Sample records for alcohol intestinal bacterial

  1. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  2. Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia

    E-print Network

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

  3. Chronic Alcohol Exposure Renders Epithelial Cells Vulnerable to Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Stephen; Pithadia, Ravi; Rehman, Tooba; Zhang, Lijuan; Plichta, Jennifer; Radek, Katherine A.; Forsyth, Christopher; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shafikhani, Sasha H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite two centuries of reports linking alcohol consumption with enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections and in particular gut-derived bacteria, there have been no studies or model systems to assess the impact of long-term alcohol exposure on the ability of the epithelial barrier to withstand bacterial infection. It is well established that acute alcohol exposure leads to reduction in tight and adherens junctions, which in turn leads to increases in epithelial cellular permeability to bacterial products, leading to endotoxemia and a variety of deleterious effects in both rodents and human. We hypothesized that reduced fortification at junctional structures should also reduce the epithelial barrier’s capacity to maintain its integrity in the face of bacterial challenge thus rendering epithelial cells more vulnerable to infection. In this study, we established a cell-culture based model system for long-term alcohol exposure to assess the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the ability of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells to withstand infection when facing pathogenic bacteria under the intact or wounded conditions. We report that daily treatment with 0.2% ethanol for two months rendered Caco-2 cells far more susceptible to wound damage and cytotoxicity caused by most but not all bacterial pathogens tested in our studies. Consistent with acute alcohol exposure, long-term ethanol exposure also adversely impacted tight junction structures, but in contrast, it did not affect the adherens junction. Finally, alcohol-treated cells partially regained their ability to withstand infection when ethanol treatment was ceased for two weeks, indicating that alcohol’s deleterious effects on cells may be reversible. PMID:23358457

  4. The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

  5. The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

  6. Does the intestinal bifidobacterial colonisation affect bacterial translocation?

    PubMed

    Romond, Marie-Bénédicte; Colavizza, Michel; Mullié, Catherine; Kalach, Nicolas; Kremp, Odile; Mielcarek, Christine; Izard, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possible role of the intestinal anaerobic flora (especially bifidobacteria) in regulating bacterial translocation (BT) which can be defined as the passage of intestinal microbes through the mucosa to internal organs. Default in BT regulation concurs with pathogenesis of sepsis in various human conditions, such as acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, necrotising enterocolitis or multiple organ failure. The intestinal flora was studied in human flora associated mice (HF mice) and BT was quantified in Peyer's patches (PP), blood, spleen, liver and lungs. HF mice displayed a heterogenic intestinal colonisation with bifidobacteria. High colonisation of both caecum and colon by bifidobacteria led to a poorer bacterial contamination of blood, liver and lungs. Moreover, ileal, caecal and colonic bifidobacterial counts negatively correlated with the bacterial dissemination (number of contaminated organs per mouse). In contrast, Bacteroides fragilis group counts positively correlated with bacteraemia, lungs contamination or bacterial dissemination. Additionally, clostridia localised in the colon affected bacterial uptake by PP and lungs contamination as indicated by positive correlations between bacterial populations in these respective locations. These results indicate that bifidobacteria, when established in high counts, reduced BT to liver, blood and lungs, whereas B. fragilis group favoured the bacterial passage. Clostridia established in the distal ileum also seemed to favour BT to lungs. The manipulation of the bacterial flora to optimise the regulatory effect on BT should therefore focus on the selective promotion of bifidobacteria and avoid an increase in potentially detrimental populations such as B. fragilis group and clostridia. PMID:17988900

  7. INTESTINAL BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES OF DOMESTIC AND WILD TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

  8. Toll-like receptor signalling in the intestinal epithelium: how bacterial recognition shapes intestinal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria T. Abreu

    2010-01-01

    A single layer of epithelial cells lines the small and large intestines and functions as a barrier between commensal bacteria and the rest of the body. Ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on intestinal epithelial cells by bacterial products promotes epithelial cell proliferation, secretion of IgA into the gut lumen and expression of antimicrobial peptides. As described in this Review, this

  9. Alcoholic malnutrition and the small intestine.

    PubMed

    World, M J; Ryle, P R; Thomson, A D

    1985-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in chronic alcoholics, although its severity may depend on the social characteristics of the patient group under study and their severity of alcohol dependence. General malnutrition is often reflected in body weight loss, mainly of adipose and muscle tissue. This loss of nutritional reserves is partly due to inadequate protein intake in the face of continued alcohol ingestion. However, there is also evidence that ethanol is relatively ineffective as a source of calories, in spite of its high theoretical calorific value. An increased metabolic rate and tissue oxygen consumption following alcohol ingestion, without parallel increases in phosphate bond energy production or anabolic processes demonstrate the poor value of ethanol as an alternative calorie source to carbohydrate, fat or protein. This situation of nutritional imbalance is often compounded in chronic alcoholics by the effects that ethanol has on gastrointestinal function. These include increased mucosal permeability which may lead to 'leakage' of nutrients from the blood to the gut lumen, increased gut motility with increased transit times, and impaired salt and water absorption. Alcohol inhibits absorption of vitamins and nutrients by active transport processes, an effect that may be crucial in precipitating specific nutrient deficiencies (e.g. thiamine) in the alcoholic, in addition to the role of reduced dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in alcoholics that also contributes to such deficiency states. The end result may be severe functional impairment and tissue damage in other organs, notably the liver and the brain, as a consequence of specific vitamin and nutrient deficiencies arising in chronic alcoholics by these mechanisms. PMID:4052163

  10. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

  11. Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-07-15

    We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated with alcohol or H?O? with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) anti-oxidant, and CLOCK and PER2 proteins were measured at 4 or 2 h. In vivo Cyp2e1 protein and mRNA were also measured in colon tissue from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol increased CYP2E1 protein by 93% and enzyme activity by 69% in intestinal cells in vitro. Alcohol feeding also increased mouse colonic Cyp2e1 protein by 73%. mRNA levels of Cyp2e1 were not changed by alcohol in vitro or in mouse intestine. siRNA knockdown of CYP2E1 in Caco-2 cells prevented alcohol-induced hyperpermeability and induction of CLOCK and PER2 proteins. Alcohol-induced and H?O?-induced increases in intestinal cell CLOCK and PER2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with NAC. We concluded that our data support a novel role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability via a mechanism involving CYP2E1-dependent induction of oxidative stress and upregulation of circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2. PMID:23660503

  12. Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

  13. Intestinal permeability and function in dogs with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C; Batt, R M; Proud, F J; Sørensen, S H; Elwood, C M; Petrie, G; Matthewman, L A; Forster-van Hijfte, M A; Boswood, A; Entwistle, M; Fensome, R H

    1996-09-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been reported to occur commonly in dogs with signs of chronic intestinal disease. There are usually few intestinal histological changes, and it is uncertain to what extent bacteria cause mucosal damage. The aim of this study was to apply a differential sugar absorption test for intestinal permeability and function to the objective assessment of intestinal damage in dogs with SIBO. Studies were performed on 63 dogs with signs of chronic small and, or, large bowel disease, in which SIBO (greater than 10(5) total or greater than 10(4) anaerobic colony forming units/ml) was diagnosed by quantitative culture of duodenal juice obtained endoscopically. None of the dogs had evidence of intestinal pathogens, parasites, systemic disease or pancreatic insufficiency. differential sugar absorption was performed by determining the ratios of urinary recoveries of lactulose/rhamnose (L/R ratio, which reflects permeability) and D-xylose/3-O-methylglucose (X/G ratio, which reflects intestinal absorptive function) following oral administration. Dogs with SIBO comprised 28 different breeds, including 13 German shepherd dogs. SIBO was aerobic in 18/63 dogs (29 per cent), and anaerobic in 45/63 (71 per cent). Histological examination of duodenal biopsies showed no abnormalities in 75 per cent, and mild to moderate lymphocytic infiltrates in 25 per cent of the dogs. The L/R ratio was increased (greater than 0.12) in 52 per cent, and the X/G ratio reduced (less than 0.60) in 33 per cent of the dogs. Differential sugar absorption was repeated in 11 dogs after their four weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. The L/R ratio declined in all 11 dogs (mean +/- SD pre: 0.24 +/- 0.14; post: 0.16 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05), but changes in the X/G ratio were more variable. These findings show that SIBO is commonly associated with mucosal damage not detected on histological examination of intestinal biopsies, and that changes in intestinal permeability following oral antibiotics may be used to monitor response to treatment. PMID:8887203

  14. Role of Intestinal Circadian Genes in Alcohol-induced Gut Leakiness

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Garth; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Tang, Yueming; Shaikh, Maliha; Zhang, Lijuan; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have indicated that endotoxemia is the required co-factor for alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) that is seen in only about 30% of alcoholics. Recent studies have shown that gut leakiness that occurs in a subset of alcoholics is the primary cause of endotoxemia in ASH. The reasons for this differential susceptibility are not known. Since disruption of circadian rhythms occurs in some alcoholics and circadian genes control the expression of several genes that are involved in regulation of intestinal permeability, we hypothesized that alcohol induces intestinal hyperpermeability by stimulating expression of circadian clock gene proteins in the intestinal epithelial cells. Methods We used Caco-2 monolayers grown on culture inserts as an in vitro model of intestinal permeability and performed western blotting, permeability, and siRNA inhibition studies to examine the role of Clock and Per2 circadian genes in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We also measured PER2 protein levels in intestinal mucosa of alcohol fed rats with intestinal hyperpermeability. Results Alcohol, as low as 0.2%, induced time dependent increases in both Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability and in CLOCK and PER2 proteins. SiRNA specific inhibition of either Clock or Per2 significantly inhibited alcohol-induced monolayer hyperpermeability. Alcohol-fed rats with increased total gut permeability, assessed by urinary sucralose, also had significantly higher levels of PER2 protein in their duodenum and proximal colon than control rats. Conclusions Our studies: (1) demonstrate a novel mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability through stimulation of intestinal circadian clock gene expression, and (2) provide direct evidence for a central role of circadian genes in regulation of intestinal permeability. PMID:21463335

  15. Diagnosis and management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Matthew; Siwiec, Robert M; Wo, John M

    2013-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can result from failure of the gastric acid barrier, failure of small intestinal motility, anatomic alterations, or impairment of systemic and local immunity. The current accepted criteria for the diagnosis of SIBO is the presence of coliform bacteria isolated from the proximal jejunum with >10(5) colony-forming units/mL. A major concern with luminal aspiration is that it is only one random sampling of the small intestine and may not always be representative of the underlying microbiota. A new approach to examine the underlying microbiota uses rapid molecular sequencing, but its clinical utilization is still under active investigation. Clinical manifestations of SIBO are variable and include bloating, flatulence, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Severe cases may present with nutrition deficiencies due to malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The current management strategies for SIBO center on identifying and correcting underlying causes, addressing nutrition deficiencies, and judicious utilization of antibiotics to treat symptomatic SIBO. PMID:23614961

  16. Bacterial Colonization Affects the Intestinal Proteome of Preterm Pigs Susceptible to Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingping Jiang; Per T. Sangild; Richard H. Siggers; Wai-Hung Sit; Cheuk-Lun Lee; Jennifer Man-Fan Wan

    2011-01-01

    Background: In newborns, colonizing bacteria and enteral nutrition are important for early gut development and immunity. However, in preterm newborns, bacterial colonization, coupled with enteral feeding, can lead to marked intestinal inflammation and disease such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that the initial bacterial colonization of the gut affects the intestinal proteome independently of enteral feeding. Objective: To identify

  17. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  18. Inhibition of intestinal biotin absorption by chronic alcohol feeding: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, Sandeep B; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Kumar, Jeyan S; Hoiness, Robert; Said, Hamid M

    2011-03-01

    The water-soluble vitamin biotin is essential for normal cellular functions and its deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities. Mammals obtain biotin from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption, a process mediated by the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic alcohol use in humans is associated with a significant reduction in plasma biotin levels, and animal studies have shown inhibition in intestinal biotin absorption by chronic alcohol feeding. Little, however, is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition in intestinal biotin transport by chronic alcohol use. These mechanisms were investigated in this study by using rats and transgenic mice carrying the human full-length SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region chronically fed alcohol liquid diets; human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells chronically exposed to alcohol were also used as models. The results showed chronic alcohol feeding of rats to lead to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin transport events across jejunal brush border and basolateral membrane domains. This inhibition was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of the SMVT protein, mRNA, and heterogenous nuclear RNA. Chronic alcohol feeding also inhibited carrier-mediated biotin uptake in rat colon. Studies with transgenic mice confirmed the above findings and further showed chronic alcohol feeding significantly inhibited the activity of SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region. Finally, chronic exposure of Caco-2 cells to alcohol led to a significant decrease in the activity of both promoters P1 and P2 of the human SLC5A6 gene. These studies identify for the first time the cellular and molecular parameters of the intestinal biotin absorptive processes that are affected by chronic alcohol feeding. PMID:21148397

  19. Meta-analysis: antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shailja C.; Day, Lukejohn W.; Somsouk, Ma; Sewell, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is an under-recognized diagnosis with important clinical implications when untreated. However, optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. Aim Systematic review and meta-analysis to compare clinical effectiveness of antibiotic therapies for treatment of symptomatic patients with documented SIBO. Methods Four databases were searched to identify clinical trials comparing effectiveness of: (1) different antibiotics, (2) different doses of the same antibiotic, and (3) antibiotics compared with placebo. Data were independently extracted according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study quality was independently assessed. Primary outcome was normalization of post-treatment breath testing. Secondary outcome was post-treatment clinical response. Results Of 1,356 articles identified, ten met inclusion criteria. Rifaximin was the most commonly studied antibiotic (8 studies) with overall breath test normalization rate of 49.5% (95% CI 44.0–55.1). Antibiotic efficacy varied by antibiotic regimen and dose. Antibiotics were more effective than placebo, with a combined breath test normalization rate of 51.1% (95% CI 46.7–55.5) for antibiotics compared with 9.8% (95% CI 4.6–17.8) for placebo. Meta-analysis of 4 studies favored antibiotics over placebo for breath test normalization with odds ratio 2.55 (95% CI 1.29–5.04). Clinical response was heterogeneously evaluated among six studies, but tended to correlate with breath test normalization. Conclusions Antibiotics appear to be more effective than placebo for breath test normalization in patients with symptoms attributable to SIBO, and breath test normalization may correlate with clinical response. Studies were limited by modest quality, small sample size, and heterogeneous design. Additional higher-quality clinical trials of SIBO therapy are warranted. PMID:24004101

  20. Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  2. Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Pimentel; Evelyn J. Chow; Henry C. Lin

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis. The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are similar to those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to test whether overgrowth is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and whether treatment of overgrowth reduces their intestinal complaints.METHODS:Two hundred two subjects in a prospective database of subjects referred from

  3. Bacterial community structures in honeybee intestines and their response to two insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed

    Babendreier, Dirk; Joller, David; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz; Widmer, Franco

    2007-03-01

    In this study, the effects of the Bt-toxin Cry1Ab and a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) on intestinal bacterial communities of adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) were investigated. It was hypothesized that changes in intestinal bacterial communities of honeybees may represent a sensitive indicator for altered intestinal physiology. Honeybees were fed in a laboratory set-up with maize pollen from the Bt-transgenic cultivar MON810 or from the non-transgenic near isoline. Purified Cry1Ab (0.0014% w/v) and SBTI (0.1% or 1% w/v) represented supplementary treatments. For comparison, free-flying honeybees from two locations in Switzerland were analysed. PCR-amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed a total of 17 distinct terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs), which were highly consistent between laboratory-reared and free-flying honeybees. The T-RFs were affiliated to Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, to Firmicutes, and to Bacteriodetes. Neither Bt-maize pollen nor high concentrations of Cry1Ab significantly affected bacterial communities in honeybee intestines. Only the high concentration of SBTI significantly reduced the number of T-RFs detected in honeybee midguts, a concentration that also increases bee mortality. Therefore, total bacterial community structures may not be a sensitive indicator for providing evidence for the impact of insecticidal proteins on honeybees at sublethal levels. PMID:17381517

  4. The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2011-05-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

  5. Bacterial Pollution Indicators in the Intestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    Geldreich, Edwin E.; Clarke, Norman A.

    1966-01-01

    A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and persistence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish. A total of 132 fish representing 14 different species were used in various phases of these experiments. Examination of the intestinal contents of 78 fish from moderately polluted sections of the Little Miami River indicated that fecal coliform densities were lowest in bluegills (less than 20 per gram) and highest in catfish (1,090,000 per gram). Levels of fecal streptococci for these two species were 220 and 240,000 per gram, respectively. The occurrence of fecal coliforms in fish caught in this stream reflected the warm-blooded-animal-pollution level of the water. All fish used in this phase of the study were caught during July, August, and September when the water temperatures were between 13 and 18 C. The fate of fecal coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis in the fish intestine indicated that these organisms can probably survive and multiply when fish and water temperatures are 20 C or higher, but only when the organisms are retained in the gut for periods beyond 24 hr. Based on the biochemical reactions for 3,877 coliform strains isolated from 132 freshwater fish of 14 different species, 91.4% of all strains were composed of five IMViC types. In a similar study of the biochemical reactions of 850 streptococci isolated from the intestinal tract of 55 freshwater fish, the predominant strains included S. faecalis and various closely associated biotypes. No consistently recurring pattern for either coliforms or streptococci could be developed to identify species of fish investigated. The composition of the intestinal flora is, however, related in varying degree to the level of contamination of water and food in the environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6008184

  6. A Case of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth with Peripheral Edema Caused by Intestinal Bypass Surgery and Relieved by Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young Kyung; Gwak, Geum Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Koh, Kwang Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal bypass surgery, particularly jejuno-ileal bypass surgery, performed for the purpose of weight reduction may cause an unexpected exacerbation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we report a case of NASH caused by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, which developed after jejuno-colic bypass surgery and resolved dramatically after surgical correction. PMID:23170161

  7. Curcumin utilizes the anti-inflammatory response pathway to protect the intestine against bacterial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, a major component of the Curcuma species, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, the functional role of curcumin as well as its molecular mechanism in anti-inflammatory response, particularly in intestinal cells, has been less investigated. The intestine epithelial barrier is the first barrier and the most important location for the substrate coming from the lumen of the gut. SUBJECTS/METHODS We administered curcumin treatment in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines, T84 and Caco-2. We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by thapsigargin, qPCR of XBP1 and BiP, electrophysiology by wild-type cholera toxin in the cells. RESULTS In this study, we showed that curcumin treatment reduces ER stress and thereby decreases inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, curcumin confers protection without damaging the membrane tight junction or actin skeleton change in intestine epithelial cells. Therefore, curcumin treatment protects the gut from bacterial invasion via reduction of ER stress and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of curcumin in protecting the intestine by modulating ER stress and inflammatory response post intoxication. PMID:25861416

  8. Intestinal bacterial community and growth performance of chickens fed diets containing antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment. PMID:16615359

  9. Supplemental dietary inulin of variable chain lengths alters intestinal bacterial populations in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jannine K; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M; Miller, Dennis D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P < 0.05) the abundance of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the microbiota adherent to intestinal mucus of various gut segments of pigs. These changes were seen as proximal as in the jejunum with P95 but did not appear until the distal ileum or cecum with HP. Similar effects of inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits. PMID:20980641

  10. Intestinal TM7 bacterial phylogenies in active inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Kuehbacher; Ateequr Rehman; Patricia Lepage; Stephan Hellmig; Ulrich R. Folsch; Stefan Schreiber; Stephan J. Ott

    2008-01-01

    TM7 is a recently described subgroup of Gram-positive uncultivable bacteria originally found in natural environmental habitats. An association of the TM7 bacterial division with the inflammatory pathogenesis of periodontitis has been previously shown. This study investigated TM7 phylogenies in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The mucosal microbiota of patients with active Crohn's disease (CD; n542) and ulcerative colitis (UC;

  11. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-15

    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less total sleep time and increased fragmentation of sleep (P < 0.05). AD also had significantly lower plasma melatonin levels compared with the HC [mean area under the curve (AUC) 322.78 ± 228.21 vs. 568.75 ± 304.26 pg/ml, P = 0.03]. In the AD group, AUC of melatonin was inversely correlated with small bowel and colonic intestinal permeability (lactulose-to-mannitol ratio, r = -0.39, P = 0.03; urinary sucralose, r = -0.47, P = 0.01). Cosinor analysis of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (marker of endotoxemia) and lipopolysaccharide every 4 h for 24 h in HC and AD subjects had a midline estimating statistic of rhythm of 5,026.15 ± 409.56 vs. 6,818.02 ± 628.78 ng/ml (P < 0.01) and 0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.19 EU/ml (P < 0.05), respectively. We found plasma melatonin was significantly lower in the AD group, and lower melatonin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability and a marker of endotoxemia. Our study suggests the suppression of melatonin in AD may promote gut leakiness and endotoxemia. PMID:25907689

  12. Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Campanati, Anna; Gesuita, Rosaria; Giannoni, Melania; Piraccini, Francesca; Sandroni, Lucia; Martina, Emanuela; Conocchiari, Luca; Bendia, Emanuele; Di Sario, Antonio; Offidani, Annamaria

    2013-03-27

    The aim of this study is to assess the associations between chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), Helicobacter pylori infection and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Forty- eight patients with CSU were studied by scoring the urticaria activity and assesing the quality of life. Patients with H. pylori infection (n=11) or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (n=13) were specifically treated for one week and clinically evaluated both before and 4 weeks after the eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori infection led to a significant improvement in CSU (p<0.002). In contrast, eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was not associated with any clinical improvement in CSU, despite the fact that these patients had statistically significant more urticaria activity at baseline. Thus there is no evidence to support the eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in CSU, but eradication of H. pylori infection may result in an improvement of the disease. PMID:22858910

  13. Intestinal Permeability in Cirrhotic Patients With and Without Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis: Is the Ring Closed?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emidio Scarpellini; Venanzio Valenza; Maurizio Gabrielli; Ernesto Cristiano Lauritano; Germano Perotti; Giuseppe Merra; Antonio Dal Lago; Veronica Ojetti; Maria Elena Ainora; Michele Santoro; Giovanni Ghirlanda; Antonio Gasbarrini

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Impaired intestinal permeability (IP) may have a role in the pathogenesis of ascites and in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). The aim of this study was to assess IP in LC patients with respect to healthy controls.METHODS:IP was evaluated by the 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) permeability test in 52 LC patients and in 48 sex- and

  14. The Intestinal Bacterial Community in the Food Waste-Reducing Larvae of Hermetia illucens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunbum Jeon; Soyoung Park; Jiyoung Choi; Gilsang Jeong; Sang-Beom Lee; Youngcheol Choi; Sung-Jae Lee

    2011-01-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that\\u000a the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial\\u000a communities in the gut of BSF larvae

  15. Effect of tea phenolics and their aromatic fecal bacterial metabolites on intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Cheng; Jenner, Andrew M; Low, Chin Seng; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2006-11-01

    Tea is rich in polyphenols and other phenolics that have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects. However, dietary polyphenols are not completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are metabolized by the gut microflora so that they and their metabolites may accumulate to exert physiological effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of the phenolic components of a tea extract and their aromatic metabolites upon bacterial growth. Fecal homogenates containing bacteria significantly catalyzed tea phenolics, including epicatechin, catechin, 3-O-methyl gallic acid, gallic acid and caffeic acid to generate aromatic metabolites dependent on bacterial species. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to tea phenolics and metabolites. Growth of certain pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Bacteroides spp. was significantly repressed by tea phenolics and their derivatives, while commensal anaerobes like Clostridium spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and probiotics such as Lactobacillus sp. were less severely affected. This indicates that tea phenolics exert significant effects on the intestinal environment by modulation of the intestinal bacterial population, probably by acting as metabolic prebiotics. Our observations provide further evidence for the importance of colonic bacteria in the metabolism, absorption and potential activity of phenolics in human health and disease. The bioactivity of different phenolics may play an important role in the maintenance of gastrointestinal health. PMID:16962743

  16. Bacterial DNA Content in the Intestinal Wall from Infants with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Brian T.; McDuffie, Lucas A.; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Tarr, Phillip I.; Warner, Barbara B.; Hamvas, Aaron; White, Francis V.; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The objectives of our study were to quantify mucosal bacterial DNA within specimens from neonates undergoing small bowel resection for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS We obtained clinical information and pathologic specimens from all infants diagnosed with NEC who underwent surgical treatment at our institution from 1999–2008. Bacterial and human DNA were isolated from paraffin-embedded surgical specimens and real-time PCR was used to amplify bacterial and human genes. Linear regression was used to quantify the amount of human and bacterial DNA in our specimens. RESULTS From a cohort of fifty infants, we identified twenty-three infants who underwent both surgical resection and subsequent intestinal reanastomosis. Thirteen (59%) of the neonates had Bell's Stage III NEC, and nine (41%) had Stage II. There was significantly more bacterial DNA in the resection specimens than in the reanastomosis specimens. This corresponds to a median (IQR) increase of 1.81 (1.11–4.69) fold bacterial DNA in the resection specimen compared to the reanastomosis specimen (p<0.05). CONCLUSION There is more bacterial DNA in infants with acute NEC compared with the same infants after the NEC had clinically resolved. These findings underscore the potential relevance of adherent or invasive bacteria across the bowel wall in the pathogenesis of NEC. PMID:21683193

  17. Wnt2 inhibits enteric bacterial-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingyin; Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Zhang, Yong-guo; Xia, Yinglin; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Wnt signaling plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation. Most investigations have focused on developmental and immune responses. Bacterial infection can be chronic and increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. However, we lack studies on how bacteria regulate Wnt proteins and how Wnts modulate the host responses to enteric bacteria. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella and E. coli on Wnt2, one of the Wnt family members, in intestinal epithelia cells. Methodology/Findings Using cultured epithelial cells, a Salmonella-colitis mouse model, and a gnotobiotic mouse model, we found that Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated after bacterial infection. Enteric bacteria regulate Wnt2 location in the intestine. Furthermore, we found that elevation of Wnt2 was a strategy for host defense by inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses to infection. Using Wnt2 siRNA analysis, we show enhanced inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in epithelial cells. Cells over-expressed Wnt2 had less bacterial-induced IL-8 secretion. AvrA is a bacterial protein that inhibits inflammation by stabilizing beta-catenin, the down-stream target of Wnt. We found that the stabilization of Wnt2 was regulated through ubiquitination. Moreover, the bacterial protein AvrA from Salmonella and E. coli stabilized Wnt2 protein expression in vivo. In an ex-germ-free system, E. coli F18 expressing AvrA increased Wnt2 expression and changed Wnt2 distribution in intestine. Conclusion Wnt2 contributes to host protection in response to enteric bacteria. Our findings thus reveal a previously undefined role of Wnt for host-pathogen interaction and inflammation. PMID:21674728

  18. The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma. Bacterial communities from broncho-alveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue were compared to samples taken from fecal matter (caecum) and vaginal lavage fluid from female BALB/cJ mice. Results Using a customized 16S rRNA sequencing protocol amplifying the V3-V4 region our study shows that the mice have a lung microbiome that cluster separately from mouse intestinal microbiome (caecum). The mouse lung microbiome is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria overlapping the vaginal microbiome. We also show that removal of host tissue or cells from lung fluid during the DNA extraction step has an impact on the resulting bacterial community profile. Sample preparation needs to be considered when choosing an extraction method and interpreting data. Conclusions We have consistently amplified bacterial DNA from mouse lungs that is distinct from the intestinal microbiome in these mice. The gut microbiome has been extensively studied for its links to development of disease. Here we suggest that also the lung microbiome could be important in relation to inflammatory lung diseases. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of the lung microbiome and the gut-lung axis to the development of lung diseases such as COPD and asthma. PMID:24373613

  19. Jejunal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability in children with immunodeficiency syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Pignata, C; Budillon, G; Monaco, G; Nani, E; Cuomo, R; Parrilli, G; Ciccimarra, F

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen paediatric patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (10 with selective IgA deficiency, four with panhypogammaglobulinaemia, and three with selective T cell deficiency) were investigated for bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine and gut permeability to macromolecules. Five of 12 patients showed viable bacterial counts of more than 2 x 10(5)/ml in jejunal fluid. Bacterial overgrowth was also confirmed indirectly by breath hydrogen determination, which was higher than 10 ppm in four of the five patients with positive jejunal culture. Gut permeability to lactulose and L-rhamnose was abnormal in 16 of the 17 immunodeficient patients, who also had higher mean urinary excretion ratios than control subjects-mean (SD) values were 0.216 (0.160) and 0.029 (0.002), respectively. These studies indicate that bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine is a common feature in immunodeficient patients, regardless of the immunological abnormality. Moreover, these patients have an increased gut permeability to macromolecules. PMID:2387510

  20. Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis by Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yvonne; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to resistance. In this review, we dissect the biological role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are fermentation end products of the intestinal microbiota, in host–pathogen interactions. SCFA exert an extensive influence on host physiology through nutritional, regulatory, and immunomodulatory functions and can also affect bacterial fitness as a form of acid stress. Moreover, SCFA act as a signal for virulence gene regulation in common enteric pathogens. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of the chemical environment where the biology of the host, the microbiota, and the pathogen intersects, which provides a basis for designing effective infection prevention and control. PMID:23942149

  1. Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in severe small intestinal damage in chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Motoko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Sogawa, Mitsue; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Enteric bacteria play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal damage. However, the association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and NSAID-induced small intestinal damage remains unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between SIBO and the presence of NSAID-induced severe small intestinal damage or its symptoms in chronic NSAID users. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-three patients who had been using NSAIDs for over 3 months were enrolled. They were examined by capsule endoscopy and a lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). We defined severe small intestinal damage as the presence of more than four small erosions or large erosions/ulcers. The LHBT result was considered positive if there was an increase in the level of breath hydrogen gas of >20 ppm above baseline. RESULTS. Out of 43 patients, 22 (51%) had severe small intestinal damage. The LHBT was positive in 5 of 21 patients (24%) without severe small intestinal damage and in 13 of 21 patients (59%) with severe small intestinal damage. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an LHBT-positive result was significantly associated with increased odds ratio for severe small intestinal damage (OR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.40-30.50). There was no significant difference in the presence of symptoms between the LHBT-positive and LHBT-negative patients with severe small intestinal damage. CONCLUSION. SIBO might have a role in the development of severe small intestinal damage in chronic NSAID users. PMID:24417613

  2. Application of molecular fingerprinting for qualitative assessment of small-intestinal bacterial diversity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suchodolski, Jan S; Ruaux, Craig G; Steiner, Jörg M; Fetz, Kathrin; Williams, David A

    2004-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of molecular fingerprinting for assessment of bacterial diversity in canine duodenal juice and to evaluate the variation in the small intestinal microflora at repeated sampling. Two groups of dogs were used. Duodenal juice was collected from eight dogs euthanized for an unrelated project (group 1). Duodenal juice was also collected endoscopically from six dogs at weekly intervals for a total of 3 weeks (group 2). The variable V6-V8 region of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA was amplified, and PCR amplicons separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The reproducibility of DGGE profiles and variations in bacterial diversity between dogs were evaluated by comparing similarity indices (Dice's coefficient; 100% represents complete identity) of DGGE profiles from group 1 dogs. Weekly variations in the flora of the small intestine were evaluated by comparison of DGGE profiles from different time points within the same individuals in group 2. The mean (+/- standard deviation) similarity of DGGE profiles of duodenal juice between the dogs in group 1 was 38.3 +/- 15.7% (range, 12.5 to 76.65%). There was a significantly higher variation in DGGE profiles between different dogs than between duplicates obtained from the same dog (P < 0.0001). DGGE profiles from samples collected at different time points varied within individuals, possibly due to variation over time or slight variation in sampling location. DGGE profiles indicate that dogs have a highly diverse microflora of the small intestine, with marked differences between individual dogs. PMID:15472330

  3. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Modulate Antigen-Presenting Cell Responses to Bacterial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, J. L.; Salim, S. Y.; Albert, E. J.; Hotte, N.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells orchestrate mucosal innate immunity. This study investigated the role of bacterial DNA in modulating epithelial and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (BM-APCs) and subsequent T-lymphocyte responses. Murine MODE-K epithelial cells and BM-APCs were treated with DNA from either Bifidobacterium breve or Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin directly and under coculture conditions with CD4+ T cells. Apical stimulation of MODE-K cells with S. Dublin DNA enhanced secretion of cytokines from underlying BM-APCs and induced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) secretion from CD4+ T cells. Bacterial DNA isolated from either strain induced maturation and increased cytokine secretion from BM-APCs. Conditioned medium from S. Dublin-treated MODE-K cells elicited an increase in cytokine secretion similar to that seen for S. Dublin DNA. Treatment of conditioned medium from MODE-K cells with RNase and protease prevented the S. Dublin-induced increased cytokine secretion. Oral feeding of mice with B. breve DNA resulted in enhanced levels of colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) compared with what was seen for mice treated with S. Dublin DNA. In contrast, feeding mice with S. Dublin DNA increased levels of colonic IL-17 and IL-12p70. T cells from S. Dublin DNA-treated mice secreted high levels of IL-12 and IFN-? compared to controls and B. breve DNA-treated mice. These results demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells are able to modulate subsequent antigen-presenting and T-cell responses to bacterial DNA with pathogenic but not commensal bacterial DNA inducing effector CD4+ T lymphocytes. PMID:22615241

  4. Determinants of intestinal mucosal uptake of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sallee, V L; Dietschy, J M

    1973-07-01

    Uptake rates across the jejunal brush border have been measured for water-soluble fatty acids and alcohols and analyzed to determine the relative roles of the unstirred water layer and the lipid cell membrane as determinants of the intestinal absorptive process. Initial studies involving measurement of time courses of electrical transients developed across the intestine exposed to poorly permeant solute molecules showed no anomalous discrimination of probe molecules of different size or charge. This finding suggests that the diffusion barrier in the intestine can be considered as an unstirred water layer. Next, uptake rates of fatty acid were found to be linear with respect to concentration of the test solute, demonstrated no competitive inhibition or contralateral stimulation, had low temperature dependency, and were insensitive to metabolic inhibition, indicating that uptake proceeds by passive diffusion. Passive permeability coefficients, *P, varied from 22 +/- 1.4 to 395 +/- 9.2 nmoles.min(-1).100 mg(-1).mm(-1) for the saturated fatty acids 2:0 through 12:0 and from 119 +/- 3.3 to 581 +/- 45.2 for the saturated alcohols 6:0 through 10:0. Vigorous stirring of the bulk buffer solution enhanced *P values in direct proportion to chain length while the presence of bile acid micelles depressed apparent permeability coefficients in proportion to fatty acid chain length. These results demonstrate that uptake of short-chain fatty acid monomers is rate limited by the lipid cell membrane but diffusion through the unstirred water layer becomes increasingly rate limiting as the chain length increases. It is also possible to conclude from these data that diffusion through the unstirred water layer becomes totally rate limiting for uptake of long-chain fatty acid monomers of physiological importance. PMID:4715329

  5. Ecophysiology of the Developing Total Bacterial and Lactobacillus Communities in the Terminal Small Intestine of Weaning Piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Pieper; Pawel Janczyk; Annette Zeyner; Hauke Smidt; Volker Guiard; Wolfgang Bernhard Souffrant

    2008-01-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes\\u000a in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig’s small intestine (SI), including\\u000a lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-promoting properties, are yet poorly described. Thus, we determined the ecophysiology\\u000a of bacterial groups and within genus

  6. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina FL; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ? 20 ppm or CH4 ? 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. RESULTS: Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon. PMID:23139610

  7. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were slightly less than those from the other two groups of frogs. Another group of 14 summer frogs, after treatment to induce hibernation, showed a drop in bacterial counts accompanied by a change in the composition of the flora. In most frogs, Bacteroides was the dominant organism. Other bacteria repeatedly isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including butyrigenic and acetogenic helically coiled bacteria; fusobacteria; and acetogenic, small, gram-positive bacilli. These data indicate that the intestinal flora of frogs is similar to that of mammals and birds and that this flora can be maintained at temperatures close to freezing. PMID:6982025

  8. Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ?en, Velat; Uluca, Ünal; Ece, Ayd?n; Güne?, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, ?brahim; Türkçü, Gül; Tekin, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

  9. Effect of ? irradiation on poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose composites used as packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jipa, Iuliana; Dobre, Loredana; Zaharescu, Traian

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the influence of bacterial cellulose microfibrils and ?-radiation dose on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-bacterial cellulose (BC) composites. Two composite materials were obtained: the first one from PVA aqueous solution 4% and 5% wet bacterial cellulose and the second from the same PVA solution and 10% wet bacterial cellulose. In terms of PVA/dry BC ratios (w/w) for these films the ratios are 1/0.025 and 1/0.050. The obtained composite materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FT-IR) and UV-vis spectroscopy in order to evaluate the irradiation effect on their stability. The swelling behavior of the polymeric composites was also studied. The composite materials were compared with a film of pure PVA and a dry BC membrane.

  10. Comparison of Lactulose and Glucose Breath Test for Diagnosis of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Rana; S. Sharma; J. Kaur; S. K. Sinha; K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Validity of the lactulose breath test (LBT) to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been questioned. Therefore, a study was planned to compare LBT with glucose breath test (GBT) to diagnose SIBO in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and controls. Methods: 175 diarrhea-predominant IBS patients and 150 apparently healthy controls were enrolled. IBS was diagnosed according

  11. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. PMID:24440671

  12. Biodegradation of tert -butyl alcohol and related xenobiotics by a methylotrophic bacterial isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Piveteau; F. Fayolle; J.-P. Vandecasteele; F. Monot

    2001-01-01

    A new aerobic bacterial strain, CIP I-2052, isolated from an activated sludge sample, was able to use tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a product of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) degradation, as its sole carbon and energy source. Cobalt ions stimulated TBA mineralization. The maximum growth and TBA degradation rates were 0.032ǂ.004 h-1 and 35.8NJ.5 mg TBA·g-1 (cell

  13. Identification of Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Intestinal Contents Associated with 12,000-Year-Old Mastodon Remains

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, A. N.; Urbance, J. W.; Youga, H.; Corlew-Newman, H.; Reddy, C. A.; Klug, M. J.; Tiedje, J. M.; Fisher, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Mastodon (Mammut americanum) remains unearthed during excavation of ancient sediments usually consist only of skeletal material, due to postmortem decomposition of soft tissues by microorganisms. Two recent excavations of skeletal remains in anoxic sediments in Ohio and Michigan, however, have uncovered organic masses which appear to be remnants of the small and large intestines, respectively. Macrobotanical examinations of the composition of these masses revealed assemblages of plant material radiocarbon dated to approximately 11,500 years before the present and thought to be incompletely digested food remains from this extinct mammal. We attempted to cultivate and identify bacteria from the intestinal contents, bone-associated sediments, and sediments not in proximity to the remains using a variety of general and selective media. In all, 295 isolates were cultivated, and 38 individual taxa were identified by fatty acid-methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biochemical characteristics (API-20E). The taxonomic positions of selected enteric and obligately anaerobic bacteria were confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. Results indicate that the intestinal and bone-associated samples contained the greatest diversity of bacterial taxa and that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae represented 41% of all isolates and were predominant in the intestinal masses and sediments in proximity to the skeleton but were uncommon in the background sediments. Enterobacter cloacae was the most commonly identified isolate, and partial rDNA sequencing revealed that Rahnella aquatilis was the correct identity of strains suggested by FAME profiles to be Yersinia enterocolitica. No Bacteroides spp. or expected intestinal anaerobes were recovered. The only obligate anaerobes recovered were clostridia, and these were not recovered from the small intestinal masses. Microbiological evidence from this study supports other, macrobotanical data indicating the intestinal origin of these masses. Whether these organisms are direct descendants of the original intestinal microbiota, however, cannot be established. PMID:9464403

  14. Loss of Sirt1 Function Improves Intestinal Anti-Bacterial Defense and Protects from Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Fernando, Samodha C.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Katsyuba, Elena; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int?/?) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC. PMID:25013930

  15. Intestinal bacterial metabolism and anti-complement activities of three major components of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihua; Wang, Mengyue; Peng, Ying; Dong, Yuqiong; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the metabolism of Entadae Semen by human fecal bacteria to clarify the relationship between its pharmacological activities and intestinal metabolism. Three major components (phaseoloidin, entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside and entadamide A) were isolated and identified from Entadae Semen and then incubated with human fecal microflora in vitro to investigate the metabolic processes. The metabolites were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anti-complement activities of the three components and their metabolites produced by human fecal microflora were evaluated in vitro using a hemolysis assay. Phaseoloidin and entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside were metabolized into their respective aglycones during the incubation process, which enhanced their anti-complement effects. These results indicated that the presence of intestinal bacteria likely plays an important role and that the pharmacological effects of Entadae Semen may be dependent on intestinal bacterial metabolism. PMID:25398297

  16. Loss of Sirt1 function improves intestinal anti-bacterial defense and protects from colitis-induced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Fernando, Samodha C; Anderson, Christopher L; Katsyuba, Elena; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Hottiger, Michael O; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int-/-) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC. PMID:25013930

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

  18. Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Victor; Dhalla, Sameer; Clarke, John O.; Roland, Bani Chander; Dunbar, Kerry B.; Koh, Joyce; Justino, Edmundo; Tomakin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have chronic intestinal and extraintestinal symptomatology which adversely affects their quality of life. Present treatment of SIBO is limited to oral antibiotics with variable success. A growing number of patients are interested in using complementary and alternative therapies for their gastrointestinal health. The objective was to determine the remission rate of SIBO using either the antibiotic rifaximin or herbals in a tertiary care referral gastroenterology practice. Design: One hundred and four patients who tested positive for newly diagnosed SIBO by lactulose breath testing (LBT) were offered either rifaximin 1200 mg daily vs herbal therapy for 4 weeks with repeat LBT post-treatment. Results: Three hundred ninety-six patients underwent LBT for suspected SIBO, of which 251 (63.4%) were positive 165 underwent treatment and 104 had a follow-up LBT. Of the 37 patients who received herbal therapy, 17 (46%) had a negative follow-up LBT compared to 23/67 (34%) of rifaximin users (P=.24). The odds ratio of having a negative LBT after taking herbal therapy as compared to rifaximin was 1.85 (CI=0.77-4.41, P=.17) once adjusted for age, gender, SIBO risk factors and IBS status. Fourteen of the 44 (31.8%) rifaximin non-responders were offered herbal rescue therapy, with 8 of the 14 (57.1%) having a negative LBT after completing the rescue herbal therapy, while 10 non-responders were offered triple antibiotics with 6 responding (60%, P=.89). Adverse effects were reported among the rifaximin treated arm including 1 case of anaphylaxis, 2 cases of hives, 2 cases of diarrhea and 1 case of Clostridium difficile. Only one case of diarrhea was reported in the herbal therapy arm, which did not reach statistical significance (P=.22). Conclusion: SIBO is widely prevalent in a tertiary referral gastroenterology practice. Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals also appear to be as effective as triple antibiotic therapy for SIBO rescue therapy for rifaximin non-responders. Further, prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and explore additional alternative therapies in patients with refractory SIBO. PMID:24891990

  19. Mechanisms that control bacterial populations in continuous-flow culture models of mouse large intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Freter, R; Brickner, H; Botney, M; Cleven, D; Aranki, A

    1983-02-01

    A previous study had established that anaerobic continuous-flow (CF) cultures of conventional mouse cecal flora were able to maintain the in vivo ecological balance among the indigenous bacterial species tested. This paper describes experiments designed to determine the mechanisms which control the population sizes of these species in such CF cultures. One strain each of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium sp., and Eubacterium sp. were studied. Growth of these strains in filtrates of CF cultures was considerably more rapid than in the CF cultures themselves, indicating that the inhibitory activity had been lost in the process of filtration. Growth rates to match those in CF cultures could be obtained, however, by restoring the original levels of H(2)S in the culture filtrates. The inhibitory effect of H(2)S in filtrates and in dialysates of CF cultures could be abolished by adding glucose or pyruvate, but not formate or lactate. The fatty acids present in CF cultures matched those in the cecum of conventional mice in both quality and concentration. These acids could not account for the slow rates of growth of the tested strains in CF cultures, but they did cause a marked increase in the initial lag phase of E. coli growth. The results obtained are compatible with the hypothesis that the populations of most indigenous intestinal bacteria are controlled by one or a few nutritional substrates which a given strain can utilize most efficiently in the presence of H(2)S and at the prevailing conditions of pH and anaerobiosis. This hypothesis consequently implies that the populations of enterobacteria, such as the E. coli strain tested, and those of the predominant anaerobes are controlled by analogous mechanisms. PMID:6339388

  20. Regional variation in expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the intestine following a combined insult of alcohol and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Morris, Niya L; Li, Xiaoling; Earley, Zachary M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-08-01

    The intestine is segmented into functionally discrete compartments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon). The present study examined whether alcohol combined with burn injury differently influences cytokine levels in different parts of the intestine. Male mice were gavaged with alcohol (?2.9 g/kg) 4 h prior to receiving a ?12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after injury. The intestine segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were harvested, homogenized, and analyzed for inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-18, and KC) using their respective ELISAs. KC levels were significantly increased in the jejunum, ileum, and colon following alcohol and burn injury as compared to shams. The increase in KC was ?28-fold higher in the colon as compared to the levels observed in duodenum following alcohol and burn injury. Both IL-6 and IL-18 levels were significantly elevated in both the ileum and colon following the combined insult. There was a ?7-fold increase in IL-6 levels in the colon as compared with the duodenum after the combined insult. Levels of IL-18 were increased by ?1.5-fold in the colon as compared to the ileum following alcohol and burn injury. The data suggest that pro-inflammatory mediators are differentially expressed in the intestine following alcohol and burn injury. PMID:25921594

  1. Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

    2015-05-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol. PMID:25746479

  2. Effects of oat ?-glucan and barley ?-glucan on fecal characteristics, intestinal microflora, and intestinal bacterial metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rui-Ling; Dang, Xue-Ya; Dong, Ji-Lin; Hu, Xin-Zhong

    2012-11-14

    The primary objective was to determine the beneficial effects of oat ?-glucan (OG) and barley ?-glucan (BG) on gut health. A total of 200 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 40 rats each, control group (CON), low-dose OG-administered group (OGL), high-dose OG-administered group (OGH), low-dose BG-administered group (BGL), and high-dose BG-administered group (BGH). OGL and OGH were administered oat ?-glucan by intragastric gavage at a dose of 0.35 g/kg of body weight (BW) and 0.70 g/kg of BW daily for 6 weeks, and BGL and BGH were administered barley ?-glucan. The CON received normal saline. Intestinal-health-related indexes were analyzed at baseline, week 3, week 6, and week 7. Cereal ?-glucan significantly influenced the fecal water content, pH value, ammonia levels, ?-glucuronidase activity, azoreductase activity, and colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations (p < 0.05). Moreover, the population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increased (p < 0.05), whereas the number of Enterobacteriaceae decreased (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner during the period of cereal ?-glucan administration. These results suggested that cereal ?-glucan might exert favorable effects on improving intestinal functions and health but the gut-health-promoting effects of oat ?-glucan were better than those of barley ?-glucan. PMID:23113683

  3. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bol-Schoenmakers

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Imbalance between tolerance and immunity (e.g. intestinal homeostasis) contributes to the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p?=?0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p?=?0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p?

  5. Burn Injury Alters the Intestinal Microbiome and Increases Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Zachary M.; Akhtar, Suhail; Green, Stefan J.; Naqib, Ankur; Khan, Omair; Cannon, Abigail R.; Hammer, Adam M.; Morris, Niya L.; Li, Xiaoling; Eberhardt, Joshua M.; Gamelli, Richard L; Kennedy, Richard H.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products (e.g., endotoxin) from the intestinal lumen to the circulation, thereby increasing the risk for sepsis in immunocompromised individuals. Since the maintenance of the epithelial barrier is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, we examined the diversity of the intestinal microbiome of severely burned patients and a controlled mouse model of burn injury. We show that burn injury induces a dramatic dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome of both humans and mice and allows for similar overgrowths of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the bacteria increasing in abundance have the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. This study provides an insight into how the diversity of the intestinal microbiome changes after burn injury and some of the consequences these gut bacteria can have in the host. PMID:26154283

  6. In vivo antimetastatic action of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins is based on their intestinal bacterial metabolites after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, C; Hasegawa, H; Murata, J; Saiki, I

    1997-01-01

    The present study demonstrated in vivo and in vitro antimetastatic activities of a major intestinal bacterial metabolite M1 formed from protopanaxadiol saponins of ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) in comparison with its whole standardized extract and ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. Although Ginseng extract (1 mg/mouse) and ginsenosides (0.5 mg/mouse) significantly inhibited lung metastasis produced by i.v. injection of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice (27-61% of untreated control), they hardly inhibited the invasion and migration of B16-BL6 melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells in vitro. However, the intestinal bacterial metabolite M1 inhibited lung metastasis of melanoma cells and in vitro tumor cell invasion and migration at nontoxic or marginally toxic concentrations. Additionally, pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenoside Rb1 and M1 after oral administration (2 mg/mouse) revealed that intact Rb1 was not detectable in serum for 24 h by HPLC analysis, whereas the level of M1 in the serum reached maximum at 8 h (8.5 +/- 0.4 micrograms/ml) after Rb1 administration and at 2 h (10.3 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml) after M1 administration. These findings suggest that the in vivo antimetastatic effect by oral administration of ginsenosides is mediated by their metabolic component M1. PMID:9436194

  7. Antimetastatic efficacy of orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 in dependence on intestinal bacterial hydrolyzing potential and significance of treatment with an active bacterial metabolite.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, H; Uchiyama, M

    1998-12-01

    The antimetastatic effects of orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and an active metabolite by intestinal bacteria, 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (I), were studied, by using a spontaneous metastasis model produced by subcutaneous injection of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. A thorough analysis of the hydrolyzing potential (transformation by intestinal bacteria) was first done and the data found were positively correlated to the antimetastatic effect of Rb1 through the medium of I. The transformation rate by 41% fecal specimens was less than 10% and consecutive Ginseng administrations were ineffective for the mice with hydrolyzing potential of less than 10%, which limited the antimetastatic efficacy of Rb1- In contrast, the efficacy of I was greater than that of Rb1 and at least comparable to that of S-FU. No effect of I on the primary tumor growth was found, indicating a specific antimetastatic activity. In a leg amputation model with the LLC-line, an effect on survival time of I (8 mg/kg/day) equal to that of 5-FU (10 mg/kg/day) was seen and 38% mice were cured as compared with 13% cured by amputation alone. These findings suggest that the active drug is the bacterial metabolite I which should be administered rather than Rb1. PMID:9933987

  8. Red wine alcohol promotes quercetin absorption and directs its metabolism towards isorhamnetin and tamarixetin in rat intestine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, Stefania; Gee, Jennifer; Bennett, Richard; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2006-04-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with beneficial effects on human health, and this has been attributed to the flavonoid content. Factors that influence the bioavailability of this group of polyphenolic compounds are therefore important. Using the rat cannulated everted jejunal sac technique, we have investigated the effect of alcohol on the intestinal absorption of quercetin and its 3-O-glucoside from red wine. Tissue preparations were incubated in whole or dealcoholised red wine, diluted 1 : 1 with Krebs buffer for 20 min at 37 degrees C, after which the mucosa was removed and processed for HPLC analysis. Tissues exposed to red wine had significantly higher amounts of both quercetin (x 3; P < 0.001) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (x 1.5; P < 0.01) associated with them, compared with sacs incubated in the dealcoholised equivalent. In addition, both tamarixetin (T) and isorhamnetin (I), in the mucosal tissue from sacs exposed to the whole wine, were significantly elevated approximately two fold (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively). Similar results were obtained when sacs were incubated in Krebs buffer containing a mixture of pure quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside with or without alcohol, and, although effects on the apparent absorption of Q and Q-3-G were not so marked, concentrations of the metabolites quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and I were significantly increased by the presence of alcohol (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). It is therefore plausible that the moderate alcohol content of red wine contributes to its beneficial health effects in humans by both increasing the absorption of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside and by channelling their metabolism towards O-methylation to yield compounds (T and I), which have potential protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16444288

  9. Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-? (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-? (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-?B p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal bacterial community. CONCLUSION: Gln treatment protects from intestinal injury and regulates the gut flora imbalance in hypoxia environment. These effects may be related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24782618

  10. Focused Specificity of Intestinal Th17 Cells towards Commensal Bacterial Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B.; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L.; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Lafaille, Juan J.; Littman, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    T-helper-17 (Th17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defense and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis 1-3. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria (SILP), where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota 4-7. Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce Th17 cells and to promote Th17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models 8-14. However, the specificity of Th17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal Th17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4+ T cells and that most Th17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing Th17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harbored a strong Th1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF THE ERMG GENE IN BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM PORCINE INTESTINAL CONTENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ermG gene was first found in the soil bacterium, Bacillus sphaericus. More recently, it was found in human intestinal Bacteroides species. We report here the first finding of ermG genes in gram-positive bacteria isolated from porcine feces and from under barn manure pits used to store porcine ...

  12. Modulation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal immune gene expression following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Jason P; Cleveland, Beth M

    2012-03-15

    The mucosal immune systems of fishes are still poorly understood, and defined models for studying natural host-pathogen interactions are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate different challenge models and pathogens to examine the magnitude of change in intestinal immune gene expression. Rainbow trout were exposed by immersion to Yersinia ruckeri or by intraperitoneal injection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum. At 3, 9, or 10 days post-challenge, pathogen load was quantified by plate count and intestinal tissue was removed and immune gene expression measured by real-time PCR. In general, the magnitude of infection was correlated with change in immune gene transcript abundance. We found that messages for the innate immune molecules, SAA, IL-8, INF-? and TNF-?, as well as the message for IgM, were up-regulated in intestinal tissue in both challenge paradigms. A >250-fold increase was observed in SAA and 20-fold increase of IL-8 gene transcript abundance occurred on day 10 following challenge with F. psychrophilum. Within individual fish, there was a positive correlation between bacteria load in the spleen and the increase of immune gene message between 3 and 10 days post-infection. These findings demonstrate that measurable changes in immune gene expression occur in the intestine of rainbow trout following bath challenge with Y. ruckeri or injection challenge with F. psychrophilum. PMID:22341800

  13. Alcoholism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Garbutt

    The use of alcohol is woven into our culture in a most complex fashion. The majority of adults in the United States consume\\u000a alcohol, yet alcohol also causes nearly 75,000 deaths per year and costs our society on the order of 150 billion per year.\\u000a Harm from alcohol can occur in a number of ways. First, if alcohol is consumed

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of probiotic on treatment in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khalighi, A.R.; Khalighi, M.R.; Behdani, R.; Jamali, J.; Khosravi, A.; Kouhestani, Sh.; Radmanesh, H.; Esmaeelzadeh, S.; Khalighi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) leads to several gastrointestinal (GI) problems and complications leading to malabsorption. The effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of SIBO syndrome has not been well studied. This pilot study was aimed to assess the efficacy of a probiotic consisting of lactobacilli in the treatment of SIBO. Methods: In this study, 30 cases suffering from chronic abdominal pain or diarrhoea and with a positive hydrogen breath test were randomized in a double-blind manner into two groups: probiotic drug user and control group. After an initial 3-week aggressive therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, a 15-day maintenance antibiotic therapy with lactol was administered for the study group and the same regimen without lactol for the control group. After six months the HBT result and the GI symptoms were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The result of hydrogen breath test and the clinical symptoms in patients receiving the maintenance regimen with lactol probiotic showed a better response. The hydrogen breath test turned negative in 93.3 per cent of those receiving lactol compared to 66.7 per cent of the controls. In all the cases receiving lactol, the abdominal pain disappeared completely (P=0.002). In addition, other GI problems including flatulence, belching and diarrhoea significantly improved in the study group (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the preliminary data it seems that adding lactol probiotic to the maintenance therapy of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth patients on routine antibiotic therapy will be beneficial in preventing the complications of this syndrome. PMID:25579140

  15. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate/layered silicate based nanofibrous mats for bacterial inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Xueyong; Chen, Yang; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Ting; Huang, Rong; Fan, Gang

    2013-02-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG)/organic rectorite (OREC) composite nanofibrous mats are fabricated by electrospinning aqueous solutions with different mixing ratios. Both good fiber shape and three-dimensional structure of nanofibrous mats can be observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows the existence of OREC in the as-spun composite mats. In addition, small-angle X-ray diffraction confirms that the interlayer of OREC is intercalated by ALG/PVA chains, and the distance between OREC interlayers is increased from 4.50 to 4.74 nm. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra further verify the intercalation is between polymers and layered silicate. Moreover, the thermal gravimetric analysis shows that the addition of OREC has only a small effect on the thermal stability of composites. Furthermore, the antibacterial experiments illustrate that OREC can enhance the bacterial inhibition ability of nanofibrous mats against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23399282

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin; Zaharescu, Traian

    2012-05-01

    Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different ? radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with 137Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during ? irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for ? irradiated products.

  17. Properties and roles of bacterial symbionts of polyvinyl alcohol-utilizing mixed cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Shimao, M; Saimoto, H; Kato, N; Sakazawa, C

    1983-01-01

    From several polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-utilizing mixed cultures, two component bacterial strains essential for PVA utilization were isolated, and their properties and roles in PVA utilization were studied. Each pair of essential component strains consisted of a type I strain, which produced a PVA-degrading enzyme and constituted the predominant population of the mixed culture in PVA, and a type II strain, which produced a certain growth stimulant for the former strain. All of the type I strains were taxonomically identical and assigned as Pseudomonas sp. In contrast, type II strains were taxonomically different from each other, belonging to Pseudomonas spp. and Alcaligenes sp. PVA utilization occurred in each mixed culture of a type I strain with Pseudomonas putida VM15A as a substitute for the type II strain of the original pair and also in each mixed culture of a type II strain with Pseudomonas sp. VM15C. The growth rates of these substituted, mixed cultures differed from each other. PMID:6639015

  18. Properties and roles of bacterial symbionts of polyvinyl alcohol-utilizing mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Shimao, M; Saimoto, H; Kato, N; Sakazawa, C

    1983-09-01

    From several polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-utilizing mixed cultures, two component bacterial strains essential for PVA utilization were isolated, and their properties and roles in PVA utilization were studied. Each pair of essential component strains consisted of a type I strain, which produced a PVA-degrading enzyme and constituted the predominant population of the mixed culture in PVA, and a type II strain, which produced a certain growth stimulant for the former strain. All of the type I strains were taxonomically identical and assigned as Pseudomonas sp. In contrast, type II strains were taxonomically different from each other, belonging to Pseudomonas spp. and Alcaligenes sp. PVA utilization occurred in each mixed culture of a type I strain with Pseudomonas putida VM15A as a substitute for the type II strain of the original pair and also in each mixed culture of a type II strain with Pseudomonas sp. VM15C. The growth rates of these substituted, mixed cultures differed from each other. PMID:6639015

  19. Bacterial community structure in the intestinal ecosystem of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as revealed by pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Etyemez, Miray; Balcázar, José Luis

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we determined the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within the intestinal ecosystem of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Healthy rainbow trout, weighing between 520 and 750?g, were fed a commercial diet. Subsequently, genomic DNA was isolated from the intestinal mucus (n?=?16 fish samples) and combined into groups of four fish samples each for pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results revealed that the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affiliated to the genera Acinetobacter, Cetobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Psychrobacter, and to a lesser extent, the genera Aeromonas, Clostridium, Deefgea, Flavobacterium, Neptuniibacter, and Mycoplasma. These findings could be used as a baseline for further studies about the role of bacterial communities in normal and altered host physiological states. PMID:25843896

  20. MD2 controls bacterial lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christelle Lenoir; Catherine Sapin; Alexis H. Broquet; Anne-Marie Jouniaux; Sabine Bardin; Isabelle Gasnereau; Ginette Thomas; Philippe Seksik; Germain Trugnan; Joëlle Masliah; Maria Bachelet

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) have adapted to the presence of commensal bacteria through a state of tolerance that involves a limited response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Low or absent expression of two LPS receptor molecules, the myeloid differentiation (MD)-2 receptor, and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 was suggested to underlie LPS tolerance in IEC. In the present study we performed transfections of TLR4

  1. Maternal 18:3n-3 favors piglet intestinal passage of LPS and promotes intestinal anti-inflammatory response to this bacterial ligand.

    PubMed

    Desaldeleer, Cécile; Ferret-Bernard, Stéphanie; de Quelen, Francine; Le Normand, Laurence; Perrier, Cécile; Savary, Gérard; Romé, Véronique; Michel, Catherine; Mourot, Jacques; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaëlle

    2014-10-01

    We recently observed that maternal 18:3n-3 increases piglet jejunal permeability. We hypothesized that this would favor intestinal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) passage and alter gut immune system education toward this bacterial ligand. Sows were fed 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6 diets throughout gestation and lactation. In each litter, two piglets were given oral Gram-negative spectrum antibiotic from post-natal day (PND) 14 to 28. All piglets were weaned on a regular diet at PND28. 18:3n-3 piglets exhibited greater jejunal permeability to FITC-LPS at PND28. Levels of 18:3n-3 but neither 20:5n-3 nor 20:4n-6 were greater in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of 18:3n-3 piglets. Jejunal explant or MLN cell cytokine responses to LPS were not influenced by the maternal diet. Antibiotic increased jejunal permeability to FITC-LPS and lowered the level of 20:5n-3 in MLN, irrespective of the maternal diet. At PND52, no long-lasting effect of the maternal diet or antibiotic treatment on jejunal permeability was noticed. 18:3n-3 and 20:4n-6 levels were greater and lower, respectively, in MLN of 18:3n-3 compared to 18:2n-6 piglets. IL-10 production by MLN cells in response to LPS was greater in the 18:3n-3 group, irrespective of the neonatal antibiotic treatment. IL-8 secretion by jejunal explants in response to LPS was lower in antibiotic-treated 18:3n-3 compared to 18:2n-6 piglets. Finally, proportion of MHC class II(+) antigen-presenting cells was greater in 18:3n-3 than 18:2n-6 MLN cells. In conclusion, maternal 18:3n-3 directs the intestinal immune response to LPS toward an anti-inflammatory profile beyond the breastfeeding period; microbiota involvement seems dependent of the immune cells considered. PMID:25087993

  2. Protein synthesis of muscle fractions from the small intestine in alcohol fed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Preedy, V R; Peters, T J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on the amounts and synthesis rates of cytoplasmic, contractile, and stromal protein fractions were investigated in the small intestine of eight pairs of immature and seven pairs of mature rats. Treated rats were fed ethanol as 36% of total energy in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet. Paired controls were fed isovolumetric amounts of the same diet in which ethanol was substituted by isocaloric glucose. After six weeks the total cytoplasmic and contractile protein content in immature rats was reduced by 18% and 31%, respectively (p less than or equal to 0.007). The decline in the stromal protein content (26%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.130). In mature rats the protein contents were also reduced in the cytoplasmic (25%, p = 0.035) and contractile (27%, p = 0.005) protein fractions, though the stromal protein fraction was unaltered (p = 0.913). In immature rats fractional rates of protein synthesis in cytoplasmic and contractile protein fractions of the small intestine were unaltered by chronic ethanol feeding (p less than or equal to 0.853). In mature rats, the synthesis rates of corresponding fractions declined, by 18% and 31%, respectively, but were also not statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.369). Absolute rates of protein synthesis in immature rats fell by 6% (p = 0.549) in the cytoplasmic and 31% in the contractile protein fraction (p = 0.045). In mature rats, the corresponding reductions were 38% (p = 0.106) and 48% (p = 0.033), respectively. Virtually no radioactivity could be detected in the stromal fraction, signifying very low synthesis rates. Chronic ethanol feeding reduces the amount of protein in the small intestine of the immature and mature rat with the contractile protein fraction showing the greatest decrease. In the absence of statistically significant reductions in fractional synthesis rates a partial adaptation in turnover rates may have occurred. PMID:2323594

  3. Interactions Between the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. PMID:24440671

  4. Intestinal bacterial metabolism of flavonoids and its relation to some biological activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Hyun Kim; Eun-Ah Jung; In-Suk Sohng; Jung-Ah Han; Tae-Hyung Kim; Myung Joo Han

    1998-01-01

    Flavonoid glycosides were metabolized to phenolic acids via aglycones by human intestinal microflora producing ?-rhamnosidase,\\u000a exo-?-glucosidase, endo-?-glucosidase and\\/or ?-glucuronidase. Rutin, hesperidin, naringin and poncirin were transformed to\\u000a their aglycones by the bacteria producing ?-rhamnosidase and ?-glucosidase or endo-?-glucosidase, and baicalin, puerarin and\\u000a daidzin were transformed to their aglycones by the bacteria producing ?-glucuronidase, C-glycosidase and ?-glycosidase, respectively.\\u000a Anti-platelet activity and

  5. Comparative analysis of tertiary alcohol esterase activity in bacterial strains isolated from enrichment cultures and from screening strain libraries.

    PubMed

    Herter, Susanne; Nguyen, Giang-Son; Thompson, Mark L; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Schauer, Frieder; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Kourist, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The preparation of enantiopure tertiary alcohols is of great contemporary interest due to the application of these versatile building blocks in organic synthesis and as precursors towards high value pharmaceutical compounds. Herein, we describe two approaches taken towards the discovery of novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of these valuable compounds. The first approach was initiated with screening of 47 bacterial strains for hydrolytic activity towards the simple tertiary alcohol ester tert-butyl acetate. In conjunction, a second method focussed on the isolation of strains competent for growth on tert-butyl acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. From functional screening, 10 Gram-positive Actinomycetes showed hydrolytic activity, whilst enrichment selection resulted in the identification of 14 active strains, of which five belong to the Gram-negative cell-wall type. Bacterial strains obtained from both approaches were viable for enantioselective hydrolysis of pyridine substituted tertiary alcohol esters in addition to bulky aliphatic and keto-derived substrates from the same class. Activity towards each of the test substrates was uncovered, with promising enantioselectivities of up to E = 71 in the hydrolysis of a para-substituted pyridine tertiary alcohol ester using a strain of Rhodococcus ruber. Interestingly strains of Microbacterium and Alcaligenes sp. gave opposite enantiopreference in the hydrolysis of a meta-substituted pyridine tertiary alcohol ester with E values of 17 and 54. These approaches show that via both possibilities, screening established strain collections and performing enrichment selection, it is possible to identify novel species which show activity towards sterically challenging substrates. PMID:21318363

  6. A Comparative Study of Bacterial and Parasitic Intestinal Infections in India

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Beena; Perween, Naz; Kumar, Shyam Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infectious diarrhea causes a major health problem in developing countries with significant morbidity and mortality. Very often, rehydration therapy alone does not suffice, mandating the use of antimicrobial agents. However, rapidly decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility is complicating the matters. Materials and Methods: The study aimed to determine the prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents of diarrhea in India. A cross-sectional study was done at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, during 2012-14. Stool samples were received from patients of all age groups and processed for bacteriological and parasitological identification by microscopy, bacterial culture, biochemical identification, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The study also aimed to identify the recent papers (after year 2000) reporting aetiology of infectious diarrhea in India involving the general population as a whole and compare them with present findings. Results: Out of 6527 samples, 581 (8.90%) were positive for bacterial pathogens. A total of 280 samples (of 3823 under-five year children) were positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Other organisms like Vibrio cholera were found in 159 (2.44%) cases, Shigella spp. in 126 (1.93%), Salmonella Typhi in 7 (0.11%), Salmonella Typhimurium in 6 (0.10%), Aeromonas hydrophila in 3 (0.05%) cases. Levels of resistance to nalidixic acid, amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin were alarmingly high. Third generation cephalosporins were seen to be moderately active except against E. coli. Parasites were identified in 312 (4.78%) cases. Giardia intestinalis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica were identified in 2.27%, 1.15% and 0.64% cases respectively. Conclusion: Analysis of recent nationwide studies revealed V. cholerae was the most common bacterial/parasitic agent of diarrhea across all populations, being followed by diarrheagenic E. coli and Giardia intestinalis. Periodic laboratory monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential, as is formulation of effective antibiotic use policy. PMID:25954615

  7. Diversity and Succession of the Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Maturing Broiler Chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangrang Lu; Umelaalim Idris; Barry Harmon; Charles Hofacre; John J. Maurer; Margie D. Lee

    2003-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus

  8. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  9. Campylobacter jejuni Outer Membrane Vesicles Play an Important Role in Bacterial Interactions with Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W.; Smith, David G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

  10. Anti-apoptotic PI3K\\/Akt signaling by sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 reduces epithelial barrier damage and bacterial translocation in intestinal ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Ying Huang; Jong-Kai Hsiao; Yen-Zhen Lu; Tsung-Chun Lee; Linda C-H Yu

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) causes mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation (BT), leading to septic complications. Previous in vitro studies showed that activation of sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) prevented the epithelial apoptosis and permeability rise induced by microbial products. Our aim was to investigate whether luminal glucose uptake by SGLT1 protects against ischemia-induced epithelial cell death and barrier dysfunction, and to

  11. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) caused by Bacillus Cereus in an Alcoholic Patient: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Aftab Alam; Sarfraz, Asim; Jaiswal, Nitesh; Singh, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is infection of peritoneal covering of the abdomen caused by bacteria, without any known etiology. Common known predisposing factors are cirrhosis of liver and old age among others. Bacillus cereus is an uncommon cause of SBP and often wrongly interpreted as a contaminant. We hereby report a case of peritonitis in chronic alcoholic, elderly male patient presenting in the outpatient department. Bacillus cereus is often regarded as contaminant but must be carefully identified and correlated clinically in case of isolation from peritoneal fluid. PMID:25859458

  12. Slipping through the Cracks: Linking Low Immune Function and Intestinal Bacterial Imbalance to the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Terato, Kuniaki

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are considered to be caused by the host immune system which attacks and destroys its own tissue by mistake. A widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenic mechanism of ADs is “molecular mimicry,” which states that antibodies against an infectious agent cross-react with a self-antigen sharing an identical or similar antigenic epitope. However, this hypothesis was most likely established based on misleading antibody assay data largely influenced by intense false positive reactions involved in immunoassay systems. Thus reinvestigation of this hypothesis using an appropriate blocking agent capable of eliminating all types of nonspecific reactions and proper assay design is strongly encouraged. In this review, we discuss the possibility that low immune function may be the fundamental, common defect in ADs, which increases the susceptibility to potential disease causative pathogens located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), such as bacteria and their components or dietary components. In addition to these exogenous agents, aberrations in the host's physical condition may disrupt the host defense system, which is tightly orchestrated by “immune function,” “mucosal barrier function,” and “intestinal bacterial balance.” These disturbances may initiate a downward spiral, which can lead to chronic health problems that will evolve to an autoimmune disorder. PMID:25861466

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk. Because alcohol can cause such problems, the citizens and government leaders in the United States decided ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  14. Alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. M. Lands

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to 4 of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Alcohol consumption is split, with 33% of the population consuming 95% of the alcoholic beverages and 33% abstaining. The\\u000a US population median intake is much less than the average (mean) intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a An increase in average alcohol intake could

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  16. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  17. Oral-Derived Bacterial Flora Defends Its Domain by Recognizing and Killing Intruders—A Molecular Analysis Using Escherichia coli as a Model Intestinal Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuesong; Tian, Yan; Guo, Lihong; Lux, Renate; Zusman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Within the same human gastrointestinal tract, substantial differences in the bacterial species that inhabit oral cavity and intestinal tract have been noted. Previous research primarily attributed the differences to the influences of host environments and nutritional availabilities (“host habitat” effect). Our recent study indicated that, other than the host habitat effect, an existing microbial community could impose a selective pressure on incoming foreign bacterial species independent of host-mediated selection (“community selection” effect). In this study, we employed in vitro microbial floras representing microorganisms that inhabit the oral cavities and intestinal tract of mice in combination with Escherichia coli as a model intestinal bacterium and demonstrated that E. coli displays a striking community preference. It thrived when introduced into the intestinal microbial community and survived poorly in the microbial flora of foreign origin (oral community). A more detailed examination of this phenomenon showed that the oral community produced oxygen-free radicals in the presence of wild-type E. coli while mutants deficient in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) did not trigger significant production of these cell-damaging agents. Furthermore, mutants of E. coli defective in the oxidative stress response experienced a more drastic reduction in viability when cocultivated with the oral flora, while the exogenous addition of the antioxidant vitamin C was able to rescue it. We concluded that the oral-derived microbial community senses the E. coli LPS and kills the bacterium with oxygen-free radicals. This study reveals a new mechanism of community invasion resistance employed by established microflora to defend their domains. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9708-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20625713

  18. Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bacterial overgrowth is most easily detected by the hydrogen breath test: The patient drinks a sugar solution ... amounts in the small intestine, they give off hydrogen, some of which is absorbed into the blood, ...

  19. Acetate kinase Activity and Kinetic Properties of the Enzyme in Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 Intestinal Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kushkevych, Ivan V

    2014-01-01

    Activity of acetate kinase in cell-free extracts and individual fractions and the kinetic properties of the enzyme obtained from the Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were presented at the first time. The highest activity of the enzyme was measured in the cell-free extracts (1.52 ± 0.163 and 0.46 ± 0.044 U × mg-1 protein for D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) compared to other fractions. The specific activity of acetate kinase in the extracts of both bacterial strains was determined at different temperature and pH. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the purified acetate kinase was carried out. The acetate kinase activity, initial (instantaneous) reaction rate (V0) and maximum rate of the acetate kinase reaction (Vmax) in D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were defined. Michaelis constants (KmAcetyl phosphate and KmADP) of the enzyme reaction (2.54 ± 0.26 and 2.39 ± 0.24 mM for D. piger Vib-7 as well as 2.68 ± 0.25 and 2.47 ± 0.27 mM for Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) were calculated. The described results of acetate kinase, an important enzyme in the process of organic compounds oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction would be perspective and useful for clarification of the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and animals. PMID:25598851

  20. Acetate kinase Activity and Kinetic Properties of the Enzyme in Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 Intestinal Bacterial Strains.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan V

    2014-01-01

    Activity of acetate kinase in cell-free extracts and individual fractions and the kinetic properties of the enzyme obtained from the Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were presented at the first time. The highest activity of the enzyme was measured in the cell-free extracts (1.52 ± 0.163 and 0.46 ± 0.044 U × mg-1 protein for D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) compared to other fractions. The specific activity of acetate kinase in the extracts of both bacterial strains was determined at different temperature and pH. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the purified acetate kinase was carried out. The acetate kinase activity, initial (instantaneous) reaction rate (V0) and maximum rate of the acetate kinase reaction (Vmax) in D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were defined. Michaelis constants (KmAcetyl phosphate and KmADP) of the enzyme reaction (2.54 ± 0.26 and 2.39 ± 0.24 mM for D. piger Vib-7 as well as 2.68 ± 0.25 and 2.47 ± 0.27 mM for Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) were calculated. The described results of acetate kinase, an important enzyme in the process of organic compounds oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction would be perspective and useful for clarification of the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and animals. PMID:25598851

  1. Sequential interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel microspheres of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) for oral controlled drug delivery to intestine.

    PubMed

    Mundargi, R C; Patil, S A; Kulkarni, P V; Mallikarjuna, N N; Aminabhavi, T M

    2008-06-01

    Sequential interpenetrating networks of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) have been prepared and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain pH sensitive microspheres by a water-in-oil emulsification method. Microspheres have been used to deliver the chosen model anti-inflammatory drug viz., ibuprofen to the intestine. Ibuprofen was encapsulated up to 70% within polymeric matrices. The interpenetrating polymer network formed was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses were done on drug-loaded microspheres to confirm the polymorphism of ibuprofen. Results of this study indicated the molecular level dispersion of ibuprofen in the developed microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the spherical nature and smooth surfaces of the microspheres produced. Mean particle size of the microspheres as measured by laser light scattering ranged between 51-176 microm. Swelling was performed in the simulated gastric as well as the intestinal conditions. Microspheres showed a pulsatile swelling behaviour when pH of the swelling media was altered. The swelling data have been fitted to an empirical equation to understand water transport trends as well as to calculate the diffusion coefficients. Values of diffusion coefficients in acidic media were lower than those found in the basic media. Values of diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing cross-linking of the matrix. In vitro release studies have been performed in 1.2 and 7.4 pH media to simulate the gastric and intestinal conditions. The in vitro release results indicated a dependence on the pH of the release media, extent of cross-linking and the amount of drug loading. The release data were fitted to an empirical relation to estimate the transport parameters and thereby to understand the transport mechanism. PMID:18465310

  2. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  3. What are the effects of proton pump inhibitors on the small intestine?

    PubMed Central

    Fujimori, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Generally, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have great benefit for patients with acid related disease with less frequently occurring side effects. According to a recent report, PPIs provoke dysbiosis of the small intestinal bacterial flora, exacerbating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported that patients treated with PPIs, as well as post-gastrectomy patients, have a higher frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to patients who lack the aforementioned conditions. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence that these conditions induce Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO. It now seems likely that intestinal bacterial flora influence many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune diseases. When attempting to control intestinal bacterial flora with probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, etc., the influence of acid suppression therapy, especially PPIs, should not be overlooked. PMID:26078557

  4. What are the effects of proton pump inhibitors on the small intestine?

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shunji

    2015-06-14

    Generally, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have great benefit for patients with acid related disease with less frequently occurring side effects. According to a recent report, PPIs provoke dysbiosis of the small intestinal bacterial flora, exacerbating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported that patients treated with PPIs, as well as post-gastrectomy patients, have a higher frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to patients who lack the aforementioned conditions. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence that these conditions induce Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO. It now seems likely that intestinal bacterial flora influence many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune diseases. When attempting to control intestinal bacterial flora with probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, etc., the influence of acid suppression therapy, especially PPIs, should not be overlooked. PMID:26078557

  5. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains. PMID:1401067

  6. Identification of intestinal bacterial flora in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks by conventional methods and PCR-DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing-Li; Cheng, Tian-Yin; Yang, Hu; Yan, Fen

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the intestinal microbial flora associated with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks using both culture-dependent and independent methods based on PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The R. microplus ticks were collected from cattle and goats in Jiangxi, Hunan and Guizhou Provinces of China. Three distinct strains of bacteria were isolated using culture-dependent methods: Staphylococcus simulans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus flexus strain. Nineteen distinct DGGE bands were found using PCR-DGGE analysis, and their search for identity shows that they belonged to Rickettsiaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Coxiella sp., Ehrlichia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ehrlichia sp., Orphnebius sp., Rickettsia peacockii, Bacillus flexus. Rickettsia peacockii and Coxiella genus were the dominant strain of the R. microplus ticks from cattle, Pseudomonas sp. and B. flexus strain were the most common species in all tick samples from goats. Ehrlichia canis were detected only in R. microplus ticks from Yongshun area in Hunan Province. The results indicate that the intestinal microbial diversity of R. microplus ticks was influenced by tick hosts and local differences in the sampling location and these two aspects may affect transmission of pathogen to humans and animals. PMID:25784070

  7. Ex Vivo - Growth Response of Porcine Small Intestinal Bacterial Communities to Pharmacological Doses of Dietary Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Starke, Ingo C.; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Piglets were fed diets containing 57 (low) or 2425 (high) mg zinc from analytical grade zinc oxide (ZnO) ·kg?1 feed. Digesta samples from the stomach and jejuna of 32, 39, 46 and 53 d old animals (n ?=?6 per group) were incubated in media containing 80, 40, 20 and 0 µg·mL?1 soluble zinc from ZnO. Turbidity was recorded for 16 h and growth parameters were calculated. Additionally, DNA extracts of selected samples were analyzed via qPCR for different bacterial groups. Samples from animals fed the low dietary zinc concentration always showed highest rate of growth and lowest lag times in media without added zinc. However, media supplemented with zinc displayed highest growth rates and lowest lag time in the high dietary zinc group. Specific growth rates and lag time showed significant differences on day 32 and 39 of age, but rarely on days 46 and 53 of age. Bacterial growth in digesta samples from the high dietary zinc group was less influenced by zinc and recovered growth more rapidly than in the low dietary zinc group. Specific growth rates and bacterial cell numbers from qPCR results showed that lactobacilli were most susceptible to zinc, while bifidobacteria, enterobacteria and enterococci exhibited increased growth rates in samples of animals from the high dietary zinc treatment. No treatment related differences were observed for clostridial cluster IV and the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas cluster. The diversity of enterobacteria after incubation was always higher in the high dietary zinc treatment or in medium supplemented with 80 µg·mL?1 soluble ZnO. This study has shown that a pharmacological dosage of ZnO leads to a reduced ex vivo- bacterial growth rate of bacteria from the stomach and jejunum of weaned piglets. In view of the rapid bacterial adaptation to dietary zinc, the administration of ZnO in feeds for weaned piglets might only be beneficial in a short period after weaning. PMID:23441186

  8. Inhibition of adhesion of enteroinvasive pathogens to human intestinal Caco-2 cells by Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB decreases bacterial invasion.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Bernet, M F; Kernéis, S; Chauvière, G; Fourniat, J; Servin, A L

    1993-07-01

    Salmonella typhimurium and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) were found to adhere to the brush border of differentiated human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells in culture, whereas Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes adhered to the periphery of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. All these enterovirulent strains invaded the Caco-2 cells. Using a heat-killed human Lactobacillus acidophilus (strain LB) which strongly adheres both to undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells, we have studied inhibition of cell association with and invasion within Caco-2 cells by enterovirulent bacteria. Living and heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB inhibited both cell association and invasion of Caco-2 cells by enterovirulent bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism of inhibition of both adhesion and invasion appears to be due to steric hindrance of human enterocytic pathogen receptors by whole-cell lactobacilli rather than to a specific blockade of receptors. PMID:8354463

  9. Effect of barley and oat cultivars with different carbohydrate compositions on the intestinal bacterial communities in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Robert; Jha, Rajesh; Rossnagel, Brian; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Souffrant, Wolfgang B; Leterme, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was aimed at comparing the intestinal microbial community composition in pigs fed hulled common barley supplemented with isolated barley mixed-linked beta-glucan, four hulless barley varieties and breeding lines with mixed-linked beta-glucan contents ranging from 41 to 84 g kg(-1) and different amylose/amylopectin ratios as well as two oat varieties. Seventy-two weaned piglets were allocated to one of nine diets composed of 81.5% cereal, 6% whey, 9% soy protein isolate and 3.5% minerals. After 15 days, pigs were sacrificed and ileum and colon contents were collected for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to evaluate microbial communities. Shifts in intestinal microbial communities were observed with the hulless barley cultivars with a normal to high beta-glucan content and from normal starch toward either high-amylopectin or high-amylose starch. These hulless barleys had the lowest (P<0.05) microbial diversity, whereas oats had intermediate diversity compared with low-beta-glucan hulless cultivars and hulled varieties. Furthermore, hulless varieties favoured xylan- and beta-glucan-degrading bacteria whereas mixed-linked beta-glucan-supplemented hulled barley favoured lactobacilli. Numbers of lactobacilli decreased in the ileum of pigs fed hulless/high mixed-linked beta-glucan barley-based diets. Thus, cultivar differences in both the form and the quantity of carbohydrates affect gut microbiota in pigs, which provides information for future feeding strategies. PMID:19049653

  10. Dietary glycosaminoglycans interfere in bacterial adhesion and gliadin-induced pro-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Laparra, J M; López-Rubio, A; Lagaron, J M; Sanz, Y

    2010-11-01

    Dietary components may have an important role in maintaining a balanced gut microbiota composition. Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by gliadins, and has been associated with a reduced proportion of Bifidobacterium in gut microbiota. This study evaluates the influence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on bacterial adhesion and their contribution in the gliadins-induced inflammatory response. The adhesion of potential probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7365), commensal (Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis) and pathogenic (Salmonella enterica CECT 443 and Listeria monocytogenes CECT 935) bacteria to mucin and Caco-2 cell cultures was determined. Gliadins were subjected to in vitro digestion (pepsin/pancreatin-bile), with/out GAGs, and the presence or not of cell suspensions of B. longum (10(8) CFU/ml). B. longum, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes, markedly interact with the high-sulphur-containing fraction of GAGs. The GAGs reduced the gliadins-mediated production of interleukin-1?, but not tumour necrosis factor-?. The results suggest that GAGs may ameliorate gliadin-induced inflammatory response, though they also slightly interfere with the action of B. longum. PMID:20637226

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Dendritic cells are early cellular targets of Listeria monocytogenes after intestinal delivery and are involved in bacterial spread in the host.

    PubMed

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Berche, P; Milon, G; Geissmann, F; Gaillard, J L

    2001-05-01

    We studied the sequence of cellular events leading to the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes from the gut to draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) by confocal microscopy of immunostained tissue sections from a rat ligated ileal loop system. OX-62-positive cells beneath the epithelial lining of Peyer's patches (PPs) were the first Listeria targets identified after intestinal inoculation. These cells had other features typical of dendritic cells (DCs): they were large, pleiomorphic and major histocompatibility complex class II(hi). Listeria were detected by microscopy in draining MLNs as early as 6 h after inoculation. Some 80-90% of bacteria were located in the deep paracortical regions, and 100% of the bacteria were present in OX-62-positive cells. Most infected cells contained more than five bacteria each, suggesting that they had arrived already loaded with bacteria. At later stages, the bacteria in these areas were mostly present in ED1-positive mononuclear phagocytes. These cells were also infected by an actA mutant defective in cell-to-cell spreading. This suggests that Listeria are transported by DCs from PPs to the deep paracortical regions of draining MLNs and are then transmitted to other cell populations by mechanisms independent of ActA. Another pathway of dissemination to MLNs was identified, probably involving free Listeria and leading to the infection of ED3-positive mononuclear phagocytes in the subcapsular sinus and adjacent paracortical areas. This study provides evidence that DCs are major cellular targets of L. monocytogenes in PPs and that DCs may be involved in the early dissemination of this pathogen. DCs were not sites of active bacterial replication, making these cells ideal vectors of infection. PMID:11298655

  13. IL-22 modulates gut epithelial and immune barrier functions following acute alcohol exposure and burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Juan L.; Li, Xiaoling; Akhtar, Suhail; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)–22 maintains gut epithelial integrity and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3? and Reg3?. Our laboratory has shown that acute alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) exposure prior to burn injury results in increased gut permeability, intestinal T cell suppression and enhanced bacterial translocation. Herein, we determined the effect of combined EtOH intoxication and burn injury on intestinal levels of IL-22 as well as Reg3? and Reg3? expression. We further examined whether in vivo restitution of IL-22 restores gut permeability, Reg3? and Reg3? levels, and bacterial load (e.g. gut bacterial growth) within the intestine following EtOH and burn injury. Male mice, ~25g, were gavaged with EtOH (2.9 mg/kg) prior to receiving a ~12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were immediately treated with saline control or IL-22 (1 mg/kg) by i.p. injection. One day post injury, there was a significant decrease in intestinal IL-22, Reg3? and Reg3? expression along with an increase in intestinal permeability and gut bacterial load following EtOH combined with burn injury, as compared to sham injury. Treatment with IL-22 normalized Reg3? and Reg3? expression, and attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability following EtOH and burn injury. Qualitatively, IL-22 treatment reduced the bacterial load in nearly half of mice receiving EtOH combined with burn injury. Our data indicate that IL-22 maintains gut epithelial and immune barrier integrity following EtOH and burn injury; thus, the IL-22/AMP pathway may provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients who sustain burn injury under the influence of EtOH. PMID:23143063

  14. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of /sup 3/H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-09-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral /sup 3/H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided.

  15. Alcohol, host defence and society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Nelson; Jay K. Kolls

    2002-01-01

    Impaired health caused by alcohol abuse has been known throughout recorded history. Over the past century, alcohol abuse has been clearly linked to host susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. Recently, both acute and chronic alcohol intake have been shown to result in specific defects in innate and adaptive immunity; these could, in principle, be subjected to specific modulation

  16. Supplementation of diets for lactating sows with zinc amino acid complex and gastric nutriment-intubation of suckling pigs with zinc methionine on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation in lipopolysaccharide-challenged weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Caine, W R; McFall, M; Miller, B; Ward, T L; Kirkwood, R N; Mosenthin, R

    2010-04-01

    Sixty-four pigs from 16 sows were used to evaluate addition of zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) to lactating sows and gastric nutriment-intubation of zinc methionine (ZnMet) to suckling pigs on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation after weaning. Sows were fed a barley-based diet supplying 120 ppm zinc (Zn; control) or the control diet supplemented with 240 ppm Zn from ZnAA. At birth, day-10 and day-21 (weaning) of age, pigs from each litter were nutriment-intubated with 5 ml of an electrolyte solution without or with 40 mg Zn from ZnMet. At weaning, 24 h prior to the collection of small and large intestinal lymph nodes and sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the pigs received an intramuscular injection of saline without or with 150 microg/kg body weight of Escherichia coli O26:B6 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). With the exception of a tendency (p = 0.09) for lower serum concentration of copper in pigs at weaning from ZnAA-supplemented sows, there were no differences (p > 0.1) than for pigs from control-fed sows for mineral status or intestinal morphology. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum (p = 0.001) and liver (p = 0.003) Zn concentrations, number of goblet cells per 250 microm length of jejunal villous epithelium (p = 0.001) and tended (p = 0.06) to enhance jejunum mucosa thickness. Interactive effects (p < 0.05) for higher jejunal villi height and villi:crypt ratio and increased ileal goblet cell counts were apparent for pigs from ZnAA-supplemented sows that also received nutriment-intubation of ZnMet. Challenge with LPS increased (p = 0.05) ileal villous width. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet decreased (p = 0.05) anaerobic bacteria colony forming unit counts in the large intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum and liver tissue concentrations of Zn and resulted in limited improvement to intestinal morphology of weaned pigs. PMID:19364376

  17. Impact of colostomy on intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in young rats fed with heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rigon-Zimmer; C. Mullié; A. Tir-Touil-Meddah; P. Buisson; L. Léké; J. P. Canarelli

    2008-01-01

    A rat animal model of left colostomy was found to significantly impair the growth curve of rats. Assessment of the intestinal\\u000a flora showed that colostomy mostly affects the cecal but not colonic microflora. Generally, the number of enterococci was\\u000a increased in both ileum and cecum; cecal lactobacilli also rose, accounting for a promotion of lactic acid bacteria in colostomised\\u000a rats.

  18. [Bacterial overgrowth syndrome].

    PubMed

    Stein, J M; Schneider, A R

    2007-07-01

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth is a syndrome caused by an abnormal number of bacteria in the upper part of the small bowel and associated with a complex array of clinical symptoms, i. e., chronic diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, macrocytic anaemia, weight loss, and less commonly, protein-losing enteropathy. The most common underlying factors are small intestinal stagnation or dysmotility, intestinal obstruction, blind or afferent loops, and decreased gastric secretion. The treatment usually consists in the eradication of bacterial overgrowth with repeated courses of antimicrobials, correction of associated nutritional deficiencies and, when possible, correction of the underlying predisposing conditions. PMID:17620228

  19. Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Binds Pro-Inflammatory Bacterial Compounds and Prevents Immune Activation in an Intestinal Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Warner, Christopher D.; Maas, Kenneth J.; Weaver, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-? cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (?50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI might improve immune status and reduce inflammation in various intestinal disease states. PMID:25830826

  20. Impact of colostomy on intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in young rats fed with heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB.

    PubMed

    Rigon-Zimmer, K; Mullié, C; Tir-Touil-Meddah, A; Buisson, P; Léké, L; Canarelli, J P

    2008-01-01

    A rat animal model of left colostomy was found to significantly impair the growth curve of rats. Assessment of the intestinal flora showed that colostomy mostly affects the cecal but not colonic microflora. Generally, the number of enterococci was increased in both ileum and cecum; cecal lactobacilli also rose, accounting for a promotion of lactic acid bacteria in colostomised rats. No significant differences between colostomised, laparotomised and control rats could be observed for the translocation of intestinal bacteria to internal organs of rats (i.e. spleen, kidneys, lungs or liver), whatever their diet. Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB administration (dead probiotic bacteria) tended to exhibit a stimulatory effect on bifidobacteria, probably affecting the culture-medium fermentation substances included in the pharmaceutical product. This effect was abolished by laparotomy and colostomy. A trend towards a probiotic-like effect, not susceptible to colostomy, was also witnessed as counts of lactobacilli tended to increase in both cecum and colon of all animals fed with L. acidophilus LB. PMID:18481224

  1. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous - www.alcoholics-anonymous.org Al-Anon/Alateen - www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  2. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePLUS

    You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research findings on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please ...

  3. Intestinal spirochaetosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, T. C.; Heading, R. C.; Gilmour, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of intestinal spirochaetosis are described. The first case improved with treatment while the second case improved spontaneously without any intervention. Controversy over treatment and pathogenicity of intestinal spirochaetosis is discussed with review of previous publications. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8170888

  4. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-11-14

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a "low bacterial richness" may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier ("leaky gut"), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

  5. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  6. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  7. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  8. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    Obstruction of the bowel may due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  9. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page Alcohol Facts Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ... alcohol in it than beer, malt liquor, or wine. These drink sizes have about the same amount ...

  10. Small Intestinal Nematode Infection of Mice Is Associated with Increased Enterobacterial Loads alongside the Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Sebastian; Held, Josephin; Fischer, André; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Kühl, Anja A.; Bereswill, Stefan; Hartmann, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are potent modulators of immune reactivity in mice and men. Intestinal nematodes live in close contact with commensal gut bacteria, provoke biased Th2 immune responses upon infection, and subsequently lead to changes in gut physiology. We hypothesized that murine nematode infection is associated with distinct changes of the intestinal bacterial microbiota composition. We here studied intestinal inflammatory and immune responses in mice following infection with the hookworm Heligmosomoidespolygyrusbakeri and applied cultural and molecular techniques to quantitatively assess intestinal microbiota changes in the ileum, cecum and colon. At day 14 post nematode infection, mice harbored significantly higher numbers of ?-Proteobacteria/Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Bacteroides/Prevotella group in their cecum as compared to uninfected controls. Abundance of Gram-positive species such as Lactobacilli, Clostridia as well as the total bacterial load was not affected by worm infection. The altered microbiota composition was independent of the IL-4/-13 – STAT6 signaling axis, as infected IL-4R?-/- mice showed a similar increase in enterobacterial loads. In conclusion, infection with an enteric nematode is accompanied by distinct intestinal microbiota changes towards higher abundance of gram-negative commensal species at the small intestinal site of infection (and inflammation), but also in the parasite-free large intestinal tract. Further studies should unravel the impact of nematode-induced microbiota changes in inflammatory bowel disease to allow for a better understanding of how theses parasites interfere with intestinal inflammation and bacterial communities in men. PMID:24040152

  11. Intestinal ?-galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.

    1969-01-01

    Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two ?-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal ?-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic ?-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic ?-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a ?-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

  12. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  13. Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis –Inflammation and Intestinal Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Claud, Erika C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis is a devastating inflammatory bowel disease of premature infants. The pathogenesis remains incompletely understood and there is no specific treatment. Efforts are ongoing to understand aspects of intestinal immaturity which contribute to susceptibility to this disease. This review focuses on bacterial colonization patterns, intestinal barrier function, and inflammatory responses of immature enterocytes leading to a unique vulnerability of the preterm gut. In addition the possible therapeutic potential of factors in human milk and probiotic bacteria is discussed. PMID:20498729

  14. Mucosal control of the intestinal microbial community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Brugman; Edward E. S. Nieuwenhuis

    2010-01-01

    Although the knowledge of the effects of bacterial colonization on the immune system is rapidly expanding, surprisingly little\\u000a is known about the immunological mechanisms that shape the intestinal microbial community. Specifically, the complexity of\\u000a the intestinal microbiota and what constitutes a “healthy” microbial composition has only recently been addressed, facilitated\\u000a by large-scale metagenomic screens. Containment of such a vast number

  15. Intestinal ?-galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.; Colver, Eugene H.; Genel, Myron

    1969-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in some racial groups and in patients with intestinal disease, the biochemical defect has not been characterized. In the preceding paper normal intestine was found to have two lactases with distinctly different pH optima. Therefore, pH activity curves of homogenates from lactase-deficient intestine were studied, and the pH optimum was found to be shifted from the normal of 5.8 to 4.8. Density gradient ultracentrifugation of intestinal material from five lactase-deficient patients demonstrated absence of a lactase with pH optimum 6.0 and molecular weight 280,000. A second lactase with pH optimum 4.5 and molecular weights of 156,000 and 660,000 remained at normal levels accounting for the shift in the pH optimum in whole intestinal homogenates. In addition, three of the five patients had absence of a smaller ?-galactosidase (molecular weight 80,000) that had specificity only for synthetic substrates. Although not a lactase, this enzyme had a pH optimum identical with the missing lactase, and its activity was inhibited by lactose in a partially competitive manner suggesting that it is capable of binding lactose. It is possible that this enzyme is a precursor or fragment of the missing lactase. The residual lactase activity provided by the lactase with low pH optimum represents 20-70% of the activity of the missing enzyme, and yet these patients are not able to digest dietary lactose. Thus it appears that the residual enzyme plays no significant role in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. PMID:5774110

  16. Recent understanding of immunological aspects in alcoholic hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetsugu Saito; Hiromasa Ishii

    2004-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a rate-limiting step in the development of alcoholic liver disease into liver cirrhosis, and approximately half of the heavy drinkers with alcoholic hepatitis develop liver cirrhosis within 5 years. Immunologic mechanisms may be involved in the individual differences in the clinical course of this disease. Endotoxin from the intestine seems to play an important role in neutrophil

  17. Alcoholic disease: liver and beyond.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-28

    The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world's third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the "necrosis-fibrosis" sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

  18. Alcoholic disease: Liver and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

  19. Management of pediatric intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, S S; Matsumoto, C S

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as the state of the intestinal tract where the function is below the minimum required for the absorption of macronutrients, water, and electrolytes. The etiology may be a multitude of causes, but short bowel syndrome (SBS) remains the most common. The successful management and prognosis of SBS in infants and children depends a multitude of variables such as length, quality, location, and anatomy of the remaining intestine. Prognosis, likewise, depends on these factors, but also is dependent on the clinical management of these patients. Strategies for a successful outcome and the success of therapeutic interventions are dependent upon understanding each individual's remaining intestinal function. Medical intervention success is defined by a graduated advancement of enteral nutrition (EN) and a reduction of parenteral nutrition (PN). Complications of IF and PN include progressive liver disease, bacterial overgrowth, dysmotility, renal disease, catheter related bloodstream infections, and loss of venous access. Surgical interventions such as bowel lengthening procedures show promise in carefully selected patients. Intestinal transplantation is reserved for those infants and children suffering from life-threatening complications of PN. PMID:25752806

  20. The intestinal microbiota and chronic disorders of the gut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert L. DuPont; Andrew W. DuPont

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces of the gut are colonized by large numbers of heterogeneous bacteria that contribute to intestinal health and disease. In genetically susceptible individuals, a 'pathogenic community' may arise, whereby abnormal gut flora contributes to alterations in the mucosa and local immune system leading to gastrointestinal disease. These diseases include enteric infections, such as Clostridium difficile infection, small intestinal bacterial

  1. Natural compound methyl protodioscin protects against intestinal inflammation through modulation of intestinal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongli; Gilbert, Shila; Yao, Xinsheng; Vallance, Jefferson; Steinbrecher, Kris; Moriggl, Richard; Zhang, Dongsheng; Eluri, Madhu; Chen, Haifeng; Cao, Huiqing; Shroyer, Noah; Denson, Lee; Han, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Dioscoreaceae, a kind of yam plant, has been recommended for treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms are poorly defined. Methyl protodioscin (MPD) is one of the main bioactive components in Dioscoreaceae. Here, we aim to determine the mechanisms by which MPD ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Surgical intestinal specimens were collected from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients to perform organ culture. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium, and was then treated with MPD. NF-?B activation, expression of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines, disease severity, and epithelial proliferation/apoptosis were determined. Mouse crypts and Caco-2 monolayers were cultured to observe the effect of MPD upon intestinal epithelial differentiation and barrier function. We found that MPD increased the percentage of survival from high-dose DSS-(4%) treated mice, and accelerated mucosal healing and epithelial proliferation in low-dose DSS-(2.5%) treated mice characterized by marked reduction in NF-?B activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and bacterial translocation. Consistently, MPD protected colonic mucosa from C. rodentium-induced colonic inflammation and bacterial colonization. In vitro studies showed that MPD significantly increased crypt formation and restored intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, MPD ameliorates the intestinal mucosal inflammation by modulating the intestinal immunity to enhance intestinal barrier differentiation. MPD could be an alternative for treating chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  2. Alcohol Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve C. Kazmierczak; Hassan M. E. Azzazy

    Ethanol, commonly also referred to as alcohol, is widely used as well as abused, and measurement of alcohol is a common test\\u000a in clinical toxicology and forensic laboratories. Although blood alcohol measurement is most commonly used, alcohol can also\\u000a be measured in breath, urine, saliva and vitreous humor. Whole blood alcohol levels are lower than serum alcohol levels, and\\u000a the

  3. Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Cinova; Giada de Palma; Renata Stepankova; Olga Kofronova; Miloslav Kverka; Yolanda Sanz; Ludmila Tuckova; François Leulier

    2011-01-01

    Background and AimsCeliac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity,

  4. Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marleen TJ van Ampting; Arjan J Schonewille; Carolien Vink; Robert Jan M Brummer; Roelof Meer; Ingeborg MJ Bovee-Oudenhoven

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes

  5. Intestinal barrier: Molecular pathways and modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is frequently challenged by pathogens/antigens contained in food and water and the intestinal epithelium must be capable of rapid regeneration in the event of tissue damage. Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to a number of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, and celiac disease. The intestinal mucosa is composed of different types of epithelial cells in specific barrier functions. Epithelial cells control surface-associated bacterial populations without disrupting the intestinal microflora that is crucial for host health. They are also capable of modulating mucosal immune system, and are thus essential in maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Thus, the regulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of the structure of the mucosa and the defensive barrier functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell polarity. These include the Wnt, Notch, Hippo, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog pathways, most of which were identified in lower organisms where they play important roles during embryogenesis. These pathways are also used in adult organisms to regulate multiple self-renewing organs. Understanding the interactions between these molecular mechanisms and intestinal barrier function will therefore provide important insight into the pathogenesis of intestinal-based immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24244877

  6. Intestinal barrier: Molecular pathways and modifiers.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-11-15

    The gastrointestinal tract is frequently challenged by pathogens/antigens contained in food and water and the intestinal epithelium must be capable of rapid regeneration in the event of tissue damage. Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to a number of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, and celiac disease. The intestinal mucosa is composed of different types of epithelial cells in specific barrier functions. Epithelial cells control surface-associated bacterial populations without disrupting the intestinal microflora that is crucial for host health. They are also capable of modulating mucosal immune system, and are thus essential in maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Thus, the regulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of the structure of the mucosa and the defensive barrier functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell polarity. These include the Wnt, Notch, Hippo, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog pathways, most of which were identified in lower organisms where they play important roles during embryogenesis. These pathways are also used in adult organisms to regulate multiple self-renewing organs. Understanding the interactions between these molecular mechanisms and intestinal barrier function will therefore provide important insight into the pathogenesis of intestinal-based immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24244877

  7. Analysis of the intestinal microflora: a renaissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald W. Tannock

    1999-01-01

    The ability of microbial ecologists to analyse the composition of complex bacterial communities has been greatly enhanced by the application of molecular methodologies. The use of these techniques should enable an accurate record of the identity and population dynamics of the inhabitants of the intestinal tract to be obtained, and should promote an improved comprehension of the relationship between the

  8. Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

    2005-01-01

    The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

  9. JAMA Patient Page: Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism A buse of alcohol is a major cause ... by or worsened by the effects of alcohol. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a more severe pattern of ...

  10. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  11. Arguments for alcoholic hand disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Rotter

    2001-01-01

    The non-aqueous use of ethanol or propanols offers various advantages over washing hands with either unmedicated or medicated soap in both hygienic and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohols exert the strongest and fastest activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi (but not bacterial spores) as well as enveloped (but less so against non-enveloped) viruses, being little influenced by interfering

  12. Alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Grieger; Deborah L. Warden; Cynthia Shappell

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol abuse or dependence is present in 13.6% of the general population and more than half of these individuals have another psychiatric disorder. Psychiatrists are increasingly involved in the management of alcohol withdrawal\\/detoxification. Although generally a safe procedure, patients must be carefully evaluated for comorbid conditions and for medical complications of prolonged alcohol use. Individuals who experience withdrawal symptoms require

  13. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Flores

    1988-01-01

    This article explores some of the philosophical roots of Alcoholics Anonymous. Parallels between AA, existentialism and phenomenology are outlined. The success of AA is related to its ability to place the alcoholic's suffering within a meaningful paradigm and to require the alcoholic to accept responsibility and limitations while breaking the pattern of isolation and alienation.

  14. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Inoh, Yumi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction(CIPO) is a rare severe digestive disease in which clinical symptoms of intestinal obstruction appear without any mechanical cause. Pathophysiologically, CIPO shows ineffective intestinal propulsion due to an impairment of intestinal smooth muscle, enteric nervous system, and interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC). Sustained increased intra-bowel pressure often causes small intestinal malabsorption and bacterial translocation, and leads to malnutrition and blood stream infection (sepsis). Key points of the medical approach for CIPO are to improve nutritional status and reduce abdominal symptoms. Dietary cure and defecation control are the main options in mild cases, whereas home-parenteral-nutrition(HPN) and decompression therapy are often needed in severe cases. Stimulant laxatives, prokinetics and herbal medicine are usually used but often in fail. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy(PEG-J) tube may be burdenless compared to conventional ileus tube. Most important points in the management of this disease are to make a correct diagnosis as early as possible and avoid unnecessary surgery. However, no clear diagnostic criteria have been established so far. Manometry, scintigraphy, and full-thickness biopsy are the major examination for the CIPO diagnosis in the Western countries; however these specialized examinations are not popular in Japan. Therefore the Research Group(chief investigator, Atsushi Nakajima) proposed Japanese diagnostic criteria in 2009 to facilitate the diagnosis of this rare disease by the general physician. In 2013, we have reported that cine-MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic method for CIPO. Although further data are eagerly awaited, it can become a promising diagnostic tool in CIPO patients. Furthermore the Japanese criteria have been revised, and in 2014, the comprehensive criteria from a child to an adult have been devised. In 2015, CIPO is newly certified as Specified Rare and Intractable Disease which is subsidized from public expense, in Japan. In the future, the diagnostic criteria should be appropriately modified by consultation with additional researchers to make them more practical and internationally applicable. PMID:25985646

  15. Intestinal SGLT1-mediated absorption and metabolism of benzyl ?-glucoside contained in Prunus mume: carrier-mediated transport increases intestinal availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Mizuma; Maya Nakamura; Hiroji Ina; Toshio Miyazaki; Masahiro Hayashi

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of benzyl ?-glucoside (BNZ?glc) contained in the fruit of Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC. (Rosaceae), which is traditionally used as a medicinal food in Japan, was studied in rat intestines. BNZ?glc was absorbed from the mucosal to serosal sides. Its metabolite, benzyl alcohol (BAL), was also detected on both the mucosal and serosal sides. In the presence

  16. Metagenomic analyses reveal antibiotic-induced temporal and spatial changes in intestinal microbiota with associated alterations in immune cell homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Hill; C Hoffmann; M C Abt; Y Du; D Kobuley; T J Kirn; F D Bushman; D Artis

    2010-01-01

    Despite widespread use of antibiotics, few studies have measured their effects on the burden or diversity of bacteria in the mammalian intestine. We developed an oral antibiotic treatment protocol and characterized its effects on murine intestinal bacterial communities and immune cell homeostasis. Antibiotic administration resulted in a 10-fold reduction in the amount of intestinal bacteria present and sequencing of 16S

  17. Alcoholics' Evaluations of Alcoholism Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alisdair Mackenzie; Richard P. Allen

    2003-01-01

    A sample of alcoholics who have considerable experience as participants in alcoholism treatment are interviewed for their recommendations and criticisms of treatment. Inpatient Milieu and Alcoholics Anonymous were the most frequent choices of treatments considered beneficial. Among treatments not recommended were specific inpatient facilities. Our subjects' evaluations are compared with published reviews of treatment outcome studies. The relationships between treatment

  18. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  19. Agent-based model of Fecal Microbial Transplant effect on Bile Acid Metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the Clostridium difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, Fecal Microbial Transplant (FMT). The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

  20. Bacterial degradation of bile salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bodo Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Bile salts are surface-active steroid compounds. Their main physiological function is aiding the digestion of lipophilic nutrients\\u000a in intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Many bacteria are capable of transforming and degrading bile salts in the digestive tract\\u000a and in the environment. Bacterial bile salt transformation and degradation is of high ecological relevance and also essential\\u000a for the biotechnological production of steroid

  1. T-cell selection and intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Teresa L.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Hsieh, Chyi-Song

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although intestinal bacteria live deep within the body, they are topographically on the exterior surface and thus outside the host. According to the classic notion that the immune system targets non-self rather than self, these intestinal bacteria should be considered foreign and therefore attacked and eliminated. While this appears to be true for some commensal bacterial species, recent data suggests that the immune system actively becomes tolerant to many bacterial organisms. The induction or activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells that inhibit, rather than promote, inflammatory responses to commensal bacteria appears to be a central component of mucosal tolerance. Loss of this mechanism can lead to inappropriate immune reactivity toward commensal organisms, perhaps contributing to mucosal inflammation characteristic of disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24712459

  2. Abundant and Diverse Fungal Microbiota in the Murine Intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra J Scupham; Laura L. Presley; Bo Wei; Elizabeth Bent; Natasha Griffith; Michael McPherson; Feilin Zhu; O. Oluwadara; N. Rao; J. Braun; J. Borneman

    2006-01-01

    Enteric microbiota play a variety of roles in intestinal health and disease. While bacteria in the intestine have been broadly characterized, little is known about the abundance or diversity of enteric fungi. This study utilized a culture-independent method termed oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG) to de- scribe the compositions of fungal and bacterial rRNA genes from small and large

  3. Alcoholic hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kester I. Crosse; Frank A. Anania

    2002-01-01

    Opinion statement  Alcoholic hepatitis is a common clinical problem confronting gastroenterologists and hepatologists alike. The fundamental\\u000a issue regarding treatment of this disease is its recognition on the part of the physician. Chronic alcohol abuse, fever, leukocytosis,\\u000a jaundice, and encephalopathy are key symptoms and signs that should prompt consideration of this diagnosis. Nutrition and\\u000a abstinence from alcohol are the cornerstones of therapy.

  4. Alcohol Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Hodgins; Katherine Diskin; Jonathan N. Stea

    \\u000a Alcohol problems can be broadly defined as negative consequences that people experience as a result of their use of alcohol.\\u000a People may drink alcohol for a number of reasons: to promote feelings of relaxation, to increase feelings of sociability,\\u000a to elevate mood, to conform to social expectations, or to reduce feelings of stress (Anonymous, 2000). Information from the\\u000a US National

  5. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  6. NADP-dependent bacterial alcohol dehydrogenases: crystal structure, cofactor-binding and cofactor specificity of the ADHs of Clostridium beijerinckii and Thermoanaerobacter brockii 1 1 Edited by R. Huber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yakov Korkhin; Moshe Peretz; Oren Bogin; Yigal Burstein; Felix Frolow

    1998-01-01

    We have determined the X-ray structures of the NADP(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase of Clostridium beijerinckii (CBADH) in the apo and holo-enzyme forms at 2.15 Å and 2.05 Å resolution, respectively, and of the holo-alcohol dehydrogenase of Thermoanaerobacter brockii (TBADH) at 2.5 Å. These are the first structures of prokaryotic alcohol dehydrogenase to be determined as well as that of the first

  7. Evaluation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence R. Schiller

    2007-01-01

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth historically has been associated with malabsorption syndrome attributed to deconjugation\\u000a of bile acids in the upper small intestine. Recent reports raise the possibility that bacterial overgrowth may be a cause\\u000a of watery diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome. Quantitative culture of jejunal contents has been the gold standard for diagnosis,\\u000a but a variety of indirect tests have

  8. Direction of neutrophil movements by Campylobacter-infected intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Helen; Cogan, Tristan; Humphrey, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli together represent the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. Infection results in the formation of crypt abscesses resulting from the migration of neutrophils across the intestinal epithelium and into the intestinal crypts. In this study, we model this process in vitro and show that Campylobacter infection of epithelium results in a quantifiable increase in the directed movement of neutrophils from the basolateral to apical surface of the epithelium. This process is dependent on both bacterially derived n-formyl peptides and on the host cell enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX). PMID:20934530

  9. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy Streifel; Heather Servanty-Seib

    2006-01-01

    The present paper offers two theories that help to explain why the 12-step program of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is such an effective intervention for recovering alcoholics, and provides directions for future research on AA. It is argued that Schlossberg's (1984) transition theory and Rando's (1995) theory of grief and mourning are applicable to the AA program because, as will be

  10. Bacterial replacement therapy: adapting ‘germ warfare’ to infection prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Tagg; Karen P. Dierksen

    2003-01-01

    The individual bacterial members of our indigeneous microbiota are actively engaged in an on-going battle to prevent colonisation and overgrowth of their terrain by competing microbes, some of which might have pathogenic potential for the host. Humans have long attempted to intervene in these bacterial interactions. Ingestion of probiotic bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, is commonly practiced to promote well-balanced intestinal microflora.

  11. Bacterial Translocation and Prognosis of Criti- cally Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woon Won Kim; Chun Ki Sung

    Purpose: To identify Bacterial translocation (BT) from the gut to the blood in the critically ill patients by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the sensitivity of PCR in the detection of intestinal bacterial deoxyribo- nucleic acid (DNA) in human blood. Further, to determine the relationship between the identification of BT and the prognosis of these patients. Methods

  12. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10??g of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1?h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6?h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7?±?21.8??g/mL vs. 32.2?±?10.1??g/mL; p?intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p?Intestinal TNF-? increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2?±?7.1?pg/mL vs. 24.4?±?2.2?pg/mL p?intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-?. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  13. Impact of Commensal Intestinal Microbiota on Nervous System Development and Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McVeyNeufeldKaren-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Commensal intestinal microbiota number in the realm of 1014 organisms per gram of colonic contents. This considerable bacterial load is acquired during birth and in the early postnatal days and has a defining, extensive impact on host physiology. We now have persuasive evidence that the intestinal microbiota influence the development of the nervous system. The following body of work describes

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Enterohepatic Helicobacter hepaticus on Innate Immune Responses of Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Sterzenbach; Sae Kyung Lee; Birgit Brenneke; Franz von Goetz; David B. Schauer; James G. Fox; Sebastian Suerbaum; Christine Josenhans

    2007-01-01

    Enterohepatic Helicobacter species infect the intestinal tracts and biliary trees of various mammals, including mice and humans, and are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine, gallstone formation, and malignant transformation. The recent analysis of the whole genome sequence of the mouse enterohepatic species Helicobacter hepaticus allowed us to perform a functional analysis of bacterial factors that may play

  15. AI-2 to the rescue against antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis?

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongke; Grimm, Verena; Riedel, Christian U

    2015-06-01

    The downside of antibiotic treatment of infectious diseases is a disturbed intestinal microbiota leading to reduced resistance against pathogen colonization. Work by Thompson et al. now suggests that antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis can partially be counterbalanced by artificially increasing the levels of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a well-known bacterial communication molecule. PMID:25900476

  16. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Negri, E; Bosetti, C; La Vecchia, C; Fioretti, F; Conti, E; Franceschi, S

    1999-07-19

    We have investigated the relation between alcohol, tobacco and dietary habits and risk of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine using data from 2 hospital-based case-control studies on intestinal cancers conducted in 6 Italian centres between 1985 and 1996. Cases were 23 patients below age 75 years with adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. Controls were 230 patients admitted to hospital for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic, non-digestive tract diseases, matched to cases on sex, age, study and centre. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Alcohol and tobacco consumption did not increase the risk of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. The risk appeared to be directly related to intake of bread, pasta or rice (OR = 3.8), sugar (OR = 2.9) and red meat (OR = 4.6), and inversely to coffee (OR = 0.4), fish (OR = 0.3), vegetables (OR = 0.3) and fruit (OR = 0.6). Our results suggest that dietary correlates of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine are similar to those of colon cancer and at least of the same magnitude. While the present data are inconsistent with a major effect of tobacco or alcohol, a moderate association between these factors and small bowel cancer may have been obscured by the play of chance. PMID:10389747

  17. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Bacterial Vaginosis Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people ...

  18. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 33 Starkman, B.G.; Sakharkar, A.J.; and Pandey, S.C. Epigenetics—Beyond the genome in alcoholism. Alcohol ... BMC Genomics 7:308, 2006. PMID: 17147806 36 Pandey, S.C., Zhang, H.; Roy, A.; and Xu, T. ...

  19. Fungal colonization and invasive fungal infections following allogeneic BMT using metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole or ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as intestinal decontamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Trenschel; R Peceny; V Runde; A Elmaagacli; H Dermoumi; EHeintschel von Heinegg; K-D Müller; UW Schaefer; DW Beelen

    2000-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are increasingly diagnosed in patients undergoing allogeneic BMT. We have previously shown that the addition of metronidazole to ciprofloxacin for gastrointestinal bacterial decontamination significantly reduces the incidence of grades II–IV aGVHD by reduction of the anaerobic intestinal bacterial flora. Here, we found that the combined use of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis increased intestinal

  20. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  1. Differential Alteration in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELKE CARIO; DANIEL K. PODOLSKY

    2000-01-01

    Initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory intestinal responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may result from an exaggerated host defense reaction of the intestinal epithelium to endogenous lumenal bacterial flora. Intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express several functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which appear to be key regulators of the innate response system. The aim of this study was to characterize

  2. Intestinal mucosal alterations in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis: changes in glycosylation and luminal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Thomas, Simmy; Basivireddy, Jayasree; Kang, Gagandeep; Ramachandran, Anup; Pulimood, Anna B; Balasubramanian, K A

    2006-04-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a major cause of mortality after liver cirrhosis. Altered permeability of the mucosa and deficiencies in host immune defenses through bacterial translocation from the intestine due to intestinal bacterial overgrowth have been implicated in the development of this complication. Molecular mechanisms underlying the process are not well known. In order to understand mechanisms involved in translocation of bacteria, this study explored the role of oxidative stress in mediating changes in intestinal mucosal glycosylation and luminal bacterial content during cirrhosis. CCl4-induced cirrhosis in rats led to prolonged oxidative stress in the intestine, accompanied by increased sugar content of both intestinal brush border and surfactant layers. This was accompanied by changes in bacterial flora in the gut, which showed increased hydrophobicity and adherence to the mucosa. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase using sodium tungstate or antioxidant supplementation using vitamin E reversed the oxidative stress, changes in brush border membrane sugar content, and bacterial adherence. In conclusion, oxidative stress in the intestine during cirrhosis alters mucosal glycosylation, accompanied by an increased hydrophobicity of luminal bacteria, enabling increased bacterial adherence onto epithelial cells. This might facilitate translocation across the mucosa, resulting in complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. PMID:16557555

  3. Focus On: Alcohol and the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Patricia E.; Happel, Kyle I.; Zhang, Ping; Kolls, Jay K.; Nelson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse suppresses multiple arms of the immune response, leading to an increased risk of infections. The course and resolution of both bacterial and viral infections is severely impaired in alcohol-abusing patients, resulting in greater patient morbidity and mortality. Multiple mechanisms have been identified underlying the immunosuppressive effects of alcohol. These mechanisms involve structural host defense mechanisms in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract as well as all of the principal components of the innate and adaptive immune systems, which are compromised both through alcohol’s direct effects and through alcohol-related dysregulation of other components. Analyses of alcohol’s diverse effects on various components of the immune system provide insight into the factors that lead to a greater risk of infection in the alcohol-abusing population. Some of these mechanisms are directly related to the pathology found in people with infections such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and pneumonia who continue to use and abuse alcohol. PMID:23579940

  4. Alcohol and malnutrition in the pathogenesis of liver disease..

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1975-09-01

    Malnutrition is common among alcoholics because alcohol displaces protein-, vitamin-, and mineral-containing foods in the diet, and chronic alcohol consumption results in maldigestion and malabsorption of essential nutrients. In addition, alcohol exerts direct toxic effects on both the liver and gut, resulting in structural alterations in the intestine and the development of fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Liver injury is preceded by an adaptive phase characterized by accelerated metabolism of drugs (including ethanol), and hyperlipemia, secondary to hypertrophy and hyperactivity of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Side effects include enhanced hepatotoxicity of CCI4 and possibly energy wastage. Alcoholics should not be led to beleive that correction or prevention of nutritional deficiency will prevent liver damage in the face of continued alcohol abuse. PMID:1174154

  5. Alcohol presents a pressing issue in today's society. It affects the mind and body in a number of ways, making it an ideal object for study to understand the process. This study focuses on how alcohol moves

    E-print Network

    Olufsen, Mette Sofie

    Abstract Alcohol presents a pressing issue in today's society. It affects the mind and body alcohol moves through the body, from ingestion through final metabolism. A three compartment model was developed to show the alcohol being ingested into the stomach, then being transferred to the small intestine

  6. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harrison M. Trice

    1958-01-01

    The fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous has successfully restored some 200,000 compulsive alcoholics to sobriety. Thousands more have tried to affiliate with A.A. but have failed. The movement, however, has spread through out the world and is still growing. Changes in the self-conception of members constitute the main therapeutic effect. Possession of an ability to adjust to the casual, informal group

  7. Abnormal intestinal permeability and microbiota in patients with autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rui; Zhou, Lu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive, and immunologically mediated inflammatory liver disorder. The etiology of AIH still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation, and intestinal microbiome in patients with AIH and to evaluate the correlations of those changes with the stages of the disease. Methods: 24 patients with autoimmune hepatitis and 8 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. We assessed (1) the integrity of tight junctions within the gut by immunohistochemical analysis of zona occludens-1 and occludin expression in duodenal biopsy specimens; (2) changes in the enteric microbiome by 16S rDNA quantitative PCR; and (3) the presence of bacterial translocation by the level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using ELISA. Results: Increased intestinal permeability, derangement of the microbiome and bacterial translocation occurred in AIH, which correlated with the severity of the disease. Conclusions: Autoimmune hepatitis is associated with leaky gut and intestinal microbiome dysbiosis. The impaired intestinal barrier may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIH.

  8. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumaresan Sandrasegaran; Chandana Lall; Raja Ramaswamy; Ryan Redelman; Stephan Hoff; Arumugam Rajesh; Rodrigo Vianna

    Intestinal transplantation is carried out in only a handful of centers in the world. However, patients with such transplantation\\u000a may be seen at almost any institution and radiologists should be familiar with the expected normal anatomy and complications\\u000a of intestinal transplantation and its variants. In this paper, we discuss the anatomy and complications following intestinal\\u000a and multivisceral transplantations. We review

  9. Mucosal Biofilm Communities in the Human Intestinal Tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Macfarlane; Bahram Bahrami; George T. Macfarlane

    2011-01-01

    Complex and highly variable site-dependent bacterial ecosystems exist throughout the length of the human gastrointestinal tract. Until relatively recently, the majority of our information on intestinal microbiotas has come from studies on feces, or from aspirates taken from the upper gut. However, there is evidence showing that mucosal bacteria growing in biofilms on surfaces lining the gut differ from luminal

  10. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  11. MICROBIAL SUCCESSION AND INTESTINAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The succession of gastrointestinal flora in the developing rat was studied, concomitant with studies of intestinal enzyme activity. Aerobes and anaerobes were identified as members of 4 major bacterial groups, i.e., Lactobacilli spp., Gram positive enterococci, Gram negative rods...

  12. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism or alcohol dependence Falls, drownings, and other accidents ... you have a history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism. If alcoholism runs in your family, you may ...

  13. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Methods Cftrtm1UNC (CF) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 ?g/kg-day) was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Results Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone did not affect WT crypt width but, unexpectedly, increased CF crypt width 22% (P = 0.001). Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008). Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005). Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P < 0.001) and CF mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone enhanced small intestinal transit in WT mice (P = 0.024) but not in CF mice (P = 0.377). Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. Conclusions These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype, especially on bacterial overgrowth and the innate immune response. The unexpected observation of increased mucus accumulation in the crypts of lubiprostone-treated CF mice suggests the possibility that lubiprostone increases mucus secretion. PMID:20843337

  14. Impaired mucosal barrier function in the small intestine of the cystic fibrosis mouse

    PubMed Central

    De Lisle, Robert C.; Mueller, Racquel; Boyd, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The intestinal mucosal barrier is important to protect the body from the large numbers of microbes that inhabit the intestines and the molecules they release. Intestinal barrier function is impaired in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), including reduced activity of the lipopolysaccharide detoxifying enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and increased permeability. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of using the CF mouse to investigate intestinal barrier function, and whether interventions that are beneficial for the CF mouse intestinal phenotype (antibiotics or laxative) would improve barrier function. Also tested were the effects of exogenous IAP administration. Methods The Cftrtm1UNC mouse was used. IAP expression (encoded by the murine Akp3 gene) was measured by qRT-PCR and enzyme activity. Intestinal permeability was assessed by measuring rhodamine dextran plasma levels following gavage. Results CF mice had 40% Akp3 mRNA expression and 30% IAP enzyme activity, as compared to wild type mice. Oral antibiotics and laxative treatments normalized Akp3 expression and IAP enzyme activity in the CF intestine. CF mice had a 5-fold greater transfer of rhodamine dextran from gut lumen to blood. Antibiotic and laxative treatments reduced intestinal permeability in CF mice. Administration of exogenous purified IAP to CF mice reduced intestinal permeability to WT levels and also reduced small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by more than 80%. Conclusions The CF mouse intestine has impaired mucosal barrier function, similar to human CF. Interventions that improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype (antibiotics and laxative) also increased IAP activity and decreased intestinal permeability in CF mice. Exogenous IAP improved permeability and strongly reduced bacterial overgrowth in CF mice, suggesting this may be a useful therapy for CF. PMID:21970994

  15. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 563-586. Related Content STDs & Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  16. [Alcohol--woman, pregnancy and a newborn child].

    PubMed

    Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemi?ska, Anita; Stankiewicz, Martyna; Ka?mierczak, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, alcohol is the third most dangerous factor following smoking of tobacco and hypertension of risks impacting health of the population. 50 % of men and 10 % of women suffer from diseases caused by alcohol drinking. Chronic consumption of alcohol damages the nervous system, causes adverse changes in the circulatory system and intestine, increases the risk of cancers. Comparing the impact of alcohol on the health of women and men, in case of women, even similar levels of consumption cause stronger action. Alcohol is the cause of endocrine diseases and among others- reduces fertility. It is the risk factor of premature deliveries, abortions, and placenta- associated pathologies. Disorders of children with prenatal exposure to alcohol are described as fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders and alcohol related birth defects. It is recommended to impose a total ban on alcohol consumption by pregnant women. Moreover one should emphasize that the minimum safe dose of alcohol for the foetus cannot be specified. In order to resolve alcohol drinking problems a cooperation of representatives of many professions such as: doctors, psychologists, educators and employees of care facilities is necessary. It is also obligatory to obtain support and assistance from the nearest surroundings of the patient. PMID:23421101

  17. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol during pregnancy Drinking alcohol when you're pregnant can be ... preterm birth and stillbirth . How does alcohol during pregnancy harm your baby? When you drink alcohol during ...

  18. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 NIH . . . ... Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 Selected ...

  19. Is intestinal inflammation linking dysbiosis to gut barrier dysfunction during liver disease?

    PubMed

    Brandl, Katharina; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the intestinal microbiota composition contribute to the pathogenesis of many disorders including gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Recent studies have broadened our understanding of the "gut-liver" axis. Dietary changes, other environmental and genetic factors can lead to alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis can further disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier leading to pathological bacterial translocation and the initiation of an inflammatory response in the liver. In this article, the authors dissect the different steps involved in disease pathogenesis to further refine approaches for the medical management of liver diseases. The authors will specifically discuss the role of dysbiosis in inducing intestinal inflammation and increasing intestinal permeability. PMID:26088524

  20. Innate Immunity in the Small Intestine of the Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Steven J.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract comprises the largest surface area of the human body. This area is constantly exposed to myriad antigens as well as the large number of bacteria that coexist in the intestinal lumen. To protect against this exposure and help distinguish “self ” from “foreign,” the intestinal tract has evolved a sophisticated barrier defense system that includes both innate and adaptive immune systems. However, infants who are born preterm do not have the benefit of an adequate immune response and, therefore, are more susceptible to bacterial injury, inflammation, and intestinal diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. In this review, we discuss the components of innate immunity that help to protect the small intestine as well as current knowledge about the role of these components in the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:22639551

  1. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  2. Dietary squid ink polysaccharides ameliorated the intestinal microflora dysfunction in mice undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qingjuan; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Shangyun; Wu, Juan; Wang, Jianghua; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Shiguo; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Gastrointestinal mucositis and infection by chemotherapy treatment are associated with alteration of intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation due to the potential damage induced by anti-cancer drugs on the intestinal barrier and microbiota homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of dietary polysaccharides on chemotherapy induced intestinal microflora dysfunction. In the current contribution, with a mouse model intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) of cyclophosphamide (Cy) for 2 days, we revealed that polysaccharides from the ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) altered the intestinal microflora composition. OBP retarded the excessive growth of intestinal bacteria induced by cyclophosphamide, based on 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) quantification. The clone libraries of intestinal bacteria 16S rDNA were used to decipher the difference in bacterial community structures in different groups of mice. Followed by RFLP evaluation and OTU abundance analysis, they imply that OBP changed the intestinal microflora composition, in which the quantity of probiotic Bifidobacterium got up-regulated but Bacteroidetes decreased in mice undergoing chemotherapy. Our results may have important implications for OBP as a functional food component or nutrient against chemotherapy induced intestinal injury and potential pathogenic intestinal disorders involving inflammation and infection. PMID:25131333

  3. Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

  4. Intestinal glucose metabolism revisited.

    PubMed

    Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

    2014-09-01

    It is long known that the gut can contribute to the control of glucose homeostasis via its high glucose utilization capacity. Recently, a novel function in intestinal glucose metabolism (gluconeogenesis) was described. The intestine notably contributes to about 20-25% of total endogenous glucose production during fasting. More importantly, intestinal gluconeogenesis is capable of regulating energy homeostasis through a communication with the brain. The periportal neural system senses glucose (produced by intestinal gluconeogenesis) in the portal vein walls, which sends a signal to the brain to modulate hunger sensations and whole body glucose homeostasis. Relating to the mechanism of glucose sensing, the role of the glucose receptor SGLT3 has been strongly suggested. Moreover, dietary proteins mobilize intestinal gluconeogenesis as a mandatory link between their detection in the portal vein and their effect of satiety. In the same manner, dietary soluble fibers exert their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects via the induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis. FFAR3 is a key neural receptor involved in the specific sensing of propionate to activate a gut-brain reflex arc triggering the induction of the gut gluconeogenic function. Lastly, intestinal gluconeogenesis might also be involved in the rapid metabolic improvements induced by gastric bypass surgeries of obesity. PMID:24969963

  5. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  6. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Publishing. 2013. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder: a comparison between DSM-IV ...

  7. Effect of dietary administration of probiotics on growth and intestine functionality of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Saenz de Rodriganez; P. Diaz-Rosales; M. Chabrillon; H. Smidt; S. Arijo; J. M. Leon-Rubio; F. J. Alarcon; M. C. Balebona; M. A. Morinigo; J. B. Cara; F. J. Moyano

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the dietary administration of two bacterial probiotic strains (Ppd11 and Pdp13) from the Alteromonadaceae family for 60 days, were assessed by measuring growth and feed efficiency, activities of leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase and structural changes in the intestine of juvenile Senegalese sole. In addition, the profile of intestinal microbiota was studied by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis.

  8. Intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction develops postnatally in cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    De Lisle, Robert C.; Meldi, Lauren; Mueller, Racquel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Intestinal dysmotility is one of the effects of cystic fibrosis (CF) but when and how this develops is not well understood. The goal of this study was to use the Cftr knockout mouse to determine when in development circular smooth muscle of the small intestine becomes dysfunctional. Methods Wild type (WT) and CF mice were used at postnatal day 5 (P5) through adult. Pieces of small intestine were used to measure contractile activity of the circular muscle. Bacterial overgrowth was measured by quantitative PCR of the bacterial 16S gene. Intestinal gene expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its metabolites were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results CF circular muscle response to cholinergic stimulation was similar to WT at P5, became somewhat impaired at P7, and was severely impaired by P14. In the CF intestine, bacterial overgrowth occurred by P4 and was maintained into adulthood. Eicosanoid metabolic gene expression in the CF intestine did not differ from WT shortly after birth. The phospholipase A2 genes, Pla2g4c and Pla2g5 exhibited increased expression in CF mice at P24. Prostaglandin degradative genes, Hpgd and Ptgr1, showed lower expression in CF as compared to WT at P16 and P24, respectively. PGE2 levels were significantly greater in CF mice at most ages from P7 through adulthood. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrate that lack of CFTR itself does not cause smooth muscle dysfunction, as the circular muscle from P5 CF mice had normal activity and dysfunction developed between P7-P14. PMID:22699839

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePLUS

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide test ... or drink anything for 4 hours before the test. ... This test is used to confirm the presence of a VIPoma , a tumor that releases VIP. VIPoma's are extremely ...

  10. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contents of the intestines cannot pass through and exit the body. A complete obstruction is a surgical ... your bowel will be repaired or removed. This procedure is called bowel resection . If a section is ...

  11. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD) are generally classified as either local ... is chronic (of long duration) LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS PERFORATION (RUPTURE) OF THE BOWEL Intestinal perforation occurs ...

  12. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of mouse intestinal microbiota after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Jinu; Park, Soo-Je

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a highly complex microbial community that comprises hundreds of different types of bacterial cells. The gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in the function of the host intestine. Most cancer patients undergoing pelvic irradiation experience side effects such as diarrhea; however, little is currently known about the effects of irradiation on the microorganisms colonizing the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on the compositions of the large and small intestinal microbiotas. The gut microbiotas in control mice and mice receiving irradiation treatment were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Irradiation treatment induced significant alterations in the bacterial compositions of the large and small intestines at the genus level. Unexpectedly, irradiation treatment increased the number of operational taxonomic units in the small intestine but not the large intestine. In particular, irradiation treatment increased the level of the genera Alistipes in the large intestine and increased the level of the genus Corynebacterium in the small intestine. By contrast, compared with that in the corresponding control group, the level of the genera Prevotella was lower in the irradiated large intestine, and the level of the genera Alistipes was lower in the irradiated small intestine. Overall, the data presented here reveal the potential microbiological effects of pelvic irradiation on the gastrointestinal tracts of cancer patients. PMID:25600706

  13. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  14. Bacterial lipases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onno Misset; Margreet van Heuvel; Charles Colson; Bauke W. Dijkstra; Stéphane Ransac; Karl-Erich Jaeger

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to

  15. [Bacterial Keratitis].

    PubMed

    Rachwalik, D; Pleyer, U

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide inflammatory corneal diseases are considered to be one of the leading causes of monocular blindness. Bacterial infectious are still predominant and are found in 80?% of patients with ulcerative keratitis. In recent years, both changes in risk conditions and changes in the bacterial spectrum can be observed. Contact lenses and refractive surgery are factors that have increased in importance according to some studies. Microorganisms especially Pseudomonas spp. and atypical mycobacteria are detectable in these patients. In contrast, the bacterial keratitis is observed less frequently after trauma. The broad, often unsighted use of highly effective antimicrobial agents, especially of fluoroquinolones is assumed to be a factor in the transformation of the microbial spectrum. Due to the frequent course of keratitis and a targeted, effective therapy to initiate a pathogen is desirable. The possibilities of diagnostics have been expanded in recent years by molecular biological techniques, but cannot replace established methods. The aim of this paper is to provide a positioning on current aspects of bacterial keratitis. PMID:26084962

  16. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  17. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  18. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine?s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  19. Converging actions of alcohol on liver and brain immune signaling.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Lippai, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system. Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and alters neurotransmission. Alcohol use activates microglia and astrocyte, contributing to neurodegeneration and impaired regeneration. Alcohol-induced cell injury in the brain results in release of damage-associated molecular patterns, such as high mobility group box 1, that trigger inflammatory changes through activation of pattern recognition receptors. In addition, alcohol consumption increases intestinal permeability and results in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular pattern such as endotoxin in the systemic circulation that triggers PRRs and inflammation. The Toll-like receptor-4 pathway that activates nuclear factor-?B and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1-beta, and chemokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, has been suggested to contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Alcohol-induced IL-1? secretion also requires Nod-like receptor-mediated inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and, consistent with this, disruption of IL-1/IL-1-receptor signaling prevents alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Delicate regulators of inflammatory gene expressions are micro-RNAs (miRs) that have recently been identified in alcohol-related neuroinflammation. Alcohol induces miR155, a regulator of inflammation in the brain, and deficiency in miR-155 in mice was protective from neuroinflammatory changes. These observations suggest that manipulation of miR pathways and cytokine induction may reduce alcohol-induced proinflammatory processes. PMID:25175869

  20. Effects of dietary antibiotics on intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ohya, T; Sato, S

    1983-01-01

    Changes were examined in the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens fed a diet containing antibiotics to obtain fundamental information on the mechanisms of beneficial effect of the antibiotics upon livestock production. Three antibiotics (colistin, bacitracin, and enramycin) were employed as feed additives. Experiments were conducted with broiler chickens in two ways. In one way dietary antibiotics were fed continually at levels approved for use as feed additives for a long term. In the other they were fed the same antibiotics for a short term. Significant changes in microflora were observed mainly in such bacterial groups as aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus. In the long term administration, three possible modes of variance in the bacterial flora were postulated: Changes directly related to the antibacterial spectrum of antibiotics. Antagonistic changes related to an ecological balance in the bacterial flora. Changes in quantitative balance of bacteria constituting each bacterial group. The change in the intestinal microflora during administration of the antibiotic diet was expressed as a complex form of these transition modes. In the short term administration, it was demonstrated that the effect of the antibiotic diet lingered even 7 days after administration. This suggests that antibiotics used as feed additives may possibly affect the stability of the intestinal microflora. PMID:6680771

  1. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  2. Clonidine and Alcohol Withdrawl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Cushman Jr

    1988-01-01

    Clonidine attenuates opiate withdrawl syndrome, via reduction in catecholamine activity in the brain, most probably at the locus ceruleus. Clonidine and locus ceruleus lesions, in animals with alcohol dependency as with the opiates, modify alcohol withdrawl. Both alcohol loading and withdrawl from steady alcohol use alter catecholamines in man and animals. Clonidine's potential to treat alcoholics in withdrawl is reviewed.

  3. Estimating Alcohol Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Chick; Esko Kemppainen

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is one of the two main aetiologies of acute pancreatitis. Detection of excessive alcohol consumption is problematic, illustrated by the fact that self-reports of alcohol consumption account for only approximately 50% of the reported sales of alcohol. To improve the reliability, structured questionnaires and various biochemical markers have been developed to estimate alcohol consumption objectively. Further, the pattern

  4. Kinetic study of acamprosate absorption in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Más-Serrano, P; Granero, L; Martín-Algarra, R V; Guerri, C; Polache, A

    2000-01-01

    Acamprosate (calcium bis acetyl-homotaurine), a homotaurine derivative, a structural analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and an upper homologue of taurine, is a relatively new drug used to prevent relapse in weaned alcoholics. When administered orally as enteric-coated tablets at relatively high doses, this drug has a bioavailability of about 11%; however, the intestinal absorption mechanism has not been studied in depth. The present study was therefore planned to characterize the intestinal transport of acamprosate in the rat and the effect of chronic alcohol treatment on this process, quantifying its kinetic parameters and investigating possible inhibitors. Using an in vitro technique, acamprosate absorption was measured in the rat intestine from three different groups: alcohol group [fed a liquid diet containing 5% (w/v) ethanol for 4 weeks], isocaloric pair-fed control, and a solid diet group. Intestinal acamprosate absorption was found to occur mainly by passive diffusion with a diffusive permeability of 0.213+/-0.004 cm/h in control pair-fed animals, 0.206+/-0.001 cm/h in animals receiving chronic alcohol treatment, and 0.193+/-0.001 cm/h in the solid diet group. Inhibition studies showed that at a 10(-3) M acamprosate concentration, some compounds such as GABA, taurine, proline, and glycine at 40 mM each did not affect acamprosate transport. Nevertheless, when a lower concentration of the drug (10(-4) M) was assayed, a significant reduction of acamprosate transport in the presence of taurine or GABA 40 mM was found. These results suggest that acamprosate in the rat jejunum, could be transported, in part, by a carrier system. Further experiments using different concentrations of taurine (10, 20, and 80 mM) showed that the maximum inhibition (32%) is achieved at 20 mM of taurine. These latter results suggest that acamprosate and taurine share, at least, an intestinal carrier system in rat jejunum. From the above results, it can be concluded that there are probably two pathways involved in the intestinal absorption of acamprosate: passive diffusion and mediated transport, with the former being predominant. Moreover, neither chronic ethanol intake nor the type of diet seems to alter the intestinal absorption of the drug. PMID:10905995

  5. Selective proliferation of intestinal Barnesiella under fucosyllactose supplementation in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gisela A; Chassard, Christophe; Hennet, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The oligosaccharides 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose are major constituents of human breast milk but are not found in mouse milk. Milk oligosaccharides have a prebiotic action, thus affecting the colonisation of the infant intestine by microbiota. To determine the specific effect of fucosyllactose exposure on intestinal microbiota in mice, in the present study, we orally supplemented newborn mice with pure 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose. Exposure to 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose increased the levels of bacteria of the Porphyromonadaceae family in the intestinal gut, more precisely members of the genus Barnesiella as analysed by 16S pyrosequencing. The ability of Barnesiella to utilise fucosyllactose as energy source was confirmed in bacterial cultures. Whereas B. intestinihominis and B. viscericola did not grow on fucose alone, they proliferated in the presence of 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose following the secretion of linkage-specific fucosidase enzymes that liberated lactose. The change in the composition of intestinal microbiota mediated by fucosyllactose supplementation affected the susceptibility of mice to dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis, as indicated by increased resistance of mice subjected to 2-fucosyllactose supplementation for 6 weeks. The present study underlines the ability of specific milk oligosaccharides to change the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby to shape an intestinal milieu resilient to inflammatory diseases. PMID:24411010

  6. Ethanol-Induced Mast Cell-Mediated Inflammation Leads to Increased Susceptibility of Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the APC ?468 Min Mouse Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Andre L.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Khan, Mohammad Wasim; Pemberton, Alan; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic and frequent ethanol (EtOH) intake has been associated with an increased incidence of several types of cancers including breast, mouth, throat, esophageal, stomach and colorectal (CRC). The underlying mechanism of this deleterious carcinogenic effect of alcohol has not been clearly established but inflammation may be one unifying feature of these cancers. We have recently shown that intestinal mast cells play a central role in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that mast cell-mediated inflammation is one underlying mechanism by which chronic alcohol promotes intestinal tumorigenesis. Methods APC ?468 mice were fed either an alcohol containing Nanji liquid diet or isocaloric dextrose containing Nanji diet for 10 weeks and then sacrificed to collect small and large intestine samples. Assessments of tumor number and size as well as mast cell number and mast cell activity and histology score for invasion were compared between Control (dextrose fed) and Alcohol fed APC?468 mice. The effect of alcohol on mast cell mediated tumor migration was also assessed using an in vitro migration assay. Results Alcohol feeding increased both polyp number and size within both the small and large intestines of APC?468 mice. Only alcohol fed mice showed evidence of tumor invasion. Chronic alcohol feeding also resulted in an increased mast cell number and activity in tumor stroma and invading borders. In vitro migration assay showed that alcohol significantly increases mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Conclusions Our data show that chronic alcohol intake promotes: (1) intestinal tumorigenesis and tumor invasion in genetically susceptible mice; (2) increases in polyp associated mast cells; (3) mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Both our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that mast cell mediated inflammation could be one mechanism by which alcohol promotes carcinogenesis. PMID:23320800

  7. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  8. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  9. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol: You Can Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside ... and Fractures Also of Interest Alcohol Use and Older Adults - NIHSeniorHealth PDF (284.1 KB) Order Share this: ? ...

  10. Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.

    PubMed

    Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

    1981-12-01

    The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

  11. Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

    1981-01-01

    The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CLOSTRIDIAL SPECIFIC DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSMENT OF SWINE INTESTINAL, FECAL AND MANURE SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has been accepted as a method to assess bacterial community profiles in environmental samples. Recently, it has been adapted to examine a specific bacterial group. In swine intestinal, fecal and manure samples, members of clostridial groups predominat...

  13. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Problems Science Database (ETOH) is "the most comprehensive online bibliographic database containing over 100,000 records on alcohol abuse and alcoholism." This database (updated monthly) contains scientific literature from the late 1960s to the present, as well as a recently added thesaurus of alcohol and other drug terms. The Web site offers four search options and a useful Quick Search Guide for help with each one.

  14. Protection by aspirin of indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats: mediation by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Hase, S; Mizoguchi, H; Komoike, Y; Tanaka, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) except aspirin (ASA) produce intestinal damage in rats. In the present study, we re-examined the intestinal toxic effect of ASA in rats, in comparison with various NSAIDs, and investigated why ASA does not cause damage in the small intestine, in relation to its metabolite salicylic acid (SA). Various NSAIDs (indomethacin; 10 mg/kg; flurbiprofen; 20 mg/kg; naproxen; 40 mg/kg; dicrofenac; 40 mg/kg; ASA; 20-200 mg/kg) were administered s.c., and the small intestinal mucosa was examined macroscopically 24 h later. All NSAIDs tested, except ASA, caused hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, with a decrease of mucosal PGE(2) contents. ASA did not provoke any damage, despite inhibiting (prostaglandin) PG production, and prevented the occurrence of intestinal lesions induced by indomethacin, in a dose-related manner. This protective action of ASA was mimicked by the equimolar doses of SA (17.8-178 mg/kg). Indomethacin caused intestinal hypermotility, in preceding to the occurrence of lesion, and this event was followed by increases of enterobacterial translocation in the mucosa. Both ASA and SA prevented both the intestinal hypermotility and the bacterial translocation seen after indomethacin treatment. In addition, the protective effect of SA was not significantly influenced by either the adenosine deaminase or the adenosine receptor antagonists. Following administration of ASA, the blood SA levels reached a peak within 30 min and remained elevated for more than 7 h. These results suggest that SA has a cytoprotective action against indomethacin-induced small intestinal lesions, and this action may be associated with inhibition of the intestinal hypermotility and the bacterial translocation, but not mediated by endogenous adenosine. Failure of ASA to induce intestinal damage may be explained, at least partly, by a protective action of SA, the metabolite of ASA. PMID:11595418

  15. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  16. Assistant Director -Drugs, Alcohol, &

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Assistant Director - Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs iTEAM Director of Specialty Counseling Services Learning Assistance Services Assistant Director - Graduate Training Assistant Director of Alcohol

  17. Cystic fibrosis mouse model-dependent intestinal structure and gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Bazett, Mark; Honeyman, Lisa; Stefanov, Anguel N; Pope, Christopher E; Hoffman, Lucas R; Haston, Christina K

    2015-06-01

    Mice with a null mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene show intestinal structure alterations and bacterial overgrowth. To determine whether these changes are model-dependent and whether the intestinal microbiome is altered in cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse models, we characterized the ileal tissue and intestinal microbiome of mice with the clinically common ?F508 Cftr mutation (FVB/N Cftr (tm1Eur)) and with Cftr null mutations (BALB/c Cftr (tm1UNC) and C57BL/6 Cftr (tm1UNC)). Intestinal disease in 12-week-old CF mice, relative to wild-type strain controls, was measured histologically. The microbiome was characterized by pyrosequencing of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and intestinal load was measured by RT-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. The CF-associated increases in ileal crypt to villus axis distention, goblet cell hyperplasia, and muscularis externa thickness were more severe in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftr (tm1UNC) mice than in the FVB/N Cftr (tm1Eur) mice. Intestinal bacterial load was significantly increased in all CF models, compared to levels in controls, and positively correlated with circular muscle thickness in CF, but not wild-type, mice. Microbiome profiling identified Bifidobacterium and groups of Lactobacillus to be of altered abundance in the CF mice but overall bacterial frequencies were not common to the three CF strains and were not correlative of major histological changes. In conclusion, intestinal structure alterations, bacterial overgrowth, and dysbiosis were each more severe in BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftr (tm1UNC) mice than in the FVB/N Cftr (tm1Eur) mice. The intestinal microbiome differed among the three CF mouse models. PMID:25721416

  18. The establishment of an intestinal microflora in developing goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) of culture ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sugita; M. Tsunohara; T. Ohkoshi; Y. Deguchi

    1988-01-01

    The bacterial flora in the intestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) was investigated at different stages of fish development. The floras of the diets and the water and sediment of a culture pond were also analyzed. The total counts in the intestine ranged from 2.2 × 106?2.1 × 108 cells g?1 wet weight.Aeromonas hydrophila, A. punctata, Pseudomonas, Bacteroidaceae andClostridium species

  19. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine NElectrolyte and mineral deficiencies due ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

  20. Intestinal SGLT1-mediated absorption and metabolism of benzyl beta-glucoside contained in Prunus mume: carrier-mediated transport increases intestinal availability.

    PubMed

    Mizuma, Takashi; Nakamura, Maya; Ina, Hiroji; Miyazaki, Toshio; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2005-03-11

    The intestinal absorption of benzyl beta-glucoside (BNZ beta glc) contained in the fruit of Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC. (Rosaceae), which is traditionally used as a medicinal food in Japan, was studied in rat intestines. BNZ beta glc was absorbed from the mucosal to serosal sides. Its metabolite, benzyl alcohol (BAL), was also detected on both the mucosal and serosal sides. In the presence of phloridzin (Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) inhibitor) or in the absence of Na+ (driving force), BNZ beta glc absorption was significantly decreased. Transport clearance of BNZ beta glc across the brush border membrane decreased as its concentration increased. These results indicate that BNZ beta glc is transported by SGLT1. Metabolic clearance of BNZ beta glc also decreased as its concentration increased. The amount ratio of BNZ beta glc to BAL on the serosal side increased with the increase of BNZ beta glc concentration. The intestinal availability of BNZ beta glc was lower in the absence of Na+ than in the presence of Na+, indicating that the SGLT1-mediated transport of BNZ beta glc increases intestinal availability by decreasing the intestinal extraction ratio. This neutraceutical study concluded that intestinal carrier-mediated transport across the brush border membrane improves the intestinal availability of nutritionally, pharmacologically or physiologically active compounds that undergo intestinal metabolism (first-pass effect). PMID:15716003

  1. Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review.

    PubMed

    Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?

    2015-04-01

    The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the metabolism of chemical compounds found within food. Bacterial metabolites are different from those that can be generated by human enzymes because bacterial processes occur under anaerobic conditions and are based mainly on reactions of reduction and/or hydrolysis. In most cases, bacterial metabolism reduces the activity of dietary compounds; however, sometimes a specific product of bacterial transformation exhibits enhanced properties. Studies on the metabolism of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota are crucial for understanding the role of these compounds and their impact on our health. This review article presents possible pathways of polyphenol metabolism by intestinal bacteria and describes the diet-derived bioactive metabolites produced by gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on polyphenols and their potential impact on human health. Because the etiology of many diseases is largely correlated with the intestinal microbiome, a balance between the host immune system and the commensal gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining health. Diet-related and age-related changes in the human intestinal microbiome and their consequences are summarized in the paper. PMID:25672526

  2. Myogenesis during holothurian intestinal regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Murray; José E. García-Arrarás

    2004-01-01

    Echinoderms are well known as being able to regenerate body parts and thus provide excellent models for studying regenerative processes in adult organisms. We are interested in intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima, and focus here on the regeneration of intestinal muscle components. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to describe the formation of the intestinal muscle layers. Myoblasts

  3. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella Pneumoniae Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Sammeta V.; Painter, Richard G.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Wang, Guoshun

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 hours did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-?, GM-CSF, and TNF-?. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-?. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists. PMID:25485141

  4. Mycobacterium avium Invades the Intestinal Mucosa Primarily by Interacting with Enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sangari, Felix J.; Goodman, Joseph; Petrofsky, Mary; Kolonoski, Peter; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M. avium into an intestinal loop in mice, (ii) quantitative comparison of the bacterial load in Peyer's patch areas of the terminal ileum versus areas that do not contain Peyer's patches, and (iii) investigation of the ability of M. avium to cause disseminated infection following oral administration using B-cell-deficient mice, lacking Peyer's patches, in comparison with C57BL/6 black mice. By all approaches, M. avium was found to invade the intestinal mucosa by interacting primarily with enterocytes and not with M cells. PMID:11179321

  5. Mycobacterium avium invades the intestinal mucosa primarily by interacting with enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Sangari, F J; Goodman, J; Petrofsky, M; Kolonoski, P; Bermudez, L E

    2001-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M. avium into an intestinal loop in mice, (ii) quantitative comparison of the bacterial load in Peyer's patch areas of the terminal ileum versus areas that do not contain Peyer's patches, and (iii) investigation of the ability of M. avium to cause disseminated infection following oral administration using B-cell-deficient mice, lacking Peyer's patches, in comparison with C57BL/6 black mice. By all approaches, M. avium was found to invade the intestinal mucosa by interacting primarily with enterocytes and not with M cells. PMID:11179321

  6. Intestinal permeability: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingvar Bjarnason; Andrew Macpherson; Daniel Hollander

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans has a 20-year history. Because the tests are increasingly used in clinical practice and research and because there is much controversy, we reviewed the literature and outlined the potential and possible shortcomings of these procedures. Data was obtained from personal files and from a systemic search through MEDLINE and EMBASE. The principle

  7. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  8. Alcohol’s Effects on Sexual Perception*

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; ZAWACKI, TINA; McAUSLAN, PAM

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examines hypotheses about alcohol’s effects on sexual judgments based on both alcohol and misperception theories. It was hypothesized that gender, alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancy set would influence perceptions of sexuality. Method Participants were unacquainted women and men (88 dyads) who interacted for 15 minutes within the context of the balanced placebo design. After the conversation ended, participants answered questions about their behavior and their partners’ behavior. Conversations were videotaped and coded by trained raters. Results Men perceived their female partner and themselves as behaving more sexually than women perceived their male partner and themselves. When alcohol was consumed, both women and men were perceived as behaving more sexually and in a more disinhibited manner than when alcohol was not consumed. Ratings made by members of white and black dyads were largely comparable. Trained observers coded participants’ use of active attention and dating availability cues. Both types of cues interacted with alcohol consumption such that intoxicated participants exaggerated the meaning of strong (dating availability) cues and ignored the meaning of ambiguous (active attention) cues when making sexual judgments. Conclusions Supporting past research on gender differences in perceptions of sexuality, men were more sexually attracted to their opposite-sex partner than women were. Both women’s and men’s sexual judgments were influenced by alcohol consumption but not by alcohol expectancy set. Intoxicated participants’ responses to their partners’ behavioral cues supported cognitive impairment models of alcohol’s effects. The implications of these findings for theories about alcohol’s effects on sexuality and for prevention programming are discussed. PMID:11022808

  9. Genomics approach to the analysis of bacterial communities dynamics in Hirschsprung’s disease-associated enterocolitis: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. De Filippo; A. Pini-Prato; G. Mattioli; S. Avanzini; G. Rapuzzi; D. Cavalieri; M. Di Paola; I. Stefanini; I. Ceccherini; D. Mavilio; P. Lionetti; V. Jasonni

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  The most invalidating and life-threatening complication in Hirschsprung’s disease patients (HSCR) is Hirschsprung’s disease-associated\\u000a enterocolitis (HAEC). The mechanisms underlying enterocolitis have not been identified. The limited knowledge of the role\\u000a of intestinal microflora is in part due to the complexity of the intestinal microbiome and to the limitation of cultivation-based\\u000a technologies, given that less than 25% of the intestinal bacterial

  10. Intestinal Secretion Induced by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Krejs, Guenter J.; Barkley, Ronald M.; Read, Nicholas W.; Fordtran, John S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on intestinal water and electrolyte transport and transmucosal potential difference was investigated in the dog jejunum in vivo and compared to secretion induced by cholera toxin. Isolated jejunal loops were perfused with a plasma-like electrolyte solution. VIP (0.08 ?g/kg per min) was administered directly into the superior mesenteric artery by continuous infusion over 1 h. From a dye dilution method, it was estimated that a mean plasma VIP concentration of 12,460 pg/ml reached the loops. VIP caused secretion of water and electrolytes; for example, chloride: control, 8 ?eq/cm per h absorption; VIP, 92 ?eq/cm per h secretion. A marked increase in transmucosal potential difference (control, ?1.0 mV; VIP, ?5.9 mV, lumen negative) occurred within 1 min after starting VIP infusion. Analysis of unidirectional fluxes showed increased plasma-to-lumen flux of sodium and chloride and decreased lumen-to-plasma flux of sodium. Chloride and bicarbonate were actively secreted against an electrochemical gradient. Although sodium secretion occurred down an electrochemical gradient, flux ratio analysis suggested a component of active sodium secretion. VIP caused a slight increase in protein output into the loops; light microscopy revealed capillary dilatation and closed intercellular spaces. The effect of VIP was readily reversible. Except for the delayed onset of secretion, the effect of cholera toxin was qualitatively similar to VIP; however, capillary dilatation and increased protein output were not noted with cholera toxin. Images PMID:659596

  11. The migrating myoelectric complex of the small intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, Gordon L.; Sarna, Sushil K.

    1991-10-01

    Gastric and small intestinal myoelectric and motor activity is divided into two main patterns, fed and fasted. During fasting, the predominant pattern of activity is the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), a cyclically occurring pattern of electric and mechanical activity that is initiated in the stomach and duodenum almost simultaneously and, from there, propagates the length of the small intestine. Cyclic motor activity also occurs in the lower esophageal sphincter, the gallbladder, and the sphincter of Oddi with a duration that is related to the MMC in the small intestine. Of the possible mechanisms for initiation of the MMC in the small intestine (extrinsic neural control, intrinsic neural control, and hormonal control), intrinsic neural control via a series of coupled is the most likely. The keep this sentence in! hormone motilin also plays a role in the initiation of MMCs. After a meal, in man the MMC is disrupted and replaced by irregular contractions. The physiologic role of the MMC is to clear the stomach and small intestine of residual food, secretions, and desquamated cells and propel them to the colon. Disruption of the MMC cycle is associated with bacterial overgrowth in some patients, an observation that supports the proposed cleansing function of the MMC cycle.

  12. Factors involved in upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat small intestine following administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Yokota, Aya; Tanaka, Akiko; Takahira, Yuka

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the functional mechanisms underlying the expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) in the rat small intestine following the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and found a correlation with the intestinal ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs. Conventional NSAIDs (indomethacin, diclofenac, naproxen, and flurbiprofen), a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor (SC-560) and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (rofecoxib) were administered p.o., and the intestinal mucosa was examined 24 hours later. Indomethacin decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the intestinal mucosa and caused intestinal hypermotility and bacterial invasion as well as the upregulation of iNOS expression and NO production, resulting in hemorrhagic lesions. Other NSAIDs similarly inhibited PGE2 production and caused hemorrhagic lesions with intestinal hypermotility as well as iNOS expression. Hypermotility in response to indomethacin was prevented by both PGE2 and atropine but not ampicillin, yet all these agents inhibited not only bacterial invasion but also expression of iNOS as well, resulting in prevention of intestinal lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, caused a decrease in PGE2 production, intestinal hypermotility, bacterial invasion, and iNOS expression, yet this agent neither increased iNOS activity nor provoked intestinal damage because of the recovery of PGE2 production owing to COX-2 expression. Food deprivation totally attenuated both iNOS expression and lesion formation in response to indomethacin. In conclusion, the expression of iNOS in the small intestine following administration of NSAIDs results from COX-1 inhibition and is functionally associated with intestinal hypermotility and bacterial invasion. This process plays a major pathogenic role in the intestinal ulcerogenic response to NSAIDs. PMID:16944022

  13. Invasion Genes Are Not Required for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium To Breach the Intestinal Epithelium: Evidence That Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Has Alternative Functions during Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROSE ANN MURRAY; CATHERINE A. LEE

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion genes are necessary for bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and are thought to allow salmonellae to enter and cross the intestinal epithelium during infec- tion. Many invasion genes are encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), and their expression is ac- tivated by HilA, a transcription factor also encoded on SPI1. We have studied

  14. Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration

    E-print Network

    Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting and alcohol abuse prevention. Distracted driving Examining the effect of various distractions on the driving

  15. Analysis of Interactions of Salmonella Type Three Secretion Mutants with 3-D Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Andrea L.; Wilson, James W.; Sarker, Shameema; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing paradigm of Salmonella enteropathogenesis based on monolayers asserts that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 Type Three Secretion System (SPI-1 T3SS) is required for bacterial invasion into intestinal epithelium. However, little is known about the role of SPI-1 in mediating gastrointestinal disease in humans. Recently, SPI-1 deficient nontyphoidal Salmonella strains were isolated from infected humans and animals, indicating that SPI-1 is not required to cause enteropathogenesis and demonstrating the need for more in vivo-like models. Here, we utilized a previously characterized 3-D organotypic model of human intestinal epithelium to elucidate the role of all characterized Salmonella enterica T3SSs. Similar to in vivo reports, the Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS was not required to invade 3-D intestinal cells. Additionally, Salmonella strains carrying single (SPI-1 or SPI-2), double (SPI-1/2) and complete T3SS knockout (SPI-1/SPI-2: flhDC) also invaded 3-D intestinal cells to wildtype levels. Invasion of wildtype and TTSS mutants was a Salmonella active process, whereas non-invasive bacterial strains, bacterial size beads, and heat-killed Salmonella did not invade 3-D cells. Wildtype and T3SS mutants did not preferentially target different cell types identified within the 3-D intestinal aggregates, including M-cells/M-like cells, enterocytes, or Paneth cells. Moreover, each T3SS was necessary for substantial intracellular bacterial replication within 3-D cells. Collectively, these results indicate that T3SSs are dispensable for Salmonella invasion into highly differentiated 3-D models of human intestinal epithelial cells, but are required for intracellular bacterial growth, paralleling in vivo infection observations and demonstrating the utility of these models in predicting in vivo-like pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:21206750

  16. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  17. Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grzeskowiak, Lukasz Marcin; de Sales Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten intake. To date, the only therapy for CD is the complete exclusion of dietary sources of grains and any food containing gluten. It has been hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota is somehow involved in CD. For this reason, probiotics are appearing as an interesting adjuvant in the dietetic management of CD. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the microbiota in CD subjects and the use of probiotics as a novel therapy for CD. Comparisons between children with CD and controls show that their microbiota profiles differ; the former have fewer lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Specific probiotics have been found to digest or alter gluten polypeptides. It has also been demonstrated that some bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium exert protective properties on epithelial cells from damage caused by gliadin. PMID:24982318

  18. Alcohol and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Abbey, A; Zawacki, T; Buck, P O; Clinton, A M; McAuslan, P

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol's effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers' understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  19. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, C A

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

  20. Could moderate alcohol intake be recommended to improve vaccine responses?

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Pasala, Sumana; Grant, Kathleen

    2014-07-01

    The impact of alcohol consumption on human health is complex and modulated by several factors such as patterns and amount of drinking, genetics, the organ system studied, as well as the sex and age of the user. There is strong evidence that chronic ethanol abuse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, moderate alcohol consumption exerts positive effects including decreased mortality, and improved cardiovascular disease and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, accumulating evidence also supports an immune-boosting effect of moderate alcohol. In this editorial, we summarize the findings that support a positive effect of moderate alcohol on host immunity. We also discuss the limitations of the previous data and emphasize the importance of additional studies to uncover mechanisms for these immune-stimulating effects in order to extend these benefits to vulnerable segments of the population who cannot consume alcohol. PMID:24872009

  1. Could moderate alcohol intake be recommended to improve vaccine responses?

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Pasala, Sumana; Grant, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The impacts of alcohol consumption on human health are complex and modulated by several factors such as patterns and amounts of drinking, genetics, the organ system studied, as well as the sex and the age of the user. There is strong evidence that chronic ethanol abuse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, immunosuppression, and increased susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, moderate alcohol consumption exerts positive effects including decreased mortality, and improved cardiovascular disease and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, accumulating evidence also supports an immune boosting effect of moderate alcohol. In this editorial, we summarize the findings that support a positive effect of moderate alcohol on host immunity. We also discuss the limitations of the previous data and emphasize the importance of additional studies to uncover mechanisms for these immune-stimulating effects in order to extend these benefits to vulnerable segments of the population who cannot consume alcohol. PMID:24872009

  2. Microbes, intestinal inflammation and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad W; Kale, Amod A; Bere, Praveen; Vajjala, Sriharsha; Gounaris, Elias; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells act in a synergistic fashion with intestinal epithelial cells and microbiota to initiate the triad that governs the intestinal immune responses (whether inflammatory or regulatory). In this review, we will discuss the interplay of intestinal epithelial cells, bacteria and the innate immune component. Moreover, whether or not genetic intervention of probiotic bacteria is a valid approach for attenuating/mitigating exaggerated inflammation and IBD will also be discussed. PMID:22149584

  3. Salmonella enterica Serovar-Host Specificity Does Not Correlate with the Magnitude of Intestinal Invasion in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Uzzau, Sergio; Leori, Guido S.; Petruzzi, Valentino; Watson, Patricia R.; Schianchi, Giuseppe; Bacciu, Donatella; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Wallis, Timothy S.; Rubino, Salvatore

    2001-01-01

    The colonization of intestinal and systemic tissues by Salmonella enterica serovars with different host specificities was determined 7 days after inoculation of 1 to 2-month-old lambs. Following oral inoculation, S. enterica serovars Abortusovis, Dublin, and Gallinarum were recovered in comparable numbers from the intestinal mucosa, but serovar Gallinarum was recovered in lower numbers than the other serovars from systemic sites. The pattern of bacterial recovery from systemic sites following intravenous inoculation was similar. The magnitude of intestinal invasion was evaluated in ovine ligated ileal loops in vivo. Serovars Dublin and Gallinarum and the broad-host-range Salmonella serovar Typhimurium were recovered in comparable numbers from ileal mucosa 3 h after loop inoculation, whereas the recovery of serovar Abortusovis was approximately 10-fold lower. Microscopic analysis of intestinal mucosae infected with serovars Typhimurium and Dublin showed dramatic morphological changes and infiltration of inflammatory cells, whereas mucosae infected with serovars Abortusovis and Gallinarum were indistinguishable from uninfected mucosae. Together these data suggest that Salmonella serovar specificity in sheep correlates with bacterial persistence at systemic sites. Intestinal invasion and avoidance of the host's intestinal inflammatory response may contribute to but do not determine the specificity of serovar Abortosovis for sheep. Intestinal invasion by serovar Abortusovis was significantly reduced after mutation of invH but was not reduced following curing of the virulence plasmid, suggesting that the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 influences but the virulence plasmid genes do not influence the ability of serovar Abortusovis to invade the intestinal mucosa in sheep. PMID:11292728

  4. [Anal symptoms of gastro-intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Grosshans, E; Jenn, P; Baumann, R; Weill, J P; Basset, A

    1979-01-01

    In most cases the ano-cutaneous clinical symptoms correlated to diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract are not specific (erythema, itching, wounds or scarring). However in the following diseases occasional dermatological lesions may directly contribute to their diagnosis: in Crohn's disease, tuberculosis of bowel, chronic entamoebiasis and bilharziosis, the skin lesions of the anal area have the same histological structure as the gut lesions. Perianal fistulas and ulcers are frequent in Crohn's disease especially if there is a colonic and rectal spreading; they respond badly to steroid therapy and are often correlated with a worse prognosis. Perianal specific lesions occur often in oxyuriasis in children, in candidiasis of the digestive tract, in systemic aphthosis and in some malignancies. In other gastro-intestinal disturbances, the dermatological and features are less specific and can only be suggestive: iatrogenic and microbial diarrheas, side-effects of laxatives, proctological diseases. It has to be emphasized that pruritus ani is only induced by deeper lesions when they spread to the perianal skin. In proctological practice, contact dermatitis by sensitivity to anaesthetics or suppository balsams (Peruvian balsam), itching or burning atrophy by topical steroid abuse, non-diagnosed fungal (candidiasis), bacterial (erythrasma) or psoriatic intertrigos (flexural psoriasis) may sometimes explain the failure of therapy. PMID:485013

  5. Phasic study of intestinal homeostasis disruption in experimental intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Zou, Chang-Lin; Zhou, Zhen-Li; Shan, Tao; Li, Dong-Hua; Cui, Nai-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis in an experimental model of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: A rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established by transforming parts of an infusion set into an in vivo pulled-type locking clamp and creating a uniform controllable loop obstruction in the mesenteric non-avascular zone 8 cm from the distal end of the ileum. The phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis was studied after intestinal obstruction. The changes in goblet cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal epithelium were quantified from periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and serum citrulline levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Claudin 1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Intestinal microorganisms, wet/dry weight ratios, pH values, and endotoxin levels were determined at multiple points after intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, the number and ratio of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry, and secretory IgA levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A suitable controllable rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established. Intestinal obstruction induced goblet cell damage and reduced cell number. Further indicators of epithelial cell damage were observed as reduced serum citrulline levels and claudin 1 gene expression, and a transient increase in ODC activity. In addition, the wet/dry weight ratio and pH of the intestinal lumen were also dramatically altered. The ratio of Bacillus bifidus and enterobacteria was reversed following intestinal obstruction. The number and area of Peyer’s patches first increased then sharply decreased after the intestinal obstruction, along with an alteration in the ratio of CD4/CD8+ T cells, driven by an increase in CD3+ and CD8+ T cells and a decrease in CD4+ T cells. The number of lamina propria lymphocytes also gradually decreased with prolonged obstruction. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction can induce disruption of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:25009385

  6. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can ... likely than women to have problems with alcohol. Older Adults are Sensitive to Alcohol's Effects As people age, ...

  7. Alcohol and the Hispanic Community

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 NIH . . . ... Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 What ...

  8. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  9. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

  10. Emerging molecular insights into the interaction between probiotics and the host intestinal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Bron; Peter van Baarlen; Michiel Kleerebezem

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can modulate immune responses in the host gastrointestinal tract to promote health. The genomics era has provided novel opportunities for the discovery and characterization of bacterial probiotic effector molecules that elicit specific responses in the intestinal system. Furthermore, nutrigenomic analyses of the response to probiotics have unravelled the signalling and immune response pathways which are modulated by probiotic

  11. Intestinal dysbiosis and reduced immunoglobulin-coated bacteria associated with coeliac disease in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giada De Palma; Inmaculada Nadal; Marcela Medina; Ester Donat; Carmen Ribes-Koninckx; Miguel Calabuig; Yolanda Sanz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder due to an aberrant immune response to dietary gluten proteins in genetically predisposed individuals. Mucosal immune response through IgA secretion constitutes a first line of defence responsible for neutralizing noxious antigens and pathogens. The aim of this study was the characterization of the relationships between immunoglobulin-coated bacteria and bacterial composition of

  12. Hypothesis: inappropriate colonization of the premature intestine can cause neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIKA C. CLAUD; W. ALLAN WALKER

    2001-01-01

    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity in preterm infants. We hypothesize that the intestinal injury in this disease is a consequence of synergy among three of the major risk factors for NEC: prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization. Together these factors result in an exaggerated inflammatory response, leading to isch- emic bowel necrosis. Human milk may

  13. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus isolates originating from porcine intestine and feces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Lähteinen; Erja Malinen; Joanna M. K. Koort; Ulla Mertaniemi-Hannus; Tanja Hankimo; Ninja Karikoski; Soile Pakkanen; Hanna Laine; Hanna Sillanpää; Henna Söderholm; Airi Palva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a total of 94 lactic acid bacterial (LAB) isolates of porcine small intestinal and fecal origin were screened for their probiotic properties. The aim was to evaluate whether their isolation site and putative species identity play a role in these characteristics and whether either of these can be used as a predictive factor for the probiotic potential

  14. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  15. Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Long, Clara Davis; Armitage, Gary C; Loomer, Peter; Emerson, Joanne; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; Gill, Steven R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Relman, David A

    2010-08-01

    The composition of the oral microbiota from 10 individuals with healthy oral tissues was determined using culture-independent techniques. From each individual, 26 specimens, each from different oral sites at a single point in time, were collected and pooled. An 11th pool was constructed using portions of the subgingival specimens from all 10 individuals. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries from the individual and subgingival pools were constructed. From a total of 11,368 high-quality, nonchimeric, near full-length sequences, 247 species-level phylotypes (using a 99% sequence identity threshold) and 9 bacterial phyla were identified. At least 15 bacterial genera were conserved among all 10 individuals, with significant interindividual differences at the species and strain level. Comparisons of these oral bacterial sequences with near full-length sequences found previously in the large intestines and feces of other healthy individuals suggest that the mouth and intestinal tract harbor distinct sets of bacteria. Co-occurrence analysis showed significant segregation of taxa when community membership was examined at the level of genus, but not at the level of species, suggesting that ecologically significant, competitive interactions are more apparent at a broader taxonomic level than species. This study is one of the more comprehensive, high-resolution analyses of bacterial diversity within the healthy human mouth to date, and highlights the value of tools from macroecology for enhancing our understanding of bacterial ecology in human health. PMID:20336157

  16. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can make cells more vulnerable to other carcinogens, like tobacco. People who drink heavily and smoke ... into harmless compounds or to disable certain existing carcinogens, alcohol’s effects may influence not only liver cancer ...

  17. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    A fact sheet that summarizes the evidence linking alcohol consumption to the risk of various cancers. Includes information about factors that affect the risk of alcohol-associated cancers, such as a person’s genes and tobacco use.

  18. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  19. Synthetic Small Intestinal Scaffolds for Improved Studies of Intestinal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Hongpeng, Jia; Shaffiey, Shahab; Yu, Jiajie; Jain, Nina K.; Hackam, David

    2014-01-01

    In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities, and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3D models. PMID:24390638

  20. Intestinal flora and human health.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, T

    1996-03-01

    There is a growing interest in intestinal flora and human health and disease. The intestines of humans contain 100 trillion viable bacteria. These live bacteria, which make up 30% of the faecal mass, are known as the intestinal flora. There are two kinds of bacteria in the intestinal flora, beneficial and harmful. In healthy subjects, they are well balanced and beneficial bacteria dominate. Beneficial bacteria play useful roles in the aspects of nutrition and prevention of disease. They produce essential nutrients such as vitamins and organic acids, which are absorbed from the intestines and utilised by the gut epithelium and by vital organs such as the liver. Organic acids also suppress the growth of pathogens in the intestines.Other intestinal bacteria produce substances that are harmful to the host, such as putrefactive products, toxins and carcinogenic substances. When harmful bacteria dominate in the intestines, essential nutrients are not produced and the level of harmful substances rises. These substances may not have an immediate detrimental effect on the host but they are thought to be contributing factors to ageing, promoting cancer, liver and kidney disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis, and reduced immunity. Little is known regarding which intestinal bacteria are responsible for these effects. A number of factors can change the balance of intestinal flora in favour of harmful bacteria. These include peristalsis disorders, surgical operations of stomach or small intestine, liver or kidney diseases, pernicious anaemia, cancer, radiation or antibiotic therapies, immune disorders, emotional stress, poor diet and ageing. However, more importantly, the normal balance of intestinal flora may be maintained, or restored to a normal from an unbalanced state, by oral bacterio-therapy or by a well balanced diet. Oral bacterio-therapy using intestinal strains of lactic acid bacteria, such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria, can restore normal intestinal balance and produce beneficial effects. Benefits include suppression of intestinal putrification so as to reduce constipation and other geriatric diseases; prevention and treatment of diarrhoea including antibiotic-associated diarrhoea; stimulation of the immune system; and increased resistance to infection. PMID:24394457

  1. Alcohol dehydrogenases from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helia Radianingtyas; Phillip C. Wright

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been undertaken to characterise alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, mainly to better understand their activities and thermostability. To date, there are 20 thermophilic archaeal and 17 thermophilic bacterial strains known to have ADHs or similar enzymes, including the hypothetical proteins. Some of these thermophiles are found to have multiple ADHs, sometimes of different types. A

  2. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Abbey; Tina Zawacki; Philip O. Buck; A. Monique Clinton; Pam McAuslan

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and

  3. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allister Vale

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a common medical problem and occurs within hours of alcohol cessation or reduction. It is characterized by autonomic hyperactivity, tremor, anxiety, restlessness seizures, hallucinations and delirium. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop in patients admitted to hospital for an unrelated illness (e.g. for an operation) or patients may present in a confused state to the Emergency

  4. Hispanic Alcoholic Treatment Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    A path analytic model for Hispanic alcoholics relating socioclinical prognostic variables to outcome following treatment in a therapeutic community differs markedly from that fitted to Anglo alcoholics. The differential relationship of education to alcoholism severity and outcome was noted specifically as reflecting different racial-ethnic paths…

  5. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  6. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  7. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  8. Alcohol Tips for youngadults

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Alcohol Tips for youngadults Presented By The University of Texas at Arlington Police Department 817-272-3381 Tips for Young Adults: The Truth about Alcohol If you are the victim of a crime on the U. One 12-ounce bottle of beer or a 5-ounce glass of wine (about a half-cup) has as much alcohol as a 1

  9. ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Effective November, 2010 to the possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages. These standards conform to state and federal laws. The policy described in this brochure pertains to alcohol and other drug use behaviors in residence halls

  10. Teleost intestinal immunology.

    PubMed

    Rombout, Jan H W M; Abelli, Luigi; Picchietti, Simona; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Kiron, Viswanath

    2011-11-01

    Teleosts clearly have a more diffuse gut associated lymphoid system, which is morphological and functional clearly different from the mammalian GALT. All immune cells necessary for a local immune response are abundantly present in the gut mucosa of the species studied and local immune responses can be monitored after intestinal immunization. Fish do not produce IgA, but a special mucosal IgM isotype seems to be secreted and may (partly) be the recently described IgZ/IgT. Fish produce a pIgR in their mucosal tissues but it is smaller (2 ILD) than the 4-5 ILD pIgR of higher vertebrates. Whether teleost pIgR is transcytosed and cleaved off in the same way needs further investigation, especially because a secretory component (SC) is only reported in one species. Teleosts also have high numbers of IEL, most of them are CD3-?+/CD8-?+ and have cytotoxic and/or regulatory function. Possibly many of these cells are TCR?? cells and they may be involved in the oral tolerance induction observed in fish. Innate immune cells can be observed in the teleost gut from first feeding onwards, but B cells appear much later in mucosal compartments compared to systemic sites. Conspicuous is the very early presence of putative T cells or their precursors in the fish gut, which together with the rag-1 expression of intestinal lymphoid cells may be an indication for an extra-thymic development of certain T cells. Teleosts can develop enteritis in their antigen transporting second gut segment and epithelial cells, IEL and eosinophils/basophils seem to play a crucial role in this intestinal inflammation model. Teleost intestine can be exploited for oral vaccination strategies and probiotic immune stimulation. A variety of encapsulation methods, to protect vaccines against degradation in the foregut, are reported with promising results but in most cases they appear not to be cost effective yet. Microbiota in fish are clearly different from terrestrial animals. In the past decade a fast increasing number of papers is dedicated to the oral administration of a variety of probiotics that can have a strong health beneficial effect, but much more attention has to be paid to the immune mechanisms behind these effects. The recent development of gnotobiotic fish models may be very helpful to study the immune effects of microbiota and probiotics in teleosts. PMID:20832474

  11. Enteropatía congénita y trasplante intestinal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Goulet

    2006-01-01

    ExtractoLa insuficiencia intestinal (II) exige el uso de nutrición parenteral (NP). Entre las causas de II prolongada grave destacan el síndrome del intestino corto, trastornos de la motilidad grave (aganglionosis total o subtotal o síndrome de seudoobstrucción intestinal crónica) y enfermedades congénitas del desarrollo de los enterocitos. Puede aparecer insuficiencia hepática grave en pacientes con II como consecuencia de una

  12. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Vignes; Jérôme Bellanger

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb

  13. Probiotic administration modifies the milk fatty acid profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal fatty acid profile of goats.

    PubMed

    Apás, A L; Arena, M E; Colombo, S; González, S N

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of potentially probiotic bacteria (MPPB; Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum strains) on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the middle stage of goat lactation, was determined. In addition, the effects of MPPB feeding on the FA profile in intestinal content and intestinal morphology in weaned goats were analyzed. The probiotic supplement was able to modify FA composition of milk and intestinal content. The unsaturated FA concentrations in milk (g of FA/L of milk) increased from 4.49 to 7.86 for oleic (18:1), from 0.70 to 1.39 for linoleic (18:2), from 0.063 to 0.187 for linolenic (18:3) acid, and from 0.093 to 0.232 for CLA. The atherogenicity index diminished 2-fold after MPPB ingestion. In the intestinal content of the weaned goats, no significant difference in saturated FA concentration compared with the control was observed. However, oleic acid, linolenic acid, CLA, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased by 81, 23, 344, and 74%, respectively, after probiotic consumption. The ruminal production of CLA was increased by the MPPB. However, bacterial strains of MPPB were unable to produce CLA in culture media. By histological techniques, it was observed that the treated group had intestinally more conserved morphological structures than the control group. The results obtained in this study indicate that the MPPB administration in lactating and weaned goats allows for the production of milk with improved concentrations of beneficial compounds, and also produces a protective effect in the goat intestine. The results obtained in this study reinforce the strategy of probiotics application to enhance goat health with the production of milk with higher concentrations of polyunsaturated FA. PMID:25465559

  14. The Intestinal Microbiota and Susceptibility to Infection in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Ying; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Many infections of immunocompromised patients originate from the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of these infections often begins with alteration of the intestinal microbiota. Understanding the microbiota and how it can either cause or prevent infection is vital for the development of more effective prevention and treatment of these infections. This article reviews and discusses recent work providing insight into the intestinal microbiota of these at-risk immunocompromised patients. Recent findings Studies continue to support the premise that commensal bacteria, largely anaerobic, serve to maintain microbial stability and colonization resistance by preventing overgrowth or domination with more pathogenic bacteria, through interactions within the microbial community and with the host. In patients with immune suppression due to high-dose chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, disruption of the microbiota through antibiotics as well as impairment of host immunity gives rise to perturbations favoring intestinal domination by pathogenic species, leading to increased bacterial translocation and susceptibility to systemic infection. Summary An understanding of the intestinal microbiota and the impact of antibiotics will help to guide our treatment of these gut-originating infections. PMID:23806896

  15. Granulocyte migration in uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis in man

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gibson, R.; Guest, J.; Spencer, J.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1986-03-01

    We have investigated the presence, duration, and clinical significance of granulocyte accumulation, using indium-111 granulocyte scanning, in patients following uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis. Eight patients underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis (right hemicolectomy, 5; sigmoid colectomy, 2; ileal resection, 1) for carcinoma, angiodysplasia, or perforation. All patients had an uneventful postoperative course, with no evidence of any leakage or infection. Indium-111 granulocyte scan and abdominal ultrasound were performed 7-20 days (12 +/- 4.7 means +/- SD) following surgery. Indium-111 granulocyte scan showed the presence of labeled granulocytes at the site of anastomosis in all patients. In three of eight, cells subsequently passed into the lumen of the bowel. In contrast, granulocytes were not visualized along the abdominal incision. Thus, in contrast to skin wounds, granulocytes continue migrating into the intestinal wall in areas of anastomosis for at least up to 20 days following surgical trauma. They may play a significant role both in healing the anastomosis and in preventing systemic bacterial infection. Moreover, indium-111 granulocyte scans following intestinal surgery should be interpreted with care, and the presence of labeled granulocytes around anastomoses does not necessarily indicate abscess formation.

  16. Common intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-03-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive. PMID:15023017

  17. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ellis Marik

    \\u000a Approximately 11–15 million people report heavy alcohol use or alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States; not surprisingly,\\u000a alcohol-related medical problems are commonly encountered in critically ill and injured patients. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome\\u000a (AWS) consists of symptoms and signs arising in alcohol-dependent individuals, typically within 24–48 h of consumption of\\u000a their last drink. Delirium tremens (DTs), a severe and potentially

  18. Alcohol, Chemistry and You

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.

  19. Molecular Basis of the Interaction of Salmonella with the Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Darwin, K. Heran; Miller, Virginia L.

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most extensively characterized bacterial pathogens and is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Despite this, we are only just beginning to understand at a molecular level how Salmonella interacts with its mammalian hosts to cause disease. Studies during the past decade on the genetic basis of virulence of Salmonella have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular basis of the host-pathogen interaction, yet many questions remain. In this review, we focus on the interaction of enterocolitis-causing salmonellae with the intestinal mucosa, since this is the initiating step for most infections caused by Salmonella. Animal and in vitro cell culture models for the interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium are reviewed, along with the bacterial genes that are thought to affect this interaction. Lastly, recent studies on the response of epithelial cells to Salmonella infection and how this might promote diarrhea are discussed. PMID:10398673

  20. Relationships between rotavirus diarrhea and intestinal microflora establishment in conventional and gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, M C; Corthier, G; Muller, M C; Dubos, F; Raibaud, P

    1986-01-01

    Intestinal microflora did not play a role in the intensity or course of EDIM rotavirus-induced diarrhea, since similar results were observed in axenic and conventional mice. In conventional mice, rotavirus-induced diarrhea did not modify the establishment of Lactobacillus spp. and Escherichia coli before weaning. The consequences of diarrhea on the establishment of strictly anaerobic bacteria after weaning were studied through the measurement of two bacterial functions, the microbial barrier effect against E. coli and the development of the immunoglobulin A intestinal immune system. These two bacterial functions were expressed in a similar way in diarrheic and control mice. In young gnotobiotic mice inoculated with Clostridium perfringens or C. difficile, rotavirus infection led to an earlier development of both strains, as compared with controls. This effect was more pronounced with C. difficile. These results suggest that rotavirus infections might enhance opportunistic bacterial infections. PMID:3519657

  1. [Alcohol induced cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history. PMID:23868552

  2. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  3. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109,...

  4. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible repair. We aim to (1) determine the immuno-pathology of alcohol-induced liver damage, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of ASH, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and NASH, (4) examine age differences, (5) develop common research tools to study alcohol-induced effects in clinical and pre-clinical studies, and (6) focus on factors that aggravate severity of organ-damage. The intention of these symposia is to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism. PMID:25217800

  5. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M.; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N.

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk. PMID:23509726

  6. Leaky gut and the liver: a role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ilan, Yaron

    2012-06-01

    Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections, major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders. Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease. Impaired gut epithelial integrity due to alterations in tight junction proteins may be the pathological mechanism underlying bacterial translocation. Preclinical and clinical studies over the last decade have suggested a role for BT in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and its complications. A better understanding of the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events involved in sensing gut-derived microbes will help in the development of means to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases. These may suggest new targets for potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of NASH. Here, we review some of the mechanisms connecting BT and NASH and potential therapeutic developments. PMID:22690069

  7. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative duodenal fluid versus duodenal mucosa cultures in German Shepherd Dogs with spontaneous small bowel bacterial overgrowth 

    E-print Network

    Delles, Edward Kevin

    1993-01-01

    between pernicious anemia (vitamin 8, 2 deficiency) and small intestinal strictures in people. ' In 1939 Barker and Hummel theorized that intestinal stasis and subsequent bacterial overgrowth were responsible for the correlation between pernicious... anemia and intestinal strictures. ' Since the 1960s there has been a growing awareness of the causes, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of SBBO. ' ' ' The first case reports of SBBO in the veterinary literature appeared...

  8. Gut Microbial Colonization Orchestrates TLR2 Expression, Signaling and Epithelial Proliferation in the Small Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Hörmann, Nives; Brandão, Inês; Jäckel, Sven; Ens, Nelli; Lillich, Maren; Walter, Ulrich; Reinhardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an environmental factor that determines renewal of the intestinal epithelium and remodeling of the intestinal mucosa. At present, it is not resolved if components of the gut microbiota can augment innate immune sensing in the intestinal epithelium via the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we report that colonization of germ-free (GF) Swiss Webster mice with a complex gut microbiota augments expression of TLR2. The microbiota-dependent up-regulation of components of the TLR2 signaling complex could be reversed by a 7 day broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. TLR2 downstream signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and protein-kinase B (AKT) induced by bacterial TLR2 agonists resulted in increased proliferation of the small intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K. Mice that were colonized from birth with a normal gut microbiota (conventionally-raised; CONV-R) showed signs of increased small intestinal renewal and apoptosis compared with GF controls as indicated by elevated mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1, elevated transcripts of the apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells per intestinal villus structure. In accordance, TLR2-deficient mice showed reduced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that a tuned proliferation response of epithelial cells following microbial colonization could aid to protect the host from its microbial colonizers and increase intestinal surface area. PMID:25396415

  9. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics

    PubMed Central

    de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLRs play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation. PMID:24600450

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  12. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal tissue for direct translation to human therapy. PMID:23380001

  13. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Ogawa; Masaya Hosokawa; Norio Harada; Shunsuke Yamane; Akihiro Hamasaki; Kentaro Toyoda; Shimpei Fujimoto; Yoshihito Fujita; Kazuhito Fukuda; Katsushi Tsukiyama; Yuichiro Yamada; Yutaka Seino; Nobuya Inagaki

    2011-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic ? cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal

  14. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  15. Acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vonghia, Luisa; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Bertini, Marco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2008-12-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication is a clinically harmful condition that usually follows the ingestion of a large amount of alcohol. Clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and involve different organs and apparatuses, with behavioral, cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, neurological, and metabolic effects. The management of an intoxicated patient occurs mainly in the emergency department and is aimed at stabilizing the clinical condition of the patient, depending on his/her clinical presentation. One specific drug that is useful in the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication is metadoxine, which is able to accelerate ethanol excretion. In patients presenting an acute alcohol intoxication, alcohol-related disorders should be detected so that the patient can be directed to an alcohol treatment unit, where a personalized, specific treatment can be established. PMID:19046719

  16. Does expectancy affect alcohol absorption?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Cole-Harding; Vicki J. Michels

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence alcohol absorption, yet few studies have addressed the issue of whether or not experimental manipulations themselves may affect alcohol absorption. The current balanced placebo design study comparing the expectancy effects of root beer and non-alcoholic beer vehicles resulted in significantly lower blood alcohol levels in the root beer condition than in the beer condition even though alcohol

  17. Intestinal microbiota diversity of the flat fish Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858) following probiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Chabrillón, Mariana; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; de la Banda, Inés García; Lobo, Carmen; Balebona, Ma Carmen; Moriñigo, Miguel Angel

    2010-08-01

    Pleuronectiforms are an important group of fish, and one of their species, Solea senegalensis (Kaup 1858), has been extensively studied at different levels, although information about its intestinal microbiota and the effects of different factors on it is very scarce. Modern aquaculture industry demands strategies which help to maintain a microbiologically healthy environment and an environmentally friendly aquaculture. In this context, probiotics seem to offer an attractive alternative. The intake of probiotics could modify the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which is a key component in excluding potential invaders and maintaining health. The aim of this study was to evaluate by 16S rRNA gene analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis the effect of administering fresh or lyophilized cells of Pdp11 on the intestinal microbiota of farmed Senegalese sole, using sodium alginate to facilitate the incorporation of bacterial cells to the feed. The results obtained showed that the composition of fish intestinal microbiota was affected when fish received a diet supplemented with sodium alginate and fresh or lyophilized probiotic cells. In all cases, the dominant bacterial groups belonged to ?-Proteobacteria and mainly the Vibrio species. The use of sodium alginate reduced the incidence of populations with <97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to uncultured microorganisms in the intestinal microbiota until non-detected limits. On the other hand, the supplementation of the diet with probiotics produced an increase of the predominant species related to Vibrio genus. PMID:20556376

  18. Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine how an E. coli challenge and dietary clays affect the intestinal barrier of pigs. Two groups of 32 pigs (initial BW: 6.9?±?1.0 kg) were distributed in a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design (2 challenge treatments: sham or E. coli, and 4 dietary treatments: control, 0.3% smectite A, 0.3% smectite B and 0.3% zeolite), with 8 replicates total. Diarrhea score, growth performance, goblet cell size and number, bacterial translocation from intestinal lumen to lymph nodes, intestinal morphology, and relative amounts of sulfo and sialo mucins were measured. The E. coli challenge reduced performance, increased goblet cell size and number in the ileum, increased bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the lymph nodes, and increased ileal crypt depth. One of the clays (smectite A) tended to increase goblet cell size in ileum, which may indicate enhanced protection. In conclusion, E. coli infection degrades intestinal barrier integrity but smectite A may enhance it. PMID:24359581

  19. Microbial fingerprinting detects intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in Zebrafish models with chemically-induced enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in interactions between the host immune response and the resident commensal microbiota. Recent studies have suggested gut physiology and pathology relevant to human IBD can be rapidly modeled in zebrafish larvae. The aim of this study was to investigate the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in zebrafish models with IBD-like enterocolitis using culture-independent techniques. Results IBD-like enterocolitis was induced by exposing larval zebrafish to trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Pathology was assessed by histology and immunofluorescence. Changes in intestinal microbiota were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the predominant bacterial composition was determined with DNA sequencing and BLAST and confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Larval zebrafish exposed to TNBS displayed intestinal-fold architecture disruption and inflammation reminiscent of human IBD. In this study, we defined a reduced biodiversity of gut bacterial community in TNBS-induced coliitis. The intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish larvae with IBD-like colitis was characterized by an increased proportion of Proteobacteria (especially Burkholderia) and a decreased of Firmicutes(Lactobacillus group), which were significantly correlated with enterocolitis severity(Pearson correlation p < 0.01). Conclusions This is the first description of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish IBD-like models, and these changes correlate with TNBS-induced enterocolitis. Prevention or reversal of this dysbiosis may be a viable option for reducing the incidence and severity of human IBD. PMID:24325678

  20. Reductions in intestinal Clostridiales precede the development of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial use is thought to suppress the intestinal microbiota, thereby impairing colonization resistance and allowing Clostridium difficile to infect the gut. Additional risk factors such as proton-pump inhibitors may also alter the intestinal microbiota and predispose patients to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This comparative metagenomic study investigates the relationship between epidemiologic exposures, intestinal bacterial populations and subsequent development of CDI in hospitalized patients. We performed a nested case–control study including 25 CDI cases and 25 matched controls. Fecal specimens collected prior to disease onset were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to determine the composition of the intestinal microbiota during the at-risk period. Results The diversity of the intestinal microbiota was significantly reduced prior to an episode of CDI. Sequences corresponding to the phylum Bacteroidetes and to the families Bacteroidaceae and Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XI were depleted in CDI patients compared to controls, whereas sequences corresponding to the family Enterococcaceae were enriched. In multivariable analyses, cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use, as well as a decrease in the abundance of Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XI were significantly and independently associated with CDI development. Conclusions This study shows that a reduction in the abundance of a specific bacterial family - Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XI - is associated with risk of nosocomial CDI and may represent a target for novel strategies to prevent this life-threatening infection. PMID:24450844

  1. Intestinal uptake of MPP+ is differently affected by red and white wine.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, R; Calhau, C; Martel, F; Guedes de Pinho, P; Azevedo, I

    2005-04-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that ingested products, such as wine, may have profound effects on the therapeutic efficacy of certain drugs. As various xeno- and endobiotics are organic cations, the purpose of our study was to examine the modulation of organic cations intestinal apical uptake by red (RW) and white wine (WW). For this purpose, we used RW, WW, the same alcohol-free wines, phenolic compounds and ethanol. The uptake of the organic cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelial cell model. RW and alcohol-free RW increased 3H-MPP+ apical uptake, although the effect of alcohol-free RW was less pronounced. On the other hand, WW and alcohol-free WW decreased the organic cation uptake but the effect of alcohol-free WW was more pronounced. Our results show that the total content in phenolic compounds was 7 times higher, and the dialysis index was about 4 times higher in RW compared to WW. Ethanol, in the same concentration found in wine, caused a significant decrease in 3H-MPP+ apical uptake. The solution containing high molecular weight compounds from dialyzed RW increased 3H-MPP+ apical uptake. In conclusion, the results suggest that RW may increase and WW may reduce the intestinal absorption of organic cations present in the diet, such as drugs or vitamins (e.g. thiamine and riboflavin). As ethanol alone decreased the uptake of MPP+, and alcohol-free RW and WW had a lower potency than intact wine upon the transport, the presence of ethanol is probably important for the solubilisation/bioavailability of the components endowed with the transport modulating activity. PMID:15763079

  2. Matching alcoholics to treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kalman; Richard Longabaugh; Patrick R Clifford; Martha Beattie; Stephen A Maisto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether sociopathic alcoholics respond differentially to different types of treatment. An earlier study found that alcoholics with antisocial personality disorder had somewhat better outcomes if treated in individually focused versus relationship-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment. The present study was designed to attempt to replicate these findings. One hundred and forty-nine alcoholics (42 of

  3. Cell and molecular aspects of human intestinal biotin absorption.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2009-01-01

    Humans cannot synthesize biotin and thus must obtain this vitamin from exogenous sources. The intestine is exposed to 2 sources of biotin: a dietary source and a bacterial source, which is normal microflora of the large intestine. Dietary protein-bound biotin is converted to free biotin prior to absorption. Absorption of free biotin in the small and large intestine involves a saturable and Na(+)-dependent carrier-mediated process that is shared with pantothenic acid and lipoate. For this reason, the involved transport system is referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT); in humans, it is designated as hSMVT. The hSMVT system has been cloned, demonstrated to be exclusively expressed at the apical membrane of enterocytes, and shown, by means of gene-specific short interfering RNA, to be the main biotin uptake system that operates in human intestinal epithelial cells. The 5'-regulatory region of the hSMVT gene has also been cloned and characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Further, the human intestinal biotin uptake process was adaptively up-regulated in biotin deficiency via a transcriptionally mediated mechanism(s) that involves Kruppel-like factor 4 sites. Studies on cell biology of hSMVT have shown a region in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of the polypeptide to be essential for its targeting to the apical membrane domain of epithelial cells. Intracellular trafficking of the hSMVT protein appears to involve distinct trafficking vesicles that require an intact microtubules network and the motor protein dynein for their mobility. PMID:19056639

  4. Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Do Trung; Van De, Nguyen; Waikagul, Jitra; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2007-01-01

    Although fishborne zoonotic trematodes that infect the liver are well documented in Vietnam, intestinal fishborne zoonotic trematodes are unreported. Recent discoveries of the metacercarial stage of these flukes in wild and farmed fish prompted an assessment of their risk to a community that eats raw fish. A fecal survey of 615 persons showed a trematode egg prevalence of 64.9%. Infected persons were treated to expel liver and intestinal parasites for specific identification. The liver trematode Clonorchis sinensis was recovered from 51.5%, but >1 of 4 intestinal species of the family Heterophyidae was recovered from 100%. The most numerous were Haplorchis spp. (90.4% of all worms recovered). These results demonstrate that fishborne intestinal parasites are an unrecognized food safety risk in a country whose people have a strong tradition of eating raw fish. PMID:18258031

  5. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in properly identifying all affected individuals as well as their individual patterns of alcohol-induced deficits. Also, as the large numbers of women who continue to drink during pregnancy indicate, prevention efforts still require further refinement to enhance their effectiveness. In addition, the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced damage have not yet been fully elucidated; as knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced deficits continues to grow, the possibility of minimizing potential harm by intervening during prenatal alcohol exposure is enhanced. Finally, researchers are exploring additional ways to improve or fully restore behavioral and cognitive functions disrupted by prenatal alcohol exposure by treating the individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, thereby reducing the heavy burden for affected individuals and their families. PMID:23580035

  7. Interleukin22 mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zheng; Patricia A Valdez; Dimitry M Danilenko; Yan Hu; Susan M Sa; Qian Gong; Alexander R Abbas; Zora Modrusan; Nico Ghilardi; Frederic J de Sauvage; Wenjun Ouyang

    2008-01-01

    Infections by attaching and effacing (A\\/E) bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, pose a serious threat to public health. Using a mouse A\\/E pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22) has a crucial role in the early phase of host defense against C. rodentium. Infection of IL-22 knockout mice results in increased intestinal epithelial damage, systemic bacterial burden

  8. Bacterial cell wall components regulate adipokine secretion from visceral adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Risa; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Shimizu, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kiminori; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Taira, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndromes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we assessed the effects of bacterial cell wall components on adiponectin, leptin and resistin secretion from rat visceral adipocytes in vitro. We also measured the relative population of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in fecal microbiota and the amount of fecal mucin as an intestinal barrier function, when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial cell wall components affect the secretion of adipokines, depending on the presence of antigens from gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide markedly inhibited adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion, whereas peptidoglycan increased adiponectin secretion and decreased resistin secretion in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the high-fat diet increased the population of Firmicutes and decreased that of Bacteroidetes. In contrast, the high-fat diet downregulated the stool output and fecal mucin content. These results demonstrate that bacterial cell wall components affect the onset of metabolic syndromes by mediating the secretion of adipokines from visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, we believe that metabolic endotoxemia is not due to the increasing dominance of gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroidetes, but due to the depression of intestinal barrier function. PMID:25759521

  9. Intestinal microflora and metabolic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Serino; E. Luche; C. Chabo; J. Amar; R. Burcelin

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have allowed researchers to answer major questions regarding the relationship between a vast genomic diversity—such as found in the intestinal microflora—and host physiology. Over the past few years, it has been established that, in obesity, type 1 diabetes and Crohn's disease—to cite but a few—the intestinal microflora play a pathophysiological role and can induce,

  10. Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (tufting enteropathy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Goulet; Julie Salomon; Frank Ruemmele; Natacha Patey-Mariaud de Serres; Nicole Brousse

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), also known as tufting enteropathy, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset severe intractable diarrhea causing sometimes irreversible intestinal failure. To date, no epidemiological data are available, however, the prevalence can be estimated at around 1\\/50,000–100,000 live births in Western Europe. The prevalence seems higher in areas with high degree of consanguinity and in patients of

  11. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and novel potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I

    2015-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health care problem and represents the hepatic expression of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or simple steatosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by the presence of steatosis and inflammation with or without fibrosis. The physiopathology of NAFL and NASH and their progression to cirrhosis involve several parallel and interrelated mechanisms, such as, insulin resistance (IR), lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and recently the gut-liver axis interaction has been described. Incretin-based therapies could play a role in the treatment of NAFLD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal mucosa-derived hormone which is secreted into the bloodstream in response to nutrient ingestion; it favors glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inhibition of postprandial glucagon secretion and delayed gastric emptying. It also promotes weight loss and is involved in lipid metabolism. Once secreted, GLP-1 is quickly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Therefore, DPP-4 inhibitors are able to extend the activity of GLP-1. Currently, GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors represent attractive options for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH. The modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism through nuclear receptors, such as the farsenoid X receptor, also constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Obeticholic acid is a potent activator of the farnesoid X nuclear receptor and reduces liver fat content and fibrosis in animal models. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid with immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties. UDCA can improve IR and modulate lipid metabolism through its interaction with nuclear receptors such as, TGR5, farnesoid X receptor-?, or the small heterodimeric partner. Finally, pharmacologic modulation of the gut microbiota could have a role in the therapy of NAFLD and NASH. Probiotics prevent bacterial translocation and epithelial invasion, inhibit mucosal adherence by bacteria, and stimulate host immunity. In animal models, probiotics prevent obesity, decrease transaminase levels, and improve IR and liver histology in NASH. PMID:26052375

  12. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and novel potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health care problem and represents the hepatic expression of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or simple steatosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by the presence of steatosis and inflammation with or without fibrosis. The physiopathology of NAFL and NASH and their progression to cirrhosis involve several parallel and interrelated mechanisms, such as, insulin resistance (IR), lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and recently the gut-liver axis interaction has been described. Incretin-based therapies could play a role in the treatment of NAFLD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal mucosa-derived hormone which is secreted into the bloodstream in response to nutrient ingestion; it favors glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inhibition of postprandial glucagon secretion and delayed gastric emptying. It also promotes weight loss and is involved in lipid metabolism. Once secreted, GLP-1 is quickly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Therefore, DPP-4 inhibitors are able to extend the activity of GLP-1. Currently, GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors represent attractive options for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH. The modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism through nuclear receptors, such as the farsenoid X receptor, also constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Obeticholic acid is a potent activator of the farnesoid X nuclear receptor and reduces liver fat content and fibrosis in animal models. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid with immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties. UDCA can improve IR and modulate lipid metabolism through its interaction with nuclear receptors such as, TGR5, farnesoid X receptor-?, or the small heterodimeric partner. Finally, pharmacologic modulation of the gut microbiota could have a role in the therapy of NAFLD and NASH. Probiotics prevent bacterial translocation and epithelial invasion, inhibit mucosal adherence by bacteria, and stimulate host immunity. In animal models, probiotics prevent obesity, decrease transaminase levels, and improve IR and liver histology in NASH.

  13. The Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter concisus Strains Associated with Chronic Intestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Deshpande, Nandan P.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, “membrane ruffling”, cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-?B activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-? production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the outcome of C. concisus infection. Moreover, response to infection with invasive strains has substantial similarities to that observed in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22194985

  14. Candidate genes for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury identified by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Alaish, Samuel M; Timmons, Jennifer; Smith, Alexis; Buzza, Marguerite S; Murphy, Ebony; Zhao, Aiping; Sun, Yezhou; Turner, Douglas J; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Antalis, Toni M; Cross, Alan; Dorsey, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    The lack of bile flow from the liver into the intestine can have devastating complications including hepatic failure, sepsis, and even death. This pathologic condition known as cholestasis can result from etiologies as diverse as total parenteral nutrition (TPN), hepatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The intestinal injury associated with cholestasis has been shown to result in decreased intestinal resistance, increased bacterial translocation, and increased endotoxemia. Anecdotal clinical evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury. Recent animal research on two different strains of inbred mice demonstrating different rates of bacterial translocation with different mortality rates supports this premise. In this study, a microarray analysis of intestinal tissue following common bile duct ligation (CBDL) performed under general anesthesia on these same two strains of inbred mice was done with the goal of identifying the potential molecular mechanistic pathways responsible. Over 500 genes were increased more than 2.0-fold following CBDL. The most promising candidate genes included major urinary proteins (MUPs), serine protease-1-inhibitor (Serpina1a), and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the microarray results for these candidate genes. In an in vitro experiment using differentiated intestinal epithelial cells, inhibition of MUP-1 by siRNA resulted in increased intestinal epithelial cell permeability. Diverse novel mechanisms involving the growth hormone pathway, the acute phase response, and the innate immune response are thus potential avenues for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury. Changes in gene expression were at times found to be not only due to the CBDL but also due to the murine strain. Should further studies in cholestatic patients demonstrate interindividual variability similar to what we have shown in mice, then a “personalized medicine” approach to cholestatic patients may become possible. PMID:24179676

  15. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood chemistry tests (such as albumin level) Complete blood count ( CBC ) Fecal fat test Small intestine x-ray Vitamin ... motility-speeding drugs) may be used. A low carbohydrate diet can be helpful. Treatment also involves getting ...

  16. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mazen Jamal; Zainab Saadi; Timothy R. Morgan

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Alcohol use and hepatitis C are prominent risk factors for liver injury and this review offers the current understanding of each factor’s effects on liver disease. Methods: A Medline database search was preformed for English articles with a focus on alcohol, hepatitis C and liver disease. Article citations were also considered for further applicable articles, and the strongest studies

  17. The Alcohol and Responsibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Sholette

    1986-01-01

    The moral model is a seriously underestimated and neglected framework within which alcoholism could be diagnosed and treated. Understood properly, the moral model emphasizes personal responsibility, not to the exclusion of the disease concept, nor in conflict with genetic predisposition, but to the benefit of the alcoholic, who must learn to deal honestly with reality to facilitate and maintain recovery.

  18. Hepatic siderosis in alcoholics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Jakobovits; Marsha Y. Morgan; Sheila Sherlock

    1979-01-01

    In a population of 157 (120 males, 37 females) predominantly British alcoholics with liver disease, the incidence of some degree of hepatic siderosis, as estimated by stainable parenchymal iron, was 57.3%. The incidence of significant siderosis (grades III and IV) was 7%, and was similar for both sexes. In the female alcoholics there was a significant correlation between age and

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  20. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  1. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  2. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  11. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-17

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    2012-11-23

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  15. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  16. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-06

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  2. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-12

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  4. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-02

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  6. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-01-12

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  7. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-11-09

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  8. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-04-22

    ...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019,...

  9. Alcoholic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaim S. Abittan; Charles S. Lieber

    1999-01-01

    Opinion Statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The traditional approach to alcoholism is treatment of underlying psychological and behavioral problems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Earlier and more direct avenues to prevent or counteract alcohol’s effects include a focus on early detection of alcoholism,\\u000a using, in part, biochemical markers of heavy drinking such as carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and screening, among\\u000a heavy users of alcohol, for signs of medical

  10. [Alcohol misuse at work].

    PubMed

    Dubini, R

    2010-01-01

    Current legal base. Legislative Decree 9 April 2008, n. 81, articles 28, 41. Employees must be aware of duties under the Legislative Decree 9 April 2008, n. 81, articles 28, 41. Workers must not be under the influence of alcohol while driving, attempting to drive or when they are in charge of a vehicle. or in other dangerous jobs. Key messages. Employers should adopt an alcohol policy, in consultation with their staff. For article 41 comma 4 of Legislative Decree 9 April 2008, n. 81 employers must adopt alcohol screening as part of their alcohol policy. Company Doctor and Employer must think very carefully about what he want screening to do, and what they will do with the information it generates. Screening by itself will never be the complete answer to problems caused by alcohol misuse. PMID:21438290

  11. Alcoholism in young men.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Gunderson, E K

    1977-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of groups of younger (age 25 or less) and older men hospitalized for alcoholism in calendar years 1966--1969 and 1970--1971. While the percentage of young alcoholics increased from 28 to 43 between the two time samples, such an increase does not necessarily indicate a higher prevalence of alcoholism amoung young Navy men, although this possibility merits further study. Most young men who drink heavily do not become alcoholic, and many may have underlying character and behavior disorders and poor prognoses. Clear criteria for admission to treatment appear to be especially important for young alcoholics because of this diversity in clinical history and prognosis. PMID:615498

  12. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Micha?; Zovko-Konci?, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  13. Alcohol Industry & Policy Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer D.; Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, alcohol was not commonly recognized as a teratogen, an agent that can disrupt the development of a fetus. Today, we understand that prenatal alcohol exposure induces a variety of adverse effects on physical, neurological, and behavioral development. Research supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has contributed to the identification of the range and prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), as well as methods for prevention and treatment of FASD. The worldwide prevalence and high personal and societal costs of FASD speak to the importance of this research. This article briefly examines some of the ways that NIAAA has contributed to our understanding of FASD, the challenges that we still face, and how this research is translated into changes in public policy. PMID:23579942

  15. Laser welding of ruptured intestinal tissue using plasmonic polypeptide nanocomposite solders.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huang-Chiao; Walker, Candace Rae; Nanda, Alisha; Rege, Kaushal

    2013-04-23

    Approximately 1.5 million people suffer from colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease in the United States. Occurrence of leakage following standard surgical anastomosis in intestinal and colorectal surgery is common and can cause infection leading to life-threatening consequences. In this report, we demonstrate that plasmonic nanocomposites, generated from elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) cross-linked with gold nanorods, can be used to weld ruptured intestinal tissue upon exposure to near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Mechanical properties of these nanocomposites can be modulated based on the concentration of gold nanorods embedded within the ELP matrix. We employed photostable, NIR-absorbing cellularized and noncellularized GNR-ELP nanocomposites for ex vivo laser welding of ruptured porcine small intestines. Laser welding using the nanocomposites significantly enhanced the tensile strength, leakage pressure, and bursting pressure of ruptured intestinal tissue. This, in turn, provided a liquid-tight seal against leakage of luminal liquid from the intestine and resulting bacterial infection. This study demonstrates the utility of laser tissue welding using plasmonic polypeptide nanocomposites and indicates the translational potential of these materials in intestinal and colorectal repair. PMID:23530530

  16. 3-D Intestinal Scaffolds for Evaluating the Therapeutic Potential of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic in vitro intestinal models are becoming useful tools for studying host–microbial interactions. In the past, these models have typically been limited to simple cultures on 2-D scaffolds or Transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3-D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue, and that different microbial species will preferentially adhere to select locations along the intestinal villi. We used a synthetic 3-D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the coculture of epithelial cell types with select bacterial populations. Our end goal was to establish microbial niches along the crypt–villus axis in order to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine, which could potentially provide new insights into microbe-induced intestinal disorders, as well as enabling targeted probiotic therapies. We recreated the surface topography of the small intestine by fabricating a biodegradable and biocompatible villous scaffold using poly lactic-glycolic acid to enable the culture of Caco-2 with differentiation along the crypt–villus axis in a similar manner to native intestines. This was then used as a platform to mimic the adhesion and invasion profiles of both Salmonella and Pseudomonas, and assess the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus and commensal Escherichia coli in a 3-D setting. We found that, in a 3-D environment, Lactobacillus is more successful at displacing pathogens, whereas Nissle is more effective at inhibiting pathogen adhesion. PMID:24798584

  17. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  18. Like Will to Like: Abundances of Closely Related Species Can Predict Susceptibility to Intestinal Colonization by Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bärbel Stecher; Samuel Chaffron; Rina Käppeli; Siegfried Hapfelmeier; Susanne Freedrich; Thomas C. Weber; Jorum Kirundi; Mrutyunjay Suar; Kathy D. McCoy; Christian von Mering; Andrew J. Macpherson; Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance) is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a

  19. Tuberculosis and intestinal parasitism among indigenous people in the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Sodré, Fernando Campos; Porras-Pedroza, Beatriz Elena; Faria, Eduardo César; Magalhães, Gustavo Albino Pinto; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Coura, José Rodrigues

    2009-02-01

    The objective of the survey was to estimate the frequencies of tuberculosis and intestinal parasitosis in indigenous communities at the locality of Iauareté, Northern Brazil, in 2001. This was a cross-sectional survey (n=333) aimed at obtaining demographic data and biological samples for sputum and feces examinations. Among the 43 individuals with respiratory symptoms, six presented alcohol/acid-fast bacilli in sputum. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly more frequent among the Hüpda population than among the Indians living in other districts (37.5% vs. 19.3% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 32.4% vs. 16.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 75% vs. 19.3% for hookworms, 75% vs. 35.4% for Entamoeba histolyticaD dispar and 33.3% vs. 10.7% for Giardia lamblia). It is concluded that tuberculosis and intestinal parasitism are frequent in these communities, thus requiring control measures and better medical care. PMID:19169591

  20. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments. PMID:25975855

  1. Host-microbiota interactions within the fish intestinal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Pérez, T; Balcázar, J L; Ruiz-Zarzuela, I; Halaihel, N; Vendrell, D; de Blas, I; Múzquiz, J L

    2010-07-01

    Teleost fish are in direct contact with the aquatic environment, and are therefore in continual contact with a complex and dynamic microbiota, some of which may have implications for health. Mucosal surfaces represent the main sites in which environmental antigens and intestinal microbiota interact with the host. Thus, the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) must develop mechanisms to discriminate between pathogenic and commensal microorganisms. Colonization of intestinal mucosal surfaces with a normal microbiota has a positive effect on immune regulatory functions of the gut, and disturbance in these immune regulatory functions by an imbalanced microbiota may contribute to the development of diseases. Significant attention has therefore been recently focused on the role of probiotics in the induction or restoration of a disturbed microbiota to its normal beneficial composition. Given this, this article explores the fascinating relationship between the fish immune system and the bacteria that are present in its intestinal microbiota, focusing on the bacterial effect on the development of certain immune responses. PMID:20237466

  2. Therapeutic approaches targeting intestinal microflora in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease, are chronic intestinal disorders of unknown etiology in which in genetically susceptible individuals, the mucosal immune system shows an aberrant response towards commensal bacteria. The gastrointestinal tract has developed ingenious mechanisms to coexist with its autologous microflora, but rapidly responds to invading pathogens and then returns to homeostasis with its commensal bacteria after the pathogenic infection is cleared. In case of disruption of this tightly-regulated homeostasis, chronic intestinal inflammation may be induced. Previous studies showed that some commensal bacteria are detrimental while others have either no influence or have a protective action. In addition, each host has a genetically determined response to detrimental and protective bacterial species. These suggest that therapeutic manipulation of imbalance of microflora can influence health and disease. This review focuses on new insights into the role of commensal bacteria in gut health and disease, and presents recent findings in innate and adaptive immune interactions. Therapeutic approaches to modulate balance of intestinal microflora and their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:16874854

  3. Broad diversity and newly cultured bacterial isolates from enrichment of pig feces on complex polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fascinating functions of the mammalian intestinal microbiota is the fermentation of plant cell wall components. We used 8 week continuous culture enrichments of pig feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin to isolated bacteria from this community. A total of 575 bacterial isolates were class...

  4. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  5. Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy ALCOHOL POLICY INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5 A. SECURITY SERVICES AT ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS ........................................... 5 B

  6. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  7. A Network Model of Alcoholism and Alcohol Policy

    E-print Network

    Edwards, David A.

    A Network Model of Alcoholism and Alcohol Policy Dr. Robert Wilson School of Urban Affairs alcohol abuse. This infor- mation is relatively reliable compared to many types of hard drug abuse. Data with those statistics and study the epidemiology of alcoholism with some known population structures [2, 3, 4

  8. Alcohol to Ester 21 ALCOHOL TO ESTER

    E-print Network

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    the original alcohol and the derived ester using boiling point and H-NMR. Some Learning Goals: 1. Observe of the Claisen adapter so that the thermometer point is immersed in the liquid (but not so deep product purity) 5. GC chromatogram of your distilled product. Graph/% Report only, not mass specs. 6

  9. Intestinal absorption of organicmicropollutants S. Cavret et al. Original article

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intestinal absorption of organicmicropollutants S. Cavret et al. Original article Intestinal the transfer through the intestinal barrier of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo intestinal absorption for the studied molecules. Phenanthrene appeared to be the fastest and most uptaken

  10. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

  11. [Alcohol and hematopoiesis].

    PubMed

    Stobbe, H

    1981-08-15

    In a survey of quantitative and qualitative changes of blood and blood-forming cell systems by big consumption of alcohol is informed about the frequency of such lesions and the importance of additional substances of alcohol, particularly of the fusel oils with their cancerogenic, mutagenic, hepato- and haemototoxic effects. The alcohol-conditioned lesions of the erythrocytopoiesis with disturbances of maturation by deficiency of folic acid under formation of a megaloblastosis, the alcoholinduced disturbances of the iron metabolism with increase of the sideroblasts as well as the formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the proerythroblasts are discussed. In this connection the symptomatic anaemias, caused by alcoholic liver lesion and its sequelae as well as by ulcerous haemorrhage, particularly also of Zieve's syndrome, are discussed. Functional disturbances of the granulocytes and granulocytopenias are to be brought into connection with the particular susceptibility to infections of patients suffering from alcoholism. Functional disturbances of the thrombocytes and thrombocytopenias, to be sure, rarely lead to a haemorrhagic diathesis, deserve, however, more consideration as possible causing factors in apoplexias under big consumption of alcohol. On principle the direct alcohol-toxic (at least ethanol-toxic) defects of haemotopoiesis are reversible for a short time. PMID:7027653

  12. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  13. The intestinal LABs.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine E; de Vries, Maaike C; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Akkermans, Antoon D L; de Vos, Willem M

    2002-08-01

    The complete gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans is colonised soon after birth by a myriad of microbial species with a characteristic distribution depending on the location. GI-tract ecology has been experiencing a revival due to the development of molecular techniques, especially those based on 16S RNA (zRNA) genes. A richer ecosystem than previously imagined of novel species is being discovered that is significantly influenced by our host genotype. Special attention has been focused on the bifidobacteria and the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) populations, both those that are naturally present within this complex ecosystem and those that are ingested as probiotics in functional foods. Overall this interest stems from a increasing awareness of interplay between microflora, diet and the health of the host, and is further stimulated by an increasing incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses, and atopy. Substantial documentation of benefits to host health has especially distinguished the LAB for multidisciplinary research aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. Recent advances in molecular technologies, including high-throughput genomics-based approaches, can significantly advance our understanding of the microbe--diet--host interactions and offer valuable information for design and application of health-targeted microbes. PMID:12369201

  14. [Alcohol use in France].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol consumption has regularly decreased in France since the 1950s, essentially in connection with the decrease of wine consumption, with disaffection for the "table wine", for the benefit of better quality wines that are drunk in lesser quantity. France is still part of the most alcohol drinking countries in the European Union but is no longer situated at the very top of the ranking. General population surveys results tend to confirm the evolution of sale of alcohol: since 1992, among 15-75 years old, alcohol daily users proportion was divided by two, from 24% in 1992 to 11% in 2010, currently replaced by a more occasional use. We indeed observe in the general population a profile of young adults having a strong and punctual consumption, and an older profile of less important but regular consumption. The proportion of problematic alcohol users remains stable, concerning approximately a person on 10 in the adult population. The part of persons who declared they have drunk six glasses or more during the same occasion at least once a month during the last twelve months increased from 15% in 2005 to 18% in 2010. Binge drinking and the frequency of drunkenness have increased among teenagers and young adults these last years. These behaviors can lead to short term risks, such as accidents, undergone violence, unwanted or unprotected sexual intercourse, even coma, whereas chronic alcohol use can lead to numerous hepatic, cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric complications, as well as cancers. With such sanitary consequences, alcohol is a major risk factor of avoidable morbidity and premature mortality. The beneficial effect that seems to have a moderate consumption of alcohol on the risk of death by cardiovascular diseases has brought about recurring scientific controversies. However, its major noxious effects in terms of non-transmitted diseases should remain the major point in public health decisions on alcoholization. PMID:24994508

  15. Liver Ischemic Preconditioning (IPC) Improves Intestinal Microbiota Following Liver Transplantation in Rats through 16s rDNA-Based Analysis of Microbial Structure Shift

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haifeng; Chen, Xinhua; Jiang, Jianwen; Liu, Hui; He, Yong; Ding, Songming; Hu, Zhenhua; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with intestinal microbial dysbiosis. The “gut-liver axis” closely links gut function and liver function in health and disease. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been proven to reduce I/R injury in the surgery. This study aims to explore the effect of IPC on intestinal microbiota and to analyze characteristics of microbial structure shift following liver transplantation (LT). Methods The LT animal models of liver and gut IPC were established. Hepatic graft function was assessed by histology and serum ALT/AST. Intestinal barrier function was evaluated by mucosal ultrastructure, serum endotoxin, bacterial translocation, fecal sIgA content and serum TNF-?. Intestinal bacterial populations were determined by quantitative PCR. Microbial composition was characterized by DGGE and specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Principal Findings Liver IPC improved hepatic graft function expressed as ameliorated graft structure and reduced ALT/AST levels. After administration of liver IPC, intestinal mucosal ultrastructure improved, serum endotoxin and bacterial translocation mildly decreased, fecal sIgA content increased, and serum TNF-? decreased. Moreover, liver IPC promoted microbial restorations mainly through restoring Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium clusters XI and Clostridium cluster XIVab on bacterial genus level. DGGE profiles indicated that liver IPC increased microbial diversity and species richness, and cluster analysis demonstrated that microbial structures were similar and clustered together between the NC group and Liver-IPC group. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree of band sequences showed key bacteria corresponding to 10 key band classes of microbial structure shift induced by liver IPC, most of which were assigned to Bacteroidetes phylum. Conclusion Liver IPC cannot only improve hepatic graft function and intestinal barrier function, but also promote restorations of intestinal microbiota following LT, which may further benefit hepatic graft by positive feedback of the “gut-liver axis”. PMID:24098410

  16. Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions. PMID:25275396

  17. The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Development and Severity of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Michel J.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Mucositis, also referred to as mucosal barrier injury, is one of the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. Clinically, mucositis is associated with pain, bacteremia, and malnutrition. Furthermore, mucositis is a frequent reason to postpone chemotherapy treatment, ultimately leading towards a higher mortality in cancer patients. According to the model introduced by Sonis, both inflammation and apoptosis of the mucosal barrier result in its discontinuity, thereby promoting bacterial translocation. According to this five-phase model, the intestinal microbiota plays no role in the pathophysiology of mucositis. However, research has implicated a prominent role for the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development of several inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, pouchitis, and radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. Furthermore, chemotherapeutics have a detrimental effect on the intestinal microbial composition (strongly decreasing the numbers of anaerobic bacteria), coinciding in time with the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We hypothesize that the commensal intestinal microbiota might play a pivotal role in chemotherapy-induced mucositis. In this review, we propose and discuss five pathways in the development of mucositis that are potentially influenced by the commensal intestinal microbiota: 1) the inflammatory process and oxidative stress, 2) intestinal permeability, 3) the composition of the mucus layer, 4) the resistance to harmful stimuli and epithelial repair mechanisms, and 5) the activation and release of immune effector molecules. Via these pathways, the commensal intestinal microbiota might influence all phases in the Sonis model of the pathogenesis of mucositis. Further research is needed to show the clinical relevance of restoring dysbiosis, thereby possibly decreasing the degree of intestinal mucositis. PMID:20523891

  18. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  19. Assessment of microbial diversity in the river trout Salmo trutta fario L. intestinal tract identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesta Skrodenyte-Arbaciauskiene; Aniolas Sruoga; Dalius Butkauskas

    2006-01-01

    The microbial diversity of the intestinal tract content of the river trout from two Lithuanian rivers has been investigated\\u000a by molecular methods: polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. Predominant bacterial\\u000a populations detected in the river trout intestinal tract from the Skorblus River were Rahnella (21%), from the Žeimena River, Aeromonas (41.7%) and Plesiomonas (22.9%). Buttiauxella

  20. Intestinal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus : how does its frequency compare with that of nasal carriage and what is its clinical impact?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Acton; M. J. Tempelmans Plat-Sinnige; W. van Wamel; N. de Groot; A. van Belkum

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, including its methicillin-resistant variant (MRSA), finds its primary ecological niche in the human nose, but is also able\\u000a to colonize the intestines and the perineal region. Intestinal carriage has not been widely investigated despite its potential\\u000a clinical impact. This review summarizes literature on the topic and sketches the current state of affairs from a microbiological

  1. Glycan-modifying bacteria-derived soluble factors from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Lactobacillus casei inhibit rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Varyukhina; Miguel Freitas; Sabine Bardin; Emilie Robillard; Emmanuelle Tavan; Catherine Sapin; Jean-Pierre Grill; Germain Trugnan

    Rotaviruses attach to intestinal cells in a process that requires glycan recognition. Some bacteria from the gut microflora have been shown to modify cell-surface glycans. In this study, human intestinal cultured cells were incubated with bacteria-derived soluble factors and infected with rotavirus. Results show that only bacterial soluble factors that increase cell-surface galactose namely, those of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Lactobacillus

  2. Ethyl Alcohol Production. 

    E-print Network

    O'Neal, Henry

    1981-01-01

    mixture is known as beer. 6. The next step is to separate the ethyl alcohol from the beer using two 12-inch diameter plate distillation columns, each 20 feet in height. All of the fermented mash is put into the first column (beer column) with steam... of the second column (rectifying column) where alcohol vapor is driven off at the top and condensed to yield liquid alcohol. The normal production proof of the Texas A&M University plant is 182 to 184. 7. The solid grain residues are separated from...

  3. Three distinct quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are expressed when Pseudomonas putida is grown on different alcohols.

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, H; Fujii, A; Matsushita, K; Shinagawa, E; Ameyama, M; Adachi, O

    1995-01-01

    A bacterial strain that can utilize several kinds of alcohols as its sole carbon and energy sources was isolated from soil and tentatively identified as Pseudomonas putida HK5. Three distinct dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), each of which contained the prosthetic group pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), were formed in the soluble fractions of this strain grown on different alcohols. ADH I was formed most abundantly in the cells grown on ethanol and was similar to the quinoprotein ADH reported for P. putida (H. Görisch and M. Rupp, Antonie Leeuwenhoek 56:35-45, 1989) except for its isoelectric point. The other two ADHs, ADH IIB and ADH IIG, were formed separately in the cells grown on 1-butanol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. Both of these enzymes contained heme c in addition to PQQ and functioned as quinohemoprotein dehydrogenases. Potassium ferricyanide was an available electron acceptor for ADHs IIB and IIG but not for ADH I. The molecular weights were estimated to be 69,000 for ADH IIB and 72,000 for ADH IIG, and both enzymes were shown to be monomers. Antibodies raised against each of the purified ADHs could distinguish the ADHs from one another. Immunoblot analysis showed that ADH I was detected in cells grown on each alcohol tested, but ethanol was the most effective inducer. ADH IIB was formed in the cells grown on alcohols of medium chain length and also on 1,3-butanediol. Induction of ADH IIG was restricted to 1,2-propanediol or glycerol, of which the former alcohol was more effective. These results from immunoblot analysis correlated well with the substrate specificities of the respective enzymes. Thus, three distinct quinoprotein ADHs were shown to be synthesized by a single bacterium under different growth conditions. PMID:7730276

  4. Bacterial colonization and gut development in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T

    2012-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in 5-10% of preterm infants in association with enteral feeding and bacterial colonization. It remains unclear how diet and bacteria interact to protect or provoke the immature gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the factors that control bacterial colonization may provide the clue to prevent NEC, and studies in infants must be combined with animal models to understand the mechanisms of the microbiota-epithelium interactions. Analyses of infant fecal samples show that the density and distribution of bacterial species are highly variable with no consistent effects of gestational age, delivery mode, diet or probiotic administration, while low bacterial diversity and bacterial overgrowth are commonly associated with NEC. A series of recent studies in preterm pigs show that the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by delivery method, prematurity and NEC progression and that diet has limited effects. Overgrowth of specific groups (e.g. Clostridia) appears to be a consequence of NEC, rather than the cause of NEC. Administration of probiotics either decreases or increases NEC sensitivity in preterm pigs, while in preterm infants probiotics have generally decreased NEC incidence and overall mortality. The optimal nature and amount of probiotic bacteria are unknown and host defense factors appear more important for NEC sensitivity than the nature of the gut microbiota. Host defense is improved by feeding the optimal amount of enteral diets, such as mother's colostrum or milk, that help the immature intestinal immune system to respond appropriately to the highly variable bacterial colonization. PMID:22284985

  5. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  6. Context effects on alcohol cognitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Krank; Anne-Marie Wall; Sherry H. Stewart; Reinnout W. Wiers; Mark S. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes a symposium on context and alcohol-related cognitions presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The studies reported here examine how the manipulation of contextual variables influences the availability of alcohol outcome expectancies and implicit memories for alcohol associations. The symposium illustrates the range of context variables and

  7. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  8. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II – contemporary contextual research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest concerning the ways in which the gastrointestinal tract – its functional integrity and microbial residents – might influence human mood (e.g. depression) and behavioral disorders. Once a hotbed of scientific interest in the early 20th century, this area lay dormant for decades, in part due to its association with the controversial term ‘autointoxication’. Here we review contemporary findings related to intestinal permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) exposure, D-lactic acid, propionic acid, and discuss their relevance to microbiota and mental health. In addition, we include the context of modern dietary habits as they relate to depression, anxiety and their potential interaction with intestinal microbiota. PMID:23497633

  9. Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the rat. A Bernard 1, C et al, 1991Although the intestine possesses a A6 desaturase activity (Garg et al, 1988), arach rats) was scraped and intestinal walls removed. The radioactivity of lipid extracts from bile samples

  10. Radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Perino, L.E.; Schuffler, M.D.; Mehta, S.J.; Everson, G.T.

    1986-10-01

    A case of intestinal pseudoobstruction occurring 30 yr after radiation therapy is described. Mechanical causes of obstruction were excluded by laparotomy. Histology of full-thickness sections of the small bowel revealed vascular ectasia and sclerosis, serosal fibrosis, neuronal proliferation within the submucosa, and degeneration of the muscle fibers of the circular layer of the muscularis propria. On the basis of the clinical and histologic findings we conclude that, in this patient, intestinal pseudoobstruction was due to muscular and neuronal injury from abdominal irradiation.

  11. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella Adhesion to Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schierack; Sylvia Kleta; Karsten Tedin; Julius Tachu Babila; Sibylle Oswald; Tobias A. Oelschlaeger; Rico Hiemann; Susanne Paetzold; Lothar H. Wieler; Leonardo A. Sechi

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects

  12. Intrinsic primary afferent neuronsof the intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. FURNESS; W. A. A. KUNZE; P. P. BERTRAND; N. CLERC; J. C. BORNSTEIN

    1998-01-01

    After a long period of inconclusive observations, the intrinsic primary afferent neurons of the intestine have been identified. The intestine is thus equipped with two groups of afferent neurons, those with cell bodies in cranial and dorsal root ganglia, and these recently identified afferent neurons with cell bodies in the wall of the intestine.The first, tentative, identification of intrinsic primary

  13. Subtypes of intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M E Craanen; P Blok; W Dekker; J Ferwerda; G N Tytgat

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between the presence of H pylori and the various subtypes of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric antrum, 2274 antral gastroscopic biopsies from 533 patients were examined. H pylori was found in 289 patients. Intestinal metaplasia in general was found in 135 patients. Type I intestinal metaplasia was found in 133 patients (98.5%), type

  14. IgE levels in intestinal juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Belut; D. A. Moneret-Vautrin; J. P. Nicolas; J. P. Grilliat

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was performed to determine the possible significance of the IgE levels in intestinal secretions for the recognition of type I food allergy (immediate hypersensitivity). Four groups of individuals were studied and compared with each other: (1) healthy controls and patients with gastrointestinal disorders not affecting the small intestine; (2) patients with small intestinal disease; (3) patients with various

  15. Original article Intestinal transfer of manganese

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Intestinal transfer of manganese: resemblance to and competition with calcium Y of calcium, phosphate and the sugars lactose and sorbitol on the intestinal absorption of manganese were by this high calcium concentration. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity was rapidly stimulated by Mn

  16. COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE AFTER PARTIAL ENTERECTOMY A NEURO HUMORAL National de la Recherche Agronomique 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Résumé HYPERTROPHIE COMPENSATRICE DE L'INTESTIN de l'hypertrophie compensatrice de l'intestin résiduel est libéré ou non après entérectomie partielle

  17. Medical comorbidity and alcohol dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Mannelli; Chi Un Pae

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and, more generally, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) predispose individuals to adverse consequences that\\u000a extend beyond the expected damage from alcohol-direct toxicity. Research has shown that the relationship of alcohol use to\\u000a health outcomes is complex, as is the etiology of AD, and that the individual and social costs of alcohol-related problems\\u000a are increasing. We review advances in

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Students 

    E-print Network

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-06-30

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol...

  19. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to a range of acute consequences, including injuries, sexual assaults, and even deaths—including those from car crashes. ... of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 24 Roughly 20 percent of ...

  20. Alcohol and Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention Families with Kids Alcohol and Drugs ... Resilience Satisfaction with Life Sexual Truama Sleep Spirituality Stigma Stress Work Adjustment Worry Videos Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  1. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  2. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  3. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Personal habits and indoor combustions. Volume 100 E. A review of human carcinogens. ... Brennan P, Chuang SC, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head ...

  4. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keep in mind that recreational drugs aren't regulated, so you never know exactly how much you ... HIV positive (AIDSmap). The Drinkers Check-up A self-evaluation tool for people who drink alcohol and ...

  5. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906

  6. Intestinal Cell Proliferation and Senescence Are Regulated by Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase C and p21*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Nirmalya; Saha, Sayanti; Khan, Imran; Ramachandra, Subbaraya G.; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2014-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and serves as the receptor for bacterial heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) peptides and the guanylin family of gastrointestinal hormones. Activation of GC-C elevates intracellular cGMP, which modulates intestinal fluid-ion homeostasis and differentiation of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis. GC-C activity can regulate colonic cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest, and mice lacking GC-C display increased cell proliferation in colonic crypts. Activation of GC-C by administration of ST to wild type, but not Gucy2c?/?, mice resulted in a reduction in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci formation. In p53-deficient human colorectal carcinoma cells, ST led to a transcriptional up-regulation of p21, the cell cycle inhibitor, via activation of the cGMP-responsive kinase PKGII and p38 MAPK. Prolonged treatment of human colonic carcinoma cells with ST led to nuclear accumulation of p21, resulting in cellular senescence and reduced tumorigenic potential. Our results, therefore, identify downstream effectors for GC-C that contribute to regulating intestinal cell proliferation. Thus, genomic responses to a bacterial toxin can influence intestinal neoplasia and senescence. PMID:24217248

  7. Remodeling of the Intestinal Brush Border Underlies Adhesion and Virulence of an Enteric Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Massol, Ramiro H.; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Chen, Xiang; Gewurz, Benjamin E.; Davis, Brigid M.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intestinal colonization by Vibrio parahaemolyticus—the most common cause of seafood-borne bacterial enteritis worldwide—induces extensive disruption of intestinal microvilli. In orogastrically infected infant rabbits, reorganization of the apical brush border membrane includes effacement of some microvilli and marked elongation of others. All diarrhea, inflammation, and intestinal pathology associated with V. parahaemolyticus infection are dependent upon one of its type 3 secretion systems (T3SS2); however, translocated effectors that directly mediate brush border restructuring and bacterial adhesion are not known. Here, we demonstrate that the effector VopV is essential for V. parahaemolyticus intestinal colonization and therefore its pathogenicity, that it induces effacement of brush border microvilli, and that this effacement is required for adhesion of V. parahaemolyticus to enterocytes. VopV contains multiple functionally independent and mechanistically distinct domains through which it disrupts microvilli. We show that interaction between VopV and filamin, as well as VopV’s previously noted interaction with actin, mediates enterocyte cytoskeletal reorganization. VopV’s multipronged approach to epithelial restructuring, coupled with its impact on colonization, suggests that remodeling of the epithelial brush border is a critical step in pathogenesis. PMID:25139905

  8. Intestinal Blautia Is Associated with Reduced Death from Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Jenq, Robert R; Taur, Ying; Devlin, Sean M; Ponce, Doris M; Goldberg, Jenna D; Ahr, Katya F; Littmann, Eric R; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia C; Miller, Liza C; Docampo, Melissa D; Peled, Jonathan U; Arpaia, Nicholas; Cross, Justin R; Peets, Tatanisha K; Lumish, Melissa A; Shono, Yusuke; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Poeck, Hendrik; Hanash, Alan M; Barker, Juliet N; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Giralt, Sergio A; Pamer, Eric G; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between intestinal microbiota composition and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood/marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is not well understood. Intestinal bacteria have long been thought to contribute to GVHD pathophysiology, but recent animal studies in nontransplant settings have found that anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by certain subpopulations of intestinal commensals. Hypothesizing that a more nuanced relationship may exist between the intestinal bacteria and GVHD, we evaluated the fecal bacterial composition of 64 patients 12 days after BMT. We found that increased bacterial diversity was associated with reduced GVHD-related mortality. Furthermore, harboring increased amounts of bacteria belonging to the genus Blautia was associated with reduced GVHD lethality in this cohort and was confirmed in another independent cohort of 51 patients from the same institution. Blautia abundance was also associated with improved overall survival. We evaluated the abundance of Blautia with respect to clinical factors and found that loss of Blautia was associated with treatment with antibiotics that inhibit anaerobic bacteria and receiving total parenteral nutrition for longer durations. We conclude that increased abundance of commensal bacteria belonging to the Blautia genus is associated with reduced lethal GVHD and improved overall survival. PMID:25977230

  9. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  10. Use of intestinal Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fish to detect the environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Christianus, Annie; Ishak, Zamri; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli Hj; Masoumian, Majid; Courtenay, Simon C

    2012-05-15

    This study examined the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa abundance in the intestines of fish as an indicator of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). P. aeruginosa populations were enumerated in juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) injected intramuscularly three days previous with 0, 10, 30, 40, 50 or 70mg/kg of BaP. Hepatic EROD and GST activities and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) 1-OH BaP, 3-OH BaP, 7,8-D BaP and BaP were quantified to investigate agreements between the new indicator and established fish biomarkers. The shape of bacterial population (logarithm of colony-forming unit) dose-response curve generally matched those of biliary FACs concentrations. Conversely, the EROD and GST dose-response curves were generally the mirror images of the bacterial population curve. Changes in intestinal P. aeruginosa population appear to be an indirect effect of BaP exposure because exposure to 0-100?g/ml BaP had no effect on P. aeruginosa populations grown on agar plates containing BaP. Using intestinal P. aeruginosa population of fish as a universal indicator of BaP pollution in aquatic environments is discussed.Conversely, the EROD and GST dose-response curves were generally the mirror images of the bacterial population curve. PMID:22417397

  11. Small Intestinal Intraepithelial TCR??+ T Lymphocytes Are Present in the Premature Intestine but Selectively Reduced in Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Rosen, Michael J.; Zhao, Zhiguo; Koyama, Tatsuki; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L.; Rock, Michael T.; Moore, Daniel J.; Halpern, Melissa D.; Matta, Pranathi; Denning, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal barrier immaturity predisposes preterm infants to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) bearing the unconventional T cell receptor (TCR) ?? (?? IEL) maintain intestinal integrity and prevent bacterial translocation in part through production of interleukin (IL) 17. Objective We sought to study the development of ?? IEL in the ileum of human infants and examine their role in NEC pathogenesis. We defined the ontogeny of ?? IEL proportions in murine and human intestine and subjected tcr??/? mice to experimental gut injury. In addition, we used polychromatic flow cytometry to calculate percentages of viable IEL (defined as CD3+ CD8+ CD103+ lymphocytes) and the fraction of ?? IEL in surgically resected tissue from infants with NEC and gestational age matched non-NEC surgical controls. Results In human preterm infants, the proportion of IEL was reduced by 66% in 11 NEC ileum resections compared to 30 non-NEC controls (p<0.001). While ?? IEL dominated over conventional ?? IEL early in gestation in mice and in humans, ?? IEL were preferential decreased in the ileum of surgical NEC patients compared to non-NEC controls (50% reduction, p<0.05). Loss of IEL in human NEC was associated with downregulation of the Th17 transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor C (RORC, p<0.001). TCR?-deficient mice showed increased severity of experimental gut injury (p<0.05) with higher TNF? expression but downregulation of IL17A. Conclusion Complimentary mouse and human data suggest a role of ?? IEL in IL17 production and intestinal barrier production early in life. Specific loss of the ?? IEL fraction may contribute to NEC pathogenesis. Nutritional or pharmacological interventions to support ?? IEL maintenance in the developing small intestine could serve as novel strategies for NEC prevention. PMID:24905458

  12. Iron-Induced Virulence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface Can Be Suppressed by Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Roelofs, Rian W. H. M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral iron therapy can increase the abundance of bacterial pathogens, e.g., Salmonella spp., in the large intestine of African children. Carvacrol is a natural compound with antimicrobial activity against various intestinal bacterial pathogens, among which is the highly prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study aimed to explore a presumed interaction between carvacrol and bacterial iron handling and to assess the potential of carvacrol in preventing the increase of bacterial pathogenicity during high iron availability. S. Typhimurium was cultured with increasing concentrations of iron and carvacrol to study the effects of these combined interventions on growth, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and iron uptake/influx in both bacterial and epithelial cells. In addition, the ability of carvacrol to remove iron from the high-affinity ligand transferrin and an Fe-dye complex was examined. Carvacrol retarded growth of S. Typhimurium at all iron conditions. Furthermore, iron-induced epithelial adhesion was effectively reduced by carvacrol at high iron concentrations. The reduction of growth and virulence by carvacrol was not paralleled by a change in iron uptake or influx into S. Typhimurium. In contrast, bioavailability of iron for epithelial cells was moderately decreased under these conditions. Further, carvacrol was shown to lack the properties of an iron binding molecule; however, it was able to weaken iron-ligand interactions by which it may possibly interfere with bacterial virulence. In conclusion, our in vitro data suggest that carvacrol has the potential to serve as a novel dietary supplement to prevent pathogenic overgrowth and colonization in the large intestine during oral iron therapy. PMID:24379194

  13. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  14. Polysubstance use among alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Staines, G L; Magura, S; Foote, J; Deluca, A; Kosanke, N

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary alcoholics often use multiple substances, but there is little systematic research on this. This study examines the drug use comorbidity of alcoholics (DSM diagnosis, frequency and quantity of drug use); the relationship between drinking and drug use; the relative severity of alcohol- and drug-related problems; and the validity of reports of illicit drug use. Data on substance use were collected from 248 treatment-seeking alcoholics using an expanded Time-line Follow-Back (TLFB) interview. Self-reports of substance use were validated with data from biological specimens (urine and hair). Lifetime diagnosis of joint alcohol and drug dependence/abuse was 64%. Two-thirds (68%) reported using drugs in the past 90 days: 33% powder cocaine; 29% crack cocaine; 15% heroin, and 24% cannabis. The mean proportions of exposed days on which users reported consuming a substance were 57% (alcohol), 26% (powder cocaine), 46% (crack cocaine), 47% (heroin), and 29% (cannabis). Subjects reported consuming an average of 14 standard drinks on a drinking day and $67 worth of drugs on a using day. Drug users reported drinking less than nonusers on a drinking day. Frequency of drinking and drug use were positively correlated; almost all drug users reported simultaneous drinking and drug use; and they rated drugs as the bigger problem. Considerable under-reporting of drug use occurred for the previous 3-4 days, but was more accurate for the previous month. PMID:11760926

  15. Shaping the (auto)immune response in the gut: the role of intestinal immune regulation in the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sorini, Chiara; Falcone, Marika

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. There is increasing evidence that environmental factors acting at the intestinal level, with a special regard to the diverse bacterial species that constitute the microbiota, influence the course of autoimmune diseases in tissues outside the intestine both in humans and in preclinical models. In this review we recapitulate current knowledge on the intestinal immune system, its role in local and systemic immune responses and how multiple environmental factors can shape these responses with pathologic or beneficial outcomes for autoimmune diseases such T1D. PMID:23885333

  16. Intestinal graft versus host disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R L Bryan; G N Antonakopoulos; J Newman; D W Milligan

    1991-01-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be

  17. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  18. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

  19. Immunologic mechanisms in intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Targan, S R; Kagnoff, M F; Brogan, M D; Shanahan, F

    1987-06-01

    The intestine is a unique immunologic organ that comprises an afferent and efferent compartment and provides the host with the ability to respond through several different effector mechanisms against environmental factors. We discuss mechanisms in three intestinal diseases in this overview of the mucosal immune system. Genetic and immunologic factors are important in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, which is characterized by damage to the mucosa of the small intestine with resultant malabsorption. Pathogenic microbes are important environmental agents that interact with the intestinal mucosa and initiate local immune responses. Advances in the understanding of the mucosal immune response to these pathogenic microbes have produced a clear picture of the way in which this specialized immune system works in concert with systemic immunity. As to the autoimmune nature of inflammatory bowel disease, no specific antigen has been shown to incite the inflammatory reactions and neither the target cells nor the effector mechanism involved have been identified. Several factors exist, however, to suggest an autoimmune mechanism and the role of mucosal immunologic factors in this disease. PMID:3555203

  20. Bowel resection for intestinal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Urbach; Michael Reedijk; Carole S. Richard; Kay I. Lie; Theodore M. Ross

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study contained herein was undertaken to evaluate which factors predict a good outcome following intestinal resection for endometriosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing bowel resection for severe (American Fertility Society Stage IV) endometriosis at one institution between the years 1992 and 1996 was conducted using systematic chart review and follow-up by telephone interview. RESULTS: Twenty-nine

  1. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  2. [Intestinal tuberculosis: Easier overlooked than diagnosed].

    PubMed

    Göke, M N; Leppert, A; Flemming, P; Soudah, B; Bange, F C; Bleck, J S; Widjaja, A; Högemann, B; Mellmann, J; Ockenga, J; Schedel, I; Gebel, M; Manns, M P

    2001-12-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis: Easier overlooked than diagnosed. The medical history of two Asian immigrants suffering from intestinal tuberculosis demonstrates the difficulties in finding the correct diagnosis. Intestinal tuberculosis resembles Crohn's disease with regard to clinical symptoms, macroscopic and microscopic intestinal findings. Sonographic, radiologic, endoscopic, and histological examinations facilitate distinguishing both entities. Diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis is made by identification of the causative microorganism in tissue specimens. As this may be difficult and time-consuming, a therapeutic trial with anti-tuberculous agents may be warranted. PMID:11753786

  3. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  4. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  5. Alcohol expectancies, alcohol use, and hostility as longitudinal predictors of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2012-09-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior. PMID:22004128

  6. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in hostility however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The extent to which findings may vary depending upon whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior are discussed. PMID:22004128

  7. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Krissi M; Gerba, Charles P; Maxwell, Sheri L; Kelley, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009). PMID:22666400

  8. Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J; Schurr, M; LeBlanc, C; Ramamurthy, R; Buchanan, K; Nickerson, C

    2002-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilise a number of mechanisms to cause disease in human hosts. Bacterial pathogens express a wide range of molecules that bind host cell targets to facilitate a variety of different host responses. The molecular strategies used by bacteria to interact with the host can be unique to specific pathogens or conserved across several different species. A key to fighting bacterial disease is the identification and characterisation of all these different strategies. The availability of complete genome sequences for several bacterial pathogens coupled with bioinformatics will lead to significant advances toward this goal. PMID:11930024

  9. Bacterial challenges in food

    PubMed Central

    Collee, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of bacterial challenges that might be encountered in food are discussed with reference to recognized and relatively unrecognized hazards. Mechanisms of pathogenicity are reviewed and the populations at risk are noted. The bacterial content of food as it is served at table merits more study. The challenge of prevention by education is discussed. Indirect bacterial challenges in our food are considered. The real challenge of diagnosis depends upon an awareness of a complex range of conditions; the importance of effective communication with efficient laboratory and epidemiological services is stressed. There is an increasing need for care in the preparation and distribution of food. PMID:4467860

  10. Preattentive processing of alcohol stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ingjaldsson, Jon T; Thayer, Julian F; Laberg, Jon C

    2003-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the automatic analysis of briefly presented alcohol stimuli in alcohol-dependent individuals. Alcoholics and controls were exposed to four different conditions: two brief (30 ms) and two long (130 ms) exposure conditions, each containing alcoholic and non-alcoholic pictures. Heart rate (HR) interbeat intervals were recorded and phasic cardiac responses assessed. Alcoholics had a stronger initial HR deceleration after exposure to masked alcohol slides compared with masked control slides, indicating a preattentive analysis of alcohol stimuli. This initial HR deceleration in the masked condition suggests an automatic attentional focusing to degraded alcohol cues. No such attentional effect was found when the pictures were presented unmasked and were clearly perceived. The implication of these results for the understanding of relapse in addictive behavior is discussed. PMID:12778984

  11. Role of defective methylation reactions in ethanol-induced dysregulation of intestinal barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Thomes, Paul G; Osna, Natalia A; Bligh, Sarah M; Tuma, Dean J; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2015-07-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major healthcare challenge worldwide. Emerging evidence reveals that ethanol administration disrupts the intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) complex; this defect allows for the paracellular translocation of gut-derived pathogenic molecules to reach the liver to cause inflammation and progressive liver injury. We have previously demonstrated a causative role of impairments in liver transmethylation reactions in the pathogenesis of ALD. We have further shown that treatment with betaine, a methylation agent that normalizes liver methylation potential, can attenuate ethanol-induced liver injury. Herein, we explored whether alterations in methylation reactions play a causative role in disrupting intestinal mucosal barrier function by employing an intestinal epithelial cell line. Monolayers of Caco-2 cells were exposed to ethanol or a-pan methylation reaction inhibitor, tubercidin, in the presence and absence of betaine. The structural and functional integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier was then examined. We observed that exposure to either ethanol or tubercidin disrupted TJ integrity and function by decreasing the localization of TJ protein occludin-1 to the intracellular junctions, reducing transepithelial electrical resistance and increasing dextran influx. All these detrimental effects of ethanol and tubercidin were attenuated by co-treatment with betaine. We further show that the mechanism of betaine protection was through BHMT-mediated catalysis. Collectively, our data suggest a novel mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness and identifies the importance of normal methylation reactions in maintaining TJ integrity. We also propose betaine as a potential therapeutic option for leaky gut in alcohol-consuming patients who are at the risk of developing ALD. PMID:25931143

  12. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-07-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  13. Influence of gut bacteria on development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hai, Ali; Abdallah, Ali; Malnick, Stephen Dh

    2015-06-28

    The intestine of the human contains a dynamic population of microbes that have a symbiotic relationship with the host. In addition, there is an effect of the intestinal microbiota on metabolism and digestion. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause worldwide of hepatic pathology and is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. In this review we examine the effect of the human microbiome on the components and pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. We are now on the threshold of therapeutic interventions on the human microbiome in order to effect human disease including NAFLD. PMID:26140087

  14. Influence of gut bacteria on development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hai, Ali; Abdallah, Ali; Malnick, Stephen DH

    2015-01-01

    The intestine of the human contains a dynamic population of microbes that have a symbiotic relationship with the host. In addition, there is an effect of the intestinal microbiota on metabolism and digestion. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause worldwide of hepatic pathology and is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. In this review we examine the effect of the human microbiome on the components and pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. We are now on the threshold of therapeutic interventions on the human microbiome in order to effect human disease including NAFLD. PMID:26140087

  15. An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jonathan J; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E; Skepper, Jeremy N; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W; Kirkby, Karen J; Mabbott, Neil A; Donaldson, David S; Williams, Ifor R; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E; Haas, Carolin T; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Laman, Jon D; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P H; Pele, Laetitia C

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer's patches, small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild-type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule 'programmed death-ligand 1', whereas in NOD1/2 double knockout mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, programmed death-ligand 1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and show how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:25751305

  16. Effect of Caenorhabditis elegans age and genotype on horizontal gene transfer in intestinal bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Nehrke, Keith; Blaser, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between bacteria occurs in the intestinal tract of their animal hosts and facilitates both virulence and antibiotic resistance. A model in which both the pathogen and the host are genetically tractable facilitates developing insight into mechanistic processes enabling or restricting the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. Here we develop an in vivo experimental system to study HGT in bacteria using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host. Using a thermosensitive conjugative system, we provide evidence that conjugation between two Escherichia coli strains can take place in the intestinal lumen of N2 wild-type worms at a rate of 10?3 and 10?2 per donor. We also show that C. elegans age and genotype are important determinants of the frequency of conjugation. Whereas ?1 transconjugant for every 100 donor cells could be recovered from the intestine of N2 C. elegans, for the age-1 and tol-1 mutants, the detected rate of transconjugation (10?3 and 10?4 per donor cell, respectively) was significantly lower. This work demonstrates that increased recombination among lumenal microbial populations is a phenotype associated with host aging, and the model provides a framework to study the dynamics of bacterial horizontal gene transfer within the intestinal environment.—Portal-Celhay, C., Nehrke, K., Blaser, M. J. Effect of Caenorhabditis elegans age and genotype on horizontal gene transfer in intestinal bacteria. PMID:23085995

  17. The Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Potentiates Intestinal Inflammation by Salmonella Typhimurium in Porcine Ileal Loops

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An; Verbrugghe, Elin; Goossens, Joline; Van Deun, Kim; Boyen, Filip; Thompson, Arthur; Shearer, Neil; De Backer, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and nontyphoidal salmonellosis are emerging threats with possible hazardous effects on both human and animal health. The objective of this study was to examine whether DON at low but relevant concentrations interacts with the intestinal inflammation induced by Salmonella Typhimurium. Methodology By using a porcine intestinal ileal loop model, we investigated whether intake of low concentrations of DON interacts with the early intestinal inflammatory response induced by Salmonella Typhimurium. Results A significant higher expression of IL-12 and TNF? and a clear potentiation of the expression of IL-1?, IL-8, MCP-1 and IL-6 was seen in loops co-exposed to 1 µg/mL of DON and Salmonella Typhimurium compared to loops exposed to Salmonella Typhimurium alone. This potentiation coincided with a significantly enhanced Salmonella invasion in and translocation over the intestinal epithelial IPEC-J2 cells, exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of DON for 24 h. Exposure of Salmonella Typhimurium to 0.250 µg/mL of DON affected the bacterial gene expression level of a limited number of genes, however none of these expression changes seemed to give an explanation for the increased invasion and translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium and the potentiated inflammatory response in combination with DON. Conclusion These data imply that the intake of low and relevant concentrations of DON renders the intestinal epithelium more susceptible to Salmonella Typhimurium with a subsequent potentiation of the inflammatory response in the gut. PMID:21909370

  18. Colonization and impact of disease and other factors on intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Chagoyán, Oscar C; Maldonado, José; Gil, Angel

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to review the process of microbial colonization and the environmental and host factors that influence colonization and microbial succession. The impact of some diseases on intestinal microbiota composition is also described. Microbial colonization of the gut by maternal vaginal and fecal bacteria begins during and after birth. During the first 2 years of life, specific microbes become established in a process designated microbial succession. Microbial succession in the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by numerous external and internal host-related factors, and by the second year of life, the intestinal microbiota composition is considered identical to that of adults. Nevertheless, intestinal microbiota in both infants and adults remain incompletely characterized and their diversity poorly defined. The main explanation is that many intestinal bacteria that live in an anaerobic environment are difficult or impossible to culture outside the intestine. However, recent advances in molecular biology techniques have initiated the description of new bacteria species. The composition of gut microbiota can be modulated by host, environmental, and bacterial factors, and strong evidence has emerged of substantial modifications during illness or exposure to threatening experiences. It has been postulated that improvements in hygienic measures have led to an increase in allergic diseases ("hygiene hypothesis"). Alterations in gut microbiota and their functions have been widely associated with many chronic and degenerative diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17420934

  19. Fecal Protease Activity Is Associated with Compositional Alterations in the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian M.; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Ferrier, Laurent; Wu, Michael C.; Siddle, Jennica P.; Bueno, Lionel; Ringel, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Objective Intestinal proteases carry out a variety of functions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Studies have reported that elevated enteric proteases in patients with GI disease can alter intestinal physiology, however the origin (human vs. microbial) of elevated proteases in patients with GI disease is unclear. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the association between protease activity and the microbiota in human fecal samples. Design In order to capture a wide range of fecal protease (FP) activity stool samples were collected from 30 IBS patients and 24 healthy controls. The intestinal microbiota was characterized using 454 high throughput pyro-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The composition and diversity of microbial communities were determined and compared using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline. FP activity levels were determined using an ELISA-based method. FP activity was ranked and top and bottom quartiles (n=13 per quartile) were identified as having high and low FP activity, respectively. Results The overall diversity of the intestinal microbiota displayed significant clustering separation (p = 0.001) between samples with high vs. low FP activity. The Lactobacillales, Lachnospiraceae, and Streptococcaceae groups were positively associated with FP activity across the entire study population, whilst the Ruminococcaceae family and an unclassified Coriobacteriales family were negatively associated with FP activity. Conclusions These data demonstrate significant associations between specific intestinal bacterial groups and fecal protease activity and provide a basis for further causative studies investigating the role of enteric microbes and GI diseases. PMID:24147109

  20. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705