pathway. Here, we took advantage of the growth phenotype associated with 2-keto acid deficiency to construct a hyperproducer of 1-propanol and 1-butanol by evolving citramalate synthase (CimA) from Methanococcus jannaschii. This new pathway, which directly converts pyruvate to 2-ketobutyrate, bypasses threonine biosynthesis and represents the shortest keto acid-mediated pathway for producing 1-propanol and 1-butanol from glucose. Directed evolution of CimA enhanced the specific activity over a wide temperature range (30 to 70 degrees C). The best CimA variant was found to be insensitive to feedback inhibition by isoleucine in addition to the improved activity. This CimA variant enabled 9- and 22-fold higher production levels of 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively, compared to the strain expressing the wild-type CimA. This work demonstrates (i) the first production of 1-propanol and 1-butanol using the citramalate pathway and (ii) the benefit of the 2-keto acid pathway that enables a growth-based evolutionary strategy to improve the production of non-growth-related products. PMID:18952866

  17. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

  18. SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY OF EMBRYONIC CELL POPULATIONS TO ETHANOL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ALCOHOL RELATED BIRTH DEFECTS AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The locations of cell death and resulting malformations in embryos following teratogen exposure vary depending on the teratogen used, the genotype of the conceptus, and the developmental stage of the embryo at time of exposure. To date, ethanol-induced cell death has been charac...

  19. Effects of long term ethanol administration in a rat total enteral nutrition model of alcoholic liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically fed a high unsaturated fat diet for 130 d using total enteral nutrition (TEN), or the same diet in which ethanol (EtOH) isocalorically replaced carbohydrate calories. Additional control and EtOH-treated groups were supplemented with the antioxidant N-acetylc...

  20. Ethanol production utilizing waste heat. Submission of initial information. Task 2. Market study for fuel alcohol and by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.

    1982-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to provide initial information on the markets for the ethanol and by-products from the Paducah ethanol plant, and to provide initial unit revenue estimates for project feasibility calculations. The body of the report provides information related to the former purpose. This section provides the initial estimates on unit product revenues. Several applications are feasible for each of the products; ethanol and the by-products of distillers' grains and CO/sub 2/. The most studied application of the ethanol is as a gasoline blend. That for the distillers' grains is for a bulk animal feed. Projections for 25 years of unit revenues for these two applications are provided. For initial product estimates, these serve as the unit revenues. These are initial, incomplete estimates only. Further refinement requires more detailed study of the conditions in the Paducah area and the specifics of plant output. In addition, no product revenue estimates are provided for the CO/sub 2/. Some studies indicate that these revenues can make a contribution to plant income. However, the market and revenue potential are very site-specific. Further analysis, of conditions in the Paducah area, is needed to assess the revenue potential from the CO/sub 2/. 5 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  1. Ethanol potently and competitively inhibits binding of the alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 to α4/6β3δ GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hanchar, H. Jacob; Chutsrinopkun, Panida; Meera, Pratap; Supavilai, Porntip; Sieghart, Werner; Wallner, Martin; Olsen, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Although GABAA receptors have long been implicated in mediating ethanol (EtOH) actions, receptors containing the “nonsynaptic” δ subunit only recently have been shown to be uniquely sensitive to EtOH. Here, we show that δ subunit-containing receptors bind the imidazo-benzodiazepines (BZs) flumazenil and Ro15-4513 with high affinity (Kd < 10 nM), contrary to the widely held belief that these receptors are insensitive to BZs. In immunopurified native cerebellar and recombinant δ subunit-containing receptors, binding of the alcohol antagonist [3H]Ro15-4513 is inhibited by low concentrations of EtOH (Ki ≈ 8 mM). Also, Ro15-4513 binding is inhibited by BZ-site ligands that have been shown to reverse the behavioral alcohol antagonism of Ro15-4513 (i.e., flumazenil, β-carbolinecarboxylate ethyl ester (β-CCE), and N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG7142), but not including any classical BZ agonists like diazepam). Experiments that were designed to distinguish between a competitive and allosteric mechanism suggest that EtOH and Ro15-4513 occupy a mutually exclusive binding site. The fact that only Ro15-4513, but not flumazenil, can inhibit the EtOH effect, and that Ro15-4513 differs from flumazenil by only a single group in the molecule (an azido group at the C7 position of the BZ ring) suggest that this azido group in Ro15-4513 might be the area that overlaps with the alcohol-binding site. Our findings, combined with previous observations that Ro15-4513 is a behavioral alcohol antagonist, suggest that many of the behavioral effects of EtOH at relevant physiological concentrations are mediated by EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAA receptors. PMID:16581914

  2. Ethanol potently and competitively inhibits binding of the alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 to alpha4/6beta3delta GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Hanchar, H Jacob; Chutsrinopkun, Panida; Meera, Pratap; Supavilai, Porntip; Sieghart, Werner; Wallner, Martin; Olsen, Richard W

    2006-05-30

    Although GABA(A) receptors have long been implicated in mediating ethanol (EtOH) actions, receptors containing the "nonsynaptic" delta subunit only recently have been shown to be uniquely sensitive to EtOH. Here, we show that delta subunit-containing receptors bind the imidazo-benzodiazepines (BZs) flumazenil and Ro15-4513 with high affinity (K(d) < 10 nM), contrary to the widely held belief that these receptors are insensitive to BZs. In immunopurified native cerebellar and recombinant delta subunit-containing receptors, binding of the alcohol antagonist [(3)H]Ro15-4513 is inhibited by low concentrations of EtOH (K(i) approximately 8 mM). Also, Ro15-4513 binding is inhibited by BZ-site ligands that have been shown to reverse the behavioral alcohol antagonism of Ro15-4513 (i.e., flumazenil, beta-carbolinecarboxylate ethyl ester (beta-CCE), and N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG7142), but not including any classical BZ agonists like diazepam). Experiments that were designed to distinguish between a competitive and allosteric mechanism suggest that EtOH and Ro15-4513 occupy a mutually exclusive binding site. The fact that only Ro15-4513, but not flumazenil, can inhibit the EtOH effect, and that Ro15-4513 differs from flumazenil by only a single group in the molecule (an azido group at the C7 position of the BZ ring) suggest that this azido group in Ro15-4513 might be the area that overlaps with the alcohol-binding site. Our findings, combined with previous observations that Ro15-4513 is a behavioral alcohol antagonist, suggest that many of the behavioral effects of EtOH at relevant physiological concentrations are mediated by EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABA(A) receptors. PMID:16581914

  3. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  4. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  5. Effects of alcohols on murine preimplantation development: relationship to relative membrane disordering potency.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, C L; Stachecki, J J; Schultz, J F; Leach, R E; Armant, D R

    1996-05-01

    During in vitro culture of murine preimplantation embryos, we have observed that exposure to 0.1% ethanol induces an immediate increase in intracellular calcium levels and subsequently accelerates embryogenesis. If the observed effects of ethanol on developing embryos is mediated by its membrane disordering potency, we hypothesized that the relative membrane disordering potencies of related alcohols would correspondingly effect embryonic intracellular calcium levels and developmental rates. Two-cell embryos were exposed to 0.1% ethanol or 0.05 to 1.0% (w/v) n-butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, or methanol for 24 hr at 37 degrees C, and development to the blastocyst stage was monitored after 5 days. n-Butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and methanol treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition (p < 0.01) of development to the blastocyst stage, whereas 1,2-propanediol or glycerol neither accelerated nor inhibited development. In a second experiment, 8-cell morulae were treated with 1,2-propanediol or glycerol, and cavitation rates were examined. There was no significant difference from control embryos in the onset of cavitation or the blastocoel expansion rate of 1,2-propanediol- or glycerol-exposed embryos, whereas exposure to 0.1% ethanol accelerate cavitation (p > 0.05). In a third experiment, morulae were exposed to 0.1% or 1.0% of each alcohol and were monitored for changes in intracellular calcium levels using the fluorescent indicator, fluo-3-acetoxymethyl ester. There was an immediate increase in intracellular calcium levels when morulae were treated with 1.0% ethanol or n-butanol, but only ethanol induced an increase (p < 0.05) in the level of intracellular calcium at 0.1%. These data suggest that ethanol is unique in its ability to accelerate embryogenesis and that the membrane disordering potency of ethanol does not directly underlie its effects on intracellular calcium release and the acceleration of preimplantation development

  6. A novel electrochemiluminescence ethanol biosensor based on tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II) and alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized in graphene/bovine serum albumin composite film.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Yunsheng; Xi, Jing; Lin, Shaoyu; Chen, Yaowen; Lin, Yuejuan; Chen, Zhanguang

    2013-03-15

    We developed a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ethanol biosensor based on Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized by graphene/bovine serum albumin composite film. The graphene film was directly formed on a glassy carbon electrode surface via an in situ reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) was immobilized during its formation. The graphene film acted as both a decorating agent for immobilization of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and a matrix to immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA), meanwhile BSA not only acted as a reductant to reduce GO, but also provided a friendly environment for ADH immobilization. Furthermore, ADH was separated from Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) by the electron-conductive graphene/BSA composite film to retain its enzymatic activity. The experimental results indicated that the biosensor had excellent electrochemical activity, ECL response to ethanol and stability. Such a design of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-graphene/BSA film to modify electrode holds a great promise as a new biocompatible platform for the development of enzyme-based ECL biosensors. PMID:23122751

  7. Anaerobic removal of 1-methoxy-2-propanol under ambient temperature in an EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Lafita, C; Penya-roja, J M; Gabaldón, C

    2015-11-01

    Two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors were operated at 18 and 25 °C, respectively, for the treatment of synthetic wastewater composed of ethanol and 1-methoxy-2-propanol (M2P) in a mass ratio of 4:1. Reactors were operated first with continuous wastewater supply and after with discontinuous substrate supply (5 days a week, 16 h a day) to simulate shift working conditions. Under continuous wastewater supply chemical oxygen demand (COD), removal efficiency higher than 95 % was achieved at the end of the trial applying organic loading rates (OLR) of 29 and 43 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) at 18 and 25 °C; thus, corresponding to M2P OLR of 6.4 and 9.3 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), respectively. During intermittent supply of substrate, good performance was recorded at both temperatures with an OLR of 30 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) (M2P OLR of 6.6 kg COD m(-3) day(-1)). After 56 h without substrate supply, a decline in methane yield of 15-30 % was observed due to the deactivation of the biomass. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays were carried out at the end of the experiments. SMA values using 1-methoxy-2-propanol as substrate were 24.3 and 7.8 ml CH4 gVSS(-1) day(-1) at 25 °C and at 18 °C, respectively. This is the first attempt to investigate the removal of 1-methoxy-2-propanol by EGSB reactors. PMID:26288950

  8. Quantum-chemical modeling of energy parameters and vibrational spectra of chain and cyclic clusters of monohydric alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, P.; Doroshenko, I.; Pogorelov, V.

    2014-05-01

    The specific peculiarities of alcohols such as heightened viscosity, boiling temperature and surface tension can be explained by the capability of their molecules to form relatively stable associates named clusters due to hydrogen bonding. In present work the stability of different chain-like and cyclic clusters of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol was investigated by means of quantum-chemical simulation and particular by recently developed DFT exchange-correlation functional M06-2X. The relative stability of the cluster structure was evaluated by the total energy per molecule at low temperatures (where all alcohols exist in solid state) and by the changing of the free Gibbs energy upon cluster formation at the room temperature. For the verification of revealed results the conformity of calculated IR spectra of the most stable cluster structures with the experimental IR spectra at different temperatures was analyzed.

  9. Volumetric Properties of Dilute Aqueous Solutions of 1- and 2-propanol to 50 MPa and 373.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, J.; Bahramian, J.; Blackwell, R.; Inaki, T.; York, D.; Schulte, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The need to accurately model and understand reactions among organic compounds and biomolecules in solution is necessary to develop realistic chemical models for the reactions leading to the emergence of life and metabolic processes of extremophiles under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. Unfortunately, the scarcity of experimentally determined volumetric (and other) properties for important compounds at high temperatures and pressures leads to uncertainty in the calculation of reaction properties. Experimentally determined volumetric properties of aqueous solutions at non-standard conditions provide direct tests of current estimation methods and aid in the refinement of these methods. The goal of our research is to provide a database of experimentally determined volumetric properties. In previous studies, we have examined important organic molecules and biomolecules such as adenosine, coenzyme M and D-ribose. In this study, we investigate the volumetric properties of the structural isomers 1- and 2-propanol. 1-propanol (n-propanol) is a primary alcohol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and 2-propanol (isopropanol) is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol (CH3CHOHCH3). These compounds differ slightly in structure depending on to which carbon atom the hydroxyl group is bonded and will provide a sensitive test of current estimation methods and lead to more accurate predictions of the properties of complex aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and pressures. We obtained the densities of aqueous solutions of the alchohols using an Anton Paar DMA HP vibrating tube densimeter. Pressure was measured (pressure transducer) to an accuracy of ±0.01% and temperature was measured (integrated platinum thermometer) with an accuracy of ±0.05 K. Experimental uncertainty of density measurements is less than ±0.0001 g·cm-3. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution (V∞) for 1- and 2-propanol were calculated from the measured densities and are shown in the figure at 0

  10. Combustion chemistry of the propanol isomers : investigated by electron ionization and VUV-photoionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Kohse-Hoinghaus, Katharina; Cool, Terrill A.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Struckmeier, Ulf; OBwald, Patrick; Morel, Aude; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Kasper, Tina Silvia

    2008-10-01

    The combustion of 1-propanol and 2-propanol was studied in low-pressure, premixed flat flames using two independent molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques. For each alcohol, a set of three flames with different stoichiometries was measured, providing an extensive data base with in total twelve conditions. Profiles of stable and intermediate species, including several radicals, were measured as a function of height above the burner. The major-species mole fraction profiles in the 1-propanol flames and the 2-propanol flames of corresponding stoichiometry are nearly identical, and only small quantitative variations in the intermediate species pool could be detected. Differences between flames of the isomeric fuels are most pronounced for oxygenated intermediates that can be formed directly from the fuel during the oxidation process. The analysis of the species pool in the set of flames was greatly facilitated by using two complementary MBMS techniques. One apparatus employs electron ionization (EI) and the other uses VUV light for single-photon ionization (VUV-PI). The photoionization technique offers a much higher energy resolution than electron ionization and as a consequence, near-threshold photoionization-efficiency measurements provide selective detection of individual isomers. The EI data are recorded with a higher mass resolution than the PI spectra, thus enabling separation of mass overlaps of species with similar ionization energies that may be difficult to distinguish in the photoionization data. The quantitative agreement between the EI- and PI-datasets is good. In addition, the information in the EI- and PI-datasets is complementary, aiding in the assessment of the quality of individual burner profiles. The species profiles are supplemented by flame temperature profiles. The considerable experimental efforts to unambiguously assign intermediate species and to provide reliable quantitative concentrations are thought to be valuable for improving

  11. Combustion chemistry of the propanol isomers - investigated by electron ionization and VUV-photoionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, T.; Osswald, P.; Struckmeier, U.; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, K.; Taatjes, C.A.; Wang, J.; Cool, T.A.; Law, M.E.; Morel, A.; Westmoreland, P.R.

    2009-06-15

    The combustion of 1-propanol and 2-propanol was studied in low-pressure, premixed flat flames using two independent molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques. For each alcohol, a set of three flames with different stoichiometries was measured, providing an extensive data base with in total twelve conditions. Profiles of stable and intermediate species, including several radicals, were measured as a function of height above the burner. The major-species mole fraction profiles in the 1-propanol flames and the 2-propanol flames of corresponding stoichiometry are nearly identical, and only small quantitative variations in the intermediate species pool could be detected. Differences between flames of the isomeric fuels are most pronounced for oxygenated intermediates that can be formed directly from the fuel during the oxidation process. The analysis of the species pool in the set of flames was greatly facilitated by using two complementary MBMS techniques. One apparatus employs electron ionization (EI) and the other uses VUV light for single-photon ionization (VUV-PI). The photoionization technique offers a much higher energy resolution than electron ionization and as a consequence, near-threshold photoionization-efficiency measurements provide selective detection of individual isomers. The EI data are recorded with a higher mass resolution than the PI spectra, thus enabling separation of mass overlaps of species with similar ionization energies that may be difficult to distinguish in the photoionization data. The quantitative agreement between the EI- and PI-datasets is good. In addition, the information in the EI- and PI-datasets is complementary, aiding in the assessment of the quality of individual burner profiles. The species profiles are supplemented by flame temperature profiles. The considerable experimental efforts to unambiguously assign intermediate species and to provide reliable quantitative concentrations are thought to be valuable for improving

  12. Systematic analysis of intracellular mechanisms of propanol production in the engineered Thermobifida fusca B6 strain.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Fisher, Adam B; Fong, Stephen S

    2015-10-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic actinobacterium naturally capable of utilizing lignocellulosic biomass. The B6 strain of T. fusca was previously engineered to produce 1-propanol directly on lignocellulosic biomass by expressing a bifunctional butyraldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2). To characterize the intracellular mechanisms related to the accumulation of 1-propanol, the engineered B6 and wild-type (WT) strains were systematically compared by analysis of the transcriptome and intracellular metabolome during exponential growth on glucose, cellobiose, and Avicel. Of the 18 known cellulases in T. fusca, 10 cellulase genes were transcriptionally expressed on all three substrates along with three hemicellulases. Transcriptomic analysis of cellodextrin and cellulose transport revealed that Tfu_0936 (multiple sugar transport system permease) was the key enzyme regulating the uptake of sugars in T. fusca. For both WT and B6 strains, it was found that growth in oxygen-limited conditions resulted in a blocked tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle caused by repressed expression of Tfu_1925 (aconitate hydratase). Further, the transcriptome suggested a pathway for synthesizing succinyl-CoA: oxaloacetate to malate (by malate dehydrogenase), malate to fumarate (by fumarate hydratase), and fumarate to succinate (by succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase) which was ultimately converted to succinyl-CoA by succinyl-CoA synthetase. Both the transcriptome and the intracellular metabolome confirmed that 1-propanol was produced through succinyl-CoA, L-methylmalonyl-CoA, D-methylmalonyl-CoA, and propionyl-CoA in the B6 strain. PMID:26227414

  13. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  14. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction. PMID:24644103

  15. A functionally critical single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase found in ethanol oxidation-deficient Gluconobacter thailandicus.

    PubMed

    Charoenyingcharoen, Piyanat; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Theeragool, Gunjana; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2015-08-10

    The Gluconobacter thailandicus strains NBRC3254, NBRC3255, NBRC3256, NBRC3257, and NBRC3258 are naturally deficient in the ethanol-oxidizing respiratory chain because they do not produce the cytochrome subunit of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Draft genomes of G. thailandicus strains NBRC3255 and NBRC3257 indicated that the adhB gene encoding the cytochrome subunit contains four base differences when compared to a closely related gene in the public database One of the nucleotide differences results in an Opal codon at the -19th tryptophan (Trp) in the signal sequence for translocation to the periplasmic space (here, the position of +1st residue is assigned to the N-terminal amino acid residue after signal peptide cleavage), while the other differences result in one missense and two silent amino acid alterations. All five of the G. thailandicus strains were shown to have the Trp(-19)Opal alteration. Ethanol oxidation and ADH activities in NBRC3255 were restored by transformation with a derivative of the endogenous adhB gene, of which the -19th Opal codon was altered to encode Trp. These results indicate that this sequence is a functionally critical single nucleotide polymorphism in the cytochrome subunit. Comparative genomic analyses between the draft genomes of NBRC3255 and NBRC3257 revealed that although the two genomes are closely related, they both have a significant number of unique open reading frames. We suggest that the closely related NBRC3255 and NBRC3257 diverged from a common ancestor having the mutation in the adhB gene, whereas no additional functionally critical mutation occurred in the adhB pseudogene over the course of evolution. PMID:25943635

  16. Increasing alcohol yield by selected yeast fermentation of sweet sorghum. I. Evaluation of yeast strains for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    de Mancilha, I.M.; Pearson, A.M.; Waller, J.; Hogaboam, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating and selecting yeast strains for their ability to produce ethanol using sweet sorghum juice as the substrate. Stalks of sweet sorghum were obtained by cutting off the tops and stripping away the leaves. Fermentation media were prepared by diluting or adding dextrose to the sorghum juice to give a sugar concentration of either 10% (w/v) or 20% (w/v). All yeast strains were first tested in 10% (w/v) total sugar medium. Those strains showing more than 90% sugar conversion efficiency were further tested in 20% (w/v) total sugar medium. Active cultures for inoculation were prepared by growing the yeast strains on the fermentation medium (10% (w/v) total sugar) for 24 h. Then the cultures were added to the fermentation media at a rate of 2%.

  17. Alcohol drinking increases the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol and reduces D2 auto-receptor and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor function within the posterior ventral tegmental area of alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J

    2016-10-01

    Repeated local administration of ethanol (EtOH) sensitized the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the local dopamine (DA)-stimulating effects of EtOH. Chronic alcohol drinking increased nucleus accumbens (NAC) DA transmission and pVTA glutamate transmission in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of chronic alcohol drinking by P rats on the (a) sensitivity and response of the pVTA DA neurons to the DA-stimulating actions of EtOH, and (b) negative feedback control of DA (via D2 auto-receptors) and glutamate (via group II mGlu auto-receptors) release in the pVTA. EtOH (50 or 150 mg%) or the D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 or 200 μM) was microinjected into the pVTA while DA was sampled with microdialysis in the NAC shell (NACsh). The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (1 or 10 μM) was perfused through the pVTA via reverse microdialysis and local extracellular glutamate and DA levels were measured. EtOH produced a more robust increase of NACsh DA in the 'EtOH' than 'Water' groups (e.g., 150 mg% EtOH: to ∼ 210 vs 150% of baseline). In contrast, sulpiride increased DA release in the NACsh more in the 'Water' than 'EtOH' groups (e.g., 200 μM sulpiride: to ∼ 190-240 vs 150-160% of baseline). LY341495 (at 10 μM) increased extracellular glutamate and DA levels in the 'Water' (to ∼ 150-180% and 180-230% of baseline, respectively) but not the 'EtOH' groups. These results indicate that alcohol drinking enhanced the DA-stimulating effects of EtOH, and attenuated the functional activities of D2 auto-receptors and group II mGluRs within the pVTA. PMID:27260326

  18. Production of the aroma chemicals 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol and 3-(methylthio)-propylacetate with yeasts.

    PubMed

    Etschmann, M M W; Kötter, P; Hauf, J; Bluemke, W; Entian, K-D; Schrader, J

    2008-09-01

    Yeasts can convert amino acids to flavor alcohols following the Ehrlich pathway, a reaction sequence comprising transamination, decarboxylation, and reduction. The alcohols can be further derivatized to the acetate esters by alcohol acetyl transferase. Using L: -methionine as sole nitrogen source and at high concentration, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol) and 3-(methylthio)-propylacetate (3-MTPA) were produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methionol and 3-MTPA acted growth inhibiting at concentrations of >5 and >2 g L(-1), respectively. With the wild type strain S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, 3.5 g L(-1) methionol and trace amounts of 3-MTPA were achieved in a bioreactor. Overexpression of the alcohol acetyl transferase gene ATF1 under the control of a TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter together with an optimization of the glucose feeding regime led to product concentrations of 2.2 g L(-1) 3-MTPA plus 2.5 g L(-1) methionol. These are the highest concentrations reported up to now for the biocatalytic synthesis of these flavor compounds which are applied in the production of savory aroma compositions such as meat, potato, and cheese flavorings. PMID:18597084

  19. Effect of temperature on the dynamics of benzophenone anion solvation in alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Jonah, C.D.

    1996-04-25

    The solvation of the benzophenone anion in 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol has been measured over the temperature range -10 to -50{degree}C. The initial spectra of the benzophenone anion were very similar in all three alcohols. The final spectrum of the benzophenone anion in 2-propanol is less blue-shifted (17nm) than the spectrum of the anion in 1-propanol and 1-butanol. The activation energies for solvation are 22 kJ/mol for 1-propanol and 1-butanol and 16 kJ/mol for 2-propanol, which are similar to the energy for hydrogen bond breakage in the pure solvents. This suggests that the solvent H-bond breakage plays an important role in anion solvation. 37 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. False-positive breath-alcohol test after a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Rössner, S

    2007-03-01

    A 59-year-old man undergoing weight loss with very low calorie diets (VLCD) attempted to drive a car, which was fitted with an alcohol ignition interlock device, but the vehicle failed to start. Because the man was a teetotaller, he was surprised and upset by this result. VLCD treatment leads to ketonemia with high concentrations of acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in the blood. The interlock device determines alcohol (ethanol) in breath by electrochemical oxidation, but acetone does not undergo oxidation with this detector. However, under certain circumstances acetone is reduced in the body to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ignition interlock device responds to other alcohols (e.g. methanol, n-propanol and isopropanol), which therefore explains the false-positive result. This 'side effect' of ketogenic diets needs further discussion by authorities when people engaged in safety-sensitive work (e.g. bus drivers and airline pilots) submit to random breath-alcohol tests. PMID:16894360

  1. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  2. N-substituted monodentate alcohols as ligands modifying structure, properties and thermal stability of Mo(IV) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurowska, Anna; Szklarzewicz, Janusz; Hodorowicz, Maciej; Tomecka, Monika; Lipkowski, Janusz; Nitek, Wojciech

    2015-02-01

    The reaction of N-substituted alcohols (2-aminoethanol, 3-amino-1-propanol and 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine) with K3Na[Mo(CN)4O2]ṡ6H2O in water-ethanol solution results in isolation of three new complexes of formulae: (PPh4)2[Mo(CN)4O(amet)]ṡ3H2O (1), (amet = 2-aminoethanol), (PPh4)2[Mo(CN)4O(ampro)]ṡ3H2O (2) (ampro = 3-amino-1-propanol) and (PPh4)2[Mo(CN)4O(ethyd)]ṡ3H2O (3) (ethyd = 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine). The isolated salts were characterized by elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray structure measurements, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes crystalize in triclinic space group with distorted octahedral geometry of the anion. The obtained salts belongs to a very rare group of complexes with monodentate terminal N-donating alcohols. The thermal stability is described for all complexes and compared with crystal structure parameters.

  3. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  4. Ethanol and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, A Y; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Neve, E; Matsumoto, H; Nishitani, Y; Minowa, Y; Fukui, Y; Bailey, S M; Patel, V B; Cunningham, C C; Zima, T; Fialova, L; Mikulikova, L; Popov, P; Malbohan, I; Janebova, M; Nespor, K; Sun, G Y

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Albert Y. Sun. The presentations were (1) Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 in alcoholic liver disease, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg and Etienne Neve; (2) Regulation of NF-kappaB by ethanol, by H. Matsumoto, Y. Nishitani, Y. Minowa, and Y. Fukui; (3) Chronic ethanol consumption increases concentration of oxidized proteins in rat liver, by Shannon M. Bailey, Vinood B. Patel, and Carol C. Cunningham; (4) Antiphospholipids antibodies and oxidized modified low-density lipoprotein in chronic alcoholic patients, by Tomas Zima, Lenka Fialova, Ludmila Mikulikova, Ptr Popov, Ivan Malbohan, Marta Janebova, and Karel Nespor; and (5) Amelioration of ethanol-induced damage by polyphenols, by Albert Y. Sun and Grace Y. Sun. PMID:11391077

  5. Hygienic safety of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauer, Katrin; Meyer, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Rödger, Hans-Joachim; Hintzpeter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall risk of hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics to become contaminated with bacterial spores throughout the production process and the subsequent in-use period, hence posing a public health risk. Methods: Microbiological assessment of primary packaging material was carried out and long-term survival of bacterial spores in alcohol was assessed using sporulated B. subtilis ATCC 6633 as a standard. In-use contamination of alcohol-based formulations was tested by repeated use over 12 months under practical conditions and microbiological and physico-chemical data were determined. Results: Among 625 containers analyzed, 542 did not yield any microbial growth. Median colony count for aerobic spore-forming bacteria was 0.2 cfu/10 ml container content. No anaerobic spore-forming bacteria were detected. Additionally, long-term survival of bacterial spores in aliphatic C2–C3 alcohols revealed 1-propanol to reduce the number of spores most effectively, with 2-propanol and ethanol having a somewhat less pronounced impact. In-use tests did not detect any microbial contamination or change in the physicochemical properties of the tested products over 12 months. Conclusions: Our data reveals that state-of-the-art production processes of alcohol-based hand rubs and antiseptics can be regarded safe. Primary packaging material and use were not found to pose a significant contamination risk as far as bacterial spores are concerned. Based on the data from this study, a microbial limit of <1 cfu/10 ml can be suggested as a quality-control threshold for finished goods to ensure high quality and safe products. PMID:24327945

  6. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  7. Liquid-feed direct oxidation fuel cells using neat 2-propanol as fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhigang; Kaufman, Arthur

    Neat 2-propanol was used as the fuel in liquid-feed direct oxidation fuel cells. The fuel that was intentionally not mixed with any amount of water was oxidized directly at the fuel cell anode. The fuel cell showed very good performance. For example, at a cell temperature of 60 °C and an air flow rate of 970 ml/min, the cell output voltage was as high as 0.485 V at a current density of 200 mA/cm 2. This performance was among the highest numbers ever reported for liquid-feed direct oxidation fuel cells. The energy density of a fuel cell using a neat fuel is expected to be much higher than that of one using dilute fuel solutions because the latter needs to carry between 10 and 30 parts by weight of water for each part of alcohol.

  8. IR spectroscopy on isolated Co(n)(alcohol)m cluster anions (n=1-4, m=1-3): structures and spin states.

    PubMed

    Bialach, P M; Funk, A; Weiler, M; Gerhards, M

    2010-11-21

    Isolated cobalt-alcohol cluster anions containing n=1-4 cobalt and m=1-3 alcohol molecules (alcohol=methanol, ethanol, propanol) are produced in a supersonic beam by using a laser ablation source. By applying IR photodissociation spectroscopy vibrational spectra in the OH stretching region are obtained. Several structures in different spin states are discussed for the (n,m) clusters. In comparison with density functional theory calculations applied to both the Co/alcohol clusters and the naked Co cluster anions, an unambiguous structural assignment is achieved. It turns out that structures are preferred with a maximum number of hydrogen bonds between the OH groups and the Co···Co units. These hydrogen bonds are typical for anionic species leading to an activation of the OH groups which is indicated by large red-shifts of the OH stretching frequencies compared to the naked alcohols. For each (n,m) cluster, the frequency shifts systematically with respect to the different alcohols, but the type of structure is identical for all alcohol ligands. The application of IR spectroscopy turns out to be an ideal tool not only as a probe for structures but also for spin states which significantly influence the predicted OH stretching frequencies. PMID:21090859

  9. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  10. Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

  11. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  12. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  13. Isothermal Nucleation Rates of n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and n-Pentanol in Supersonic Nozzles: Critical Cluster Sizes and the Role of Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Mullick, K; Bhabhe, A; Manka, A; Wölk, J; Strey, R; Wyslouzil, B E

    2015-07-23

    We follow the nucleation of n-alcohols, n-propanol through n-pentanol, in two sets of supersonic nozzles having differing linear expansion rates. Combining the data from static pressure trace measurements with small-angle X-ray scattering we report the experimental nucleation rates and critical cluster sizes. For n-propanol, position resolved measurements clearly confirm that coagulation of the 2-10 nm size (radius) droplets occurs on the time scale of the experiment but that the effect of coagulation on the results is minimal. Under the conditions of the current experiments, our results suggest that alcohols have critical clusters that range from the dimer (n-pentanol) to the hexamer (n-propanol). We then compare the experimental results with classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Girshick-Chiu variant of CNT (GC), and the mean field kinetic nucleation theory (MKNT). Both CNT and MKNT underestimate the nucleation rates by up to 5 and 7 orders of magnitude, respectively, while GC theory predicts rates within 2 orders of magnitude. Correspondingly, the critical cluster size for all alcohols is overpredicted by factors of 2-9 with agreement improving with increasing chain length. An interesting byproduct of our experiments is that we find that the coagulation rate is enhanced by a factor of 3 over the value one would calculate for the free molecule regime. PMID:25361235

  14. Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

  15. Scleroglucan compatibility with thickeners, alcohols and polyalcohols and downstream processing implications.

    PubMed

    Viñarta, Silvana C; Yossen, Mariana M; Vega, Jorge R; Figueroa, Lucía I C; Fariña, Julia I

    2013-02-15

    Thickening capacity and compatibility of scleroglucan with commercial thickeners (corn starch, gum arabic, carboxymethylcellulose, gelatin, xanthan and pectin), glycols (ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol), alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and isopropanol) and polyalcohols (sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol) was explored. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from Sclerotium rolfsii ATCC 201126 and a commercial scleroglucan were compared. Compatibility and synergism were evaluated taking into account rheology, pH and sensory properties of different thickener/scleroglucan mixtures in comparison with pure solutions. S. rolfsii ATCC 201126 EPSs induced or increased pseudoplastic behaviour with a better performance than commercial scleroglucan, showing compatibility and synergy particularly with corn starch, xanthan, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose. Compatibility and a slight synergistic behaviour were also observed with 30% (w/v) ethylene glycol whereas mixtures with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitated. Scleroglucan was compatible with polyalcohols, whilst lower alcohols led to scleroglucan precipitation at 20% (v/v) and above. PEG-based scleroglucan downstream processing was compared to the usual alcohol precipitation. Downstream processed EPSi (with isopropanol) and EPS-p (with PEG) were evaluated on their yield, purity, rheological properties and visual aspect pointing to alcohol downstream processing as the best methodology, whilst PEG recovery would be unsuitable. The highest purified EPSi attained a recovery yield of ~23%, similar to ethanol purification, with a high degree of purity (88%, w/w vs. EPS-p, 8%, w/w) and exhibited optimal rheological properties, water solubility and appearance. With a narrower molecular weight distribution (M(w), 2.66×10(6) g/mol) and a radius of gyration (R(w), 245 nm) slightly lower than ethanol-purified EPSs, isopropanol downstream processing showed to be a proper methodology for obtaining a refined-grade scleroglucan. PMID

  16. Effects of systemic opioid receptor ligands on ethanol- and sucrose seeking and drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) and Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela; Czachowski, Cristine

    2014-11-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in mediating the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH). Naltrexone (NTX), an opioid antagonist with concentration-dependent selectivity for the mu receptor, naltrindole (NTI), a selective delta receptor antagonist, and U50,488H, a selective kappa receptor agonist were examined in both alcohol-preferring (P) and nonselected (Long Evans (LE)) rats to determine whether they differentially affected the seeking and consumption of EtOH and sucrose. Using the sipper-tube model, rats reinforced with either 2% sucrose or 10% EtOH were injected with vehicle and either NTI (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg), U50 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg), low-dose NTX (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg), or high-dose NTX (1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg). Subsequent intakes (consummatory) or lever responses (seeking) were assessed. Overall, NTI, U50, and NTX attenuated intake and responding for sucrose and EtOH, with EtOH-reinforced P rats being the most sensitive to the effects of NTI on intake and seeking. U50 treatment decreased intake and seeking in both P and LE rats but did not selectively reduce EtOH intake or seeking in either line. P rats were more sensitive than LE rats to lower doses of NTX, and these doses more selectively attenuated responding for EtOH than sucrose. Higher doses of NTX suppressed intake and responding across both lines and reinforcers. These results suggest that drugs selective for the opioid receptors may be good pharmacotherapeutic targets, particularly in those with an underlying genetic predisposition for greater EtOH preference/intake. PMID:24770627

  17. Electrical response of monolayer MoS2 to vapors of aliphatic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, Pablo; Ramos, Idalia; Naylor, Carl; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Pinto, Nicholas

    Monolayer MoS2 crystals were used to sense vapors of Methanol, Ethanol and 1-Propanol. Due to the large surface area, these sensors are expected to show rapid response and recovery times. The current through the sensor was monitored as a function of time with a constant applied voltage. This current decreased in the presence of the sensing gas and recovered upon its removal. Our results show that the response time gets longer as the size of the alcohol increases, but the recovery time stays approximately the same (~20s) regardless of the size of the alcohol. The sensitivity was also seen to decrease as the size of the alcohol increased. These observations could be associated with the slower diffusion of the larger alcohol molecules into the MoS2 crystal. The sensors are also fairly robust since the same sensor was used in all of the measurements after annealing in air at 70C for 10 minutes. Additional sensing measurements as a function of gas concentration will also be presented. This work was supported by NSF under Grants DMR-PREM-1523463 and DMR-RUI-1360772.

  18. Effect of alcohol treatment on the performance of PTB7:PC71BM bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Cao, Biye; Wang, Weijia; Moulin, Jean-François; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The effect of an environmentally friendly alcohol treatment on bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells using the low-bandgap copolymer based on thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene units and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester is systematically investigated. Different alcohols are tested, and besides the most commonly used methanol treatment, other alcohols such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol also improve the device performance to certain extents as compared to the untreated solar cells. Changes of the surface structure caused by the alcohol treatment are probed with atomic force microscopy, and the modification of inner film morphology is probed by time-of-flight-grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering (TOF-GISANS). UV/vis measurements show that the thickness of all BHJ films remains unchanged by the different solvent treatments. Thus, the enhanced device performance induced by the alcohol treatments is correlated to the reconstruction of the inner film structures probed with TOF-GISANS and the modified energy levels at the interfaces between the BHJ layer and the aluminum electrodes, evident by the enhanced short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of the I-V curves. PMID:25668222

  19. Size distribution of associated clusters in liquid alcohols: Interpretation of simulation results in the frame of SAFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeček, Jiří; Paricaud, Patrice

    2013-11-01

    The size distribution and topology of associated clusters for primary alcohols is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, and octanol are simulated at pressure P = 1 bar and temperatures T = 300 K, T = 350 K, and T = 400 K. The fractions of molecules with different sets of hydrogen bonded partners, the size of associated cluster and the site-site distribution functions between atoms participating on hydrogen bonding are extracted from simulated trajectories. For all alcohols longer than ethanol, the length of the alkyl chain has only a marginal effect on the association. Consequently, related properties like coordination numbers of hydroxyl group, size distribution of associates, or fractions of differently coordinated alcohol molecules are independent on the molecular size. Although we employed a force-field without involved polarizability, we observe a positive cooperativity of hydrogen bonding simply as a consequence of steric and electrostatic interactions. The size and topology of associates is analyzed within the frame of 3B model of statistical association fluid theory. Although this approach enables good thermodynamic description of systems containing associating compounds, several insufficiencies appear in the description at molecular level.

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  1. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  2. Ethanol versus naphtha under Brazil's economy

    SciTech Connect

    Luchi, N.R.

    1982-05-01

    Ethanol is able to replace naphtha in two of its major usages, as raw material for ethylene production and as fuel for Otto engines. This possibility raises the question of value - or opportunity cost - of ethanol. Ethanol's economic value as a fuel is that value which equals the cost of the fuel consumed by a given vehicle travelling a given distance. In each case, unblended gasoline, a gasoline and ethanol blend or hydrated alcohol alone are the alternative fuels used. Ethanol's economic value as feedstock for producing ethylene is defined as that which makes the revenue from the ethylene derived from alcohol equal to the total revenue of products resulting from thermal cracking of 1 m/sup 3/ of naphtha. In this paper it is shown that ethanol's highest value corresponds to its use as hydrated alcohol feedstock for ethylene production. However, present tax laws and subsidies favor ethanol fuel use. 4 refs.

  3. Anaerobic 2-propanol degradation in anoxic paddy soil and the possible role of methanogens in its degradation.

    PubMed

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2004-08-01

    The anaerobic degradation of 2-propanol in anoxic paddy soil was studied with soil cultures and a 2-propanol-utilizing methanogen. Acetone was the first and the major intermediate involved in the methanogenic degradation of 2-propanol. Analyses with a methanogenesis inhibitor, bacteria antibiotics, and the addition of H2 to the gas phase revealed that 2-propanol oxidation to acetone directly occurred using 2-propanol-utilizing methanogens, but not with H2-producing syntrophic bacteria, for which the removal of acetone is required for complete 2-propanol oxidation. The 2-propanol-utilizing strain IIE1, which is phylogenetically closely related to Methanoculleus palmolei, was isolated from paddy soil, and the potential role of the strain in 2-propanol degradation was investigated. 2-Propanol is one of the representative fermentation intermediates in anaerobic environments. This is the first report on the anaerobic 2-propanol degradation process. PMID:15297909

  4. Organizational chirality expression as a function of the chirality measure of simple amino alcohols on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronci, F.; Gatti, R.; Caponi, G.; Colonna, S.; Galeotti, G.; Catone, D.; Turchini, S.; Prosperi, T.; Zema, N.; Palma, A.; Gori, P.; Contini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Chiral self-assembled molecular networks (SAMNs) are important for technological and fundamental reasons. In spite of the large number of works in this field, the mechanism of chirality transfer from single molecules to large-scale two-dimensional (2D) networks is not fully understood yet. This work reports on the self-assembly of simple amino alcohols with different chirality measures on Cu(100). Ethanolamine (2-amino-1-ethanol), alaninol (2-amino-1-propanol) and butanolamine (2-amino-1-butanol) adsorbed on Cu(100) have been investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This study addresses the role of the single-molecule handedness in the global chirality expression, showing how the chirality measure of the precursors plays an important role in the formation of globally chiral superstructures.

  5. The relationship between the adhesion work, the wettability and composition of the surface layer in the systems polymer/aqueous solution of anionic surfactants and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2010-11-01

    Measurements of advancing contact angle ( θ) were carried out on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDDS) mixtures with methanol, ethanol and propanol in the range of SDDS concentration from 10 -5 to 10 -2 M, and for sodium hexadecyl sulfonate (SHS) with the same alcohols at the SHS concentration ranging from 10 -5 to 8 × 10 -4 M at 293 K. The concentration of methanol, ethanol and propanol used for measurements varied from 0 to 21.1, 11.97 and 6.67 M, respectively. On the basis of the contact angles the critical surface tension of PTFE and PMMA wetting was determined by using for this purpose the relationship between the adhesion and the surface tension and cos θ and surface tension both at constant alcohol and surfactant concentration, respectively. The obtained contact angles were also used in the Young Dupre' equation for calculations of the adhesion work of aqueous solution of mixtures of anionic surfactants and short chain alcohols to PTFE and PMMA surface. The adhesion work calculated in this way was compared to that of the particular components of aqueous solution to these surfaces determined on the basis of the surface tension components and parameters of the surface tension of the surface active agents, water, PTFE and PMMA from van Oss et al. equation. The calculated adhesion work was discussed in the light of the concentration of surface active agents at polymer-water and water-air interface determined from Lucassen-Reynders, Gibbs and Guggenheim-Adam equations.

  6. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mackek, S. )

    1991-03-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed.

  7. Elastic scattering of slow electrons by n-pentanol alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Eliane M.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Lima, Marco A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We report elastic integral (ICS), differential (DCS) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCS) for low-energy electron scattering by n-pentanol alcohol in the gas phase. The Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials was employed in the calculations. The DCSs were computed for energies from 1 to 50 eV and the ICS and MTCS from 1 to 100 eV. Due to the significant value of the electric dipole moment, the DCSs are dominated by strong forward scattering. Despite this fact, the DCS around 10 eV displays a behavior related to a f-wave scattering pattern at intermediate angles which may be associated with shape resonances. This result is consistent with the ICS and the MTCS since they show a pronounced peak near this energy. For energies below 1 eV, the MTCS obtained in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation does not increase, as expected for polar molecules, suggesting that a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum could be present. This finding motivated us to revisit the previously studied methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol molecules and to perform new calculations for impact energies below 1 eV (not addressed before). With the inclusion of polarization effects, the MTCS for the five alcohols suggest a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum coming from the negative to the positive scattering energies. To the best of our knowledge, there are neither experimental nor calculated cross sections for comparison with the present results.

  8. The relationship between lysine 4 on histone H3 methylation levels of alcohol tolerance genes and changes of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Ji, Binfeng; Ren, Hongzhen; Meng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether epigenetic changes contributed to improve ethanol tolerance in mutant populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). Two ethanol-tolerant variants of S. cerevisiae were used to evaluate the genetic stability in the process of stress-free passage cultures. We found that acquired ethanol tolerance was lost and transcription level of some genes (HSP104, PRO1, TPS1, and SOD1) closely related to ethanol tolerance decreased significantly after the 10th passage in ethanol-free medium. Tri-methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) enhanced at the promoter of HSP104, PRO1, TPS1 and SOD1 in ethanol-tolerant variants of S. cerevisiae was also diminished after tenth passage in stress-free cultures. The ethanol tolerance was reacquired when exogenous SOD1 transferred in some tolerance-lost strains. This showed that H3K4 methylation is involved in phenotypic variation with regard to ethanol tolerance with respect to classic breeding methods used in yeast. PMID:24779776

  9. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  10. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets sup 3 H-paroxetine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P. ); Ernouf, D. ); Breton, P. ); Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding. When binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology.

  11. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L

    2016-06-21

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) or 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC+0.07mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH+0.07mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4weeks), the rats were administered 7 consecutive, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 200mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ∼30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ∼70% in the NIC-SUC group and ∼40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ∼40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF's efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence. PMID:27060486

  12. BHT blocks NfkB activation and Ethanol-Induced Brain Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binge ethanol administration causes corticolimbic brain damage that models alcoholic neurodegeneration. The mechanism of binge ethanol induced degeneration is unknown, but is not glutamate neurotoxicity. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and inflammation are mechanisms of binge ethanol ...

  13. Mass balance evaluation of alcohol emission from cattle feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage on dairy farms has been recognized as an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere, and therefore a contributor to tropospheric ozone. Considering reactivity and likely emission rates, ethanol, 1-propanol, and acetaldehyde probably make the largest contribution t...

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid water, some alcohols, and pure nonane in free micro jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, Manfred; Steiner, Björn; Toennies, J. Peter

    1997-06-01

    The recently developed technique of accessing volatile liquids in a high vacuum environment by using a very thin liquid jet is implemented to carry out the first measurements of photoelectron spectra of pure liquid water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and benzyl alcohol as well as of liquid n-nonane. The apparatus, which consists of a commercial hemispherical (10 cm mean radius) electron analyzer and a hollow cathode discharge He I light source is described in detail and the problems of the sampling of the photoelectrons in such an environment are discussed. For water and most of the alcohols up to six different electronic bands could be resolved. The spectra of 1-butanol and n-nonane show two weakly discernable peaks from which the threshold ionization potential could be determined. A deconvolution of the photoelectron spectra is used to extract ionization potentials of individual molecular bands of molecules near the surface of the liquid and shifts of the order of 1 eV compared to the gas phase are observed. A molecular orientation for water molecules at the surface of liquid water is inferred from a comparison of the relative band strengths with the gas phase. Similar effects are also observed for some of the alcohols. The results are discussed in terms of a simple "Born-solvation" model.

  15. Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Jan, Darrell L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Organic Acid and Alcohol Monitor (OAAM) program has resulted in the successful development of a computer controlled prototype analyzer capable of accurately determining aqueous organic acids and primary alcohol concentrations over a large dynamic range with high sensitivity. Formic, acetic, and propionic acid were accurately determined at concentrations as low as 5 to 10 micrograms/L in under 20 minutes, or as high as 10 to 20 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were determined at concentrations as low as 20 to 100 micrograms/L, or as high as 10 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Importantly for space based application, the OAAM requires no reagents or hazardous chemicals to perform these analyses needing only power, water, and CO2 free purge gas. The OAAM utilized two membrane processes to segregate organic acids from interfering ions. The organic acid concentration was then determined based upon the conductiometric signal. Separation of individual organic acids was accomplished using a chromatographic column. Alcohols are determined in a similar manner after conversion to organic acids by sequential biocatalytic and catalytic oxidation steps. The OAAM was designed to allow the early diagnosis of under performing or failing sub-systems within the Water Recovery System (WRS) baselined for the International Space Station (ISS). To achieve this goal, several new technologies were developed over the course of the OAAM program.

  16. Comparative studies on the alcohol types presence in Gracilaria sp. and rice fermentation using Sasad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansa, R.; Mansuit, H.; Sipaut, C. S.; Yee, C. F.; Yasir, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Alternative fuel sources such as biofuels are needed in order to overcome environmental problem caused by fossil fuel consumption. Currently, most biofuel are produced from land based crops and there is a possibility that marine biomass such as macroalgae can be an alternative source for biofuel production. The carbohydrate in macroalgae can be broken down into simple sugar through thermo-chemical hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute-acid hydrolysis was believed to be the most available and affordable method. However, the process may release inhibitors which would affect alcohol yield from fermentation. Thus, this work was aimed at investigating if it is possible to avoid this critical pre-treatment step in macroalgae fermentation process by using Sasad, a local Sabahan fermentation agent and to compare the yield with rice wine fermentation. This work hoped to determine and compare the alcohol content from Gracilaria sp. and rice fermentation with Sasad. Rice fermentation was found containing ethanol and 2 - methyl - 1 - propanol. Fermentation of Gracilaria sp. had shown the positive presence of 3 - methyl - 1 - butanol. It was found that Sasad can be used as a fermentation agent for bioalcohol production from Gracilaria sp. without the need for a pretreatment step. However further investigations are needed to determine if pre-treatment would increase the yield of alcohol.

  17. Ethanol from sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Day, D,F.

    1980-08-01

    Sweet sorghum has long been of interest to sugar farmers and sugar processors. The thought has been that one could plant the sweet sorghum on fallow land and harvest it and process it in September, before the start of the regular sugar cane griding season. Several disadvantages have prevented its use in sugar production, but these seem much less of a problem if ethanol is to be produced. The DOE has targeted sweet sorghum as a prime crop for ethanol production, and the planting of 14 million new acres in sweet sorghum is the underlying assumption in a DOE plant to produce 11 billion gallons of alcohol fuel by the year 2000.

  18. [The pancreas and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1985-07-20

    The action of acute and chronic administration of ethanol on pancreatic exocrine secretion in humans and several animal species is reviewed. If the data concerning the secretory action of ethanol on the pancreas are to the property assessed, several experimental variables have to be considered. Acute intravenous administration of ethanol inhibits basal and hormonally stimulated pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate and protein in nonalcoholic humans and most species of animals tested. Oral or intraduodenal ethanol causes moderate stimulation of pancreatic bicarbonate and enzyme secretion. Since anticholinergic agents and truncal vagotomy diminish the ethanol-induced inhibition of pancreatic secretion in the intact animal, it is possible that the action of ethanol on the pancreas is at least partly mediated by inhibitory cholinergic mechanisms. The action of ethanol on the pancreas may also be mediated by release of gastrointestinal hormones. Intravenous and oral administration of ethanol releases gastrin in dogs but not in humans. Pancreatic polypeptide is unlikely to be the hormonal mediator of the ethanol-induced inhibition of exocrine pancreatic secretion in humans and dogs, since ethanol does not release pancreatic polypeptide. The main secretory changes induced by chronic alcoholism in humans and dogs are increased basal secretion of pancreatic enzymes and decreased basal bicarbonate output, and these secretory changes may favour the occurrence of protein precipitates which are believed to be the first lesion of chronic pancreatitis in man. A decrease in the concentration of "pancreatic stone protein" in pancreatic juice may favour the development of protein precipitates in chronic alcoholic patients. PMID:3901251

  19. Liquid-vapor equilibrium in the 2-propanol-hexane system

    SciTech Connect

    Trokhin, V.E.; Nechaeva, G.Yu.; Semenov, V.A.

    1995-03-10

    Experimental results on the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at 745 nm in the 2-propanol-hexane binary system have been presented. These data are necessary to determine the parameters of the azeotropic separation of excessive 2-propanol while obtaining trimethylisopropoxysilane. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Excess molar enthalpies of ternary mixtures for propanone or benzene + aniline + 2-methyl-1-propanol and of binary mixtures for propanone or aniline + 2-methyl-1-propanol at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Isamu; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Miyai, Koichi

    1996-11-01

    Experimental excess molar enthalpies for the ternary mixtures 2-methyl-1-propanol + aniline + propanone and 2-methyl-1-propanol + aniline + benzene and their constituent binary mixtures 2-methyl-1-propanol + aniline and 2-methyl-1-propanol + propanone at the temperature 298.15 K, measured by using an isothermal dilution calorimeter, are reported. The results have been analyzed using a polynomial equation and the UNIQUAC-associated solution model with binary and ternary parameters.

  1. The Effects of Alcohol on the Fetus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furey, Eileen M.

    1982-01-01

    The article explores recent findings on Fatal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), patterns of malformation, alcohol and other drugs, the toxicity of ethanol, the incidence of FAS, and implications of the syndrome. (Author)

  2. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  3. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  4. Factors affecting contamination of blood samples for ethanol determinations.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Eastly, T

    1977-01-01

    Contamination of blood samples collected for alcohol analysis from swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is minimal (less than 0.6 mg/100 ml or 0.0006 percent ethanol) when routine clinical technique is followed. When technicians were told to be deliberately sloppy, considerable contamination (89 mg/100 ml or 0.09 percent ethanol) occurred. The incidence and extent of contamination from banked blood intended for transfusions are minimal. Two percent of the 1,450 samples analyzed contained alcohol. The average blood alcohol concentration was 26 mg/100 ml or 0.03 percent ethanol. One microliter of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, or one-tenth of a drop of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, increases the BAC 56.5 mg/100 ml (0.06 percent ethanol) and 67.5 mg/100 ml (0.07 percent ethanol), respectively. PMID:865218

  5. Catalytic dehydrogenation of propanol-2 on Na-Zr phosphates containing Cu, Co, and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarova, E. I.; Pylinina, A. I.; Mikhalenko, I. I.

    2012-06-01

    The dehydrogenation of propanol-2 on sodium-zirconium phosphates (NZP) with the composition Na1 - 2 x M x Zr2(PO4)3 ( x = 0.125 and 0.25) in which Na+ ions were replaced by M2+ = Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ ions was studied. The experimental reaction activation energy E a decreased while transition through the T* = 310-340°C temperature; above this temperature, the electrophysical and crystallographic properties of the material changed. These changes were explained by the reversible transfer of Me2+ ions from position M1 to M2 in the NZP lattice. Me2+ centers with different alcohol adsorption forms at T < T* (one-point) and T > T* (two-point) participated in the dehydrogenation reaction. For the first form, E a and the logarithm of the preexponential factor linearly correlated with the ionic radius of M2+. The activity of M-NZP catalysts altered in repeated experiments and in cases when the direction of temperature variations changed.

  6. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  8. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  9. Molecular probe dynamics and free volume in organic glass-formers and their relationships to structural relaxation: 1-propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoš, J.; Švajdlenková, H.; Šauša, O.; Lukešová, M.; Ehlers, D.; Michl, M.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.

    2016-01-01

    A joint study of the rotational dynamics and free volume in amorphous 1-propanol (1-PrOH) as a prototypical monohydroxy alcohol by electron spin resonance (ESR) or positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), respectively, is reported. The dynamic parameters of the molecular spin probe 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and the annihilation ones of the atomic ortho-positronium (o-Ps) probe as a function of temperature are compared. A number of coincidences between various effects in the ESR and PALS responses at the corresponding characteristic ESR and PALS temperatures were found suggesting a common origin of the underlying dynamic processes that were identified using viscosity (VISC) in terms of the two-order parameter (TOP) model and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) data.

  10. Alcohol dispersions of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for stone conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Suzuki, Amelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2013-09-10

    Alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the so-called nanolimes, are emerging as an effective conservation material for the consolidation of stone, mortars, and plasters present in old masonry and/or mural paintings. To better understand how this treatment operates, to optimize its performance and broaden its applications, here we study the nano and microstructural characteristics, carbonation behavior, and consolidation efficacy of colloidal alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles produced by both homogeneous (commercial nanolime) and heterogeneous phase synthesis (aged slaked lime and carbide lime putties). We observe that the alcohol not only provides a high colloidal stability to Ca(OH)2 particles, but also affects the kinetics of carbonation and CaCO3 polymorph selection. This is due to the pseudomorphic replacement of Ca(OH)2 particles by calcium alkoxides upon reaction with ethanol or 2-propanol. The extent of this replacement reaction depends on Ca(OH)2 size and time. Hydrolysis of alkoxides speeds up the carbonation process and increases the CaCO3 yield. The higher degree of transformation into calcium alkoxide of both the commercial nanolime and the carbide lime fosters metastable vaterite formation, while calcite precipitation is promoted upon carbonation of the aged slaked lime due its lower reactivity, which limits calcium alkoxide formation. A higher consolidation efficacy in terms of strength gain of treated porous stone is achieved in the latter case, despite the fact that the carbonation is much faster and reaches a higher yield in the former ones. Formation of alkoxides, which has been neglected in previous studies, needs to be considered when applying nanolime treatments. These results show that the use Ca(OH)2 nanoparticle dispersions prepared with either aged slaked lime or carbide lime putties is an economical and effective conservation alternative to commercial nanolimes produced by homogeneous phase synthesis. Ultimately, this

  11. Gene-specific disruption of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1a) by ethanol probably leads to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the probable roles played by cannabinoid (CB) receptors in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) induction in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Searching of public databases (GenBank, Ensembl) indicated that the Japanese rice fish genome includes three human ortholog CB receptor genes (cnr1a, cnr1b and cnr2). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) techniques were used to analyze the expression of these cnr genes during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis and also in response to developmental ethanol exposure. qPCR analyses showed that the expression of all three CB receptor genes were developmentally regulated and only cnr2 showed maternal expression. The mRNA concentrations of these genes were found to be enhanced after 3 dpf and attained maximal levels either prior to or after hatching. WMISH technique indicated that all three cnr genes were expressed in the head region of hatchlings. During development, ethanol selectively attenuated the expression of cnr1a mRNA only. Blocking of cnr1a mRNA by CB1 receptor antagonists rimonabant (10-20 μM) or AM251 (0.2-1 μM) 0-2 dpf were unable to induce any FASD-related phenotypic features in embryos or in hatchlings. However, continuous exposure of the embryos (0-6 dpf) to AM251 (1 μM) was able to reduce the hatching efficiency of the embryos. Our data indicated that in Japanese rice fish, ethanol disrupted the expression of only cnr1a in a concentration-dependent manner that induced delay in hatching and might be responsible for the development of FASD phenotypes. PMID:25251458

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  13. Kinetics of desorption of KCL from polyvinyl alcohol-borate hydrogel in aqueous-alcoholic solvents at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Rehana; Abdeen, Zain Ul

    2015-11-01

    Desorption kinetics of adsorbed KCl from Polyvinyl alcohol borate hydrogel was studied by conductivity method in aqueous system and aqueous binary solvent system using 50% aqueous-methanol, aqueous- ethanol and aqueous-propanol at different temperature ranging from 293 to 313 K. Desorption process follows pseudo first order and intra particle diffusion kinetics was analyzed on the basis of linear regression coefficient R 2 and chi square test χ2 values. The process of desorption of KCl from hydrogel was favorable in aqueous system, the study reveals the fact that the polarity of solvent influenced the kinetics of desorption, on decrement of polarity of solvent rate, rate constant and intra particle rate constant decreases. Based on intra particle kinetic equation fitting it was concluded that desorption was initiated by removal of ions from surface of hydrogel later on ions interacted inside the cross linked unit was also become free. Temperature enhances the rate, rate constant and intra particle rate constant. Thermodynamic parameters attributed towards the fact that the process of desorption of KCl from hydrogel is non-spontaneous in nature.

  14. Effects of acetone on electrooxidation of 2-propanol in alkaline medium on the Pd/Ni-foam electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuanhui; Liu, Yao; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling; Gao, Yinyi

    2011-03-01

    Acetone is the main product of 2-propanol electrooxidation in both acid and alkaline electrolytes; it always co-exists with 2-propanol in the reaction solution due to its liquid nature. Whether acetone will affect the electrooxidation of 2-propanol has not been well documented, which is a key issue that needs to be addressed for the direct 2-propanol fuel cell. In this study, the influence of acetone on the electrooxidation of 2-propanol in alkaline medium is investigated, using state-of-the-art Pd electrode, by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode is prepared using a chemical replacement method, by dipping nickel foam into acidified PdCl2 solution, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. We found that the presence of acetone adversely affects electrooxidation performance of 2-propanol and substantially reduces the oxidation current of 2-propanol on Pd in alkaline medium. The acetone poisoning effect is interpreted by a competitive adsorption mechanism, in which acetone adsorbs onto Pd surface and occupies the active sites for 2-propanol electrooxidation, leading to a significant decrease in the number of these sites for 2-propanol electrooxidation. The results of this study point out that efficient electrocatalysts for 2-propanol electrooxidation in alkaline electrolytes must be non-adsorptive to acetone besides being highly active to 2-propanol oxidation.

  15. Influence of charge exchange in acidic aqueous and alcoholic titania dispersions on viscosity.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B; Dahlsten, Per

    2015-12-01

    Charging effects resulting from adsorption of acid, acid anions, and protons on titania (anatase) surfaces in anhydrous or mixed alcohol-water dispersions is summarized. The suddenly enhanced conductivity as compared to titania-free solutions has previously been modeled and explained as surface-induced electrolytic dissociation (SIED) of weak acids. This model and recently published results identifying concurrent surface-induced liquid (solvent) dissociation (SILD) are evaluated with experimentally determined conductivity and pH of solutions, zeta-potential of particles, and viscosity of dispersions. Titania (0-25wt%)-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and propanol) dispersions mixed with (0-100wt%) water were acidified with oxalic, phosphoric, and sulfuric acids. It was found that the experimental results could in many cases be condensed to master curves representing extensive experimental results. These curves reveal that major properties of the systems appear within three concentration regions were different mechanisms (SILD, surface-induced liquid dissociation; SIAD, surface-induced acid dissociation) and charge rearrangement were found to be simultaneously active. In particular, zeta-potential - pH and viscosity - pH curves are in acidified non-polar solvents mirror images to those dependencies observed in aqueous dispersions to which hydroxyl is added. The results suggest that multiple dispersion and adsorption equilibria should be considered in order to characterize the presented exceptionally extensive and complex experimental results. PMID:26520241

  16. Rotational Spectrum of Neopentyl Alcohol, (CH_3)_3CCH_2OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczołkowski, Lech; Xue, Zhifeng; Suhm, Martin A.

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of neopentyl alcohol (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol, (CH_3)_3CCH_2OH) has been investigated for the first time. This molecule differs from ethanol only in having the ^tBu group instead of the methyl group, and is likewise anticipated to exhibit two spectroscopic species, with trans and gauche hydroxyl orientation. Quantum chemistry computations predict the trans to be the more stable species. Rotational transitions of both species have now been assigned in supersonic expansion cm-wave FTMW experiment and in room temperature, mm-wave spectra up to 280 GHz. The supersonic expansion measurements with Ar carrier gas confirm that trans is the global minimum species. The trans spectrum is predominantly b-type, while the gauche is predominantly a-type and the frequencies of rotational transitions in both species appear to be perturbed in different ways. The results from effective and from coupled Hamiltonian fits for neopentyl alcohol are presented, and are compared with predictions from ab initio calculations.

  17. Ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole increase DNA adduct formation of furfuryl alcohol in FVB/N wild-type mice and in mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1/1A2.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2016-03-01

    Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is a carcinogenic food contaminant, which is formed by acid- and heat-catalyzed degradation of fructose and glucose. The activation by sulfotransferases (SULTs) yields a DNA reactive and mutagenic sulfate ester. The most prominent DNA adduct, N(2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-MF-dG), was detected in FFA-treated mice and also in human tissue samples. The dominant pathway of FFA detoxification is the oxidation via alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). The activity of these enzymes may be greatly altered in the presence of inhibitors or competitive substrates. Here, we investigated the impact of ethanol and the ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) on the DNA adduct formation by FFA in wild-type and in humanized mice that were transgenic for human SULT1A1/1A2 and deficient in the mouse (m) Sult1a1 and Sult1d1 genes (h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-)). The administration of FFA alone led to hepatic adduct levels of 4.5 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 33.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female wild-type mice, respectively, and of 19.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 95.4 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 1.6g ethanol/kg body weight increased N(2)-MF-dG levels by 2.3-fold in male and by 1.7-fold in female wild-type mice and by 2.5-fold in male and by 1.5-fold in female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 100mg 4MP/kg body weight had a similar effect on the adduct levels. These findings indicate that modulators of the oxidative metabolism, e.g. the drug 4MP or consumption of alcoholic beverages, may increase the genotoxic effects of FFA also in humans. PMID:26775039

  18. Ethanol production in recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D.

    2005-02-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  19. Solvation in highly nonideal solutions: A study of aqueous 1-propanol using the coumarin 153 probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirota, Hideaki; Castner, Edward W.

    2000-02-01

    We have investigated the anomalous behavior of aqueous 1-propanol binary solutions using a typical fluorescence probe molecule, coumarin 153. We present data on the fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence anisotropies, and solvent reorganization dynamics, as well as the steady-state absorption and emission spectra of coumarin 153 in the binary solutions. The rotational diffusion and solvation time constants depend strongly on the content of 1-propanol, especially at low 1-propanol mole fractions. Spectroscopic results presented here are consistent with prior light scattering [G. H. Großmann and K. H. Ebert, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 85, 1026 (1981)], small angle x-ray scattering [H. Hayashi, K. Nishikawa, and T. Iijima, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8334 (1990)], and dielectric relaxation [S. Mashimo, T. Umehara, and H. Redlin, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 6257 (1991)] data. The anomalous dynamics features likely arise from the effect of the preferential solvation due to the 1-propanol clustering.

  20. Facts on the Effects of Alcohol. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is one of the few alcohols that humans can drink. This alcohol is a byproduct of yeast's reaction with the sugars in fruit or vegetable juice and the process stops naturally with about an 11 to 14 percent alcoholic concentration, although distillation can greatly increase the alcoholic content. Once ingested, most alcohol…

  1. Effects of Pregnancy and Nutritional Status on Alcohol Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolism of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors as well as physiologic state. For a given alcohol intake, the rate of alcohol clearance, which ultimately determines tissue ethanol concentrations, may be the most significant risk factor for many of the detrimen...

  2. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  3. Reduced ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring (P) rats following pharmacological silencing and deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Wilden, Jessica A.; Qing, Kurt Y.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; McBride, William J.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Object There is increasing interest in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of addiction. Initial testing must be conducted in animals, and the alcohol-preferring (P) rat meets the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. This study is composed of 2 experiments designed to examine the effects of 1) pharmacological inactivation and 2) DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the consumption of alcohol by P rats. Methods In the first experiment, the effects of reversible inactivation of the AcbSh were investigated by administering intracranial injections of γ–aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists. Bilateral microinjections of drug were administered to the AcbSh in P rats (8–10 rats/group), after which the animals were placed in operant chambers containing 2 levers—one used to administer water and the other to administer 15% EtOH—to examine the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. In the second experiment, a DBS electrode was placed in each P rat’s left AcbSh. The animals then received 100 or 200 μA (3–4 rats/group) of DBS to examine the effect on daily consumption of oral EtOH in a free-access paradigm. Results In the first experiment, pharmacological silencing of the AcbSh with GABA agonists did not decrease the acquisition of EtOH drinking behavior but did reduce EtOH consumption by 55% in chronically drinking rats. Similarly, in the second experiment, 200 μA of DBS consistently reduced EtOH intake by 47% in chronically drinking rats. The amount of EtOH consumption returned to baseline levels following termination of therapy in both experiments. Conclusions Pharmacological silencing and DBS of the AcbSh reduced EtOH intake after chronic EtOH use had been established in rodents. The AcbSh is a neuroanatomical substrate for the reinforcing effects of alcohol and may be a target for surgical intervention in cases of alcoholism. PMID:24460492

  4. Pulse radiolysis of malachite green leucocyanide in alcoholic solvents, the influence of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Stuglik, Z.; Wieczorek, G.

    The solutions of malachite green leucocyanide (MGCN) in methanol, n-propanol and 2-propanol were investigated using pulse radiolysis. In the presence of oxygen, MG +-carbonium ions were radiolytically formed in two different time steps. The yield of MG + in the slower process was dependent on oxygen concentration and was proportional to the yield of intermediate MG · radicals. The yield of MG · was about ten times higher in 2-propanol than in methanol and n-propanol solutions. The reactants responsible for MG · oxidation to MG + were RO ·2, hydroxyalkylperoxyl radicals derived from alcohols. The rate constant for MG · reaction with RO ·2 were estimated as (6.5±1) × 10 8 M -1 s -1. The molar extinction coefficient of MG · was calculated as ɛ (400 nm) = (8.5±1) × 10 4 M -1 cm -1.

  5. Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Brauer, Lisa H; Behm, Frederique M; Cramblett, Matthew; Calkins, Kevin; Lawhon, Dawn

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence has shown a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and ethanol use, and previous studies suggest some commonality in the neural pathways mediating effects of nicotine and ethanol. In this study, the subjective and behavioral interactions among nicotine, ethanol, and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were investigated. The main objectives were to determine how the rewarding effects of nicotine might be modified by ethanol, and to compare the effects of ethanol with those of a nicotinic antagonist (mecamylamine). A total of 48 smokers who regularly consumed alcoholic beverages participated in four laboratory sessions presenting a 2 (nicotine vs. denicotinized cigarette smoke)x2 (10 mg oral mecamylamine hydrochloride vs. placebo)x2 (ethanol.5 g/kg vs. placebo) design, with ethanol as a between-subjects factor. Dependent measures included blood alcohol concentration (BAC), as assessed by breath alcohol detector; subjective drug effects; and rate of ad lib smoking during a 2-hr period. Results showed that peak BAC averaged.03 g/dl in the ethanol condition. Ethanol potentiated some of the subjective rewarding effects of nicotine, including smoking satisfaction, stimulant as well as calming effects, and relief of craving for cigarettes. During the ad lib smoking period, mecamylamine decreased satisfaction associated with the nicotine-containing cigarettes; mecamylamine also induced smoking but only in the placebo ethanol condition. These results highlight the potent interaction between ethanol and nicotinic systems, and suggest that ethanol can potentiate the rewarding effects of nicotine as well as offset some of the effects of a nicotinic antagonist. PMID:14982697

  6. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  7. Effects of ethanol ingestion on sperm monosaccharides and fertility.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, V; Aruldhas, M M; Srinivasan, N; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    1999-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is often associated with reproductive disorders. Sperm monosaccharides play an indispensable role in sperm-egg interactions and fertilization. Ethanol (3 g/kg body weight as 25%, v/v) was given by gastric intubation twice daily for 30 days while in another group, rats which had been treated with ethanol were withdrawn from treatment for a further period of 30 days, in order to assess the reversibility of the ethanol-induced effects. Epididymal ethanol content, sperm monosaccharides and the fertility of ethanol treated and ethanol withdrawn rats were assessed. Ethanol ingestion caused a significant decrease in sperm monosaccharides suggesting defective glycosylation of sperm surface proteins. Sperm monosaccharides and fertility were returned to normal following the withdrawal of ethanol. Ethanol-induced changes in sperm monosaccharides may be one of the reasons for the reduced fertility of ethanol treated rats. PMID:10092946

  8. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  9. Joining Astrobiology to Medicine, Resurrecting Ancient Alcohol Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, M. A.; Uryasev, O.; Davis, R. W.; Chamberlin, S. G.; Benner, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    We apply an astrobiological approach to understand how primates responded to the emergence of ethanol in their environment by resurrecting two enzymes involved in the degradation of ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrgenase.

  10. A controlled study of the time-course of breath alcohol concentration after moderate ingestion of ethanol following a social drinking session.

    PubMed

    Barquín, Jesús; Luna, Juan de Dios; Hernández, Antonio F

    2008-05-20

    This paper evaluates the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), nausea (feeling of being slightly intoxicated) and subjective driving performance after ingesting a moderate dose of alcohol in the presence of a light meal, which intends to approach a social drinking setting. 119 healthy individuals (69 males and 50 females, aged 21.7+/-3.0) ingested three glasses of wine (95mL each) and their BrAC was determined by an Alcotest 7410 at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min post-drinking. 46% of females and no male subjects exceeded a BrAC of 0.25mg/L, the legal limit for driving fixed by some Western countries. 53% of the study population felt nausea during the experimental session and 20% self-reported impairment of their driving skills. In both cases these subjective effects were more pronounced in females. The major determinants of mean BrAC were time post-drinking, gender (male) and body mass index (BMI), all these variables being inversely associated. Females and individuals with a BMI lower than 22.5kg/m(2) were at an increased risk of exceeding the legal limit of BrAC. The feeling of nausea was significantly associated with gender (females), the ingestion of up to 2 drinks on weekdays, and having exceeded a BrAC of 0.25mg/L during the experimental study. The main predictor of self-perception of impaired driving skills was the feeling of nausea, followed by a BrAC in excess of 0.25mg/L. In conclusion, both females and subjects with lower BMI are at an increased risk of exceeding the legal limit of BrAC after moderate alcohol consumption resembling a social drinking setting. PMID:18178047

  11. Cold starting system for alcohol fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, T.M.

    1983-04-26

    To restart an alcohol fueled engine at low temperatures, a quantity of liquid ethanol is supplied to a vaporizing chamber before the engine is stopped. When restarting the engine, some of the alcohol in the vaporizing chamber is delivered to an igniter, and the hot gases resulting from the burning alcohol are conducted past the vaporizing chamber to evaporate the liquid alcohol remaining in the vaporizing chamber. The alcohol vapor thus generated is conducted to the engine induction system to start the engine.

  12. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  13. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  14. Novel Dehalogenase Mechanism for 2,3-Dichloro-1-Propanol Utilization in Pseudomonas putida Strain MC4

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad Irfan; Samin, Ghufrana; van Leeuwen, Jan G. E.; Oppentocht, Jantien

    2012-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain (MC4) that can utilize 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP) and several aliphatic haloacids and haloalcohols as sole carbon and energy source for growth was isolated from contaminated soil. Degradation of DCP was found to start with oxidation and concomitant dehalogenation catalyzed by a 72-kDa monomeric protein (DppA) that was isolated from cell lysate. The dppA gene was cloned from a cosmid library and appeared to encode a protein equipped with a signal peptide and that possessed high similarity to quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), particularly ADH IIB and ADH IIG from Pseudomonas putida HK. This novel dehalogenating dehydrogenase has a broad substrate range, encompassing a number of nonhalogenated alcohols and haloalcohols. With DCP, DppA exhibited a kcat of 17 s−1. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated that DCP oxidation by DppA in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6] yielded 2-chloroacrolein, which was oxidized to 2-chloroacrylic acid. PMID:22752160

  15. Use of the anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Leifsonia and Pseudomonas for producing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya

    2014-05-01

    The asymmetric reduction of ketones is one of the most promising processes for producing chiral alcohols. However, dehydrogenases or reductases that can catalyze the reduction of ketones to give anti-Prelog chiral alcohols have been limited to some NADP(+)/NADPH-dependent enzymes. Recently, we reported a novel NAD(+)/NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Leifsonia sp. and Pseudomonas ADH homologs from soil metagenomes. Moreover, we have established an efficient hydrogen-transfer bioreduction process with 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor using Leifsonia ADH. This review focuses on the recent development of novel ADHs for producing industrially useful anti-Prelog chiral alcohols from various ketones. PMID:24615386

  16. Thermodynamical and structural properties of binary mixtures of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids and alcohols from molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Gabriele; Köhler, Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to determine the densities, excess energies of mixing, and structural properties of binary mixtures of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) [amim][Cl] and ethanol and 1-propanol in the temperature range from 298.15to363.15K. As in our previous work [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154509 (2008)], our simulation studies are based on a united atom model from Liu et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1096 (2006)] for the 1-ethyl- and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations [emim+] and [bmim+], which we have extended to the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium [hmim+] cation and combined with parameters of Canongia Lopes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2038 (2004)] for the chloride anion [Cl-] and the force field by Khare et al. for the alcohols [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10071 (2004)]. With this, we provide both prediction for the densities of the mixtures that have mostly not been investigated experimentally yet and a molecular picture of the interactions between the alcohol molecules and the ions. The negative excess energies of all mixtures indicate an energetically favorable mixing of [amim][Cl] ILs and alcohols. To gain insight into the nonideality of the mixtures on the molecular level, we analyzed their local structures by radial and spatial distribution functions. These analyses show that the local ordering in these mixtures is determined by strong hydrogen-bond interactions between the chloride anion and the hydroxyls of the alcohols, enhanced interactions between the anion and the charged domain of the cation, and an increasing aggregation of the nonpolar alkyl tails of the alcohols and the cations with increasing cation size, which results in a segregation of polar and nonpolar domains.

  17. Surface tension of water-alcohol mixtures from Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Biscay, F; Ghoufi, A; Malfreyt, P

    2011-01-28

    Monte Carlo simulations are reported to predict the dependence of the surface tension of water-alcohol mixtures on the alcohol concentration. Alcohols are modeled using the anisotropic united atom model recently extended to alcohol molecules. The molecular simulations show a good agreement between the experimental and calculated surface tensions for the water-methanol and water-propanol mixtures. This good agreement with experiments is also established through the comparison of the excess surface tensions. A molecular description of the mixture in terms of density profiles and hydrogen bond profiles is used to interpret the decrease of the surface tension with the alcohol concentration and alcohol chain length. PMID:21280787

  18. The long pursued Holy Grail of the true "alcoholic" rat.

    PubMed

    Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2016-08-15

    An anthology of microdialysis and electrophysiological studies on ethanol effect on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons is presented. The usefulness of rats with innate preference for ethanol, such as the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP), in studying ethanol rewarding and reinforcing effects is signaled. The generation of the long sought "alcoholics rat" from sP rats is announced. Rats of the sP line avoid the shortcomings of using rats non selected for ethanol preference. PMID:26867703

  19. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  20. Grain production for alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lockeretz, W.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides primarily an assessment of the resource base for producing alcohol fuel from grain. The effect of different levels of alcohol production are discussed with respect to farm income, land conservation practices, food prices, and exports. The economics of ethanol production from the standpoint of feedstock availability and price are comprehensively examined.

  1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Abnormal evaporation rate of ethanol from low concentration aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Grimshaw, J. ); O'Hare, K.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Evaporation of aqueous ethanol solutions was studied in a wind tunnel using a circular cell design which ensured control of all the major conditions of mass transfer. At lower concentrations of alcohol, the evaporation rate of alcohol per unit of alcohol showed a dramatic increase over that at higher concentrations. Various explanations for the effect were sought but it was concluded that preferential adsorption of alcohol at the interface in low alcohol concentrations solutions as suggested by the Gibbs adsorption allowed ethanol to evaporate more readily compared to that obtained at higher concentrations. 55 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  5. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  6. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  7. Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids but is not essential for fusel alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    ter Schure, E G; Flikweert, M T; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T; Verrips, C T

    1998-04-01

    The fusel alcohols 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-propanol are important flavor compounds in yeast-derived food products and beverages. The formation of these compounds from branched-chain amino acids is generally assumed to occur via the Ehrlich pathway, which involves the concerted action of a branched-chain transaminase, a decarboxylase, and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Partially purified preparations of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) have been reported to catalyze the decarboxylation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids formed upon transamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Indeed, in a coupled enzymatic assay with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, cell extracts of a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain exhibited significant decarboxylation rates with these branched-chain 2-oxo acids. Decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids was not detectable in cell extracts of an isogenic strain in which all three PDC genes had been disrupted. Experiments with cell extracts from S. cerevisiae mutants expressing a single PDC gene demonstrated that both PDC1- and PDC5-encoded isoenzymes can decarboxylate branched-chain 2-oxo acids. To investigate whether pyruvate decarboxylase is essential for fusel alcohol production by whole cells, wild-type S. cerevisiae and an isogenic pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain were grown on ethanol with a mixture of leucine, isoleucine, and valine as the nitrogen source. Surprisingly, the three corresponding fusel alcohols were produced in both strains. This result proves that decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids via pyruvate decarboxylase is not an essential step in fusel alcohol production. PMID:9546164

  8. Dehydration pathways of 1-propanol on HZSM-5 in the presence and absence of water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi, Yuchun; Shi, Hui; Mu, Linyu; Liu, Yue; Mei, Donghai; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-12-23

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed gas-phase dehydration of 1-propanol (0.075-4 kPa) was studied on zeolite H-MFI (Si/Al = 26, containing minimal amounts of extraframework Al moieties) in the absence and presence of co-fed water (0-2.5 kPa) at 413-443 K. It is shown that propene can be formed from monomeric and dimeric adsorbed 1-propanol. The stronger adsorption of 1-propanol relative to water indicates that the reduced dehydration rates in the presence of water are not a consequence of the competitive adsorption between 1-propanol and water. Instead, the deleterious effect is related to the different extents of stabilization of adsorbed intermediates and the relevant elimination/substitution transition states by water. Water stabilizes the adsorbed 1-propanol monomer significantly more than the elimination transition state, leading to a higher activation barrier and a greater entropy gain for the rate-limiting step, which eventually leads to propene. In a similar manner, an excess of 1-propanol stabilizes the adsorbed state of 1-propanol more than the elimination transition state. In comparison with the monomer-mediated pathway, adsorbed dimer and the relevant transition states for propene and ether formation are similarly, while less effectively, stabilized by intrazeolite water molecules. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and was performed in part using the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  9. CO2 Absorption in an Alcoholic Solution of Heavily Hindered Alkanolamine: Reaction Mechanism of 2-(tert-Butylamino)ethanol with CO2 Revisited.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bin; Wei, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Pan; He, Ning; Chen, Jingwen

    2015-06-18

    To advance the optimal design of amines for postcombustion CO2 capture, a sound mechanistic understanding of the chemical process of amines with good CO2 capture performance is advantageous. A sterically hindered alkanolamine, 2-(tert-butylamino)ethanol (TBAE), in ethylene glycol (EG) solution was recently reported to have better CO2 capture performance and unusual reactivity toward CO2, in comparison with those of the prototypical alkanolamines. However, the reaction mechanism of TBAE with CO2 in EG solution is unclear. Here, various quantum chemistry methods were employed to probe the reaction mechanism of TBAE with CO2 in EG and aqueous solution. Six reaction pathways involving three kinds of possible reactive centers of TBAE solution were considered. The results indicated that the formation of anionic hydroxyethyl carbonate by the attack of -OH of EG on CO2 is the most favorable, which is confirmed by complementary high-resolution mass spectrum experiments. This clarified that the speculated zwitterionic carbonate species is not the main product in EG solution. The reaction process of TBAE in aqueous solution is similar to that in EG solution, leading to bicarbonate, which agrees with experimental observations. On the basis of the unveiled reaction mechanisms of TBAE + CO2, the role of the key tert-butyl functional group of TBAE was revealed. PMID:25993508

  10. Ethanol alters estrogen receptor signaling and activates senescence pathways in osteoblasts while estradiol attenuates ethanol effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced bone loss are largely unknown. Using bone from chronic ethanol (EtOH) infused cycling female rats and osteoblastic cells in vitro, we hav...

  11. GSK3β in Ethanol Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and may result in a wide range of adverse outcomes for the child. The developing central nervous system (CNS) is particularly susceptible to ethanol toxicity. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments. FASD currently represents the leading cause of mental retardation in North America ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. Ethanol exposure during development causes multiple abnormalities in the brain such as permanent loss of neurons, ectopic neurons, and alterations in synaptogenesis and myelinogenesis. These alcohol-induced structural alterations in the developing brain underlie many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity, however, remain unclear. Ethanol elicits cellular stresses, including oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multifunctional serine/ threonine kinase, responds to various cellular stresses. GSK3β is particularly abundant in the developing CNS, and regulates diverse developmental events in the immature brain, such as neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival. Available evidence indicates that the activity of GSK3β in the CNS is affected by ethanol. GSK3β inhibition provides protection against ethanol neurotoxicity, whereas high GSK3β activity/expression sensitizes neuronal cells to ethanol-induced damages. It appears that GSK3β is a converging signaling point that mediates some of ethanol’s neurotoxic effects. PMID:19507062

  12. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of hyper 2-propanol producing bacteria from Singapore environment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Rui; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Liu, Zhibin

    2013-06-01

    Three hyper 2-propanol producing strains were isolated from Singapore environment using an enrichment step and a high through-put screening step. The analysis of the amplified 16S rDNA revealed that the isolates belonged to Clostridium species and they were named as Clostridium sp. BT10-1, Clostridium sp. M10-1 and Clostridium sp. PU31-4. At 1 L scale, the 2-propanol titer of these positive strains was 1.6-2.1 times of that of Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593, which is so far the most efficient natural 2-propanol producer. The highest 2-propanol titer was achieved by isolate BT10-6 and it was 5.26 g/L (87.5 mM). These three positive strains BT10-6, M10-1 and PU31-4 consumed glucose almost completely in 40-48 h and gave 2-propanol productivity at 0.132, 0.118 and 0.087 g/L/h, respectively, which is 3.0-4.6 times of 0.029 g/L/h given by C. beijerinckii NRRL B593. Butanol was also produced by these positive strains with a slightly lower butanol titer and higher butanol productivity, compared to butanol control strain C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. PMID:23361972

  13. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  14. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Voluntary Ethanol Intake in Male and Female Ethanol-Preferring Rats: Effects of Long-Term Ethanol Access

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwasser, Alan M.; McCulley, Walter D.; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  15. Consumption of Alcohol Surrogates Among Alcohol-Dependent Women.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first in-depth study of alcohol and surrogate drinking patterns, types, reasons, and correlates among alcohol-dependent women in Belarus. The structured interviews were performed in 2013 with 103 alcohol-dependent women admitted to a narcological clinic in Grodno, Belarus. The results suggest that at least 30.3% of alcohol-dependent women regularly consume samogon (moonshine) and 10.8% of women use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that samogon exceeds licensed vodka in quality is the main motive for its consumption. The results from the present study confirm that noncommercial alcohol use is common among alcohol-dependent women although its use may be underreported. These findings emphasize that the implementation of a comprehensive alcohol policy must take fully into account the consumption of alcohol from illicit sources. PMID:26549001

  16. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  17. Effect of chronic ethanol administration on disposition of ethanol and its metabolites in rat.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Shuji; Yukawa, Nobuhiro; Liu, Jinyao; Shimamoto, Akiko; Kakizaki, Eiji; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    We studied the effects of chronic alcohol intake on the disposition of alcohol and its metabolites in the rat. We used male Wistar rats for all of the experiments in this study. Using a pair-feeding process, rats were fed a liquid diet containing alcohol or without alcohol for 6 weeks. Ethanol solutions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg body weight [BW]) were administered as a bolus, intravenously. We then measured blood ethanol and acetate concentrations. Simultaneous multiline fitting was performed using mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC)-time curves fitted to the one-compartment open model with parallel first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics. At low doses (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kgBW), no differences were observed between the alcohol group and the control group with respect to ethanol elimination rate, area under the curve of ethanol (AUC(EtOH)), and mean residence time of ethanol (MRT(EtOH)). At higher doses (2.0 g/kgBW), ethanol elimination rate in the alcohol group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<.5%). These findings were also substantiated by corresponding changes in AUC(EtOH) and MRT(EtOH). At low doses, no differences were observed between the alcohol group and the control group with respect to plateau concentration of acetate (AcT) (concentration of steady state=C(ss)AcT), area under the curve of AcT (AUC(AcT)), and mean residence time of AcT (MRT(AcT)). However, at higher doses, although there were no differences in C(ss)AcT, both AUC(AcT) and MRT(AcT) were significantly lower in the alcohol group when compared to the control group (P<.5%). Chronic alcohol consumption increases ethanol oxidation and AcT metabolism in rats, as observed at high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). These effects were observed at BACs of 3.5-4.5 mg/ml, and were not observed at lower doses. Thus, with general alcohol consumption, interindividual differences and intra-individual changes in alcohol metabolism may not take into account increased

  18. Toxicology, occurrence and risk characterisation of the chloropropanols in food: 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol, 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Andres, Susanne; Appel, Klaus E; Lampen, Alfonso

    2013-08-01

    Great attention has been paid to chloropropanols like 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol and the related substance glycidol due to their presence in food and concerns about their toxic potential as carcinogens. The other chloropropanols 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol, 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol have been found in certain foods, but occurrence data are generally limited for these compounds. 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol has the most toxicological relevance showing clear carcinogenic effects in rats possibly via a genotoxic mechanism. The dietary exposure to 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol is quite low. Calculated "Margins of Exposure" values are above 10,000. It is concluded that the 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol exposure is of low concern for human health. The toxicology of 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol has not been adequately investigated. Its toxicological potential regarding hepatotoxic effects seems to be lower than that of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol. Limited data show that 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol occurs only in trace amounts in food, indicating that exposure to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol seems to be also of low concern for human health. The dietary 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol burden appears to be lower than that of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol. An adequate risk assessment for 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol cannot be performed due to limited data on the toxicology and occurrence in food. This article reviews the relevant information about the toxicology, occurrence and dietary exposure to the chloropropanols 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol, 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol. PMID:23712097

  19. High blood alcohol levels in women. The role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism.

    PubMed

    Frezza, M; di Padova, C; Pozzato, G; Terpin, M; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S

    1990-01-11

    After consuming comparable amounts of ethanol, women have higher blood ethanol concentrations than men, even with allowance for differences in size, and are more susceptible to alcoholic liver disease. Recently, we documented significant "first-pass metabolism" of ethanol due to its oxidation by gastric tissue. We report a study of the possible contribution of this metabolism to the sex-related difference in blood alcohol concentrations in 20 men and 23 women. Six in each group were alcoholics. The first-pass metabolism was determined on the basis of the difference in areas under the curves of blood alcohol concentrations after intravenous and oral administration of ethanol (0.3 g per kilogram of body weight). Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also measured in endoscopic gastric biopsies. In nonalcoholic subjects, the first-pass metabolism and gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the women were 23 and 59 percent, respectively, of those in the men, and there was a significant correlation (rs = 0.659) between first-pass metabolism and gastric mucosal alcohol dehydrogenase activity. In the alcoholic men, the first-pass metabolism and gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity were about half those in the nonalcoholic men; in the alcoholic women, the gastric mucosal alcohol dehydrogenase activity was even lower than in the alcoholic men, and first-pass metabolism was virtually abolished. We conclude that the increased bioavailability of ethanol resulting from decreased gastric oxidation of ethanol may contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of women to acute and chronic complications of alcoholism. PMID:2248624

  20. Characterization of 2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol Substituted Phosphazene Polymers Using Pervaporation, Solubility Parameters and Sorption Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, Christopher Joseph; Klaehn, John Ray; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Lash, Robert Paul; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

    2005-05-01

    Two linear phosphazene polymers were synthesized with differing amounts of hydrophilic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (MEE) and hydrophobic 4-methoxyphenol (MEOP) substituted on the backbone. These high polymers were cast into membranes and their permeability to water, methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol was evaluated as a function of temperature. An additional polymer with a low content of MEE was studied for water permeation and was characterized by trace flux. At higher levels of MEE on the backbone, fluxes of all solvents increased. Solubility also was found to increase with increasing MEE content for all solvents except water. Unexpectedly, water was found to be less soluble in the higher MEE polymer, although higher membrane fluxes were observed. Diffusion coefficients showed the following trend: methanol 2-propanol > ethanol water. Finally, the affinity of solvents and polymers was discussed in terms of Hansen solubility parameters.

  1. Dynamics of H abstraction from alcohols (CH3OH, C2H5OH and 2-C3H7OH) using velocity map imaging in crossed molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.; Peterka, D.S.; Suits, A.G.

    1999-09-01

    The crossed beam reactions of ground state Cl ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms with alcohols (CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH and 2-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH) have been studied using the technique of velocity map imaging (VELMI). The corresponding hydroxyalkyl radical was detected via single photon ionization using 157 nm laser light. The double differential cross sections were obtained at collision energies of 8.7 kcal/mol for methanol, 6.0 and 9.7 kcal/mol for ethanol, and 11.9 kcal/mol for 2-propanol. In all cases, the scattering was predominantly in the backward-sideways direction suggesting direct rebound dynamics, with varying amounts of sideways-scattering. In the case of methanol, the angular distributions were predominantly in the sideways-backward direction with respect to the incoming alcohol beam. Scattering was into the backward hemisphere at the lower collision energy for ethanol, with enhancement of sideways scattering with an increase in collision energy. Isoropanol gave scattering predominantly in the backward direction. Coupling between the translational energy and angular distributions was particularly significant for ethanol at the lower collision energy. All of the translational energy distributions peaked at about 6 kcal/mol and on average 30-40% of the available energy was deposited into product translation for all the alcohols studied. These results are contrasted with previous H abstraction studies performed on Cl-hydrocarbon systems. A case is made for the technique of vacuum ultraviolet one-photon ionization in conjunction with VELMI being useful in studying the reaction dynamics for many polyatomic systems.

  2. Integrated Biosensor Systems for Ethanol Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cós, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valero, Francisco; Valdman, Belkis

    Different integrated systems with a bi-enzymatic biosensor, working with two different methods for ethanol detection—flow injection analysis (FIA) or sequential injection analysis (SIA)—were developed and applied for ethanol extracted from gasohol mixtures, as well as for samples of alcoholic beverages and fermentation medium. A detection range of 0.05-1.5 g ethanol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909, has been reached when using FIA system, working with only one microreactor packed with immobilized alcohol oxidase and injecting free horseradish peroxidase. When using both enzymes, immobilized separately in two microreactors, the detection ranges obtained varied from 0.001 to 0.066 g ethanol/l, without on-line dilution to 0.010-0.047 g ethanol/l when a 1:7,000 dilution ratio was employed, reaching correlation coefficients of 0.9897 and 0.9992, respectively. For the integrated biosensor SIA system with the stop-flow technique, the linear range was 0.005-0.04 g/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9922.

  3. In vivo wireless ethanol vapor detection in the Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, C. Parks; Srijanto, B.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Ferrell, T. L.; Schultz, J.; Engleman, E. A.; McBride, W. J.; O'Connor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional alcohol studies measure blood alcohol concentration to elucidate the biomedical factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These measurements require large and expensive equipment, are labor intensive, and are disruptive to the subject. To alleviate these problems, we have developed an implantable, wireless biosensor that is capable of measuring alcohol levels for up to six weeks. Ethanol levels were measured in vivo in the interstitial fluid of a Wistar rat after administering 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg ethanol by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The data were transmitted wirelessly using a biosensor selective for alcohol detection. A low-power piezoresistive microcantilever sensor array was used with a polymer coating suitable for measuring ethanol concentrations at 100% humidity over several hours. A hydrophobic, vapor permeable nanopore membrane was used to screen liquid and ions while allowing vapor to pass to the sensor from the subcutaneous interstitial fluid. PMID:20161283

  4. Interaction of ethanol with opiate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhananov, R.Y.; Bujov, Y.V.; Maiskii, A.I.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the action of ethanol on membrane-bound opiate receptors. Ethanol at 37/sup 0/C was shown to produce dose-dependent inhibition of binding of /sup 3/H-naloxone with opiate receptors. ID/sub 50/ under these conditions was 462 mM. Temperature-dependent inhibition of ligand-receptor binding suggests that ethanol does not compete for the stereospecific binding site of /sup 3/H-naloxone. Analysis of the inhibitory action of ethanol on /sup 3/H-naloxone binding in animals at different stages of experimental alcoholism revealed no differences between the control and experimental animals after 3.5 and 10 months of voluntary alcoholization.

  5. Analysis of methanol and ethanol in virgin olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B.; Cruz-Hidalgo, Rosario; Fernandes, Gabriel D.; Pérez-Camino, María del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2014-01-01

    This work provides a short and easy protocol that allows the analysis of both methanol and ethanol in the static headspace of olive oil. The procedure avoids any kind of sample pre-treatment beyond that of heating the oil to allow a maximum volatile concentration in the headspace of the vials. The method's LOD is 0.55 mg kg−1 and its LOQ is 0.59 mg kg−1. Advantages of this method are:•Simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol (the pre-existing Spanish specification UNE-EN 14110 only analyses methanol).•No need of equipment modifications (standard split injectors work perfectly). Use of a highly polar capillary GC column, leading in most cases to chromatograms in which only three dominant peaks are present – methanol, ethanol, and propanol (that is extremely positive for easy interpretation of results).•Use of an internal standard (1-propanol) to determine the concentration of the analytes, reducing the presence of error sources. PMID:26150954

  6. The effect of interrupted alcohol supply on spontaneous alcohol consumption by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    The alcohol supply (a 16% and a 32%, v/v, ethanol-in-water solution) for eight male rhesus monkeys, who already have had free access to water and ethanol solutions concurrently for about one year, was interrupted for 1, 2 or 7 days. The previously acquired ethanol consuming behaviour appeared very resistant to extinction, because ethanol consumption was immediately resumed after renewed access, even at a temporarily increased level. Since physical withdrawal distress was not observed and the increase was higher when interruption lasted longer, the observed behaviour could be attributed to the reinforcing effects of ethanol, leading to specific ethanol-directed behaviour. PMID:2222574

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  8. Factor Analysis of the Aftereffects of Drinking in Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Performed factor analyses of 100 alcoholics' reports of the effects that they experience after alcohol consumption. Five factors emerged: Hangover, Euphoria, Flushing, Seizures, and Sleepiness. These factors may be helpful in assessing theories on the etiology of alcoholism and in studies of ethanol's effects on subsets of alcohol abusers. (BH)

  9. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  10. LUSH odorant-binding protein mediates chemosensory responses to alcohols in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M S; Repp, A; Smith, D P

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating chemosensory discrimination in insects are unknown. Using the enhancer trapping approach, we identified a new Drosophila mutant, lush, with odorant-specific defects in olfactory behavior. lush mutant flies are abnormally attracted to high concentrations of ethanol, propanol, and butanol but have normal chemosensory responses to other odorants. We show that wild-type flies have an active olfactory avoidance mechanism to prevent attraction to concentrated alcohol, and this response is defective in lush mutants. This suggests that the defective olfactory behavior associated with the lush mutation may result from a specific defect in chemoavoidance. lush mutants have a 3-kb deletion that produces a null allele of a new member of the invertebrate odorant-binding protein family, LUSH. LUSH is normally expressed exclusively in a subset of trichoid chemosensory sensilla located on the ventral-lateral surface of the third antennal segment. LUSH is secreted from nonneuronal support cells into the sensillum lymph that bathes the olfactory neurons within these sensilla. Reintroduction of a cloned wild-type copy of lush into the mutant background completely restores wild-type olfactory behavior, demonstrating that this odorant-binding protein is required in a subset of sensilla for normal chemosensory behavior to a subset of odorants. These findings provide direct evidence that odorant-binding proteins are required for normal chemosensory behavior in Drosophila and may partially determine the chemical specificity of olfactory neurons in vivo. PMID:9755202

  11. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  12. Solid-State Characterization and Interconversion of Recrystallized Amodiaquine Dihydrochloride in Aliphatic Monohydric Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sirikun, Wiriyaporn; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn

    2016-04-01

    Amodiaquine dihydrochloride monohydrate (AQ-DM) was obtained by recrystallizing amodiaquine dihydrochloride dihydrate (AQ-DD) in methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. Solid-state characterization of AQ-DD and AQ-DM was performed using X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. All recrystallized samples were identified as AQ-DM. Crystal habits of AQ-DD and AQ-DM were shown to be needle-like and rhombohedral crystals, respectively. When AQ-DD and AQ-DM were exposed to various relative humidity in dynamic vapor sorption apparatus, no solid-state interconversion was observed. However, AQ-DM showed higher solubility than AQ-DD when exposed to bulk water during solubility study, while excess AQ-DM was directly transformed back to a more stable AQ-DD structure. Heating AQ-DM sample to temperatures ≥190°C induced initial change to metastable amorphous form (AQ-DA) which was rapidly recrystallized to AQ-DD upon ≥80%RH moisture exposure. AQ-DD was able to be recrystallized in alcohols (C1-C3) as AQ-DM solid-state structure. In summary, AQ-DM was shown to have different solubility, moisture and temperature stability, and interconversion pathways when compared to AQ-DD. Thus, when AQ-DM was selected for any pharmaceutical applications, these critical transformation and property differences should be observed and closely monitored. PMID:26206402

  13. Endogenous opioids and excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Gianoulakis, C

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in our society, and alcoholism is an important cause of absenteeism at work and a major health and social problem. Ethanol induces a number of effects, such as disinhibition, a feeling of general well-being, tolerance and physical dependence. Since there are no specific receptors with which ethanol interacts, it has been proposed that ethanol exerts its effects by altering the activity of a number of neuronal and neuroendocrine systems. Studies have indicated that alcohol influences the activity of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioidergic systems. The implication of the endogenous opioid system in mediating some of the effects of ethanol is indicated by the observations that some of the behavioral and pharmacological effects of ethanol are similar to those of the opiates. Indeed, injections of small amounts of morphine increased ethanol consumption, while the administration of naltrexone decreased ethanol consumption among rats and other experimental animals, in a number of experimental paradigms, suggesting that endogenous opioids may play an important role in controlling voluntary ethanol consumption. This paper reviews studies of the effects of ethanol on the activity of the endogenous opioid system and on the importance of endogenous opioids in controlling alcohol consumption. PMID:7690585

  14. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  15. Alcohol electrooxidation at Pt and Pt-Ru sputtered electrodes under elevated temperature and pressurized conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Minoru; Sugii, Hiromasa; Uchida, Isamu

    2008-05-01

    The electrooxidation properties of methanol and 2-propanol, which are both promising candidates for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs), have been studied under elevated temperature and pressurized conditions. Sputter-deposited Pt and Pt-Ru electrodes were well-characterized and utilized for the electrochemical measurement of the alcohol oxidation at 25-100 °C. The Pt electrode prepared at 600 °C had a flat surface, and the Pt-Ru formed an alloy. The electrochemical measurements were carried out in a gas-tight cell under elevated temperature, which accompanies the pressurized condition. This is a representative example of the DAFC rising temperature operation. As a result, at 25 °C, the onset potential of the 2-propanol oxidation is about 400 mV more negative than that of the methanol oxidation, and current density of the 2-propanol oxidation exceeds that of the methanol oxidation. Conversely, at 100 °C, the methanol oxidation current density overcomes that of 2-propanol, and the onset potentials of the two are almost the same. The highest current density for the methanol oxidation is obtained at the Pt:Ru = 50:50 electrode, whereas at the Pt:Ru = 35:65 for the 2-propanol oxidation. A Tafel plot analysis was employed to investigate the reaction mechanism. For the methanol oxidation, the number of electrons transferred during the rate-determining process is estimated to be 1 at 25 °C and 2 at 100 °C. This suggests that the methanol reaction mechanism differs at 25 and 100 °C. In contrast, the rate-determining process of the 2-propanol oxidation at 25 and 100 °C was expected to be 1-electron transfer which accompanies the proton-elimination reaction to produce acetone. Consequently, it is deduced that methanol and 2-propanol have an advantage under the rising temperature and room temperature operation, respectively.

  16. The combined oxidation of methanol and ethanol on silver catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kurina, L.N.; Gryaznov, V.M.; Gul yanova, S.G.; Plakidkin, A.A.; Vedernikov, V.I.

    1985-10-01

    The authors study the oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and mixtures of these alcohols on industrial silver-pumice and silver membrane catalysts as well as the adsorption of these alcohols on silver. The oxidation of the alcohol mixture on the industrial silver-pumice catalyst gives higher yields of both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than in the oxidation of the alcohols taken individually. It is also shown that an increase in the rates of formaldehyde formation in the combined oxidation of methanol and ethanol was observed on the silver membrane catalyst.

  17. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    PubMed

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-08-01

    The brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast's exceptional ethanol tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance. PMID:26758993

  18. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Y E

    2013-01-01

    This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus. PMID:24233448

  19. Ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria: biochemical basis for ethanol and hydrogen tolerance in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Lovitt, R.W.; Shen, G.J.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    The metabolic and enzymatic bases for growth tolerance to ethanol (4%) and H/sub 2/ (2 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa)) fermentation products in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum were compared in a sensitive wild-type strain and an insensitive alcohol-adapted strain. In the wild-type strain, ethanol (4%) and H/sub 2/ (2 atm) inhibited glucose but not pyruvate fermentation parameters (growth and end product formation). Inhibition of glucose fermentation by ethanol (4%) in the wild-type strain was reversed by addition of acetone (1%), which lowered H/sub 2/ and ethanol production while increasing isopropanol and acetate production. Pulsing cells grown in continuous culture on glucose with 5% ethanol or 1 atm of H/sub 2/ significantly raised the NADH/NAD ratio in the wild-type strain but not in the alcohol-adapted strain. Analysis of key oxidoreductases demonstrated that the alcohol-adapted strain lacked detectable levels of reduced ferredoxin-linked NAD reductase and NAD-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activities which are present in the wild-type strain. Differences in the glucose fermentation product ratios of the two strains were related to differences in lactate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase levels and sensitivity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to NADH inhibition. A biochemical model is proposed which describes a common enzymatic mechanism for growth tolerance of thermoanaerobes to moderate concentrations of both ethanol and hydrogen.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol - Issues of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    2011-07-01

    A reliable method for the quantitative analysis of ethanol in microvolumes (50-100 μL) of blood became available in 1922, making it possible to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of ethanol in healthy volunteers. The basic principles of ethanol pharmacokinetics were established in the 1930s, including the notion of zero-order elimination kinetics from blood and distribution of the absorbed dose into the total body water. The hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is primarily responsible for the oxidative metabolism of ethanol. This enzyme was purified and characterized in the early 1950s and shown to have a low Michaelis constant (km), being about ~0.1 g/L. Liver ADH is therefore saturated with substrate after the first couple of drinks and for all practical purposes the concentration-time (C-T) profiles of ethanol are a good approximation to zero-order kinetics. However, because of dose-dependent saturation kinetics, the entire postabsorptive declining part of the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) curve looks more like a hockey stick rather than a straight line. A faster rate of ethanol elimination from blood in habituated individuals (alcoholics) is explained by participation of a high km microsomal enzyme (CYP2E1), which is inducible after a period of chronic heavy drinking. Owing to the combined influences of genetic and environmental factors, one expects a roughly threefold difference in elimination rates of ethanol from blood (0.1-0.3 g/L/h) between individuals. The volume of distribution (Vd) of ethanol, which depends on a person's age, gender, and proportion of fat to lean body mass, shows a twofold variation between individuals (0.4-0.8 L/kg). This forensic science review traces the development of forensic pharmacokinetics of ethanol from a historical perspective, followed by a discussion of important issues related to the disposition and fate of ethanol in the body, including (a) quantitative evaluation of

  1. Exclusion of alcohols from spermidine-DNA assemblies: probing the physical basis of preferential hydration.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, Anne; Rau, Donald C

    2004-06-29

    The interaction of the alcohols 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) and 2-propanol and of glycerol with condensed spermidine(3+)-DNA arrays are investigated with direct force measurements using osmotic stress coupled with X-ray scattering. Thermodynamic forces between DNA helices are measured from the dependence of helical interaxial spacings on the osmotic pressure applied by poly(ethylene glycol) solutions in equilibrium with the DNA phase. The sensitivity of these forces to solute concentration can be transformed into a change in the number of excess or deficit solutes or waters in the DNA phase by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The alcohols examined are excluded from the condensed DNA array and strongly affect the osmotic stress force curves. DNA is preferentially hydrated. MPD is significantly more excluded than 2-propanol. The exclusion of these alcohols, however, is not due to a steric repulsion since glycerol that is intermediate in size between MPD and 2-propanol does not observably affect DNA force curves. As the distance between DNA helices varies, the change in the number of excess waters is independent of alcohol concentration for each alcohol. These solutes are acting osmotically on the condensed array. The distance dependence of exclusion indicates that repulsive water structuring forces dominate the interaction of alcohols with the DNA surface. The exclusion measured for these condensed arrays can quantitatively account for the effect of these alcohols on the precipitation of DNA from dilute solution by spermidine(3+). PMID:15209524

  2. Microwave-solvothermal synthesis of various polymorphs of nanostructured TiO2 in different alcohol media and their lithium ion storage properties.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sukeun; Lee, Eun-Sung; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-03-19

    The various polymorphs (anatase, rutile, and brookite) of TiO(2) with different nanomorphologies have been synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted solvothermal process without surfactants, employing TiCl(4) or TiCl(3) as precursors in various alcohol (ethanol, propanol, butanol, and octanol) media. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The Ti/Cl ion concentration, reaction pH, and size of the alcohol molecule are found to control the morphology, crystal structure, and crystallite size of the TiO(2) particles. Among the various TiO(2) polymorphs synthesized, the rutile TiO(2) spheres built up of nanorods that were synthesized with TiCl(4) in octanol have an average pore size and surface area of, respectively, 5 nm and 404 m(2)/g and exhibit the best electrochemical performance with a capacity of >200 mAh/g after 100 cycles and high rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties originate from the nanorod-building morphology and mesoporosity of TiO(2) spheres that provide good electrical contact, accommodates the strain smoothly, and facilitates facile lithium-ion diffusion. PMID:22380796

  3. Sulfur-rich zinc chemistry: new tris(thioimidazolyl)hydroborate ligands and their zinc complex chemistry related to the structure and function of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tesmer, M; Shu, M; Vahrenkamp, H

    2001-07-30

    The 1-substituted tris(2-thioimidazolyl)hydroborate ligands Tt(R) were prepared as the potassium salts from KBH(4) and the corresponding 1-R-2-thioimidazole for R = t-Bu and C(6)H(4)-p-CH(CH(3))(2) (Cum). Their reactions with zinc salts yielded the tetrahedral complexes Tt(R)Zn-X with X = F, Cl, ONO(2) and (Tt(t)()(-)(Bu))(2)Zn. With zinc perchlorate the labile perchlorate complexes Tt(R)Zn-OClO(3) were obtained. They served as starting materials for the incorporation of substrates which are relevant for the chemistry of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase: Ethanol led to [Tt(t)()(-Bu)Zn.EtOH] ClO(4).EtOH, p-nitrophenol (NitOH) yielded Tt(Cum)Zn-ONit. Pyridine-2-carbaldehyde and salicylic aldehyde were incorporated as N(pyridine) and O(phenolate) coligands with possible additional O(aldehyde) coordination. Substituted pyridyl methanols (R-PyCH(2)OH) yielded the trinuclear complexes [(Tt(t)()(-Bu))(2)Zn(3)(R-PyCH(2)O)(2)] (ClO(4))(2) with bridging Tt and pyridylmethoxide ligands. Preliminary experiments on the functional modeling of alcohol dehydrogenase have shown that TtZn complexes promote both the dehydrogenation of 2-propanol and the hydrogenation of pentafluorobenzaldehyde. PMID:11466063

  4. Fermentative production of 1-propanol from sugars using wild-type and recombinant Shimwellia blattae.

    PubMed

    Urano, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Kaino, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Mitsuru; Kataoka, Michihiko

    2015-02-01

    Shimwellia blattae is an enteric bacterium and produces endogenous enzymes that convert 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to 1-propanol, which is expected to be used as a fuel substitute and a precursor of polypropylene. Therefore, if S. blattae could be induced to generate its own 1,2-PD from sugars, it might be possible to produce 1-propanol from sugars with this microorganism. Here, two 1,2-PD production pathways were constructed in S. blattae, resulting in two methods for 1-propanol production with the bacterium. One method employed the L-rhamnose utilization pathway, in which L-rhamnose is split into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 1,2-PD. When wild-type S. blattae was cultured with L-rhamnose, an accumulation of 1,2-PD was observed. The other method for producing 1,2-PD was to introduce an engineered 1,2-PD production pathway from glucose into S. blattae. In both cases, the produced 1,2-PD was then converted to 1-propanol by 1,2-PD converting enzymes, whose production was induced by the addition of glycerol. PMID:25547843

  5. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-propanol to produce propionic acid using an electrocatalytic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Bowen; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2013-05-18

    An electrocatalytic membrane reactor assembled using a nano-MnO2 loading microporous Ti membrane as an anode and a tubular stainless steel as a cathode was used to oxidize n-propanol to produce propionic acid. The high efficiency and selectivity obtained is related to the synergistic effect between the reaction and separation in the reactor. PMID:23572114

  6. Alcohol and gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    MacMath, T L

    1990-11-01

    Ethanol has experimentally been shown to be "ulcerogenic," independent of gastric intraluminal pH. Ethanol remains ulcerogenic despite antisecretory doses of H2-receptor antagonists. Low-dose alcohol stimulates acid secretion in man, an effect possibly mediated by histamine or gastrin. High-dose alcohol reduces intraluminal acid by damaging mucosa, thereby enhancing back diffusion of hydrogen ion, and also by direct damage to oxyntic (parietal) cells. Ethanol is capable of increasing gastric mucosal permeability as evidenced by the increase in back diffusion (increases intraluminal pH) and by the characteristic fall in transmucosal potential difference which reflects surface cell layer exfoliation. This exfoliation may offer an explanation for the potentiating effect of alcohol on gastric mucosal injury when it is ingested simultaneously with other gastric irritants. Ethanol of greater than 20% concentration can rapidly destroy the gastric mucus-bicarbonate layer, which may be a defense layer for both the inhibition of back diffusion and bicarbonate neutralization of existing acid. Ethanol depletes sulfhydryl compounds in gastric mucosa. These sulfhydryls may be necessary for stabilization of cell membranes as well as for binding free radicals. Ethanol is damaging to the mucosal microcirculation. The rapidity of ethanol-induced damage makes it unlikely that the process is purely ischemic. The cytoprotective phenomenon, as this brief literature review suggests, is a multifactorial, dynamic process. The complex interplay of mucosal defense factors, endogenous and exogenous stimuli, induction of humoral responses, and ultimately the success or failure of cellular repair, is unlikely to be solely mediated by endogenous prostaglandins. Although prostaglandins are unquestionably significant to cytoprotection, the supporting and, perhaps, major roles of leukotrienes, sulfhydryls, histamines, and like substances cannot be ignored. Several innovative therapeutic agents

  7. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium's neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:20661453

  8. Alcohol consumption, Wnt/ß-catenin cignaling, and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...

  9. Thermal and photocatalytic oxidation of 2-propanol on rutile titanium dioxide (110) and (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkley, David Wayne

    The primary focus of this dissertation is the thermal and photocatalytic oxidation of 2-propanol on TiO2 (110) and (100) rutile planes. The object of this study is to establishing what factors govern catalytic oxidation on TiO2. Specifically, the role of surface structure, site geometry, and reactive intermediates must be understood in order to optimize TiO2 as a catalytic material. The catalytic activity of the (110) and (100) surfaces was probed using the oxidation of 2-propanol to determine how the aforementioned factors effected reactivity on TiO2. The average reaction probability per residence time for thermal catalytic oxidation of 2-propanol in the presence of O2 on the (110) and (100) planes is 0.01 and 0.09, respectively. The photocatalytic oxidation channel on these two planes exhibits a similar disparity. The average reaction probability per residence time for a 2-propanol molecule in the presence of O2 on the (110) and (100) planes was 0.08 and 0.03, respectively. The inversion in the branching ratio between the thermal and photocatalytic oxidation on these two surfaces can be attributed to the distance between the titanium binding site and bridging oxygen atoms being shorter on the (100) than on the (110) surface. This closer proximity on the (100) surface allows for a hydrogen bonding interaction to occur, which results in dissociation of bound 2-propanol and permits the thermal oxidation channel to proceed. Due to the difference in site geometry, this hydrogen bonding interaction and the consequent dissociation of 2-propanol is not achieved on the (110) plane, making only the photocatalytic pathway active. In addition, the effect of surface structure was investigated by creating oxygen vacancy sites on the (110) surface. These sites yield an enhancement in the photocatalytic oxidation of 2-propanol from 0.08 to 0.15. In conclusion, this work has demonstrated that surface structure, site geometry and reactive intermediates all play important roles in

  10. Feasibility study on the ethanol-water solar fractionating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, J. M.; Perona, J. J.; Williams, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of vacuum distillation of alcohol by using flat-plate collectors to provide the energy, an experimental solar still was designed, constructed and tested. The complete system provided for water heating and storage and the fractionation of ethanol-water mixtures in the alcohol still. The results of our experiment confirm that such a system is technically practical for the production of better than 90 percent ethanol.

  11. Actions of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Marisa; Treistman, Steven N; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Weiner, Jeff; Galindo, Rafael; Mameli, Manuel; Valenzuela, Fernando; Zhu, Ping Jun; Lovinger, David; Zhang, Tao A; Hendricson, Adam H; Morrisett, Richard; Siggins, George Robert

    2006-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium entitled "The Tipsy Terminal: Presynaptic Effects of Ethanol" (held at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, in Santa Barbara, CA, June 27, 2005). The objective of this symposium was to focus on a cellular site of ethanol action underrepresented in the alcohol literature, but quickly becoming a "hot" topic. The chairs of the session were Marisa Roberto and George Robert Siggins. Our speakers were chosen on the basis of the diverse electrophysiological and other methods used to discern the effects of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals and on the basis of significant insights that their data provide for understanding ethanol actions on neurons in general, as mechanisms underlying problematic behavioral effects of alcohol. The 5 presenters drew from their recent studies examining the effects of acute and chronic ethanol using a range of sophisticated methods from electrophysiological analysis of paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous and miniature synaptic currents (Drs. Weiner, Valenzuela, Zhu, and Morrisett), to direct recording of ion channel activity and peptide release from acutely isolated synaptic terminals (Dr. Treistman), to direct microscopic observation of vesicular release (Dr. Morrisett). They showed that ethanol administration could both increase and decrease the probability of release of different transmitters from synaptic terminals. The effects of ethanol on synaptic terminals could often be correlated with important behavioral or developmental actions of alcohol. These and other novel findings suggest that future analyses of synaptic effects of ethanol should attempt to ascertain, in multiple brain regions, the role of presynaptic terminals, relevant presynaptic receptors and signal transduction linkages, exocytotic mechanisms, and their involvement in alcohol's behavioral actions. Such studies could lead to new treatment strategies for alcohol intoxication

  12. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ke; Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2014-12-01

    The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the Csbnd C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the Cdbnd O and Csbnd OH bonds.

  13. New microbe can make ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Researchers have created a bacterium that converts all of the sugars from inedible vegetable waste and other woody material into ethanol by inserting the genes of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis into Escherichia coli. The resulting bacterium converts 90% -95% of the main forms of sugar in biomass into 4% - 6% concentrations of ethanol. The goal is to reach a 7% to 8% concentration. Current ethanol production from corn in a yeast-fermentation process yields a 10% - 12% ethanol concentration, but the conversion rate is less efficient than with the new bacterium. Zymomonas, found in cactus plants and used by the Aztecs to make alcohol, was selected for its known conversion efficiency. Providing the engineering challenges can be overcome, there could be several pilot plants running in 3-5 years. Even though it is not currently profitable to make ethanol from vegetable waste, if the fact that this new process reduces the total material by 90% were taken into account, perhaps a landfill reduction credit based on current tipping fees would make the actual costs both more realistic and more attractive.

  14. Removal of PCB-DNAPL from a rough-walled fracture using alcohol/polymer flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, M.; Kueper, B. H.

    2006-03-01

    Phase behaviour experiments employing PCB (Aroclor 1242)/alcohol/water systems were conducted with ethanol (EtOH) and n-propanol (nPA). Both exhibited an affinity for the aqueous phase within the entire two-phase region. As much as 88% by volume (88% vol.) EtOH and 80% vol. nPA were necessary to achieve full miscibility of the PCB in the aqueous phase. DNAPL-water interfacial tension (IFT) was reduced from 38.9 dyn/cm to 4.7 dyn/cm and 2.4 dyn/cm with 80% vol. EtOH and 76% vol. nPA. The addition of alcohol brought about 41% and 54% reductions in DNAPL viscosity at maximal concentrations of EtOH and nPA. Density of the PCB-DNAPL was relatively unaffected by the presence of alcohol. A series of seven experiments were conducted where successive slugs of nPA and xanthan gum polymer solutions were injected into a fractured shale sample. A 30% vol. nPA solution injected under a hydraulic gradient of 0.36 allowed enhanced PCB removal primarily through reduction of IFT and resulted in 72% DNAPL recovery. Several pore volumes of alcohol solution were necessary to displace all the potentially mobile non-wetting phase since the high-viscosity DNAPL was mobilized at a lower flow rate than the overall fluid velocity, illustrating non-piston displacement. The injection of a 95% vol. nPA alcohol solution, theoretically at a sufficient concentration to produce fully miscible displacement of the residual DNAPL at equilibrium, resulted in non-equilibrium partitioning of the PCB into the flushing solution, likely due to the high fluid velocities in the fracture. The injection of 200 pore volumes of 95% vol. nPA solution resulted in 94% DNAPL recovery. Alcohol floods operated below the miscibility envelope appear to be a valuable source zone remedial alternative where the objective is to reduce DNAPL mobility to zero, but it should be noted that DNAPL mobility is increased during the application of the technology and steps may need to be taken to prevent unwanted vertical mobilization.

  15. Removal of PCB-DNAPL from a rough-walled fracture using alcohol/polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M; Kueper, B H

    2006-03-01

    Phase behaviour experiments employing PCB (Aroclor 1242)/alcohol/water systems were conducted with ethanol (EtOH) and n-propanol (nPA). Both exhibited an affinity for the aqueous phase within the entire two-phase region. As much as 88% by volume (88% vol.) EtOH and 80% vol. nPA were necessary to achieve full miscibility of the PCB in the aqueous phase. DNAPL-water interfacial tension (IFT) was reduced from 38.9 dyn/cm to 4.7 dyn/cm and 2.4 dyn/cm with 80% vol. EtOH and 76% vol. nPA. The addition of alcohol brought about 41% and 54% reductions in DNAPL viscosity at maximal concentrations of EtOH and nPA. Density of the PCB-DNAPL was relatively unaffected by the presence of alcohol. A series of seven experiments were conducted where successive slugs of nPA and xanthan gum polymer solutions were injected into a fractured shale sample. A 30% vol. nPA solution injected under a hydraulic gradient of 0.36 allowed enhanced PCB removal primarily through reduction of IFT and resulted in 72% DNAPL recovery. Several pore volumes of alcohol solution were necessary to displace all the potentially mobile non-wetting phase since the high-viscosity DNAPL was mobilized at a lower flow rate than the overall fluid velocity, illustrating non-piston displacement. The injection of a 95% vol. nPA alcohol solution, theoretically at a sufficient concentration to produce fully miscible displacement of the residual DNAPL at equilibrium, resulted in non-equilibrium partitioning of the PCB into the flushing solution, likely due to the high fluid velocities in the fracture. The injection of 200 pore volumes of 95% vol. nPA solution resulted in 94% DNAPL recovery. Alcohol floods operated below the miscibility envelope appear to be a valuable source zone remedial alternative where the objective is to reduce DNAPL mobility to zero, but it should be noted that DNAPL mobility is increased during the application of the technology and steps may need to be taken to prevent unwanted vertical mobilization

  16. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary; Becker, Howard C

    2016-04-01

    The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system plays a major role in motivation for natural and drug rewards. In particular, a number of studies have shown that ORX signaling through the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) regulates alcohol seeking and consumption. Despite the association between ORX signaling and motivation for alcohol, no study to date has investigated what role the ORX system plays in alcohol dependence, an understanding of which would have significant clinical relevance. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the highly selective OX1R antagonist GSK1059865 on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and control non-dependent mice. Mice were subjected to a protocol in which they were evaluated for baseline ethanol intake and then exposed to intermittent ethanol or air exposure in inhalation chambers. Each cycle of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE), or air, exposure was followed by a test of ethanol intake. Once the expected effect of increased voluntary ethanol intake was obtained in ethanol dependent mice, mice were tested for the effect of GSK1059865 on ethanol and sucrose intake. Treatment with GSK1059865 significantly decreased ethanol drinking in a dose-dependent manner in CIE-exposed mice. In contrast GSK1059865 decreased drinking in air-exposed mice only at the highest dose used. There was no effect of GSK1059865 on sucrose intake. Thus, ORX signaling through the OX1R, using a highly-selective antagonist, has a profound influence on high levels of alcohol drinking induced in a dependence paradigm, but limited or no influence on moderate alcohol drinking or sucrose drinking. These results indicate that the ORX system may be an important target system for treating disorders of compulsive reward seeking such as alcoholism and other addictions in which motivation is strongly elevated. PMID:26851547

  17. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  18. Chem I Supplement: Effects of Ethanol on Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, RoseAnn L.

    1979-01-01

    Malnutrition due to alcoholism is discussed. It includes energy from the metabolism of ethanol as it contributes to obesity, the replacement of nutritious foods by sources of ethanol, inhibition of vitamins being activated, the increase in excretion of valuable minerals, and toxicity to cells of organ systems. (Author/SA)

  19. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  20. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  1. Ethanol metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and its possible consequences.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K; Gärtner, U; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A

    1994-01-01

    Ethanol is oxidised not only in the liver, but also in the gastrointestinal tract. Although this ethanol metabolism is less than that of the liver, it has some important relevance with respect to the first pass metabolism of alcohol and to ethanol induced tissue toxicity. In the gastrointestinal tract, ethanol can be metabolised not only in the mucosal cell via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and microsomal ethanol oxidising system (MEOS), but also in a great variety of bacteria. Depending on the gastrointestinal location, one or the other metabolic pathway of alcohol may be predominant. The metabolism of ethanol by gastric ADH, the so called first pass metabolism, influences ethanol blood concentrations not only in the portal vein and thus in the liver, but also in the systemic circulation. As gastric ADH activity is decreased in younger women, in the elderly, in the alcoholic, during fasting and after treatment with certain H-2-receptor antagonists, increased blood ethanol concentrations may occur in these situations after oral intake of ethanol. However, this first pass metabolism of alcohol is influenced not only by ADH activity but also by the speed of gastric emptying (e.g. slow gastric emptying leads to increased first pass metabolism). Finally, gastric morphology also determines first pass metabolism. Chronic atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated gastric injury lead to a decrease of gastric ADH activity, and thus possibly to a decreased first pass metabolism of alcohol. In addition, the local production of acetaldehyde from ethanol in the oesophagus, where significantly more sigma-ADH is present, may contribute to tissue injury and this may lead to the well known ethanol associated oesophageal cancer development. Various isoenzymes of ADH exist in the colorectum and they are also capable of producing acetaldehyde in amounts sufficient to injure the mucosa. Besides ADH, the MEOS, a mixed function oxidase, also metabolises ethanol. This system is

  2. Mechanisms of naturally evolved ethanol resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fry, James D

    2014-11-15

    The decaying fruit in which Drosophila melanogaster feed and breed can contain ethanol in concentrations as high as 6-7%. In this cosmopolitan species, populations from temperate regions are consistently more resistant to ethanol poisoning than populations from the tropics, but little is known about the physiological basis of this difference. I show that when exposed to low levels of ethanol vapor, flies from a tropical African population accumulated 2-3 times more internal ethanol than flies from a European population, giving evidence that faster ethanol catabolism by European flies contributes to the resistance difference. Using lines differing only in the origin of their third chromosome, however, I show that faster ethanol elimination cannot fully explain the resistance difference, because relative to African third chromosomes, European third chromosomes confer substantially higher ethanol resistance, while having little effect on internal ethanol concentrations. European third chromosomes also confer higher resistance to acetic acid, a metabolic product of ethanol, than African third chromosomes, suggesting that the higher ethanol resistance conferred by the former might be due to increased resistance to deleterious effects of ethanol-derived acetic acid. In support of this hypothesis, when ethanol catabolism was blocked with an Alcohol dehydrogenase mutant, there was no difference in ethanol resistance between flies with European and African third chromosomes. PMID:25392459

  3. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  4. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  5. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  6. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  7. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  8. Analysis of spontaneous alcohol drinking in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Ribbens, L G; van Ree, J M

    1990-04-01

    This analysis aims at determining to what extent spontaneous alcohol drinking in adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) represents ethanol-directed behaviour. It is shown that in a condition of free access to an ethanol/water solution (2 percent v/v) and drinking water, alcohol drinking was initiated in all subjects (n = 4) within a few days, without any specific induction procedure. Relationship between drinking behaviour and ethanol concentrations was studied in 8 subjects by use of a concurrent 3-bottle-design. 2 bottles containing ethanol solution (concentrations 2.4; 4.8; 8.16; 16.32 percent v/v), 1 bottle contained drinking water. When ethanol concentrations in the solutions increased, consumption of ethanol solutions decreased, of drinking water increased, and of total water decreased. Net ethanol intake from a certain solution was influenced by its concentration and the concentration of the concurrently available solution. After an initial increase, total net ethanol intake remained relatively constant. Consumed amounts of ethanol (on the average 2-6 ml.kg-1 per day) could lead to notable blood ethanol levels. Drinking from ethanol solution was not just an alternative for ingesting water. The observed alcohol drinking is interpreted as resulting from a central reinforcement of ethanol intake and avoidance of negative, potentially harmful effects of ethanol. PMID:2385638

  9. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  10. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  11. Ethanol fuels reference guide: a decision-makers guide to ethanol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    This guide is a compendium of information on alcohol fuel production and use. Chapter titles are: facts about ethanol; gasohol-answers to the basic questions; feedstocks and their coproducts; ethanol production processes; and vehicle fuel use and performance. In addition, there are 8 appendices which include fermentation guides for common grains and potatoes, component and enzyme manufacturers, and information on regulations and permits. (DMC)

  12. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene in a novel NaOH/2-propanol/methanol/water system on ceria-supported Pd and Rh catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Martha; Becerra, Jorge; Castelblanco, Miguel; Cifuentes, Bernay; Conesa, Juan A

    2015-08-01

    The catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of high concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) (4.9 mol%, 11.6 vol%) was studied over 1%Pd, 1%Rh and 0.5%Pd-0.5%Rh catalysts supported on CeO2 under conditions of room temperature and pressure. For this, a one-phase system of NaOH/2-propanol/methanol/water was designed with molar percentages of 13.2/17.5/36.9/27.6, respectively. In this system, the alcohols delivered the hydrogen required for the reaction through in-situ dehydrogenation reactions. PdRh/CeO2 was the most active catalyst for the degradation of TCE among the evaluated materials, degrading 85% of the trichloroethylene, with alcohol dehydrogenation rates of 89% for 2-propanol and 83% for methanol after 1 h of reaction. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These results showed important differences of the active phase in each catalyst sample. Rh/CeO2 had particle sizes smaller than 1 nm and the active metal was partially oxidized (Rh(0)/Rh(+δ) ratio of 0.43). This configuration showed to be suitable for alcohols dehydrogenation. On the contrary, Pd/CeO2 showed a Pd completed oxidized and with a mean particle size of 1.7 nm, which seemed to be unfavorable for both, alcohols dehydrogenation and TCE HDC. On PdRh/CeO2, active metals presented a mean particle size of 2.7 nm and more reduced metallic species, with ratios of Rh(0)/Rh(+δ) = 0.67 and Pd(0)/Pd(+δ) = 0.28, which showed to be suitable features for the TCE HDC. On the other hand, TGA results suggested some deposition of NaCl residues over the catalyst surfaces. Thus, the new reaction system using PdRh/CeO2 allowed for the degradation of high concentrations of the chlorinated compound by using in situ hydrogen liquid donors in a reaction at room temperature and pressure. PMID:25932562

  13. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  14. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  15. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  16. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  17. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  18. Effects of Ethanol on the Cerebellum: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol abuse causes cerebellar dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia is a common feature in alcoholics. Alcohol exposure during development also impacts the cerebellum. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) show many symptoms associated specifically with cerebellar deficits. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear. This special issue discusses the most recent advances in the study of mechanisms underlying alcoholinduced cerebellar deficits. The alteration in GABAA receptor-dependent neurotransmission is a potential mechanism for ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction. Recent advances indicate ethanol-induced increases in GABA release are not only in Purkinje cells (PCs), but also in molecular layer interneurons and granule cells. Ethanol is shown to disrupt the molecular events at the mossy fiber - granule cell - Golgi cell (MGG) synaptic site and granule cell parallel fibers - PCs (GPP) synaptic site, which may be responsible for ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia. Aging and ethanol may affect the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of PC dendrites and cause dendritic regression. Ethanol withdrawal causes mitochondrial damage and aberrant gene modifications in the cerebellum. The interaction between these events may result in neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Ethanol activates doublestranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and PKR activation is involved ethanolinduced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Ethanol alters the development of cerebellar circuitry following the loss of PCs, which could result in modifications of the structure and function of other brain regions that receive cerebellar inputs. Lastly, choline, an essential nutrient is evaluated for its potential protection against ethanol-induced cerebellar damages. Choline is shown to ameliorate ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction when given before ethanol exposure. PMID:25933648

  19. Design and operation of a small-scale ethanol still

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a small-scale alcohol still utilizing beer derived from both corn and potato mash. Use was made of the ethanol in alcohol vehicles imported from Brazil. By-products (stillage) were successfully used as cattle feed. (DMC)

  20. Adolescent rats are resistant to forming ethanol seeking habits.

    PubMed

    Serlin, Hannah; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-12-01

    Early age of onset alcohol drinking is significantly more likely to lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs) than alcohol drinking that begins after the age of 18. Unfortunately, the majority of people in the United States begin drinking in adolescence. Therefore, it is important to understand how early alcohol drinking leads to increased risk for AUDs so that better treatments and prevention strategies can be developed. Adolescents perceive greater rewarding properties of alcohol, and adolescents may be more likely to form alcohol-seeking habits that promote continued use throughout the lifetime. Therefore, we compared the development of alcohol seeking habits in adolescent and adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were trained to lever press to receive 10% ethanol+0.1% saccharin on a schedule that promotes habit formation. Rats were tested using a contingency degradation procedure at different points in training. Adult rats formed ethanol-seeking habits with only moderate training, while adolescents remained goal-directed even with extended training. Nevertheless, adolescents consumed more ethanol than adults throughout the experiment and continued to consume more ethanol than adults when they reached adulthood. Therefore, early onset alcohol use may promote AUD formation through establishment of high levels of drinking that becomes habitual in adulthood. PMID:25575668

  1. Feasibility of transdermal ethanol sensing for the detection of intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gregory D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2007-01-01

    Transdermal ethanol detection is a promising method that could prevent drunk driving if integrated into an ignition interlock system. However, experimental data from previous research has shown significant time delays between alcohol ingestion and detection at the skin which makes real time estimation of blood alcohol concentration via skin measurement difficult. Using a validated model we studied the effects that body weight, metabolic rate and ethanol dose had on the time lag between the blood alcohol concentration and transdermal alcohol concentration. The dose of alcohol ingested was found to have the most significant effect on the skin alcohol lag time; a dose of 15 ml of ethanol resulted in a peak lag time of approximately 33 minutes, while a dose of 60 ml of ethanol resulted in a peak time lag of 53 minutes. The time lag was found to be insensitive to body mass and only moderately sensitive to changes in metabolic rates. PMID:18184507

  2. Features of the kinetics of 4-nitroaniline and azoxybenzene hydrogenation in 2-propanol aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kha, Nguen Tkhi Tkhu; Lefedova, O. V.; Merkin, A. A.

    2013-04-01

    It is shown experimentally that the hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline and azoxybenzene over a skeletal nickel catalyst in 2-propanol aqueous solutions proceeds selectively with the formation of the corresponding amines without the accumulation of side products in the bulk phase. It is concluded that during reduction, considerable participation of hydrogen bonded with active centers of a catalyst surface was observed. The competitive character of adsorption between the initial azoxybenzene and aniline formed as a result of reaction is established. It is ascertained that the character of changes in the rates of hydrogenation of nitro and azoxy groups is identical in the presence of additions of acid or base. It is demonstrated that a targeted change in the hydrogenation rates of these compounds is possible by introducing additions of acetic acid or sodium hydroxide into 2-propanol aqueous solution.

  3. Assessment of affective and somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice using a short term ethanol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Perez, EE; De Biasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent addictive substances in the world. Withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption in habitual drinkers. The emergence of both affective and physical symptoms produces a state that promotes relapse. Mice provide a preclinical model that could be used to study alcohol dependence and withdrawal while controlling for both genetic and environmental variables. The use of a liquid ethanol diet offers a reliable method for the induction of alcohol dependence in mice, but this approach is impractical when conducting high throughput pharmacological screens or when comparing multiple strains of genetically engineered mice. The goal of this study was to compare withdrawal associated behaviors in mice chronically treated with a liquid ethanol diet vs. mice treated with a short-term ethanol treatment that consisted of daily ethanol injections containing the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole. Twenty-four hours after ethanol treatment, mice were tested in the open field arena, the elevated plus maze, the marble burying test or for changes in somatic signs during spontaneous ethanol withdrawal. Anxiety-like and compulsive-like behavior, as well as physical signs, were all significantly elevated in mice undergoing withdrawal, regardless of the route of ethanol administration. Therefore, a short-term ethanol treatment can be utilized as a screening tool for testing genetic and pharmacological agents before investing in a more time consuming ethanol treatment. PMID:25817777

  4. Solvation of benzophenone anion radical in ethanol and ethanol/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-28

    The electron spin-echo modulations and the absoprtion spectra of benzophenone anion radicals generated by ..gamma..-irradiation in the glassy matrices of ethanol and ethanol2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixtures have been measured for elucidating the mechanism of spectral shift observed during the solvation of the anion radicals in alcohols. The anion radical generated at 4.2 K in the ethanol matrix maintains the same solvation structure as that of neutral benzophenone. At 77 K ethanol molecules solvate the anion radical by orienting the O-H dipoles toward the anion radical. The anion radical is hydrogen-bonded by two ethanol molecules through the p/sub z/ orbital on the benzophenone oxygen which composes the ..pi.. orbitals of anion radical. Three kinds of anion radicals are observed in the mixed matrix at 77 K. Two of them are essentially the same as those observed in the ethanol matrix at 4.2 and 77 K. The third has the absorption maximum at 700 nm and is attributed to the anion radical hydrogen-bonded by one ethanol molecule through the p/sub z/ orbital. It is concluded that the spectral shift observed in alcohols is caused by the stabilization of a SOMO ..pi..* orbital induced by the hydrogen bonding with the (RO)H--O--H(OR) angle perpendicular to the molecular plane of the anion radical

  5. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  6. A versatile ruthenium(II)-NNC complex catalyst for transfer hydrogenation of ketones and Oppenauer-type oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Du, Wangming; Wang, Liandi; Wu, Ping; Yu, Zhengkun

    2012-09-10

    A ruthenium(II)-NNC pincer complex containing an unsymmetrical tridentate pyrazolyl-pyridyl-tolyl ligand was synthesized and structually characterized. This complex exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones in 2-propanol at reflux, and for the Oppenauer-type dehydrogenative oxidation of alcohols in acetone at reflux (see scheme). PMID:22887575

  7. Catalytic Deoxygenation of 1,2-Propanediol to Give n-Propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaf, Marcel; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Fagan, Paul J.; Hauptman, Elisabeth; Bullock, R. Morris

    2009-03-01

    Catalytic deoxygenation of 1,2-propanediol has been studied as a model the for deoxygenation of polyols and other biomass-derived compounds. Deoxygenation of 1,2-propanediol (1.0 M in sulfolane) catalyzed by {[Cp*Ru(CO)2]2(μ-H)}+OTf – (0.5 mol %) at 110 °C under H2 (750 psi) in the presence of HOTf (60 mM) gives n-propanol (54 %) as the major product, indicating a high selectivity for deoxygenation of the internal OH over the terminal OH of the diol. Di-n propyl ether forms through condensation of n-propanol with itself, and propylene glycol propyl ether arises from condensation of n-propanol with the starting material diol, giving a total of up to 80 % yield for deoxygenation / hydrogenation products under these conditions. The deoxygenation of 1,2-propanediol is strongly influenced by the concentration of acid, giving faster rates and proceeding to higher conversions as the concentration of HOTf is increased. There is little or no dependence of the rate on the pressure of H2. Propionaldehyde was observed as an intermediate, being formed through acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1,2-propanediol. This aldehyde is hydrogenated to n-propanol through an ionic pathway involving protonation of the aldehyde, followed by hydride transfer from the neutral hydride, Cp*Ru(CO)2H. The proposed mechanism for the deoxygenation/hydrogenation reaction involves formation of a highly acidic dihydrogen complex, [Cp*Ru(CO)2(η2-H2)]+OTf-. Regeneration of the dihydrogen complex occurs through reaction of Cp*Ru(CO)2OTf with H2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Accumulation and evolution of the spatial distribution of radicals in vitreous propanol in a glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kurshev, V.V.; Raitsimring, A.M.

    1992-09-01

    Analysis of the dipole broadening of an EPR line is used to explain the change in the spatial distribution of radicals formed in the plasma of a high-frequency glow discharge on the surface of vitreous propanol, which contains an electron acceptor. The contributions of various mechanisms for radical formation are evaluated. A model is proposed to describe both the accumulation and the evolution of the stabilization region of radicals in the plasmolysis process. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Preparation and Surface Layer Modification of Silicon Nanoparticles Dispersed in 2-Propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong; S, Iwasaki; K, Kimura; Zhang, Li-de

    1998-12-01

    Silicon nanoparticles dispersed in 2-propanol were prepared by using an arc plasma with gas flow method in a new designed home-made apparatus. The particles are composed of silicon crystal core covered by oxidized amorphous silicon shell. The composition of the particle surface layer can be modified by preparing the sample in different atmosphere. The particles can be also obtained with different core composition and different size which we need.

  10. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. PMID:26774181

  11. Cβ-H stretching vibration as a new probe for conformation of n-propanol in gaseous and liquid states.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanqin; Wang, Yuxi; Hu, Naiyin; Lin, Ke; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Liu, Shilin

    2016-04-21

    The development of potential probes to identify molecular conformation is essential in organic and biological chemistry. In this work, we investigated a site-specific C-H stretching vibration as a conformational probe for a model compound, 1,1,3,3,3-deuterated n-propanol (CD3CH2CD2OH), using stimulated photoacoustic Raman spectroscopy in the gas phase and conventional spontaneous Raman spectroscopy in the liquid state. Along with quantum chemistry calculations, the experiment shows that the CH2 symmetric stretching mode at the β-carbon position is very sensitive to the conformational structure of n-propanol and can serve as a new probe for all five of its conformers. Compared with the O-H stretching vibration, a well-established conformational sensor for n-propanol, the Cβ-H stretching vibration presented here shows better conformational resolution in the liquid state. Furthermore, using this probe, we investigated the conformational preference of n-propanol in pure liquid and in dilute water solution. It is revealed that in pure liquid, n-propanol molecules prefer the trans-OH conformation, and in dilute water solution, this preference is enhanced, indicating that the water molecules play a role of further stabilizing the trans-OH n-propanol conformers. This leads to conformational evolution that n-propanol molecules with gauche-OH structure are transferred to the trans-OH structure upon diluting with water. These results not only provide important information on structures of n-propanol in different environments, but also demonstrate the potential of the C-H stretching vibration as a new tool for conformational analysis. This is especially important when considering that hydrocarbon chains are structural units in organic and biological molecules. PMID:27031287

  12. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed enantioselective production of 1-phenyl 1-propanol using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Asli; Bayraktar, Emine; Mehmetoglu, Ulku

    2010-01-01

    Optically active 1-phenyl 1-propanol is used as a chiral building block and synthetic intermediate in the pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the enantioselective production of 1-phenyl 1-propanol was investigated systematically using response surface methodology (RSM). Before RSM was applied, the effects of the enzyme source, the type of acyl donor, and the type of solvent on the kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl 1-propanol were studied. The best results were obtained with Candida antartica lipase (commercially available as Novozym 435), vinyl laurate as the acyl donor, and isooctane as the solvent. In the RSM, substrate concentration, molar ratio of acyl donor to the substrate, amount of enzyme, temperature, and stirring rate were chosen as independent variables. The predicted optimum conditions for a higher enantiomeric excess (ee) were as follows: substrate concentration, 233 mM; molar ratio of acyl donor to substrate, 1.5; enzyme amount, 116 mg; temperature, 47 °C; and stirring rate, 161 rpm. A verification experiment conducted at these optimized conditions for maximum ee yielded 91% for 3 hr, which is higher than the predicted value of 83%. The effect of microwave on the ee was also investigated and ee reached 87% at only 5 min. PMID:21108142

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of 1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Jun; Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-09-01

    An engineered Escherichia coli strain that produces 1-propanol under aerobic condition was developed based on an L-threonine-overproducing E. coli strain. First, a feedback resistant ilvA gene encoding threonine dehydratase was introduced and the competing metabolic pathway genes were deleted. Further engineering was performed by overexpressing the cimA gene encoding citramalate synthase and the ackA gene encoding acetate kinase A/propionate kinase II, introducing a modified adhE gene encoding an aerobically functional AdhE, and by deleting the rpoS gene encoding the stationary phase sigma factor. Fed-batch culture of the final engineered strain harboring pBRthrABC-tac-cimA-tac-ackA and pTacDA-tac-adhE(mut) allowed production of 10.8 g L(-1) of 1-propanol with the yield and productivity of 0.107 g g(-1) and 0.144 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 100 g L(-1) of glucose, and 10.3 g L(-1) of 1-propanol with the yield and productivity of 0.259 g g(-1) and 0.083 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 40 g L(-1) glycerol. PMID:22871504

  14. Structure, chemical composition, and reactivity correlations during the in situ oxidation of 2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Paredis, Kristof; Ono, Luis K; Mostafa, Simon; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan; Yang, Judith C; Barrio, Laura; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Cuenya, Beatriz Roldan

    2011-05-01

    Unraveling the complex interaction between catalysts and reactants under operando conditions is a key step toward gaining fundamental insight in catalysis. We report the evolution of the structure and chemical composition of size-selected micellar Pt nanoparticles (∼1 nm) supported on nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) during the catalytic oxidation of 2-propanol using X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. Platinum oxides were found to be the active species for the partial oxidation of 2-propanol (<140 °C), while the complete oxidation (>140 °C) is initially catalyzed by oxygen-covered metallic Pt nanoparticles, which were found to regrow a thin surface oxide layer above 200 °C. The intermediate reaction regime, where the partial and complete oxidation pathways coexist, is characterized by the decomposition of the Pt oxide species due to the production of reducing intermediates and the blocking of O(2) adsorption sites on the nanoparticle surface. The high catalytic activity and low onset reaction temperature displayed by our small Pt particles for the oxidation of 2-propanol is attributed to the large amount of edge and corner sites available, which facilitate the formation of reactive surface oxides. Our findings highlight the decisive role of the nanoparticle structure and chemical state in oxidation catalytic reactions. PMID:21469709

  15. Structure Chemical Composition And Reactivity Correlations during the In Situ Oxidation of 2-Propanol

    SciTech Connect

    K Paredis; L Ono; S Mostafa; L Li; Z Zhang; J Yang; L Barrio; A Frenkel; B Roldan Cuenya

    2011-12-31

    Unraveling the complex interaction between catalysts and reactants under operando conditions is a key step toward gaining fundamental insight in catalysis. We report the evolution of the structure and chemical composition of size-selected micellar Pt nanoparticles ({approx}1 nm) supported on nanocrystalline {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} during the catalytic oxidation of 2-propanol using X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. Platinum oxides were found to be the active species for the partial oxidation of 2-propanol (<140 C), while the complete oxidation (>140 C) is initially catalyzed by oxygen-covered metallic Pt nanoparticles, which were found to regrow a thin surface oxide layer above 200 C. The intermediate reaction regime, where the partial and complete oxidation pathways coexist, is characterized by the decomposition of the Pt oxide species due to the production of reducing intermediates and the blocking of O{sub 2} adsorption sites on the nanoparticle surface. The high catalytic activity and low onset reaction temperature displayed by our small Pt particles for the oxidation of 2-propanol is attributed to the large amount of edge and corner sites available, which facilitate the formation of reactive surface oxides. Our findings highlight the decisive role of the nanoparticle structure and chemical state in oxidation catalytic reactions.

  16. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. PMID:26177723

  17. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  18. Ethanol drinking in socially housed squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, S; Titchen, K; Miczek, K A

    1998-07-01

    This study proposes a method to assess voluntary alcohol drinking in socially living squirrel monkeys. Group-housed squirrel monkeys were induced to drink a sucrose solution and subsequently an ethanol/sucrose solution in an experimental chamber attached to the home colony room, allowing the daily intake to be monitored for each individual without disrupting the social context. Sucrose concentration (0.03-0.6 M, corresponding to 1-20%) and ethanol concentration (0-4%) were gradually increased in tap water and in a 0.6 M (ca. 20%) sucrose solution during daily 30-min and 10-min sessions, respectively. Blood ethanol levels ranged from 10-50 mg/dl and remained below intoxication level. These experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to arrange conditions under which individual socially housed squirrel monkeys voluntarily drink a sweetened ethanol solution. PMID:10065925

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibria for alcohol + alcohol + sodium iodide at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Fukase, K.; Shibata, J.

    1996-09-01

    Estimation and correlation of phase equilibria data in chemical engineering are indispensable for the design of equilibrium separation processes. If a salt, being completely nonvolatile, is added to the solvent mixture, the relative volatility generally changes; this is known as the salting-in or -out effect on vapor-liquid equilibria. Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + propan-1-ol + NaI, methanol + propan-2-ol + NaI, ethanol + propan-1-ol + NaI, and ethanol + propan-2-ol + NaI systems were measured at 298.15 K using a static method. The apparatus was tested by comparing results for ethanol + water and ethanol + water + CaCl{sub 2} with literature results. Results were tested for thermodynamic consistency by Herinton`s area test and point test. NaI exerted a salting-in effect on all binary alcohol solutions and the order of the salt effect of NaI was methanol + ethanol < ethanol + propan-1-ol < ethanol + propan-2-ol < methanol + propan-1-ol < methanol + propan-2-ol. Hala`s model was applied for the correlation of four alcohol + alcohol + salt systems using observed data. Calculated {beta} values in Hala`s equation were between 2.8 and 3.9 for the four alcohol + alcohol + NaI systems.

  20. Susceptibility to alcohol-related liver injury.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1994-01-01

    Alcohol affects the liver through metabolic disturbances associated with its oxidation. Redox changes produced by the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase pathway affect lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Ethanol is also oxidized in liver microsomes by the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P4502E1, resulting in ethanol tolerance and selective hepatic perivenular damage. Furthermore, P4502E1 activates various xenobiotics, explaining the increased susceptibility of the heavy drinker to the toxicity of anesthetics, commonly used medications (i.e. isoniazid), analgesics (i.e. acetaminophen), and chemical carcinogens. Induction of microsomal enzymes also contributes to vitamin A depletion, enhances its hepatotoxicity and results in increased acetaldehyde generation from ethanol, with formation of protein adducts, glutathione depletion, free-radical-mediated toxicity, and lipid peroxidation. Chronic ethanol consumption strikingly enhances the number of hepatic collagen-producing activated lipocytes. Both in vivo (in our baboon model of alcoholic cirrhosis) and in vitro (in cultured myofibroblasts and activated lipocytes) ethanol and/or its metabolite acetaldehyde increase collagen accumulation and mRNA for collagen. Gender differences are related, in part, to lower gastric ADH activity (with consequent reduction of first pass ethanol metabolism) in young women, decreased hepatic fatty acid binding protein and increased free-fatty acid levels as well as lesser omega-hydroxylation, all of which result in increased vulnerability to ethanol. Elucidation of the biochemical effects of ethanol are now resulting in improved therapy: in baboons, S-adenosyl-L-methionine attenuates the ethanol-induced glutathione depletion and associated mitochondrial lesions, and polyenylphosphatidylcholine opposes the ethanol-induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, the decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and the activation of hepatic lipocytes, with full prevention of

  1. Ethanol exposure represses osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-Long; Song, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-07-01

    It is known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can increase the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the effect of ethanol exposure on bone morphogenesis in fetus is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment of gastrulating chick embryos could inhibit long bone (humerus, radius and ulna) development. Histological examination revealed that ethanol exposure reduced the width of the proliferation and hypertrophic zones. In addition, cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activities were repressed. We also investigated the effect on chondrogenesis and chondrogenesis was inhibited. Ethanol exposure also induced excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The inhibiting effect on flat bone (sclerotic ossicle) and the generation of cranial neural crest cells (progenitors of craniofacial bones) was also presented. In conclusion, ethanol exposure during the embryonic period retards bone development through excess ROS production and altered bone-associated gene expression. PMID:27112526

  2. Novel 3-hydroxypropyl bonded phase by direct hydrosilylation of allyl alcohol on amorphous hydride silica

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Jorge E.; Navarro, Fabián H.; Sandoval, Junior E.

    2015-01-01

    A novel 3-hydroxypropyl (propanol) bonded silica phase has been prepared by hydrosilylation of allyl alcohol on a hydride silica intermediate, in the presence of platinum (0)-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane (Karstedt's catalyst). The regio-selectivity of this synthetic approach had been correctly predicted by previous reports involving octakis(dimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane (Q8M8H) and hydrogen silsesquioxane (T8H8), as molecular analogs of hydride amorphous silica. Thus, C-silylation predominated (~ 94%) over O-silylation, and high surface coverages of propanol groups (5±1 µmol/m2) were typically obtained in this work. The propanol-bonded phase was characterized by spectroscopic (IR and solid state NMR on silica microparticles), contact angle (on fused-silica wafers) and CE (on fused-silica tubes) techniques. CE studies of the migration behavior of pyridine, caffeine, tris(2,2’-bipyridine)Ru(II) chloride and lysozyme on propanol-modified capillaries were carried out. The adsorption properties of these select silanol-sensitive solutes were compared to those on the unmodified and hydride-modified tubes. It was found that hydrolysis of the SiH species underlying the immobilized propanol moieties leads mainly to strong ion-exchange based interactions with the basic solutes at pH 4, particularly with lysozyme. Interestingly, and in agreement with water contact angle and electroosmotic mobility figures, the silanol-probe interactions on the buffer-exposed (hydrolyzed) hydride surface are quite different from those of the original unmodified tube. PMID:24934906

  3. An innovative approach for highly selective direct conversion of CO₂ into propanol using C₂H₄ and H₂.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Stefan J; Bentrup, Ursula; Linke, David; Kondratenko, Evgenii V

    2014-09-01

    Multifunctional catalysts are developed for converting CO2 with C2H4 and H2 into propanol. Au nanoparticles (NP) supported on TiO2 are found to facilitate this reaction. The activity and selectivity strongly depend on NP size, which can be tuned by the method of Au deposition and by promoting with K. The promoter improves the selectivity to propanol. Under optimized reaction conditions (2 MPa, 473 K, and CO2/H2/C2H4=1:1:1), CO2 is continuously converted into propanol with a near-to-100% selectivity. Catalytic tests as well as mechanistic studies by in situ FTIR and temporal analysis of products with isotopic tracers allow the overall reaction scheme to be determined. Propanol is formed through a sequence of reactions starting with reverse water-gas shift to reduce CO2 to CO, which is further consumed in the hydroformylation of ethylene to propanal. The latter is finally hydrogenated to propanol, while propanol hydrogenation to propane is suppressed. PMID:25044696

  4. Effect of alcohol vapor treatment on electrical and optical properties of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) films for indium tin oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahzadeh, Ali; Saghaei, Jaber; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-11-01

    A simple alcohol vapor treatment (AVT) technique was proposed to improve the conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films. In this technique, various alcohols, i.e. methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and ethylene glycol, were applied to treat the surface of the films formed and then they were annealed. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS films was significantly reduced from 130 kΩ/sq to 60 Ω/sq when treated with methanol vapor. The investigation of the vertical resistance of the films showed that the sample treated with methanol vapor displayed the lowest resistance as well. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement of PEDOT:PSS films through AVT method was explained by surface phase images, UV and IR spectra of PEDOT:PSS films. Optical transmittance spectrum of treated films exhibited that AVT has even enhanced the optical transmittance slightly. Improvement in the morphology, electrical and optical properties of PEDOT:PSS films prompted their applications as a transparent anode in the fabrication of ITO-free organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The OLED manufactured based on methanol-treated PEDOT:PSS films demonstrated the highest luminance.

  5. Gene Expression Under the Influence: Transcriptional Profiling of Ethanol in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Contet, Candice

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to ethanol intoxication, propensity to drink ethanol and vulnerability to develop alcoholism are all influenced by genetic factors. Conversely, exposure to ethanol or subsequent withdrawal produce gene expression changes, which, in combination with environmental variables, may participate in the emergence of compulsive drinking and relapse. The present review offers an integrated perspective on brain gene expression profiling in rodent models of predisposition to differential ethanol sensitivity or consumption, in rats and mice subjected to acute or chronic ethanol exposure, as well as in human alcoholics. The functional categories over-represented among differentially expressed genes suggest that the transcriptional effects of chronic ethanol consumption contribute to the neuroplasticity and neurotoxicity characteristic of alcoholism. Importantly, ethanol produces distinct transcriptional changes within the different brain regions involved in intoxication, reinforcement and addiction. Special emphasis is put on recent profiling studies that have provided some insights into the molecular mechanisms potentially mediating genome-wide regulation of gene expression by ethanol. In particular, current evidence for a role of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs in coordinating the expression of large sets of genes in animals predisposed to excessive ethanol drinking or exposed to protracted abstinence, as well as in human alcoholics, is presented. Finally, studies that have compared ethanol with other drugs of abuse have highlighted common gene expression patterns that may play a central role in drug addiction. The availability of novel technologies and a focus on mechanistic approaches are shaping the future of ethanol transcriptomics. PMID:24078902

  6. Signaling Cascades Regulating NMDA Receptor Sensitivity to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    RON, DORIT

    2005-01-01

    One of the major targets for ethanol (alcohol) in the brain is the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate-gated ion channel. Intriguingly, the effects of ethanol on the NMDA receptor are not homogeneous throughout the brain. This review focuses on recent studies revealing molecular mechanisms that mediate the actions of ethanol on the NMDA receptor in different brain regions via changes in NMDA receptor phosphorylation and compartmentalization. Specifically, the role of the scaffolding protein RACK1 and the regulatory protein DARPP-32 in mediating the distinct effects of ethanol is presented. PMID:15271260

  7. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian; Hellerbrand, Claus; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2015-01-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies show a protective effect of light to moderate daily alcohol consumption on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although these small amounts of ethanol may prevent fatty liver, they may also be a risk factor for other diseases such as breast and colon cancer. Those individuals who have underlying hepatic steatosis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) should not use ethanol chronically since the data available at present do not support a beneficial effect of alcohol in this situation. Especially overweight and obese individuals may be more susceptible towards alcohol even at moderate doses. Animal experiments show a negative effect of ethanol on liver histology in either dietary or genetic NASH models. In addition, patients with NASH reveal a significant increased risk for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) even with social alcohol consumption. Thus, subjects with underlying NASH should abstain from alcohol at any amounts. PMID:26151054

  8. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  9. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

  10. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  15. Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Winston; Shah, Vijay H

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease includes a broad clinical-histological spectrum from simple steatosis, cirrhosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis with or without cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma as a complication of cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can be conceptually divided into (1) ethanol-mediated liver injury, (2) inflammatory immune response to injury, (3) intestinal permeability and microbiome changes. Corticosteroids may improve outcomes, but this is controversial and probably only impacts short-term survival. New pathophysiology-based therapies are under study, including antibiotics, caspase inhibition, interleukin-22, anakinra, FXR agonist and others. These studies provide hope for better future outcomes for this difficult disease. PMID:27373608

  16. Ethanol cytotoxic effect on trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Clave, S; Joya, X; Salat-Batlle, J; Garcia-Algar, O; Vall, O

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure may cause both, altered fetal neurodevelopment and impaired placental function. These disturbances can lead to growth retardation, which is one of the most prevalent features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). It is not known whether there is a specific pattern of cytotoxicity caused by ethanol that can be extrapolated to other cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects caused by sustained exposure of trophoblast cells to ethanol. The cytotoxic effect of sustained exposure to standard doses of ethanol on an in vitro human trophoblast cell line, JEG3, was examined. Viable cell count by exclusion method, total protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and activation of apoptotic markers (P-H2AX, caspase-3 and PARP-1) were determined. Sustained exposure to ethanol decreased viable cell count and total protein concentration. LDH activity did not increased in exposed cells but apoptotic markers were detected. In addition, there was a dose-dependent relationship between ethanol concentration and apoptotic pathways activation. Sustained ethanol exposure causes cellular cytotoxicity by apoptotic pathways induction as a result of DNA damage. This apoptotic induction may partially explain the altered function of placental cells and the damage previously detected in other tissues. PMID:24374569

  17. Thermal chemistry of 2-halo-1-propanols on Ni(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) surfaces: A UBI-QEP energetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzanejad, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The effect of β-halogen substitutions on the thermal chemistry of 1-propanol over Ni(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) single-crystal surfaces was investigated using the method of unity bond index-quadratic exponential potential (UBI-QEP). This method was employed to investigate the energetics of the catalytic conversion routes of the ad-molecule mainly at the zero-coverage limit by calculating activation barriers and enthalpy changes for surface reactions. The alcohol molecule can be oxidized partially and totally over the Ni surface, however, the molecule is rather inactive on Cu. The β-halogen substitution makes extensive conversion of the alcohol possible on the Cu surface and changes conversion pathways on the Ni surface. It was found that halogen substitution as well as hydrogen bonding can affect the reactivity and conversion routes of the molecules on Ni and Cu surfaces. On account of energetic criteria, the predicted routes for decompositions and the TPD patterns for the surface species are in accord with the available experimental observations.

  18. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  19. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  20. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.