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1

Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences  

PubMed Central

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, L-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J. Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y. James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R. Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R.

2008-01-01

2

Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M

2014-10-21

3

Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity  

PubMed Central

Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

2014-01-01

4

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult, the human intestine houses myriads of microorganisms, quantitatively up to 100 trillion and qualitatively over 500 species of bacteria, exceeding the number of host somatic cells by at least one order of magnitude. Actually, it remains a mystery as to how the intestine is able to contain such large quantities of bacteria without evident harm to the

A. Parodi; E. C. Lauritano; G. Nardone; L. Fontana; V. Savarino; A. Gasbarrini

2009-01-01

5

Studies of the small-intestinal bacterial flora and of intestinal absorption in pernicious anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE INTESTINAL bacterial flora in patients with pernicious anemia has long attracted the interest of investigators, but few recent studies have been reported. Tile present investigation was undertaken to reappraise the significance of the bacterial flora of the small intestine and to correlate bacterial growth with intestinal absorption in patients with pernicious anemia. The implication of intestinal bacteria in the

William C. Sherwood; Franz Goldstein; Farid I. Haurani; C. Wilmer Wirts

1964-01-01

6

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia  

E-print Network

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

Perrimon, Norbert

7

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

2013-08-01

8

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol acts as a teratogen in the fetus,resulting in prenatal or postnatal growth failure,characteristic facial dysmorphic features, and centralnervous system dysfunction. The toxic effects of alcohol on the developing brain are well recognized,but gastrointestinal neuropathy has not been describedin fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Five children with FASpresented in infancy with signs and symptoms suggestive of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Theywere not

E. Vasiliauskas; D. A. Piccoli; A. F. Flores; C. Di Lorenzo; P. E. Hyman

1997-01-01

9

Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, which are produced as components of the intestinal epithelial cell proinflammatory program in the early period after bacterial invasion, play an important role in the later induction and regulation of the epithelial cell apoptotic program. Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers. PMID:9819367

Kim, J M; Eckmann, L; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Witthöft, T; Kagnoff, M F

1998-01-01

10

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperproliferating intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. In addition, chronic inflammation and infection have been increasingly recognized for their roles in cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bacterial infections can initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis remain elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic bacterial pathogen, activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, a hallmark of the host stress response. This, in turn, causes apoptosis of enterocytes, the largest class of differentiated intestinal cells, and promotes a dramatic proliferation of SCs and progenitors that serves as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism to replenish the apoptotic enterocytes. However, we find that this homeostatic mechanism can lead to massive over-proliferation of intestinal cells when infection occurs in animals with a latent oncogenic form of the Ras1 oncogene. The affected intestines develop excess layers of cells with altered apicobasal polarity reminiscent of dysplasia, suggesting that infection can directly synergize with the genetic background in predisposed individuals to initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis. Our results provide a framework for the study of intestinal bacterial infections and their effects on undifferentiated and mature enteric epithelial cells in the initial stages of intestinal cancer. Assessment of progenitor cell responses to pathogenic intestinal bacteria could provide a measure of predisposition for apoptotic enterocyte-assisted intestinal dysplasias in humans. PMID:19934041

Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Perrimon, Norbert; Rahme, Laurence

2009-12-01

11

Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics  

PubMed Central

Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?15), non-alcoholic controls (n?=?14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p?=?0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p?=?0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results suggest that translocation of intestinal bacteria into liver may be involved as a one factor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:24564202

2014-01-01

12

Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

2013-01-01

13

Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability  

PubMed Central

We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated with alcohol or H2O2 with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) anti-oxidant, and CLOCK and PER2 proteins were measured at 4 or 2 h. In vivo Cyp2e1 protein and mRNA were also measured in colon tissue from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol increased CYP2E1 protein by 93% and enzyme activity by 69% in intestinal cells in vitro. Alcohol feeding also increased mouse colonic Cyp2e1 protein by 73%. mRNA levels of Cyp2e1 were not changed by alcohol in vitro or in mouse intestine. siRNA knockdown of CYP2E1 in Caco-2 cells prevented alcohol-induced hyperpermeability and induction of CLOCK and PER2 proteins. Alcohol-induced and H2O2-induced increases in intestinal cell CLOCK and PER2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with NAC. We concluded that our data support a novel role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability via a mechanism involving CYP2E1-dependent induction of oxidative stress and upregulation of circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2. PMID:23660503

Voigt, Robin M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2013-01-01

14

Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.

2014-01-01

15

A Model of Bacterial Intestinal Infections in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens is an entomopathogenic bacterium that opportunistically infects a wide range of hosts, including humans. In a model of septic injury, if directly introduced into the body cavity of Drosophila, this pathogen is insensitive to the host's systemic immune response and kills flies in a day. We find that S. marcescens resistance to the Drosophila immune deficiency (imd)-mediated humoral response requires the bacterial lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. If ingested by Drosophila, bacteria cross the gut and penetrate the body cavity. During this passage, the bacteria can be observed within the cells of the intestinal epithelium. In such an oral infection model, the flies succumb to infection only after 6 days. We demonstrate that two complementary host defense mechanisms act together against such food-borne infection: an antimicrobial response in the intestine that is regulated by the imd pathway and phagocytosis by hemocytes of bacteria that have escaped into the hemolymph. Interestingly, bacteria present in the hemolymph elicit a systemic immune response only when phagocytosis is blocked. Our observations support a model wherein peptidoglycan fragments released during bacterial growth activate the imd pathway and do not back a proposed role for phagocytosis in the immune activation of the fat body. Thanks to the genetic tools available in both host and pathogen, the molecular dissection of the interactions between S. marcescens and Drosophila will provide a useful paradigm for deciphering intestinal pathogenesis. PMID:18039029

Nehme, Nadine T; Liégeois, Samuel; Kele, Beatrix; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Pradel, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Jules A; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Ferrandon, Dominique

2007-01-01

16

Alterations in rat intestinal transit by morphine promote bacterial translocation.  

PubMed

Translocation of enteric microorganisms from the intestinal tract to extraintestinal sites has been proposed as an early step in the development of gram-negative sepsis. This study examined the role of altered bowel transit in influencing intestinal bacteriostasis and bacterial translocation using morphine as a pharmacologic inhibitor of such transit. In the first experiment, either normal saline (N = 8) or morphine sulfate (20 mg/kg; N = 8) was injected subcutaneously. Two hours later, morphine (7.5 mg/kg) was infused subcutaneously for an additional 22 hr; control animals received saline alone. After completion of this regimen, a volume of 0.2 ml of 2.5 mM FITC dextrans (10,000 daltons) were injected intraduodenally in each group. The bowel was removed 25 min later, divided into 5-cm segments, and the content of dextrans measured. Small bowel propulsion was expressed as the geometric center of the distribution of dextrans throughout the intestine (in percentage length of small bowel). Gut propulsion was significantly reduced after morphine treatment as compared to controls (32.8 +/- 8.2% vs. 55.8 +/- 4.0%; P < 0.01). In 16 additional rats, saline or morphine was again administered as described. After 24 hr, samples were obtained from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) complex, blood, spleen, liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum for standard bacteriology. The bacterial counts increased significantly in each intestinal segment following morphine treatment. Microorganisms translocated to the MLN complex in 5, and to distant sites in four of eight morphine-treated animals, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8344112

Runkel, N S; Moody, F G; Smith, G S; Rodriguez, L F; Chen, Y; Larocco, M T; Miller, T A

1993-08-01

17

Bacterial Overgrowth in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Null Mouse Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported the inflammation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse small intestine, and we hypothesized bacterial overgrowth as a possible cause. Quantitative PCR of bacterial 16S genomic DNA in the CF mouse small intestine revealed an increase of greater than 40-fold compared to controls. Sequencing of 16S PCR products and Gram staining showed that the majority of bacteria in

Oxana Norkina; Tim G. Burnett; Robert C. De Lisle

2004-01-01

18

Vasoactive intestinal peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity are decreased in fetal alcohol syndrome model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates growth in the early post-implantation embryo. Previous work has demonstrated that peptide agonists (SALLRSIPA and NAPVSIPQ) from downstream mediators that are regulated by VIP were able to prevent the alcohol-induced fetal death, growth restriction and microcephaly associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. Here we evaluated the role of VIP in this mouse model of fetal alcohol

Catherine Y Spong; Jonathan Auth; Joy Vink; Katie Goodwin; Daniel T Abebe; Joanna M Hill; Douglas E Brenneman

2002-01-01

19

Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

Patil, Anant D.

2014-01-01

20

Pediatric Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Low-Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted GI motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions that do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitat may be an under recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world. PMID:25486880

Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Petri, William A.

2015-01-01

21

Intestinal CYP2E1: A mediator of alcohol-induced gut leakiness  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol use can result in many pathological effects including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While alcohol is necessary for the development of ALD, only 20–30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) with progressive liver disease leading to cirrhosis and liver failure (ALD). This suggests that while chronic alcohol consumption is necessary it is not sufficient to induce clinically relevant liver damage in the absence of a secondary risk factor. Studies in rodent models and alcoholic patients show that increased intestinal permeability to microbial products like endotoxin play a critical role in promoting liver inflammation in ALD pathogenesis. Therefore identifying mechanisms of alcohol-induced intestinal permeability is important in identifying mechanisms of ALD and for designing new avenues for therapy. Cyp2e1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes alcohol has been shown to be upregulated by chronic alcohol use and to be a major source of oxidative stress and liver injury in alcoholics and in animal and in vitro models of chronic alcohol use. Because Cyp2e1 is also expressed in the intestine and is upregulated by chronic alcohol use, we hypothesized it could play a role in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability. Our in vitro studies with intestinal Caco-2 cells and in mice fed alcohol showed that circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 are required for alcohol-induced permeability. We also showed that alcohol increases Cyp2e1 protein and activity but not mRNA in Caco-2 cells and that an inhibitor of oxidative stress or siRNA knockdown of Cyp2e1 prevents the increase in CLOCK or PER2 proteins and prevents alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. With our collaborators we have also shown that Cyp2e1 knockout mice are resistant to alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver inflammation. Taken together our data support a novel Cyp2e1-circadian clock protein mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness that could provide new avenues for therapy of ALD. PMID:25462064

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali.

2014-01-01

22

Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

2014-12-01

23

Diversity and Contribution of the Intestinal Bacterial Community to the Development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Diversity and Contribution of the Intestinal Bacterial Community to the Development The bacterial diversity in the intestinal tract of Musca domestica L. was examined in larvae collected from), were isolated from the larval intestinal tracts. The majority of isolates represented facultatively

24

The Relationship between Small-Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Intestinal Permeability in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a frequent finding in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Many patients with IBS also have abnormal intestinal permeability, which is probably due to low-grade inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Our aim was to verify the relationship between SIBO and small-intestinal permeability in IBS patients. Methods A cohort of 38 IBS patients (20 women and 18 men; age range 16-70 years; mean age 40.2 years) with symptoms that fulfilled Rome-II criteria, and 12 healthy controls (5 women and 7 men; age range 25-52 years; mean age: 37.8 years) were recruited. All subjects underwent lactulose breath tests (LBTs) and intestinal permeability tests using the polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350/400 retrieval ratio. Results A positive LBT was found in 18.4% (7/38) of patients with IBS and 8.3% (1/12) of control subjects. Intestinal permeability was significantly increased in patients with IBS compared with the normal controls (0.82±0.09 vs 0.41±0.05 [mean±SD], respectively; p<0.05). However, the intestinal permeability did not differ significantly between IBS patients with a positive LBT and those with a negative LBT (0.90±0.13 and 0.80±0.11, respectively; p>0.05). Conclusions Intestinal permeability was increased in patients with IBS, but this finding did not correlated with the occurrence of SIBO. PMID:20431742

Park, Dong Il; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Won, Kyoung Hee; Park, Soon Min

2009-01-01

25

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

2014-05-15

26

Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2013-01-01

27

Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

28

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

PubMed

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25373234

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

29

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

PubMed

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

30

Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. (University of Western Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01

31

Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis. The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are similar to those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to test whether overgrowth is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and whether treatment of overgrowth reduces their intestinal complaints.METHODS:Two hundred two subjects in a prospective database of subjects referred from

Mark Pimentel; Evelyn J. Chow; Henry C. Lin

2000-01-01

32

Identification of a Core Bacterial Community within the Large Intestine of the Horse  

PubMed Central

The horse has a rich and complex microbial community within its gastrointestinal tract that plays a central role in both health and disease. The horse receives much of its dietary energy through microbial hydrolysis and fermentation of fiber predominantly in the large intestine/hindgut. The presence of a possible core bacterial community in the equine large intestine was investigated in this study. Samples were taken from the terminal ileum and 7 regions of the large intestine from ten animals, DNA extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA 454-pyrosequenced. A specific group of OTUs clustered in all ileal samples and a distinct and different signature existed for the proximal regions of the large intestine and the distal regions. A core group of bacterial families were identified in all gut regions with clear differences shown between the ileum and the various large intestine regions. The core in the ileum accounted for 32% of all sequences and comprised of only seven OTUs of varying abundance; the core in the large intestine was much smaller (5-15% of all sequences) with a much larger number of OTUs present but in low abundance. The most abundant member of the core community in the ileum was Lactobacillaceae, in the proximal large intestine the Lachnospiraceae and in the distal large intestine the Prevotellaceae. In conclusion, the presence of a core bacterial community in the large intestine of the horse that is made up of many low abundance OTUs may explain in part the susceptibility of horses to digestive upset. PMID:24204908

Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, C. Jamie

2013-01-01

33

The Role of Milk Sialyllactose in Intestinal Bacterial Colonization123  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides influence the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby mucosal inflammation. Some of the major milk oligosaccharides are ?2,3-sialyllactose (3SL) and ?2,6-sialyllactose, which are mainly produced by the sialyltransferases ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1, respectively. Recently, we showed that mice fed milk deficient in 3SL were more resistant to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. By contrast, the exposure to milk containing or deficient in 3SL had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. Milk 3SL mainly affected the colonization of the intestine by clostridial cluster IV bacteria. PMID:22585928

Weiss, G. Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry

2012-01-01

34

The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.  

PubMed

As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

2011-05-01

35

Chronic alcohol feeding inhibits physiological and molecular parameters of intestinal and renal riboflavin transport.  

PubMed

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is essential for normal human health. Mammals obtain RF from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption and prevent its urinary loss by reabsorption in the kidneys. Both of these absorptive events are carrier-mediated and involve specific RF transporters (RFVTs). Chronic alcohol consumption in humans is associated with a high prevalence of RF deficiency and suboptimal levels, but little is known about the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on physiological and molecular parameters of the intestinal and renal RF transport events. We addressed these issues using rats chronically fed an alcohol liquid diet and pair-fed controls as a model. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding significantly inhibits carrier-mediated RF transport across the intestinal brush-border and basolateral membrane domains of the polarized enterocytes. This inhibition was associated with a parallel reduction in the expression of the rat RFVT-1 and -3 at the protein, mRNA, and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant inhibition in RF uptake in the colon. Similarly, a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated RF transport across the renal brush-border and basolateral membrane domains was observed, which again was associated with a significant reduction in the level of expression of RFVT-1 and -3 at the protein, mRNA, and hnRNA levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic alcohol exposure impairs both intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption processes of RF and that these effects are, at least in part, mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s) involving the slc52a1 and slc52a3 genes. PMID:23804199

Subramanian, Veedamali S; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Ghosal, Abhisek; Said, Hamid M

2013-09-01

36

Host-Bacterial Mutualism in the Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distal human intestine represents an anaerobic bioreactor programmed with an enormous population of bacteria, dominated by relatively few divisions that are highly diverse at the strain\\/subspecies level. This microbiota and its collective genomes (microbiome) provide us with genetic and metabolic attributes we have not been required to evolve on our own, including the ability to harvest otherwise inaccessible nutrients.

Fredrik Bäckhed; Ruth E. Ley; Justin L. Sonnenburg; Daniel A. Peterson; Jeffrey I. Gordon

2005-01-01

37

Bacterial Pollution Indicators in the Intestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish  

PubMed Central

A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and persistence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish. A total of 132 fish representing 14 different species were used in various phases of these experiments. Examination of the intestinal contents of 78 fish from moderately polluted sections of the Little Miami River indicated that fecal coliform densities were lowest in bluegills (less than 20 per gram) and highest in catfish (1,090,000 per gram). Levels of fecal streptococci for these two species were 220 and 240,000 per gram, respectively. The occurrence of fecal coliforms in fish caught in this stream reflected the warm-blooded-animal-pollution level of the water. All fish used in this phase of the study were caught during July, August, and September when the water temperatures were between 13 and 18 C. The fate of fecal coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis in the fish intestine indicated that these organisms can probably survive and multiply when fish and water temperatures are 20 C or higher, but only when the organisms are retained in the gut for periods beyond 24 hr. Based on the biochemical reactions for 3,877 coliform strains isolated from 132 freshwater fish of 14 different species, 91.4% of all strains were composed of five IMViC types. In a similar study of the biochemical reactions of 850 streptococci isolated from the intestinal tract of 55 freshwater fish, the predominant strains included S. faecalis and various closely associated biotypes. No consistently recurring pattern for either coliforms or streptococci could be developed to identify species of fish investigated. The composition of the intestinal flora is, however, related in varying degree to the level of contamination of water and food in the environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6008184

Geldreich, Edwin E.; Clarke, Norman A.

1966-01-01

38

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is diagnosed in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal tract disfunction characterized by abdominal pain (or discomfort) and alteration in bowel movements. The etiology of presented symptoms despite numerous studies is unclear. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is one of potential factors causing symptoms of some gastrointe- stinal functional disorders. The aim of the study was to check whether SIBO

Agnieszka Meder

39

Salmonella?infected crypt?derived intestinal organoid culture system for host–bacterial interactions  

PubMed Central

Abstract The in vitro analysis of bacterial–epithelial interactions in the intestine has been hampered by a lack of suitable intestinal epithelium culture systems. Here, we report a new experimental model using an organoid culture system to study pathophysiology of bacterial–epithelial interactions post Salmonella infection. Using crypt?derived mouse intestinal organoids, we were able to visualize the invasiveness of Salmonella and the morphologic changes of the organoids. Importantly, we reported bacteria?induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions in the infected organoids. In addition, we showed the inflammatory responses through activation of the NF??B pathway in the organoids. Moreover, our western blot, PCR, and immunofluorescence data demonstrated that stem cell markers (Lgr5 and Bmi1) were significantly decreased by Salmonella infection (determined using GFP?labeled Lgr5 organoids). For the first time, we created a model system that recapitulated a number of observations from in vivo studies of the Salmonella?infected intestine, including bacterial invasion, altered tight junctions, inflammatory responses, and decreased stem cells. We have demonstrated that the Salmonella?infected organoid culture system is a new experimental model suitable for studying host–bacterial interactions. PMID:25214524

Zhang, Yong?Guo; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Sun, Jun

2014-01-01

40

Curcumin utilizes the anti-inflammatory response pathway to protect the intestine against bacterial invasion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, a major component of the Curcuma species, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, the functional role of curcumin as well as its molecular mechanism in anti-inflammatory response, particularly in intestinal cells, has been less investigated. The intestine epithelial barrier is the first barrier and the most important location for the substrate coming from the lumen of the gut. SUBJECTS/METHODS We administered curcumin treatment in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines, T84 and Caco-2. We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by thapsigargin, qPCR of XBP1 and BiP, electrophysiology by wild-type cholera toxin in the cells. RESULTS In this study, we showed that curcumin treatment reduces ER stress and thereby decreases inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, curcumin confers protection without damaging the membrane tight junction or actin skeleton change in intestine epithelial cells. Therefore, curcumin treatment protects the gut from bacterial invasion via reduction of ER stress and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of curcumin in protecting the intestine by modulating ER stress and inflammatory response post intoxication.

Cho, Jin Ah

2015-01-01

41

Wingless homolog Wnt11 suppresses bacterial invasion and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Wnt11 plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation, and previous investigations have focused on development and immune responses. However, the roles of how enteric bacteria regulate Wnt11 and how Wnt11 modulates the host response to pathogenic bacteria remain unexplored. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella infection on Wnt activation in intestinal epithelial cells. We found that Wnt11 mRNA and protein expression were elevated after Salmonella colonization. Wnt11 protein secretion in epithelial cells was also elevated after bacterial infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pathogenic Salmonella regulated Wnt11 expression and localization in vivo. We found a decrease in Salmonella invasion in cells with Wnt11 overexpression compared with cells with normal Wnt11 level. IL-8 mRNA in Wnt11-transfected cells was low; however, it was enhanced in cells with a low level of Wnt11 expression. Functionally, Wnt11 overexpression inhibited Salmonella-induced apoptosis. AvrA is a known bacterial effector protein that stabilizes ?-catenin, the downstream regulator of Wnt signaling, and inhibits bacterially induced intestinal inflammation. We observed that Wnt11 expression, secretion, and transcriptional activity were regulated by Salmonella AvrA. Overall, Wnt11 is involved in the protection of the host intestinal cells by blocking the invasion of pathogenic bacteria, suppressing inflammation, and inhibiting apoptosis. Wnt11 is a novel and important contributor to intestinal homeostasis and host defense. PMID:21903761

Liu, Xingyin; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Li, Xi Emma; Xia, Yuxuan; Zhou, Zhongren David

2011-01-01

42

The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT. PMID:24939656

Jenq, Robert R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Littmann, Eric R.; Morjaria, Sejal; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Viale, Agnes; Dahi, Parastoo B.; Ponce, Doris M.; Barker, Juliet N.; Giralt, Sergio; van den Brink, Marcel; Pamer, Eric G.

2014-01-01

43

The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT. PMID:24939656

Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Littmann, Eric R; Morjaria, Sejal; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Viale, Agnes; Dahi, Parastoo B; Ponce, Doris M; Barker, Juliet N; Giralt, Sergio; van den Brink, Marcel; Pamer, Eric G

2014-08-14

44

Reduction of endotoxin attenuates liver fibrosis through suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation and remission of intestinal permeability in a rat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model  

PubMed Central

Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is critical in the inflammatory pathways associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In human and animal studies, NASH was associated with portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the plasma LPS level was hypothesized to be associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, change in composition of the microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of endogenous endotoxin and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of NASH. The effects of antibiotics were assessed in vivo using a choline deficiency amino acid (CDAA)-induced experimental liver fibrosis model. Antibiotics, including polymyxins and neomycins, were orally administered in drinking water. Antibiotics attenuated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis via TGF-? and collagen in an experimental hepatic fibrosis model. The mechanism by which antibiotics attenuated LPS-TLR4 signaling and liver fibrosis was assessed. Notably, TLR4 mRNA level in the liver was elevated in the CDAA group and the CDAA-induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. However, no significant differences were observed in the intestine among all groups. Elevated mRNA levels of LPS binding protein, which was correlated with serum endotoxin levels, were recognized in the CDAA group and the CDAA-induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. The intestinal permeability of the CDAA group was increased compared with the choline-supplemented amino acid group. The tight junction protein (TJP) in the intestine, determined by immunohistochemical analysis was inversely associated with intestinal permeability. Antibiotics improved the intestinal permeability and enhanced TJP expression. Inhibition of LPS-TLR4 signaling with antibiotics attenuated liver fibrosis development associated with NASH via the inhibition of HSC activation. These results indicated that reduction of LPS and restoration of intestinal TJP may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis development in NASH. PMID:25421042

DOUHARA, AKITOSHI; MORIYA, KEI; YOSHIJI, HITOSHI; NOGUCHI, RYUICHI; NAMISAKI, TADASHI; KITADE, MITSUTERU; KAJI, KOSUKE; AIHARA, YOSUKE; NISHIMURA, NORIHISA; TAKEDA, KOSUKE; OKURA, YASUSHI; KAWARATANI, HIDETO; FUKUI, HIROSHI

2015-01-01

45

In vivo genome-wide RNAi screen identifies genes involved in intestinal pathogenic bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity represents the first line of defense in animals. We report a genome-wide in vivo Drosophila RNA interference screen to uncover genes involved in susceptibility or resistance to intestinal infection with the bacterium Serratia marcescens. We employed first whole-organism gene suppression followed by tissue-specific silencing in gut epithelium or hemocytes to identify several hundred genes involved in intestinal anti-bacterial immunity. Among the pathways identified, we showed that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway controls host defense in the gut by regulating stem cell proliferation and thus epithelial cell homeostasis. Thus, we revealed multiple genes involved in anti-bacterial defense and the regulation of innate immunity. PMID:19520911

Cronin, Shane J. F.; Nehme, Nadine T.; Limmer, Stefanie; Liegeois, Samuel; Pospisilik, J. Andrew; Schramek, Daniel; Leibbrandt, Andreas; Simoes, Ricardo de Matos; Gruber, Susanne; Puc, Urszula; Ebersberger, Ingo; Zoranovic, Tamara; Neely, G. Gregory; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ferrandon, Dominique; Penninger, Josef M.

2010-01-01

46

Rye Affects Bacterial Translocation, Intestinal Viscosity, Microbiota Composition and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are currently being evaluated. PMID:25849537

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

2015-01-01

47

The Intestinal Bacterial Community in the Food Waste-Reducing Larvae of Hermetia illucens  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that\\u000a the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial\\u000a communities in the gut of BSF larvae

Hyunbum Jeon; Soyoung Park; Jiyoung Choi; Gilsang Jeong; Sang-Beom Lee; Youngcheol Choi; Sung-Jae Lee

2011-01-01

48

[The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of various wintering geese species].  

PubMed

The aerobic fecal flora of wintering Brent Goos (Branta bernicla), Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), Greylag Goose (Anser anser), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) was studied. There were no specific differences between the various geese. Bacterial counts were in the range of 10(5)-10(7) CPU per gram of feces. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor rotavirus could be detected in the fecal samples of the wintering geese, so that a contamination of the environment with those pathogenic organisms could be excluded. The majority of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas; enterobacteria and streptococci were less common. The observations are discussed regarding their epidemiological and ecological significance. PMID:7136353

Holländer, R

1982-07-01

49

Histological and bacteriological changes in intestine of beluga ( Huso huso) following ex vivo exposure to bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the intestinal sac method (ex vivo) was used to evaluate the interactions between lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of beluga (Huso huso). The distal intestine (DI) of beluga was exposed ex vivo to Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum. Histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and electron

Wahida Salma; Zhigang Zhou; Wenwen Wang; Fatemeh Askarian; Armin Kousha; Maryam Tajabadi Ebrahimi; Reidar Myklebust; Einar Ringø

2011-01-01

50

Early bacterial colonisation of the intestine: why it matters La colonizzazione batterica intestinale precoce: perché è importante  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The birth process allows the progressive formation of complex intestinal microflora com- posed of myriad bacteria, leading to this recently identified host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. This kind of cross-talk originating from birth is opportunistically used by the young host to initiate its own immune system. Recent epidemiological data support the hypothesis that some increasing immune deviances observed

J. P. LANGHENDRIES

51

Wnt2 inhibits enteric bacterial-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt signaling plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation. Most investigations have focused on developmental and immune responses. Bacterial infection can be chronic and increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. However, we lack studies on how bacteria regulate Wnt proteins and how Wnts modulate the host responses to enteric bacteria. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella and E. coli on Wnt2, one of the Wnt family members, in intestinal epithelia cells. Methodology/Findings Using cultured epithelial cells, a Salmonella-colitis mouse model, and a gnotobiotic mouse model, we found that Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated after bacterial infection. Enteric bacteria regulate Wnt2 location in the intestine. Furthermore, we found that elevation of Wnt2 was a strategy for host defense by inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses to infection. Using Wnt2 siRNA analysis, we show enhanced inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in epithelial cells. Cells over-expressed Wnt2 had less bacterial-induced IL-8 secretion. AvrA is a bacterial protein that inhibits inflammation by stabilizing beta-catenin, the down-stream target of Wnt. We found that the stabilization of Wnt2 was regulated through ubiquitination. Moreover, the bacterial protein AvrA from Salmonella and E. coli stabilized Wnt2 protein expression in vivo. In an ex-germ-free system, E. coli F18 expressing AvrA increased Wnt2 expression and changed Wnt2 distribution in intestine. Conclusion Wnt2 contributes to host protection in response to enteric bacteria. Our findings thus reveal a previously undefined role of Wnt for host-pathogen interaction and inflammation. PMID:21674728

Liu, Xingyin; Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Zhang, Yong-guo; Xia, Yinglin; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

2012-01-01

52

Milk sialyllactose influences colitis in mice through selective intestinal bacterial colonization  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development of the intestinal environment by acting as decoy receptors for pathogens and as prebiotics, which promote the colonization of commensal bacteria. Here, using ?2,3- and ?2,6-sialyltransferase-deficient mice, we investigated the role of the sialylated milk oligosaccharides sialyl(?2,3)lactose and sialyl(?2,6)lactose on mucosal immunity. The exposure of newborn mice to milk containing or deficient in sialyllactose had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. However, when challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, adult mice that had been fostered on sialyl(?2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to colitis compared with mice fostered on normal milk or sialyl(?2,6)lactose-deficient milk. Analysis of intestinal microbiota showed different colonization patterns depending on the presence or absence of sialyl(?2,3)lactose in the milk. Germ-free mice reconstituted with intestinal microbiota isolated from mice fed on sialyl(?2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than germ-free mice reconstituted with standard intestinal microbiota. Thus, exposure to sialyllactose during infancy affects bacterial colonization of the intestine, which influences the susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in adult mice. PMID:21098096

Fuhrer, Andrea; Sprenger, Norbert; Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Borsig, Lubor; Chassard, Christophe

2010-01-01

53

Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.  

PubMed

The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions. PMID:25003516

Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore

2014-07-01

54

Glucan and glutamine reduce bacterial translocation in rats subjected to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.  

PubMed

Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) may induce bacterial translocation (BT). Glutamine (GLN)-enriched nutrition decreases BT. However, little is known about the effect of glucan (GL) in BT. This study investigated the combined effect of GL/GLN on BT, intestinal damage, and portal blood cytokines in animals under I/R. Four groups of 10 rats each were subjected to 60 min of intestinal ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The control group (group 1) received only rat food/water, group 2 received glutamine via gavage, group 3 received subcutaneuos soluble (1, 3)-d-glucan, and group 4 received GL + GLN. A sham group (group 5) served as a normal control. Bacterial cultures of ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver and lung biopsies, histological changes of ileum, and serum cytokines variables were examined after I/R. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Newman-Keuls test. Results showed that GLN, GL, and GL/GLN significantly reduced BT to MLN, liver, and lung. BT was more attenuated after GL treatment than GLN (P < .05). Rats treated with both GL and GLN exhibited lower bacterial colony counts than the ones treated only with GLN or GL. Severe mucosal damage on histological findings was shown in group 1, but these findings were significantly ameliorated (P < .05) in groups 3 and 4. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in portal serum were significantly reduced and IL-10 was increased by GL and GLN treatment. In conclusion, the use of GL was more effective than GLN in reducing BT, intestinal damage, and cytokine levels after I/R. Additionally, the combination of GL and GLN improved results. PMID:16546928

Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Chacon, Dâmaso Araújo; Sales, Valéria Soraya Farias; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Brandão-Neto, José; Pinheiro, Laíza Araújo Mohana; Carvalho, Mariana Rego

2006-01-01

55

Effects of compound Ginkgo biloba on intestinal permeability in rats with alcohol-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Compound Ginkgo biloba (CGB) on alterations in intestinal permeability and inflammation caused by endotoxin in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. CGB was prepared by Ginkgo biloba extract and Rosa roxburghii in a 1?:?1 proportion. Rats were divided into four groups: control, ethanol, high-dosage CGB (0.6 g kg(-1) d(-1)) and low-dosage CGB (0.2 g kg(-1) d(-1)) group. Rats in the control group ingested a Lieber-DeCarli control liquid diet, while rats in the ethanol and CGB-treated groups ingested a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol liquid diet for eight weeks. CGB was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. CGB was observed to significantly reduce the activities of serum ALT, AST, diamine oxidase (DAO) as well as levels of serum TG, d-lactic acid and plasma endotoxin in rats fed with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid. Further, the hepatic steatosis was improved and the damage to intestinal tight junctions was also relieved effectively after CGB administration. Moreover, CGB significantly downregulated the expressions of TNF-?, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14 and TLR4 in the liver and upregulated the expressions of tight junction proteins including ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. In summary, this study demonstrated that CGB alleviated alcohol-induced liver injury and hepatic lipopolysaccharide signaling as well as gut barrier dysfunction through restoring tight junctions. PMID:25473797

Li, Huanzhou; Qiu, Ping; Wang, Juanhong; Niu, Congcong; Pan, Suhua

2015-02-11

56

Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis by Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to resistance. In this review, we dissect the biological role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are fermentation end products of the intestinal microbiota, in host–pathogen interactions. SCFA exert an extensive influence on host physiology through nutritional, regulatory, and immunomodulatory functions and can also affect bacterial fitness as a form of acid stress. Moreover, SCFA act as a signal for virulence gene regulation in common enteric pathogens. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of the chemical environment where the biology of the host, the microbiota, and the pathogen intersects, which provides a basis for designing effective infection prevention and control. PMID:23942149

Sun, Yvonne; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

2013-01-01

57

Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in severe small intestinal damage in chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Enteric bacteria play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal damage. However, the association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and NSAID-induced small intestinal damage remains unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between SIBO and the presence of NSAID-induced severe small intestinal damage or its symptoms in chronic NSAID users. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-three patients who had been using NSAIDs for over 3 months were enrolled. They were examined by capsule endoscopy and a lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). We defined severe small intestinal damage as the presence of more than four small erosions or large erosions/ulcers. The LHBT result was considered positive if there was an increase in the level of breath hydrogen gas of >20 ppm above baseline. RESULTS. Out of 43 patients, 22 (51%) had severe small intestinal damage. The LHBT was positive in 5 of 21 patients (24%) without severe small intestinal damage and in 13 of 21 patients (59%) with severe small intestinal damage. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an LHBT-positive result was significantly associated with increased odds ratio for severe small intestinal damage (OR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.40-30.50). There was no significant difference in the presence of symptoms between the LHBT-positive and LHBT-negative patients with severe small intestinal damage. CONCLUSION. SIBO might have a role in the development of severe small intestinal damage in chronic NSAID users. PMID:24417613

Muraki, Motoko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Sogawa, Mitsue; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

2014-03-01

58

Effects of Intrapartum Penicillin Prophylaxis on Intestinal Bacterial Colonization in Infants  

PubMed Central

Early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. To prevent the vertical transmission of GBS and neonatal GBS infection, guidelines recommend intrapartum penicillin or amoxicillin prophylaxis. This intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is suspected to favor colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, the effects of this prophylaxis on the patterns of acquisition of gastrointestinal bacterial flora in infants have never been studied. We collected stool samples from 3-day-old infants born to mothers who received intrapartum amoxicillin (antibiotic-exposed group; n = 25) and to untreated mothers (non-antibiotic-exposed group; n = 25). The groups were matched for factors known to affect intestinal microbial colonization: gestational age, type of delivery, and type of feeding. Qualitative and quantitative differential analyses of the bacterial flora in stool samples were performed. Similar numbers of infants in the non-antibiotic-exposed and antibiotic-exposed groups were colonized by aerobic bacteria and amoxicillin-resistant enterobacteria (75 and 77%, respectively) (P = 0.79). In contrast, significantly fewer infants in the antibiotic-exposed group than in the non-antibiotic-exposed group were colonized by anaerobic bacteria, especially Clostridium (12 and 40%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Regarding intestinal bacterial colonization, the differences between antibiotic-exposed and non-antibiotic-exposed infants were remarkably few. The only statistically significant effect was the reduced initial bacterial colonization by Clostridium in the antibiotic-exposed group. In our study, the use of IAP did not favor colonization by ?-lactam-resistant bacteria. However, further evaluations are required to highlight the potential risks of the widespread use of antibiotics to prevent early-onset GBS infection. PMID:15528713

Jauréguy, Françoise; Carton, Mathieu; Panel, Pierre; Foucaud, Pierre; Butel, Marie-José; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

2004-01-01

59

Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).  

PubMed Central

The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were slightly less than those from the other two groups of frogs. Another group of 14 summer frogs, after treatment to induce hibernation, showed a drop in bacterial counts accompanied by a change in the composition of the flora. In most frogs, Bacteroides was the dominant organism. Other bacteria repeatedly isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including butyrigenic and acetogenic helically coiled bacteria; fusobacteria; and acetogenic, small, gram-positive bacilli. These data indicate that the intestinal flora of frogs is similar to that of mammals and birds and that this flora can be maintained at temperatures close to freezing. PMID:6982025

Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

1982-01-01

60

Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial Community Structure along the Intestinal Tract of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The bacterial composition along the intestinal tract of Danio rerio was investigated by cultivation-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Clone libraries were constructed for three compartments of the intestinal tract of individual fish. 566 individual clones were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA), and clone representatives from each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) were sequenced. As reported in other studies, we found that Proteobacteria was the most prominent phylum among clone libraries from different fish. Data generated from this pilot study indicated some compositional differences in bacterial communities. Two dominant classes, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli, displayed different levels of abundance in different compartments; Gammaproteobacteria increased along the intestinal tract, while Bacilli decreased its abundance along the proximal-distal axis. Less obvious spatial patterns were observed for other classes. In general, bacterial diversity in the intestinal bulb was greater than that in the posterior intestine. Interindividual differences in bacterial diversity and composition were also noted in this study. PMID:23724326

Lan, Chuan-Ching; Love, Donald R.

2012-01-01

61

Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

?en, Velat; Uluca, Ünal; Ece, Ayd?n; Güne?, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, ?brahim; Türkçü, Gül; Tekin, Recep

2014-01-01

62

Blockage of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates heat-stress induced intestinal high permeability and bacterial translocation.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidences indicate intestinal lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanisms by which heat stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in heat stress-induced intestinal hyper-permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal permeability in heat stressed mouse was evaluated by determining plasma endotoxin concentration and urinal lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio with gastric administration of L/M solution. Venous blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node tissues were collected for bacterial load test. Real time PCR was used to determine ileum PAR1 mRNA expression. In vitro study, permeability was assessed by determining trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. RWJ-58259, a selective antagonist of PAR1, was used both in vivo and in vitro studies. The results showed that heat stress could increase ileum PAR1 mRNA level, urinal L/M ratio, plasma endotoxin concentration and bacterial load in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blocking PAR1 with RWJ-58259 (10?mg/kg) pretreatment could significantly reduce heat stress-induced above changes, but have no role to PAR1 mRNA level. In Caco-2 cells, heat stress-induced high permeability could also be reduced by RWJ-58259 (5-20?µmol/L). In summary, our results demonstrated that PAR1 signaling pathway may play an important role in the heat stress-induced elevation of intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and the occurrence of endotoxemia. PMID:25492552

Xu, Qiu-Lin; Guo, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Xian; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Su, Lei

2015-04-01

63

Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.  

PubMed

The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, ?- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-?) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

2014-05-01

64

Alcoholic liver disease: the gut microbiome and liver cross talk.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with ALD have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier, or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental ALD. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of ALD. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship, and consequences for ALD. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T; Schnabl, Bernd

2015-05-01

65

Protective effects of terminal ileostomy against bacterial translocation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of terminal ileostomy on bacterial translocation (BT) and systemic inflammation after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were assigned to either the sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R + resection and anastomosis group, or the I/R + ileostomy group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. After 4 h, tissue samples were collected for analysis. BT was assessed by bacteriologic cultures, intestinal permeability and serum levels of endotoxin; systemic inflammation was assessed by serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, as well as by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and by intestinal histopathology. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R injury not only caused morphologic damage to ileal mucosa, but also induced BT, increased MPO activity and promoted the release of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum. BT and ileal mucosa injuries were significantly improved and levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in serum were decreased in the I/R + ileostomy group compared with the I/R + resection and anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Terminal ileostomy can prevent the detrimental effects of intestinal I/R injury on BT, intestinal tissue, and inflammation. PMID:25548488

Lin, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Wen-Kui; Tan, Shan-Jun; Duan, Kai-Peng; Dong, Yi; Bai, Xiao-Wu; Xu, Lin; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

66

Phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in the termite Reticulitermes speratus.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal microflora of a lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, was examined by a strategy which does not rely on cultivation of the resident microorganisms. Small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) were directly amplified from the mixed-population DNA of the termite gut by the PCR and were clonally isolated. Analysis of partial 16S rDNA sequences showed the existence of well-characterized genera as well as the presence of bacterial species for which no 16S rDNA sequence data are available. Of 55 clones sequenced, 45 were phylogenetically affiliated with four of the major groups of the domain Bacteria: the Proteobacteria, the spirochete group, the Bacteroides group, and the low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria. Within the Proteobacteria, the 16S rDNA clones showed a close relationship to those of cultivated species of enteric bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria, while the 16S rDNA clones in the remaining three groups showed only distant relationships to those of known organisms in these groups. Of the remaining 10 clones, among which 8 clones formed a cluster, there was only very low sequence similarity to known 16S rRNA sequences. None of these clones were affiliated with any of the major groups within the domain Bacteria. The 16S rDNA gene sequence data show that the majority of the intestinal microflora of R. speratus consists of new, uncultured species previously unknown to microbiologists. PMID:8593049

Ohkuma, M; Kudo, T

1996-01-01

67

A gene-targeted approach to investigate the intestinal butyrate-producing bacterial community  

PubMed Central

Background Butyrate, which is produced by the human microbiome, is essential for a well-functioning colon. Bacteria that produce butyrate are phylogenetically diverse, which hinders their accurate detection based on conventional phylogenetic markers. As a result, reliable information on this important bacterial group is often lacking in microbiome research. Results In this study we describe a gene-targeted approach for 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the final genes in the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). We monitored the establishment and early succession of butyrate-producing communities in four patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent a colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and compared it with three control samples from healthy colons. All patients established an abundant butyrate-producing community (approximately 5% to 26% of the total community) in the pouch within the 2-month study, but patterns were distinctive among individuals. Only one patient harbored a community profile similar to the healthy controls, in which there was a predominance of but genes that are similar to reference genes from Acidaminococcus sp., Eubacterium sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia sp., and an almost complete absence of buk genes. Two patients were greatly enriched in buk genes similar to those of Clostridium butyricum and C. perfringens, whereas a fourth patient displayed abundant communities containing both genes. Most butyrate producers identified in previous studies were detected and the general patterns of taxa found were supported by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis, but the gene-targeted approach provided more detail about the potential butyrate-producing members of the community. Conclusions The presented approach provides quantitative and genotypic insights into butyrate-producing communities and facilitates a more specific functional characterization of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, our analysis refines but and buk reference annotations found in central databases. PMID:24451334

2013-01-01

68

Loss of Sirt1 Function Improves Intestinal Anti-Bacterial Defense and Protects from Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int?/?) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC. PMID:25013930

Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Fernando, Samodha C.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Katsyuba, Elena; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

2014-01-01

69

Intestinal bacterial metabolism and anti-complement activities of three major components of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the metabolism of Entadae Semen by human fecal bacteria to clarify the relationship between its pharmacological activities and intestinal metabolism. Three major components (phaseoloidin, entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside and entadamide A) were isolated and identified from Entadae Semen and then incubated with human fecal microflora in vitro to investigate the metabolic processes. The metabolites were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anti-complement activities of the three components and their metabolites produced by human fecal microflora were evaluated in vitro using a hemolysis assay. Phaseoloidin and entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside were metabolized into their respective aglycones during the incubation process, which enhanced their anti-complement effects. These results indicated that the presence of intestinal bacteria likely plays an important role and that the pharmacological effects of Entadae Semen may be dependent on intestinal bacterial metabolism. PMID:25398297

Xing, Shihua; Wang, Mengyue; Peng, Ying; Dong, Yuqiong; Li, Xiaobo

2015-04-01

70

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn’s disease: Influence of thiopurine and biological treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressants and/or biological drugs do not induce SIBO in inactive CD. Fistulizing disease pattern and meteorism are associated with SIBO. PMID:25320539

Sánchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Ester; Yago, María; Beltrán, Belén; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

2014-01-01

71

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: meaningful association or unnecessary hype.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 10? colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-03-14

72

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-01-01

73

An unusual cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Campylobacter fetus with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man with severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis with a 2-day history of fatigue and abdominal pain was admitted. He reported eating sushi and sliced raw chicken a few days previously. His abdomen was distended, with shifting dullness. Based on the patient's history, physical examination and the results of abdominocentesis, he was diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; blood and ascitic fluid cultures were positive for Campylobacter fetus. The patient was started on treatment with cefotaxime, which was switched after 1 week to ampicillin for an additional 3 weeks. The patient was successfully treated with the 4-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. PMID:23417384

Hadano, Yoshiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

2013-01-01

74

Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.  

PubMed

The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine. PMID:17615175

De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

2007-09-01

75

Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

2014-01-01

76

Alcohol and tobacco consumption affects bacterial richness in oral cavity mucosa biofilms.  

PubMed

BackgroundToday there are more than 2 billion alcohol users and about 1.3 billion tobacco users worldwide. The chronic and heavy use of these two substances is at the heart of numerous diseases and may wreak havoc on the human oral microbiome. This study delves into the changes that alcohol and tobacco may cause on biofilms of the human oral microbiome. To do so, we used swabs to sample the oral biofilm of 22 subjects; including 9 control-individuals with no or very low consumption of alcohol and no consumption of tobacco, 7 who were chronic and heavy users of both substances and 6 active smokers that reported no significant alcohol consumption. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating 3.7 million high quality reads. DNA sequences were clustered and OTUs were assigned using the ARB SILVA database and Qiime.ResultsWe found no differences in species diversity and evenness among the groups. However, we found a significant decrease in species richness in only smokers and in smokers/drinkers when compared to controls. We found that Neisseria abundance was significantly decreased in both groups when compared to controls. Smokers had significant increases in Prevotella and Capnocytophaga and reductions in Granulicatella, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Gemella when compared to the two other groups. Controls showed higher abundance of Aggregibacter, whilst smokers/drinkers had lower abundances of Fusobacteria. Samples from only smokers clustered closer together than to controls and smokers/drinkers, and also had a significant reduction in inter-group dissimilarity distances, indicating a more homogenous group than controls.ConclusionsOur results indicate that the continued use of tobacco or alcohol plus tobacco significantly reduces bacterial richness, which apparently leads to a reduction in inter-group variability, turning the respective biofilms into a more homogenous microenvironment in terms of bacterial community composition, with possible consequences for human oral diseases. PMID:25278091

Thomas, Andrew; Gleber-Netto, Frederico; Fernandes, Gustavo; Amorim, Maria; Barbosa, Luisa; Francisco, Ana; Guerra de Andrade, Arthur; Setubal, João; Kowalski, Luiz; Nunes, Diana; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

77

Rafts and related glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains in the intestinal epithelium: bacterial targets linked to nutrient absorption.  

PubMed

Plasma membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts or caveolae play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. Although this field of research has been extensively studied, two important points have been poorly addressed: (i) the molecular basis of raft-pathogen interactions, and (ii) the effect of such interactions on nutrient absorption. The aim of this review was to propose a biochemical analysis of bacterial adhesion to lipid raft components exposed on the mucosal surface of the intestinal epithelium. A special attention has been given to CH-pi interactions that allow the sugar rings of glycosphingolipids (GSL) to stack against aromatic side chains of bacterial adhesins and toxins. These interactions are controlled by cholesterol molecules intercalated between membrane GSL and/or by the presence of an alpha-OH group in the acyl chain of the ceramide backbone of GSL. In the second part of the review, we analysed the experimental data suggesting the involvement of lipid rafts in the intestinal absorption of nutrients, the mechanisms by which bacteria could impair intestinal functions, and possible therapeutic strategies based on the biochemistry of raft-pathogen interactions. PMID:15063589

Taïeb, Nadira; Yahi, Nouara; Fantini, Jacques

2004-04-19

78

Regulatory T cells promote a protective Th17-associated immune response to intestinal bacterial infection with C. rodentium.  

PubMed

Intestinal infection with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induces a strong local Th17 response in the colon. Although this inflammatory immune response helps to clear the pathogen, it also induces inflammation-associated pathology in the gut and thus, has to be tightly controlled. In this project, we therefore studied the impact of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on the infectious and inflammatory processes elicited by the bacterial pathogen C. rodentium. Surprisingly, we found that depletion of Treg by diphtheria toxin in the Foxp3(DTR) (DEREG) mouse model resulted in impaired bacterial clearance in the colon, exacerbated body weight loss, and increased systemic dissemination of bacteria. Consistent with the enhanced susceptibility to infection, we found that the colonic Th17-associated T-cell response was impaired in Treg-depleted mice, suggesting that the presence of Treg is crucial for the establishment of a functional Th17 response after the infection in the gut. As a consequence of the impaired Th17 response, we also observed less inflammation-associated pathology in the colons of Treg-depleted mice. Interestingly, anti-interleukin (IL)-2 treatment of infected Treg-depleted mice restored Th17 induction, indicating that Treg support the induction of a protective Th17 response during intestinal bacterial infection by consumption of local IL-2. PMID:24646939

Wang, Z; Friedrich, C; Hagemann, S C; Korte, W H; Goharani, N; Cording, S; Eberl, G; Sparwasser, T; Lochner, M

2014-11-01

79

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, ... work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

80

Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol. PMID:25746479

Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

2015-05-01

81

Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Imbalance between tolerance and immunity (e.g. intestinal homeostasis) contributes to the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel

M. Bol-Schoenmakers

2009-01-01

82

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth  

MedlinePLUS

Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine ... Unlike the large intestine, the small intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. When there are too many bacteria in the ...

83

Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p?=?0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p?=?0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p?

Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

2015-01-01

84

Effect of steroid on mitochondrial oxidative stress enzymes, intestinal microflora, and bacterial translocation in rats subjected to temporary liver inflow occlusion.  

PubMed

Protective effects of steroids against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are well known, but there is little information about the influence of temporary inflow occlusion on intestinal barrier function or bacterial translocation. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects on liver, kidney, spleen, ileal mitochondrial stress enzymes, and bacterial translocation of methylprednisolone (MP) in rats undergoing temporary liver inflow occlusion. Twenty-seven pathogen-free Wistar albino rats were randomized into three groups: group A: I/R (n = 10); group B: I/R + MP (n = 10); and group C: sham (n = 7). Rats in groups A and B were subjected to 20 minutes of portal vein and hepatic artery occlusion with 3 mg/kg MP injected into group B animals intraperitoneally during the occlusion. Twenty-two hours later, all rats were sacrificed to measure mitochondrial oxidative stress enzymes in liver, kidney, spleen, and ileum. We evaluated intestinal bacterial counts, intestinal mucosal histopathology, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen, and kidney. Decreased levels of malondialdehyde and increased levels of glutathione were observed in all examined tissues of group B compared to those of group A rats. Statistically significant increases in the intestinal counts of Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp and of bacterial translocation to liver, kidney, spleen, and MLN were measured in group B with respect to group A. PMID:16549125

Kirimlioglu, V; Kirimlioglu, H; Yilmaz, S; Piskin, T; Tekerekoglu, S; Bayindir, Y

2006-03-01

85

Shigella Infection in a SCID Mouse-Human Intestinal Xenograft Model: Role for Neutrophils in Containing Bacterial Dissemination in Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shigellae infect human intestine and cause intense inflammation and destruction of colonic and rectal mucosa. To model the interactions of shigella with human intestine in vivo, we have studied shigella infection in human intestinal xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice (SCID-HU-INT mice). Inoculation of shigella into human intestinal xenografts caused severe inflammation and mucosal damage, which was apparent as soon

ZHI ZHANG; LINGLING JIN; GRETCHEN CHAMPION; KARL B. SEYDEL; SAMUEL L. STANLEY

2001-01-01

86

Red wine alcohol promotes quercetin absorption and directs its metabolism towards isorhamnetin and tamarixetin in rat intestine in vitro  

PubMed Central

Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with beneficial effects on human health, and this has been attributed to the flavonoid content. Factors that influence the bioavailability of this group of polyphenolic compounds are therefore important. Using the rat cannulated everted jejunal sac technique, we have investigated the effect of alcohol on the intestinal absorption of quercetin and its 3-O-glucoside from red wine. Tissue preparations were incubated in whole or dealcoholised red wine, diluted 1?:?1 with Krebs buffer for 20?min at 37°C, after which the mucosa was removed and processed for HPLC analysis. Tissues exposed to red wine had significantly higher amounts of both quercetin (× 3; P<0.001) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (× 1.5; P<0.01) associated with them, compared with sacs incubated in the dealcoholised equivalent. In addition, both tamarixetin (T) and isorhamnetin (I), in the mucosal tissue from sacs exposed to the whole wine, were significantly elevated approximately two fold (P<0.05; P<0.01, respectively). Similar results were obtained when sacs were incubated in Krebs buffer containing a mixture of pure quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside with or without alcohol, and, although effects on the apparent absorption of Q and Q-3-G were not so marked, concentrations of the metabolites quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and I were significantly increased by the presence of alcohol (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). It is therefore plausible that the moderate alcohol content of red wine contributes to its beneficial health effects in humans by both increasing the absorption of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside and by channelling their metabolism towards O-methylation to yield compounds (T and I), which have potential protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16444288

Dragoni, Stefania; Gee, Jennifer; Bennett, Richard; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

2006-01-01

87

Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-? (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-? (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-?B p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal bacterial community. CONCLUSION: Gln treatment protects from intestinal injury and regulates the gut flora imbalance in hypoxia environment. These effects may be related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24782618

Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

2014-01-01

88

Focused Specificity of Intestinal Th17 Cells towards Commensal Bacterial Antigens  

PubMed Central

T-helper-17 (Th17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defense and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis 1-3. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria (SILP), where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota 4-7. Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce Th17 cells and to promote Th17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models 8-14. However, the specificity of Th17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal Th17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4+ T cells and that most Th17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing Th17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harbored a strong Th1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B.; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L.; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Lafaille, Juan J.; Littman, Dan R.

2014-01-01

89

Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.  

PubMed

T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R

2014-06-01

90

Importance of Colonic Bacterial Fermentation in Short Bowel Patients (Small Intestinal Malabsorption of Easily Digestible Carbohydrate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small intestine's large capacity for glucoseabsorption and for adaptation seems to contradict thereported importance of carbohydrate malabsorption inshort bowel (SB) patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence ofmalabsorption in these patients ingesting realisticamounts of carbohydrates. We performed a dose-responsestudy [ingestion of increasing amounts of glucose and complex carbohydrates (boiled rice and wheatbread), and the

Merete Olesen; Eivind Gudmand-Hoyer; Jens Juul Holst; Stig Jorgensen

1999-01-01

91

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestinal and lymph node tissues of water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) by PCR and bacterial culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of bacterial culture and IS900-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from the intestinal and mesenteric lymph node tissues of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) showing lesions of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Out of 20 (4.9%) animals showing histological lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis, 14 (70%) and 6 (30%) were positive in

P. Sivakumar; B. N. Tripathi; Nem Singh

2005-01-01

92

Comparative Analysis of the Intestinal Bacterial and RNA Viral Communities from Sentinel Birds Placed on Selected Broiler Chicken Farms  

PubMed Central

There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds (“sentinels”) placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

Day, J. Michael; Oakley, Brian B.; Seal, Bruce S.; Zsak, Laszlo

2015-01-01

93

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... older From a very young age, kids see advertising messages showing beautiful people enjoying life — and alcohol. ... to risk feeling rejected or left out. Different strategies for turning down alcohol work for different people. ...

94

Determinants of accelerated small intestinal transit in alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic pancreatitis may have abnormal gastrointestinal transit, but the factors underlying these abnormalities are poorly understood. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed, in 40 male outpatients with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis and 18 controls, by scintigraphy after a liquid meal labeled with (99m)technetium-phytate. Blood and urinary glucose, fecal fat excretion, nutritional status, and cardiovascular autonomic function were determined in all patients. The influence of diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, malnutrition, and autonomic neuropathy on abnormal gastrointestinal transit was assessed by univariate analysis and Bayesian multiple regression analysis. Accelerated gastrointestinal transit was found in 11 patients who showed abnormally rapid arrival of the meal marker to the cecum. Univariate and Bayesian analysis showed that diabetes mellitus and autonomic neuropathy had significant influences on rapid transit, which was not associated with either malabsorption or malnutrition. In conclusion, rapid gastrointestinal transit in patients with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis is related to diabetes mellitus and autonomic neuropathy. PMID:19390966

Rosa-E-Silva, Lucilene; Troncon, Luiz E A; Gallo, Lourenço; Foss, Milton C; Passos, Afonso D C; Perdoná, Gleici C; Achcar, Jorge A; Oliveira, Ricardo B

2010-04-01

95

[Study on the Apriona germari(Hope) larvae's intestinal bacterial flora].  

PubMed

Intestinal flora of 47 Apriona germari(Hope) larvae, collected from fields, had been isolated and identified. The results showed that the predominant bacteria were Staphylococcus. Its viable count was 7.63 +/- 0.21, and the detection rate was 100%. Meanwhile, a strain of cellulose-utilizing bacterium was isolated from the fore-midgut fluid of A. germari larvae with the cellulose-congo red agar medium. The bacterium was tentatively identified as Cellulomonas. The detection rate of the cellulolytic bacterium was 23.40%, and the count was 3.84 +/- 0.54 approximately. Its contribution to the borer's cellulose digestion needs further investigations. PMID:12552833

He, Z; Yin, Y; Cao, Y; Dong, Y; Zhang, W

2001-12-01

96

Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a major public health problem in the United States as well as around the world. The significant role that alcohol plays in suicidality is well known and accepted in the scientific community. The use of alcohol does not necessarily lead to suicide, but through its action and effects, alcohol is an important proximal risk factor for suicidal behavior. There is very little data showing how and why alcohol exerts such tremendous influence and “lubricates the gears” to propel the act of committing suicide. This article will elucidate the complex relationship between alcohol and suicide and how alcohol use can lead to suicide. The article also describes how alcohol affects brain neurophysiology in regards to suicidal behavior. PMID:23440995

Nathani, Milankumar; Jabeen, Shahgufta; Yazdani, Ijlal; Mouton, Charles D.; Bailey, Rahn K.; Mahr, Mona; Pate, Rebecca J.; Riley, Wayne J.

2013-01-01

97

The effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on bacterial translocation and intestinal damage in cholestatic rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in rat ileum injury induced by chronic biliary obstruction. Swiss albino rats were divided into three groups: Group 1, sham (n = 7); Group 2, common bile duct ligation (n = 7); and Group 3, common bile duct ligation plus caffeic acid phenethyl ester (n = 7). In the caffeic acid phenethyl ester-treated rats, ileum tissue levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were significantly lower than those of the bile duct-ligated rats (P < 0.001). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1alpha in the caffeic acid phenethyl ester group were significantly lower than those in the bile duct ligation group (P < 0.03, P < 0.01, and P < 0.02 respectively). The present study demonstrates that intraperitoneal administration of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in bile duct-ligated rats reduces intestinal oxidative stress. This effect may be useful in the preservation of intestinal damage in cholestasis. PMID:16983503

Ara, Cengiz; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Polat, Alattin; Isik, Burak; Aladag, Murat; Gul, Mehmet; Ay, Selma; Tekerleklioglu, M Sait; Yilmaz, Sezai

2006-10-01

98

Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Ethanol feeding increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration and perturbed hepatic and serum metabolite profiles. Ethanol feeding with CB or MCT alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and attenuated ethanol-induced metabolic perturbation. Both CB and MCT also normalized ethanol-induced hepatic macrophage activation, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration. Ethanol feeding elevated serum endotoxin level, which was normalized by MCT but not CB. In accordance, ethanol-induced downregulations of intestinal occludin and zonula occludens-1 were normalized by MCT but not CB. However, CB normalized ethanol-increased hepatic endotoxin level in association with upregulation of an endotoxin detoxifying enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). Knockdown ASS1 in H4IIEC3 cells resulted in impaired endotoxin clearance and upregulated cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the protection of saturated fats against alcohol-induced liver injury occur via different actions at the gut-liver axis and are chain length dependent. PMID:24113767

Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2013-12-01

99

Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Defense against attaching and effacing (A/E) bacteria requires the sequential generation of interleukin 23 (IL-23) and IL-22 to induce protective mucosal responses. While CD4+ and NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the critical source of IL-22 during infection, the precise source of IL-23 is unclear. We used genetic techniques to deplete specific subsets of classical dendritic cells (cDCs) and analyzed immunity to the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. We found that Notch2 controlled the terminal stage of cDC differentiation. Notch2-dependent intestinal CD11b+ cDCs, but not Batf3-dependent CD103+ cDCs, were an obligate source of IL-23 required to survive C. rodentium infection. These results provide the first demonstration of a non-redundant function of CD11b+ cDCs in response to pathogens in vivo. PMID:23913046

Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Briseño, Carlos G.; Lee, Jacob S.; Ng, Dennis; Manieri, Nicholas A.; KC, Wumesh; Wu, Xiaodi; Thomas, Stephanie R.; Lee, Wan-Ling; Turkoz, Mustafa; McDonald, Keely G.; Meredith, Matthew M.; Song, Christina; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Newberry, Rodney D.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Murphy, Theresa L.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Colonna, Marco; Kopan, Raphael; Murphy, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

100

Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China  

PubMed Central

Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2015-01-01

101

Increased Bacterial Translocation in Gluten-Sensitive Mice Is Independent of Small Intestinal Paracellular Permeability Defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  We investigated whether treatment with gliadin induces a paracellular permeability defect that enhances bacterial translocation\\u000a to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) via resident dendritic cells (DC) expressing TLR-2 or 4 in HCD4\\/HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice were sensitized and subsequently gavaged with gliadin, in the presence or absence of AT1001 (paracellular\\u000a permeability inhibitor). Non-sensitized mice were gavaged with indomethacin (permeability

Manuel A. SilvaJennifer; Jennifer Jury; Yolanda Sanz; Michelle Wiepjes; Xianxi Huang; Joseph A. Murray; Chella S. David; Alessio Fasano; Elena F. Verdú

102

The influence of the immunostimulation by bacterial cell components derived from altered large intestinal microbiota on probiotic anti-inflammatory benefits.  

PubMed

Using murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells and fecal precipitates prepared from the feces of elderly volunteers whose acute inflammation had been inhibited by LKM512 yogurt consumption, we investigated the likelihood that immunostimulation by altered intestinal bacterial cell components contribute to the anti-inflammatory benefits of this yogurt. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production due to stimulation by fecal precipitates obtained during LKM512 yogurt consumption tended to be higher than due to stimulation by precipitates obtained from preconsumption (P=0.0827), although acute phase response was suppressed by LKM512 yogurt consumption. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory benefits of LKM512 yogurt on elderly volunteers are independent of direct immunostimulation by the bacterial cell components derived from altered intestinal microbiota. PMID:17378901

Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hara, Kurt; Benno, Yoshimi

2007-04-01

103

Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicles play an important role in bacterial interactions with human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W; Smith, David G E; Dorrell, Nick

2012-12-01

104

Slipping through the Cracks: Linking Low Immune Function and Intestinal Bacterial Imbalance to the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are considered to be caused by the host immune system which attacks and destroys its own tissue by mistake. A widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenic mechanism of ADs is “molecular mimicry,” which states that antibodies against an infectious agent cross-react with a self-antigen sharing an identical or similar antigenic epitope. However, this hypothesis was most likely established based on misleading antibody assay data largely influenced by intense false positive reactions involved in immunoassay systems. Thus reinvestigation of this hypothesis using an appropriate blocking agent capable of eliminating all types of nonspecific reactions and proper assay design is strongly encouraged. In this review, we discuss the possibility that low immune function may be the fundamental, common defect in ADs, which increases the susceptibility to potential disease causative pathogens located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), such as bacteria and their components or dietary components. In addition to these exogenous agents, aberrations in the host's physical condition may disrupt the host defense system, which is tightly orchestrated by “immune function,” “mucosal barrier function,” and “intestinal bacterial balance.” These disturbances may initiate a downward spiral, which can lead to chronic health problems that will evolve to an autoimmune disorder.

Terato, Kuniaki

2015-01-01

105

Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center  

PubMed Central

Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000?cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder. PMID:25694782

Franco, Diana L.; Disbrow, Molly B.; Kahn, Allon; Koepke, Laura M.; Harris, Lucinda A.; Ramirez, Francisco C.

2015-01-01

106

Bacterial Enteritides of Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric bacterial infections in poultry pose a threat to intestinal health and can contribute to poor feed efficiency and livability of a flock. A variety of enteric bacterial diseases are recognized in poultry. Three of these bacterial diseases, necrotic enteritis, ulcerative enteritis, and spirochetosis, primarily infect the intestine, whereas other bacterial diseases, such as salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycobacteriosis, erysipelas, and fowl

ROBERT E. PORTER

107

Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to 4 of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Alcohol consumption is split, with 33% of the population consuming 95% of the alcoholic beverages and 33% abstaining. The\\u000a US population median intake is much less than the average (mean) intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a An increase in average alcohol intake could

William E. M. Lands

108

Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue  

PubMed Central

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

2014-01-01

109

Autochthonous Intestinal Bacterial Flora and Cholesterol Levels in Specific Pathogen-free Swine Fed High-Lipid and High-Sucrose Diets  

PubMed Central

Graber, C. D. (Baylor University College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.). R. W. Moore, M. Suzuki, W. E. Redmond, R. M. O'Neal, and B. M. Lockhart. Autochthonous intestinal bacterial flora and cholesterol levels in specific pathogen-free swine fed high-lipid and high-sucrose diets. J. Bacteriol. 92:1290–1297. 1966.—Thirty-two specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional swine fed high fat, high sugar, and a standard ration were cultured for intestinal flora, and their blood cholesterol levels were measured. The diets, whether sterilized or not sterilized, fed ad libitum or restricted, did not alter bacterial flora greatly or influence blood cholesterol levels. Anaerobes outnumbered aerobes by several logs. Four autochthonous bacteria, lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and gram-variable, nonspore-forming anaerobes (GVNSA; a type of bacteroides), were shown to be constantly present in all animals regardless of dietary conditions. From the duodenum and jejunum of 14 pigs, GVNSA and Bacteroides nigrescens were cultured in rather large numbers, a finding not previously reported in swine or in most other mammals. This finding may have special significance in reference to bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. PMID:5332699

Graber, C. D.; Moore, R. W.; Suzuki, M.; Redmond, W. E.; O'Neal, R. M.; Lockhart, B. M.

1966-01-01

110

Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach.  

PubMed

In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After a 6-h fermentation, 83.27% of total sugars detected after inoculation were consumed (228.4 mM hexose equivalents) and a carbon (C) recovery of 66.18% in fermentation products was estimated. They were produced 284.4 mM C as ethanol, 71.5 mM C as acetic acid and 19 mM C as lactic acid, demonstrating the presence of homo- and heterofermentative, acetic and alcoholic metabolisms in the final product. It was also found, after hydrolysis, that the exopolysaccharide produced during the fermentation was mainly composed by fructose residues, probably inulin or levan. PMID:18450312

Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

2008-05-31

111

Adherence and cytokine induction in Caco-2 cells by bacterial populations from a three-stage continuous-culture model of the large intestine.  

PubMed

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T

2011-05-01

112

Acetate kinase Activity and Kinetic Properties of the Enzyme in Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 Intestinal Bacterial Strains  

PubMed Central

Activity of acetate kinase in cell-free extracts and individual fractions and the kinetic properties of the enzyme obtained from the Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were presented at the first time. The highest activity of the enzyme was measured in the cell-free extracts (1.52 ± 0.163 and 0.46 ± 0.044 U × mg-1 protein for D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) compared to other fractions. The specific activity of acetate kinase in the extracts of both bacterial strains was determined at different temperature and pH. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the purified acetate kinase was carried out. The acetate kinase activity, initial (instantaneous) reaction rate (V0) and maximum rate of the acetate kinase reaction (Vmax) in D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were defined. Michaelis constants (KmAcetyl phosphate and KmADP) of the enzyme reaction (2.54 ± 0.26 and 2.39 ± 0.24 mM for D. piger Vib-7 as well as 2.68 ± 0.25 and 2.47 ± 0.27 mM for Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) were calculated. The described results of acetate kinase, an important enzyme in the process of organic compounds oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction would be perspective and useful for clarification of the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and animals. PMID:25598851

Kushkevych, Ivan V

2014-01-01

113

Adherence and Cytokine Induction in Caco-2 Cells by Bacterial Populations from a Three-Stage Continuous-Culture Model of the Large Intestine?  

PubMed Central

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W.; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.

2011-01-01

114

In vitro synthesis of antibody to specific bacterial lipopolysaccharide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antibody to specific bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum and in pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (AC). Antibody to LPS (derived from a single strain of Escherichia coli isolated from each patient's stool), was detected in the sera of each patient to a 10(-4) dilution. Only one of four control sera was positive at the 10(-4) dilution, with the others positive at 10(-3) dilution. Antibody to LPS was detected in the culture supernatants in three of the four patients and in none of the control subjects. Supernatants from patient cultures pretreated with mitomycin C or harvested after 1 day of incubation did not have detectable antibody. These results indicate that we can expand, in vitro, the population of peripheral blood B lymphocytes obtained from patients with AC and cause them to synthesize antibody against specific LPS from their own gut flora. PMID:7019048

Mutchnick, M G; Keren, D F

1981-01-01

115

Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

2015-01-01

116

Sequential interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel microspheres of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) for oral controlled drug delivery to intestine.  

PubMed

Sequential interpenetrating networks of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) have been prepared and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain pH sensitive microspheres by a water-in-oil emulsification method. Microspheres have been used to deliver the chosen model anti-inflammatory drug viz., ibuprofen to the intestine. Ibuprofen was encapsulated up to 70% within polymeric matrices. The interpenetrating polymer network formed was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses were done on drug-loaded microspheres to confirm the polymorphism of ibuprofen. Results of this study indicated the molecular level dispersion of ibuprofen in the developed microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the spherical nature and smooth surfaces of the microspheres produced. Mean particle size of the microspheres as measured by laser light scattering ranged between 51-176 microm. Swelling was performed in the simulated gastric as well as the intestinal conditions. Microspheres showed a pulsatile swelling behaviour when pH of the swelling media was altered. The swelling data have been fitted to an empirical equation to understand water transport trends as well as to calculate the diffusion coefficients. Values of diffusion coefficients in acidic media were lower than those found in the basic media. Values of diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing cross-linking of the matrix. In vitro release studies have been performed in 1.2 and 7.4 pH media to simulate the gastric and intestinal conditions. The in vitro release results indicated a dependence on the pH of the release media, extent of cross-linking and the amount of drug loading. The release data were fitted to an empirical relation to estimate the transport parameters and thereby to understand the transport mechanism. PMID:18465310

Mundargi, R C; Patil, S A; Kulkarni, P V; Mallikarjuna, N N; Aminabhavi, T M

2008-06-01

117

Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

2014-01-15

118

Characterization and Ecology of Carboxymethylcellulase-Producing Anaerobic Bacterial Communities Associated with the Intestinal Tract of the Pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides  

PubMed Central

Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase)-producing obligate anaerobes were isolated from the intestinal tract contents but not the feeding habitat of seagrass-consuming pinfish. Taxonomic characterization of these CMCase-producing strains revealed four taxonomic clusters; three were clostridial and one was of unknown taxonomic affinity. Our results demonstrated that the CMCase-producing obligate anaerobe community from pinfish differed from functionally similar microbial communities in terrestrial herbivores. PMID:16534945

Stellwag, E. J.; Smith, T. D.; Luczkovich, J. J.

1995-01-01

119

Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.  

PubMed Central

Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains. PMID:1401067

Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

1992-01-01

120

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

121

Type 1 pili-mediated adherence of Escherichia coli strain LF82 isolated from Crohn's disease is involved in bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

We previously characterized the invasive ability of Escherichia coli strain LF82, isolated from an ileal biopsy of a patient with Crohn's disease. In the present study, we performed TnphoA insertion mutagenesis to identify genes involved in LF82 invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. Most of the non-invasive mutants had an insertion mutation within the type 1 pili-encoding operon. Two non-invasive fim mutants, which harboured an insertion within the fimI and fimF genes, still adhered but had lost the ability to induce host cell membrane elongations at the sites of contact with the epithelial cells. Transcomplementation experiments with a fim operon cloned from E. coli K-12 restored both invasive ability and the ability to induce host cell membrane elongations. Expression of the cloned LF82 or K-12 fim operon into the non-invasive laboratory strain JM109 did not confer invasive properties. Thus, these findings showed that: (i) type 1 pili-mediated adherence is involved in LF82-induced perturbation of host cell signalling responsible for membrane elongations; (ii) native shafts are required for type 1 pilus-mediated induction of membrane elongations; (iii) this active phenomenon is a key step in the establishment of the invasive process; and (iv) type 1 pili alone are not sufficient to trigger bacterial internalization. PMID:11251843

Boudeau, J; Barnich, N; Darfeuille-Michaud, A

2001-03-01

122

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

123

Molecular characterization of intestinal bacteria in healthy cats and a comparison of the fecal bacterial flora between healthy cats and cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)  

E-print Network

of this study was to describe the microflora along the intestinal tract in healthy cats using comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) analysis. Intestinal content from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon was collected from 4 healthy cats and one...

Ritchie, Lauren Elizabeth

2009-05-15

124

Intestinal obstruction promotes gut translocation of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Translocation of enteric organisms has been implicated as a possible source of sepsis in susceptible patients. Animal studies have suggested that intestinal obstruction promotes bacterial translocation from the gut lumen. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of bacterial translocation in patients with and without intestinal obstruction. METHODS: Serosal scrapings, mesenteric lymph nodes, and peripheral blood

P. M. Sagar; J. MacFie; P. Sedman; J. May; B. Mancey-Jones; D. Johnstone

1995-01-01

125

Alcohol-Related Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diarrhea related to alcohol abuse may be either acute or chronic. Acute diarrheas are the result of dietary indiscretion,\\u000a transient anatomic or motility changes of the stomach or small intestine, impaired nutrient absorption, mucosal barrier function\\u000a or pancreatic secretion as well as hormonal\\/cytokine abnormalities related to alcohol hangover. Chronic diarrheas may result\\u000a from alcohol withdrawal, pancreatic or hepatobiliary dysfunction, morphologic

Nischita K. Reddy; Ashwani Singal; Don W. Powell

126

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

127

Intestinal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

128

IL-22 modulates gut epithelial and immune barrier functions following acute alcohol exposure and burn injury  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL)–22 maintains gut epithelial integrity and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3? and Reg3?. Our laboratory has shown that acute alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) exposure prior to burn injury results in increased gut permeability, intestinal T cell suppression and enhanced bacterial translocation. Herein, we determined the effect of combined EtOH intoxication and burn injury on intestinal levels of IL-22 as well as Reg3? and Reg3? expression. We further examined whether in vivo restitution of IL-22 restores gut permeability, Reg3? and Reg3? levels, and bacterial load (e.g. gut bacterial growth) within the intestine following EtOH and burn injury. Male mice, ~25g, were gavaged with EtOH (2.9 mg/kg) prior to receiving a ~12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were immediately treated with saline control or IL-22 (1 mg/kg) by i.p. injection. One day post injury, there was a significant decrease in intestinal IL-22, Reg3? and Reg3? expression along with an increase in intestinal permeability and gut bacterial load following EtOH combined with burn injury, as compared to sham injury. Treatment with IL-22 normalized Reg3? and Reg3? expression, and attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability following EtOH and burn injury. Qualitatively, IL-22 treatment reduced the bacterial load in nearly half of mice receiving EtOH combined with burn injury. Our data indicate that IL-22 maintains gut epithelial and immune barrier integrity following EtOH and burn injury; thus, the IL-22/AMP pathway may provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients who sustain burn injury under the influence of EtOH. PMID:23143063

Rendon, Juan L.; Li, Xiaoling; Akhtar, Suhail; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

2012-01-01

129

Small intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Smaller food particles move from the stomach to the small intestine. The small intestine is a long tube (like a garden hose), located just below the stomach. Most absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine (see absorption illustration). Keep in mind that the intestines are coiled like a snake inside of our bodies and are many feet long.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2006-08-18

130

Predisposing factors for positive D-Xylose breath test for evaluation of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A retrospective study of 932 patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate, in the largest cohort to date, patient characteristics and associated risk factors for developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) using the D-Xylose breath test (XBT). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study to analyze patient characteristics who underwent the XBT for evaluation of SIBO. Diagnostic testing with the XBT was performed based on a clinical suspicion for SIBO in patients with symptoms of bloating, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, weight loss, diarrhea, and/or constipation. Consecutive electronic medical records of 932 patients who completed the XBT at the University of Florida between 2005 and 2009 were reviewed. A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for several associations including age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) with a +XBT. A two-way ANOVA was also performed to control for the differences and interaction with age and between genders. A similar analysis was repeated for BMI. Associations between medical conditions and prior surgical histories were conducted using the Mantel-Haenszel method for 2 by 2 contingency tables, stratified for gender. Reported odds ratio estimates reflect the odds of the prevalence of a condition within the +XBT group to that of the -XBT group. P values of less than 0.05 (two-sided) were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In the 932 consecutive eligible subjects studied, 513 had a positive XBT. A positive association was found between female gender and a positive XBT (P = 0.0025), and females with a positive test were, on average, greater than 5 years older than those with a negative test (P = 0.024). The mean BMI of positive XBT subjects was normal (24.5) and significantly lower than the subjects with a negative XBT (29.5) (P = 0.0050). A positive XBT was associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.02-1.80, P = 0.04), peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.48-4.59, P < 0.01), gastroparesis (GP) (OR = 2.04; 95%CI: 1.21-3.41, P < 0.01) and steroid use (OR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.02-1.80, P = 0.01). Irritable bowel syndrome, independent proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) usage, or previous abdominal surgery was not significantly associated with a positive XBT. No single subdivision by gender or PPI use was associated with a significant difference in the odds ratios between any of the subsets. CONCLUSION: Female gender, lower BMI, steroid use, PUD, GERD (independent of PPI use), and GP were more prevalent in patients with SIBO, determined by a positive XBT. Increasing age was associated with SIBO in females, but not in males.

Schatz, Richard A; Zhang, Qing; Lodhia, Nilesh; Shuster, Jonathan; Toskes, Phillip P; Moshiree, Baharak

2015-01-01

131

Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies  

E-print Network

agitation and direct plug extraction methods yielded equivalent bacterial community DNA from the mucosa with PBS, hand washing with PBS containing Tween 80, and direct DNA extraction from mucosal plugs difference in bacterial community structure between the mechanical agitation and direct DNA extraction

Selinger, Brent

132

Alcohol, host defence and society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired health caused by alcohol abuse has been known throughout recorded history. Over the past century, alcohol abuse has been clearly linked to host susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. Recently, both acute and chronic alcohol intake have been shown to result in specific defects in innate and adaptive immunity; these could, in principle, be subjected to specific modulation

Steve Nelson; Jay K. Kolls

2002-01-01

133

Virulence attenuation of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis S-type strain prepared from intestinal mucosa after bacterial culture. Evaluation in an experimental ovine model.  

PubMed

The differences in pathogenicity between an inoculum derived directly from an intestinal tissue homogenate from a paratuberculosis affected sheep and the S-type Mycobacterium avium subsp. partuberculosis (Map) strain isolated in laboratory media from the mentioned homogenate were assessed in two experiments in lambs. Specific peripheral immune responses were significantly lower in animals inoculated with the cultured organisms that showed only granulomatous lesions in the intestinal lymphoid tissue. However, in the homogenate group, more abundant granulomata also occurred in the lamina propria. Map was isolated only in lambs infected with the culture strain. Map DNA was demonstrated by nested-PCR in all the lambs but in a lower proportion (57.1% vs 100%) in those from the culture group. Under these particular experimental conditions, the results suggest that an attenuation of Map virulence has occurred in the cultured strain compared to the initial tissue homogenate, even after a low number of passages. PMID:25744432

Fernández, Miguel; Delgado, Laetitia; Sevilla, Iker A; Fuertes, Miguel; Castaño, Pablo; Royo, Marcos; Ferreras, M Carmen; Benavides, Julio; Pérez, Valentín

2015-04-01

134

A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the ?-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves  

PubMed Central

Background The ?–(1???3),(1???6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the ?–(1???3),(1???6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the ?-(1???3),(1???6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3?months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the ?–(1???3),(1???6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for further study on the efficacies of oral administration of ?-(1???3),(1???6)-D-glucans on domestic animals. PMID:22534338

2012-01-01

135

Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Binds Pro-Inflammatory Bacterial Compounds and Prevents Immune Activation in an Intestinal Co-Culture Model  

PubMed Central

Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-? cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (?50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI might improve immune status and reduce inflammation in various intestinal disease states. PMID:25830826

Detzel, Christopher J.; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Warner, Christopher D.; Maas, Kenneth J.; Weaver, Eric M.

2015-01-01

136

Alterations of the gut microbiome and metabolome in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of liver diseases and liver-related death worldwide. The gut is a habitat for billions of microorganisms which promotes metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations of gut microbiome by alcohol consumption are referred to bacterial overgrowth, release of bacteria-derived products, and/or changed microbiota equilibrium. Alcohol consumption also perturbs the function of gastrointestinal mucosa and elicits a pathophysiological condition. These adverse effects caused by alcohol may ultimately result in a broad change of gastrointestinal luminal metabolites such as bile acids, short chain fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Gut microbiota alterations, metabolic changes produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment, and the host factors are all critical contributors to the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of how alcohol-induced alterations of gut microbiota and metabolome, and discusses the mechanistic link between gastrointestinal dyshomeostasis and alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400995

Zhong, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2014-01-01

137

Intestinal Malabsorption in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal malabsorption in the elderly is infrequent, and clinical features are muted so that the diagnosis is often missed. Physiologic changes with aging are restricted to altered absorption of calcium and perhaps zinc and magnesium; however, achlorhydria can lead to impaired absorption of vitamin B12, folic acid, and calcium. Methods and Results: Small bowel bacterial overgrowth occurs more commonly

Peter R. Holt

2007-01-01

138

The small intestine.  

PubMed

Clinical investigation of the small bowel at The Mount Sinai Hospital began with David Adlersberg's arrival in 1931. His research interests were in bile acids, cholesterol, carotene, and vitamin A. In 1952, he was given a Nutrition Laboratory and later, a Nutrition Clinic. His vitamin A tolerance test and interest in malabsorption led him to a comprehensive study of sprue, the separation of the tropical and non-tropical forms, and their different etiologies and treatments. Adlersberg's work was complemented by (a) Marshak and Wolf's radiologic examination of the small bowel (especially in sprue and other malabsorption disorders); (b) Gerson s perfusion experiments; and (c) Friedman, Waye and Wolf's motility studies. Lieber and his colleagues explored the deleterious effects of alcohol on the function and structure of the small intestine. Gerson explored the nutrition of patients with Crohn's disease of the small intestine, especially after extensive resection or bypass leading to ascorbic and folic acid deficiencies and hypergastrinemia. PMID:10828909

Gerson, C D

2000-05-01

139

Amino acid and fiber digestibility, intestinal bacterial profile, and enzyme activity in growing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles-based diets.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine ileal AA and fiber digestibility in new-generation dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from wheat (wDDGS), a wheat-corn blend [wcDDGS, wheat and corn were fermented in a 7:3 wt/wt ratio], or corn (cDDGS) and to determine the effects of diets containing DDGS on gut bacteria and bacterial and digestive enzyme activities. Experimental diets contained one of the DDGS samples as the sole source of protein, and a low protein diet (5% casein) was included to estimate basal endogenous ileal CP and AA losses. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was added as an indigestible marker to all diets. Twelve cannulated barrows with an initial BW of 20.2 +/- 1.3 kg were allotted to the 4 experimental diets in a 2-period crossover design, which provided 6 observations per diet. Pigs were acclimatized to their diets for 5 d followed by a continuous 12-h digesta collection on d 6 and 7. Diet had no effect on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (P = 0.58). The wDDGS diet generally had decreased (P < 0.05) AID of AA compared with the wcDDGS or cDDGS diet. Similarly, the values for standardized ileal digestibility of CP and most AA were smaller (P < 0.05) for the wDDGS diet compared with the other 2 DDGS diets. The Lys and Thr were the least digestible AA among the indispensable AA across the 3 DDGS samples. The digestibilities of nonstarch polysaccharides and NDF were not affected by diet (P = 0.80 and 0.40, respectively); however, the ileal digesta viscosity was greater (P < 0.05) for the wcDDGS diet than the wDDGS and cDDGS diets. The counts of Lactobacillus (P = 0.09) and Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.05) were greater for the cDDGS diet compared with the other 2 diets. Accordingly, the cDDGS diet elicited a greater (P < 0.05) lactic acid concentration in digesta than the wDDGS diet. The activities of bacterial (P = 0.86 to 0.91) and digestive enzymes (P = 0.31 to 0.80) did not differ among the diets. The results indicate that the wDDGS had generally less protein and AA ileal digestibilities compared with the wcDDGS and cDDGS samples and that nonstarch polysaccharides and NDF digestibilities were similar among diets. Although diet influenced digesta bacterial counts, no effects were observed on the activities of bacterial and digestive enzymes. PMID:20525935

Yang, Y; Kiarie, E; Slominski, B A; Brûlé-Babel, A; Nyachoti, C M

2010-10-01

140

Intestinal Parasitoses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

1994-01-01

141

Gut-liver axis and probiotics: their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a "low bacterial richness" may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier ("leaky gut"), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

2014-11-14

142

Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

2014-01-01

143

Alcohol and immunology: introduction to and summary of the 2003 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.  

PubMed

The 8th Meeting of the Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) was held at Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, USA, on November 21, 2003. Reports from multiple laboratories reveal that the functional integrity of the immune system is of paramount importance to the survival of the individual after infection or injury. Evidence supports the idea that exposure to alcohol causes dysregulation of both the innate and the adaptive arms of the immune system. Gaining a better understanding of how alcohol interferes with normal inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes will aid researchers in the design of therapeutic interventions that can be used to improve these responses to better fight infection and maintain the health of the individual. At this meeting, nine speakers presented a summary of their recent work on the combined effects of ethanol and injury, infection, or inflammatory challenge. Topics were (1) T-cell activation after chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, (2) effect of ethanol consumption on the severity of acute viral-mediated pancreatitis, (3) ethanol and alveolar macrophage dysfunction, (4) impaired intestinal immunity and barrier function: a cause for enhanced bacterial translocation in alcohol intoxication and burn injury, (5) immune consequences of the combined insult of acute ethanol exposure and burn injury, (6) consequences of alcohol-induced dysregulation of immediate hemodynamic and inflammatory responses to trauma/hemorrhage, (7) regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by Kupffer cells after chronic exposure to ethanol, (8) acute exposure to ethanol and suppression of cytokine responses induced through Toll-like receptors, and (9) inhibition of antigen-presenting cell functions by alcohol: implications for hepatitis C virus infection. We anticipate that the work presented at the 8th Meeting of AIRIG, summarized in this article, and presented in the nine articles to follow in this Special Issue of Alcohol will stimulate ideas that will develop into research projects in these topical areas. PMID:15596084

Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Jerrells, Thomas R

2004-07-01

144

Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

2015-01-01

145

Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2015-01-01

146

Gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. PMID:25469033

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bertino, Gaetano; Malaguarnera, Michele

2014-01-01

147

What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common kind of  

E-print Network

What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common kind of vaginal infection) often have BV in conjunction with the STI. BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS IS NOT A YEAST INFECTION Many women have of alcohol in many liquid medications may cause nausea and vomiting if taking metronidazole. BACTERIAL

Virginia Tech

148

Alcoholism - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - alcoholism ... Alateen - www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - www.samhsa.gov

149

Intestine Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Berverly Kosmach MSN, CRNP. "Intestinal Transplantation." Transplantation Nursing Secrets . Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus, 2003 This Web site ... of events Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant ...

150

Intestinal Malrotation  

MedlinePLUS

... other associated conditions, including: other defects of the digestive system heart defects abnormalities of other organs, including the ... large intestines are the longest part of the digestive system. If stretched out to their full length, they ...

151

Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ  

PubMed Central

Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

2012-01-01

152

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the principal enzyme responsible for etoposide glucuronidation in human liver and intestinal microsomes: structural characterization of phenolic and alcoholic glucuronides of etoposide and estimation of enzyme kinetics.  

PubMed

Etoposide, an important anticancer agent, undergoes glucuronidation both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, three isomeric glucuronides of etoposide, including one phenolic (EPG) and two alcoholic glucuronides (EAG1 and EAG2), were biosynthesized in vitro with human liver microsomes (HLMs), and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and confirmed by beta-glucuronidase cleavage. In vitro UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) reaction screening with 12 recombinant human UGTs demonstrated that etoposide glucuronidation is mainly catalyzed by UGT1A1. Although UGT1A8 and 1A3 also catalyzed the glucuronidation of etoposide, their activities were approximately 10 and 1% of UGT1A1. Enzyme kinetic study indicated that the predominant form of etoposide glucuronide in HLMs and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) was EPG, whereas EAG1 and EAG2 were the minor metabolites, with approximately an 8 to 10% glucuronidation rate of EPG. For the formation of EPG, the V(max) of HLMs (110 pmol/min/mg protein) was very similar to that of recombinant UGT1A1 (124 pmol/min/mg protein), whereas the V(max) of HIMs (54.4 pmol/min/mg protein) was 2-fold lower than those of HIMs and UGT1A1. The K(m) values of HLMs (530 microM) and HIMs (608 microM) were 2-fold higher than that of UGT1A1 (285 microM). The V(max)/K(m) values for the formation of EPG were 0.21 and 0.09 microl/min/mg protein for HLMs and HIMs, respectively. The data indicated that UGT1A1 is principally responsible for the formation of etoposide glucuronides, mainly in the form of phenolic glucuronide, suggesting that etoposide can be used as a highly selective probe substrate for human UGT1A1 in vitro. PMID:17151191

Wen, Zhiming; Tallman, Melanie N; Ali, Shazia Y; Smith, Philip C

2007-03-01

153

Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

2012-01-01

154

Intestinal ?-galactosidases  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two ?-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal ?-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic ?-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic ?-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a ?-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.

1969-01-01

155

Immune response and the intestinal microbiota in control of susceptibility to Heligmosomoides polygyrus   

E-print Network

The mammalian intestinal tract is highly colonised with a diverse bacterial microbiota. The importance of this bacterial presence is now recognised; these bacteria contribute both to the nutritional status of their hosts ...

Reynolds, Lisa Anne

2013-06-29

156

Alcoholic disease: Liver and beyond  

PubMed Central

The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

2014-01-01

157

Mercury methylation by fish intestinal contents.  

PubMed Central

A new radiochemical method has been applied to the examination of mercury methylation in fish intestinal contents. Intestinal contents of six freshwater fish species were found capable of converting 203Hg2+ to CH3203Hg+. This activity was observed in fish from five of six lakes tested whether or not there was mercury pollution. Bacterial activity in the intestinal contents is most likely responsible for this methylation. Methylating activity of piscivors increased with decreasing quantity of intestinal contents. Generally, pike and walleye intestinal contents methylated a larger fraction of 203Hg2+ than those of whitefish and suckers. These data contradict the previous general conclusion that there is no mercury methylation in fish. PMID:7425625

Rudd, J W; Furutani, A; Turner, M A

1980-01-01

158

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults ... Services National Institutes of Health NIAAA: Understanding the impact of alcohol on human health and well-being

159

Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p < 0.05), 77 metabolites were present in significantly lower concentrations and/or incidence in the GF mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p < 0.05), and 56 metabolites showed no differences in the concentration or incidence between GF and Ex-GF mice. These indicate that intestinal microbiota highly influenced the colonic luminal metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

2012-01-01

160

Intestinal microflora in rats with ischemia/reperfusion liver injury*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the intestinal microflora status related to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) liver injury and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Specific pathogen free grade Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: Control group (n=8), sham group (n=6) and I/R group (n=10). Rats in the control group did not receive any treatment, rats in the I/R group were subjected to 20 min of liver ischemia, and rats in the sham group were only subjected to sham operation. Twenty-two hours later, the rats were sacrificed and liver enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum endotoxin, intestinal bacterial counts, intestinal mucosal histology, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and kidney were studied. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion increased liver enzymes, MDA, decreased SOD, and was associated with plasma endotoxin elevation in the I/R group campared to those in the sham group. Intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli decreased and intestinal Enterobacterium and Enterococcus, bacterial translocation to kidney increased in the I/R group compared to the sham group. Intestinal microvilli were lost, disrupted and the interspace between cells became wider in the I/R group. Conclusion: I/R liver injury may lead to disturbance of intestinal microflora and impairment of intestinal mucosal barrier function, which contributes to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation to kidney. PMID:15593386

Xing, Hui-chun; Li, Lan-juan; Xu, Kai-jin; Shen, Tian; Chen, Yun-bo; Sheng, Ji-fang; Yu, Yun-song; Chen, Ya-gang

2005-01-01

161

EXAMINATION OF THE INTESTINAL MICROBIOME FOR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNCTIONALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives of these studies were to describe the constituents and dynamics of intestinal bacterial communities in turkeys, and identify microbes associated with exclusion of the food borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. It has been estimated that >7000 bacterial subspecies reside in the intestine, ...

162

Alcohol withdrawal  

MedlinePLUS

... Alateen - www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ... O'Connor PG. Alcohol abuse and dependence. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 32. ...

163

Therapy for alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ? 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation. PMID:24605013

Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

2014-01-01

164

Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

2005-01-01

165

Alterations in intestinal motility and microflora in experimental acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a A delay in intestinal transit time appears as an early event in acute pancreatitis, preceding intestinal bacterial overgrowth\\u000a and translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Septic complications, primarily caused by bacteria of enteric origin, are frequent in severe acute pancreatitis. Impairment\\u000a in intestinal motility probably plays a pathophysiological role in the development of bacterial overgrowth and ensuing translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the present study, the

Per Leveau; Xiangdong Wang; Vasile Soltesz; Ingemar Ihse; Roland Andersson

1996-01-01

166

Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)  

MedlinePLUS

... Intestinal dysmotility Small bowel manometry (antroduodenal manometry) A test that is used to detect intestinal motility abnormalities is small bowel manometry (antroduodenal manometry). This involves placing a long tube with pressure sensors on it that passes through the stomach and ...

167

Alcoholics Anonymous  

MedlinePLUS

... REFLECTIONS Themes Web Banners Site Help Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... a drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

168

Arguments for alcoholic hand disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-aqueous use of ethanol or propanols offers various advantages over washing hands with either unmedicated or medicated soap in both hygienic and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohols exert the strongest and fastest activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi (but not bacterial spores) as well as enveloped (but less so against non-enveloped) viruses, being little influenced by interfering

M. L. Rotter

2001-01-01

169

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

2014-01-01

170

Intestinal SGLT1-mediated absorption and metabolism of benzyl ?-glucoside contained in Prunus mume: carrier-mediated transport increases intestinal availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal absorption of benzyl ?-glucoside (BNZ?glc) contained in the fruit of Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC. (Rosaceae), which is traditionally used as a medicinal food in Japan, was studied in rat intestines. BNZ?glc was absorbed from the mucosal to serosal sides. Its metabolite, benzyl alcohol (BAL), was also detected on both the mucosal and serosal sides. In the presence

Takashi Mizuma; Maya Nakamura; Hiroji Ina; Toshio Miyazaki; Masahiro Hayashi

2005-01-01

171

Intestinal Translocation of Clinical Isolates of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli in a Rat Model of Bacterial Colonization and Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to develop a rat model of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and to evaluate intestinal translocation to blood and tissues after total and partial hepatic ischemia. Methods - We developed a model of rat colonization with VRE and ESBL-E coli. Then we studied four groups of colonized rats: Group I (with hepatic pedicle occlusion causing complete liver ischemia and intestinal stasis); Group II (with partial liver ischemia without intestinal stasis); Group III (surgical manipulation without hepatic ischemia or intestinal stasis); Group IV (anesthetized without surgical manipulation). After sacrifice, portal and systemic blood, large intestine, small intestine, spleen, liver, lungs, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured. Endotoxin concentrations in portal and systemic blood were determined. Results – The best inocula were: VRE: 2.4×1010 cfu and ESBL-E. coli: 1.12×1010 cfu. The best results occurred 24 hours after inoculation and antibiotic doses of 750 µg/mL of water for vancomycin and 2.1 mg/mL for ceftriaxone. There was a significantly higher proportion of positive cultures for ESBL-E. coli in the lungs in Groups I, II and III when compared with Group IV (67%; 60%; 75% and 13%, respectively; p:0.04). VRE growth was more frequent in mesenteric lymph nodes for Groups I (67%) and III (38%) than for Groups II (13%) and IV (none) (p:0.002). LPS was significantly higher in systemic blood of Group I (9.761±13.804 EU/mL?p:0.01). No differences for endotoxin occurred in portal blood. Conclusion –We developed a model of rats colonized with resistant bacteria useful to study intestinal translocation. Translocation occurred in surgical procedures with and without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and probably occurred via the bloodstream. Translocation was probably lymphatic in the ischemia-reperfusion groups. Systemic blood endotoxin levels were higher in the group with complete hepatic ischemia. PMID:25255079

van der Heijden, Karin M.; van der Heijden, Inneke M.; Galvao, Flavio H.; Lopes, Camila G.; Costa, Silvia F.; Abdala, Edson; D’Albuquerque, Luiz A.; Levin, Anna S.

2014-01-01

172

Agent-based model of fecal microbial transplant effect on bile acid metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the C. difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, fecal microbial transplant. The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

2014-10-01

173

Agent-based model of Fecal Microbial Transplant effect on Bile Acid Metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the Clostridium difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, Fecal Microbial Transplant (FMT). The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

2014-01-01

174

Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility.

Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

1987-08-01

175

Bacterial infection causes stress-induced memory dysfunction in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe brain–gut axis is a key regulator of normal intestinal physiology; for example, psychological stress is linked to altered gut barrier function, development of food allergies and changes in behaviour. Whether intestinal events, such as enteric bacterial infections and bacterial colonisation, exert a reciprocal effect on stress-associated behaviour is not well established.ObjectiveTo determine the effects of either acute enteric infection

Mélanie G Gareau; Eytan Wine; David M Rodrigues; Joon Ho Cho; Mark T Whary; Dana J Philpott; Glenda MacQueen; Philip M Sherman

2010-01-01

176

[Acute intestinal ischaemia].  

PubMed

In spite of introduction modern diagnostics and therapeutics modalities in clinical practice diagnostics of acute intestinal ischaemia is very difficult. Acute intestinal ischaemia is rare cause of acute abdominal dissease but results of surgical treatment and prognosis of the patients with acute intestinal ischaemia is very poor. The aim of study is occurence, diagnostics and therapeutics possibilities of acute intestinal ischaemia, because tretament of acute intestinal ischaemia have high rate of mortality. Authors claiming on own small set of patients that in diagnostics of acute abdominal pain everything in once mind on acute intestinal ischaemia. PMID:17626460

Bakos, E; Osuský, M; Korcek, J; Bakos, M

2007-04-01

177

Innate immune signaling and gut-liver interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and covers a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The innate immune response in the liver plays an important role during NAFLD progression. In addition, changes in the intestinal microbial balance and bacterial translocation can further affect disease progression. Immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage or pathogen invasion with intracellular or surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), subsequently initiating signaling cascades that trigger the release of factors promoting the inflammatory response during NAFLD progression. Therefore, mechanisms by which cells of the immune system are activated and recruited into the liver and how these cells cause injury and stress are important for understanding the inflammatory response during NAFLD. PMID:25568861

Trautwein, Christian

2014-01-01

178

Risk factors for small intestine cancer.  

PubMed

Small intestine cancer is relatively rare. Clinical reports have suggested that several medical conditions may predispose to increased occurrence of this cancer, but otherwise its etiology is unknown. In one of the first case-control studies of this cancer, we compared questionnaire responses provided by next-of-kin of 430 persons who died of small intestine cancer cf921 controls who died of other causes. Subjects were identified from decedents included in the 1986 United States National Mortality Followback Survey. The questionnaires sought information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including diet and use of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were unrelated to risk of small intestine cancer, but weekly or more frequent consumption of red meat and monthly or more frequent intake of salt-cured/smoked foods were associated with two- to three fold increases in risk. The findings suggest that dietary factors probably are involved in risk of small intestine cancer, but additional research in other settings is required to clarify the determinants of these rare cancers. PMID:8481495

Chow, W H; Linet, M S; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W; Chien, H T; Blot, W J

1993-03-01

179

Bacterial Sialidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

2004-01-01

180

Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions  

PubMed Central

Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

2014-01-01

181

Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

Human body has developed a holistic defence system, which mission is either to recognize and destroy the aggressive invaders or to evolve mechanisms permitting to minimize or restore the consequences of harmful actions. The host immune system keeps the capital role to preserve the microbial intestinal balance via the barrier effect. Specifically, pathogenic invaders such as, bacteria, parasites, viruses and other xenobiotic invaders are rejected out of the body via barriers formed by the skin, mucosa and intestinal flora. In case physical barriers are breached, the immune system with its many components comes into action in order to fence infection. The intestine itself is considered as an "active organ" due to its abundant bacterial flora and to its large metabolic activity. The variation among different species or even among different strains within a species reflects the complexity of the genetic polymorphism which regulates the immune system functions. Additionally factors such as, gender, particular habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, religion, age, gender, precedent infections and vaccinations must be involved. Hormonal profile and stress seems to be associated to the integrity microbiota and inducing immune system alterations. Which bacterial species are needed for inducing a proper barrier effect is not known, but it is generally accepted that this barrier function can be strongly supported by providing benefic alimentary supplements called functional foods. In this vein it is stressed the fact that early intestinal colonization with organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and possibly subsequent protection from many different types of diseases. Moreover, this benefic microflora dominated but Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli support the concept of their ability to modify the gut microbiota by reducing the risk of cancer following their capacity to decrease ?-glucoronidase and carcinogen levels. Because of their beneficial roles in the human gastrointestinal tract, LAB are referred to as "probiotics", and efforts are underway to employ them in modern nutrition habits with so-called functional foods. Members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera are normal residents of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract, in which they developed soon after birth. But, whether such probiotic strains derived from the human gut should be commercially employed in the so-called functional foods is a matter of debate between scientists and the industrial world. Within a few hours from birth the newborn develops its normal bacterial flora. Indeed human milk frequently contains low amounts of non-pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Bifidobacterium. In general, bacteria start to appear in feces within a few hours after birth. Colonization by Bifidobacterium occurs generally within 4 days of life. Claims have been made for positive effects of Bifidobacterium on infant growth and health. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem is largely discussed during the last years by many authors. Bifidobacterium is reported to be a probiotic bacterium, exercising a beneficial effect on the intestinal flora. An antagonism has been reported between B. bifidum and C. perfringens in the intestine of newborns delivered by cesarean section. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and restore the protective effect. However, the possible ways in which the gut microbiota is being influenced by probiotics is yet unknown. PMID:21515397

Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

2011-12-01

182

Characterization of Butyrate Uptake by Nontransformed Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon.\\u000a Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed\\u000a intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal human colonic epithelial (FHC) cells.\\u000a Uptake of 14C-BT by IEC-6

Pedro GoncalvesJoao; João R. Araújo; Fátima Martel

2011-01-01

183

Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style  

PubMed Central

The lower gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with resident microbial communities (microbiota), which do not elicit overt host responses but rather provide benefit to the host, including niche protection from pathogens. However, introduction of bacteria into the underlying tissue evokes acute inflammation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) elicit this stereotypic host response by actively penetrating the intestinal epithelium and surviving in tissue macrophages. Initial responses generated by bacterial host cell interaction are amplified in tissue through the interleukin (IL)-18/interferon (IFN)-? and the IL-23/IL-17 axes, resulting in the activation of mucosal barrier functions against NTS dissemination. However, the pathogen is adapted to survive antimicrobial defenses encountered in the lumen of the inflamed intestine. This strategy enables NTS to exploit inflammation to outcompete the intestinal microbiota, and promotes their transmission by the fecal/oral route. PMID:19819699

Santos, Renato L.; Raffatellu, Manuela; Bevins, Charles L.; Adams, L. Garry; Tükel, Çagla; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

2011-01-01

184

Metabolites from intestinal microbes shape Treg.  

PubMed

Intestinal bacterial metabolites are an important communication tool between the host immune system and the commensal microbiota to establish mutualism. In a recent paper published in Science, Wendy Garrett and her colleagues report an exciting role of the three most abundant microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, in colonic regulatory T cell (cTreg) homeostasis. PMID:24018374

Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D; Macpherson, Andrew J

2013-12-01

185

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Experimental evidence revealed that obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to changes in intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products to the liver. Hitherto, no reliable therapy is available except for weight reduction. Within this study, we examined the possible effect of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as protective agent against experimental NAFLD in a mouse model. Methods Experimental NAFLD was induced by a high-fructose diet over eight weeks in C57BL/J6 mice. Fructose was administered via the drinking water containing 30% fructose with or without LGG at a concentration resulting in approximately 5×107 colony forming units/g body weight. Mice were examined for changes in small intestinal microbiota, gut barrier function, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in the portal vein, liver inflammation and fat accumulation in the liver. Results LGG increased beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine. Moreover, LGG reduced duodenal I?B protein levels and restored the duodenal tight junction protein concentration. Portal LPS (P?0.05) was reduced and tended to attenuate TNF-?, IL-8R and IL-1? mRNA expression in the liver feeding a high-fructose diet supplemented with LGG. Furthermore liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (P?0.05) were attenuated in mice fed the high-fructose diet and LGG. Conclusions We show for the first time that LGG protects mice from NAFLD induced by a high-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms of protection likely involve an increase of beneficial bacteria, restoration of gut barrier function and subsequent attenuation of liver inflammation and steatosis. PMID:24475018

Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; Claus, Anke; Ehrmann, Veronika; Bergheim, Ina; Schwiertz, Andreas; Bischoff, Stephan C.

2014-01-01

186

A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a strict human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. It is an old-world pathogen that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease [36]. The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial infectious dose is required for infection, data suggests that only a smaller sub-population colonizes a portion of the small bowel leading to disease. There are many barriers to colonization in the intestines including peristalsis, fluid wash-out, viscosity of the mucus layer, and pH. We are interested in identifying the mechanisms that allow this sub-population of bacteria to survive and colonize the intestines when faced with these barriers. To elaborate the dynamics of V. cholerae infection, we have developed a mathematical model based on a convection-diffusion-reaction-swimming equation capturing bacterial dynamics coupled with Stokes equations governing fluid velocity where we developed a novel non-local boundary condition. Our results indicate that both host and bacterial factors contribute to bacterial density in the gut. Host factors include intestinal diffusion and convection rates while bacterial factors include adherence, motility and growth rates. This model can ultimately be used to test therapeutic strategies against V. cholerae. PMID:21903104

Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; DiRita, Victor; Kirschner, Denise

2011-01-01

187

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis, the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge in the United States, is characterized microbiologically\\u000a by a shift in the vagina away from a lactobacillus-predominant flora and toward a predominantly anaerobic milieu. The cause\\u000a of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, but the epidemiology of the syndrome suggests that it is sexually associated. Bacterial\\u000a vaginosis has been associated with various complications,

Jane R. Schwebke

2000-01-01

188

Vertebrate Intestinal Endoderm Development  

PubMed Central

The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. PMID:21246663

Spence, Jason R.; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F.

2010-01-01

189

Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology  

PubMed Central

Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

190

Alcohol conversion  

DOEpatents

Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

2002-01-01

191

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

192

Intestinal microcirculation and gut permeability in acute pancreatitis: Early changes and therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translocation of bacteria from the intestine causes local and systemic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. Increased intestinal\\u000a permeability is considered a promoter of bacterial translocation. The mechanism leading to increased gut permeability may\\u000a involve impaired intestinal capillary blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate early changes in capillary\\u000a blood flow and permeability of the colon

Hubert G. Hotz; Thomas Foitzik; Janine Rohweder; Joerg D. Schulzke; Micbael Fromm; Norbert S. F. Runkel; Heinz J. Bubr

1998-01-01

193

A Comparative Study on Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Resident Gut Bacteria (ii) Effect of Arsenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective In order to use facultative gut bacteria as an alternate to animals for the initial gastrointestinal toxicity screening of heavy metals, a comparative study on rat intestinal epithelial cells and resident gut bacteria was undertaken. Methods in vitro growth rate of four gut bacteria, dehydrogenase (DHA) and esterase (EA) activity test, intestinal epithelial and bacterial cell membrane enzymes and

RAJ K. UPRETI; A. KANNAN; RICHA SHRIVASTAVA; U. C. CHATURVEDI

2006-01-01

194

Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics. PMID:23515964

Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

2013-09-01

195

Impact of Commensal Intestinal Microbiota on Nervous System Development and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal intestinal microbiota number in the realm of 1014 organisms per gram of colonic contents. This considerable bacterial load is acquired during birth and in the early postnatal days and has a defining, extensive impact on host physiology. We now have persuasive evidence that the intestinal microbiota influence the development of the nervous system. The following body of work describes

McVeyNeufeldKaren-Anne

2012-01-01

196

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis, affecting over 3 million women in the United States annually. Depopulation of lactobacilli from the normal vaginal flora and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic species are the presumed etiology. To date, no scientific evidence shows that bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted disease. Malodorous vaginal discharge is the most

Jeff Wang

2000-01-01

197

Alcoholic ketoacidosis  

MedlinePLUS

Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol level Blood chemistries, and liver function tests, such as CHEM-20 CBC (complete blood count, measures red and whilte blood cells, ...

198

Differential Alteration in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory intestinal responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may result from an exaggerated host defense reaction of the intestinal epithelium to endogenous lumenal bacterial flora. Intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express several functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which appear to be key regulators of the innate response system. The aim of this study was to characterize

ELKE CARIO; DANIEL K. PODOLSKY

2000-01-01

199

JAMA Patient Page: Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • Alcoholics Anonymous www.alcoholics-anonymous.org • Al-Anon Family Groups Inc 888/425- ... Mutual help groups include support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Al- Anon. Individuals in these groups support ...

200

Small & Large Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System » Small & Large Intestine Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & ...

201

MicroRNAs in Alcoholic Liver Disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by hepatocyte damage, inflammatory cell activation and increased intestinal permeability leading to the clinical manifestations of alcoholic hepatitis. Selected members of the family of microRNAs are affected by alcohol, resulting in an abnormal miRNA profile in the liver and circulation in ALD. Increasing evidence suggests that mRNAs that regulate inflammation, lipid metabolism and promote cancer are affected by excessive alcohol administration in mouse models of ALD. This communication highlights recent findings in miRNA expression and functions as they relate to the pathogenesis of ALD. The cell-specific distribution of miRNAs, as well as the significance of circulating extracellular miRNAs, is discussed as potential biomarkers. Finally, the prospects of miRNA-based therapies are evaluated in ALD. PMID:25632933

Szabo, Gyongyi; Satishchandran, Abhishek

2015-02-01

202

MICROBIAL SUCCESSION AND INTESTINAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The succession of gastrointestinal flora in the developing rat was studied, concomitant with studies of intestinal enzyme activity. Aerobes and anaerobes were identified as members of 4 major bacterial groups, i.e., Lactobacilli spp., Gram positive enterococci, Gram negative rods...

203

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

204

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... NIH holds competition to create better wearable alcohol biosensor First prize winner will be awarded $200,000 ... ... to Develop a New, Real-Time, Wearable Alcohol Biosensor The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... News ...

205

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Older Adults In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Genetics of ...

206

Fetal Alcohol Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443. ... NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443. ...

207

Naltrexone for Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

208

Women and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443. ... NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443. ...

209

Alcohol and pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

210

Alcoholic liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause inflammation in the liver . Over time, scarring ...

211

Alcohol during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol during pregnancy Drinking alcohol when you're pregnant can be ... preterm birth and stillbirth . How does alcohol during pregnancy harm your baby? When you drink alcohol during ...

212

Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

2014-01-01

213

Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

2014-01-01

214

Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium – a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIII? and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

2015-01-01

215

Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIII? and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

2015-01-01

216

Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

Arslan, Nur

2014-01-01

217

The role of diet on intestinal microbiota metabolism: downstream impacts on host immune function and health, and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Dietary impacts on health may be one of the oldest concepts in medicine; however, only in recent years have technical advances in mass spectroscopy, gnotobiology, and bacterial sequencing enabled our understanding of human physiology to progress to the point where we can begin to understand how individual dietary components can affect specific illnesses. This review explores the current understanding of the complex interplay between dietary factors and the host microbiome, concentrating on the downstream implications on host immune function and the pathogenesis of disease. We discuss the influence of the gut microbiome on body habitus and explore the primary and secondary effects of diet on enteric microbial community structure. We address the impact of consumption of non-digestible polysaccharides (prebiotics and fiber), choline, carnitine, iron, and fats on host health as mediated by the enteric microbiome. Disease processes emphasized include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, IBD, and cardiovascular disease/atherosclerosis. The concepts presented in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to develop fully and validate potential therapeutic approaches. Specific dietary interventions offer exciting potential for nontoxic, physiologic ways to alter enteric microbial structure and metabolism to benefit the natural history of many intestinal and systemic disorders. PMID:24652102

Goldsmith, Jason R; Sartor, R Balfour

2014-05-01

218

Intestinal absorption and cell transforming potential of PhIP-M1, a bacterial metabolite of the heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that in the rat, the colon carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is only absorbed to a limited extent in the small intestines and that a major fraction of unmetabolised PhIP reaches the colon. Moreover, PhIP is extensively metabolised when incubated with human stool samples to a major derivative, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido [3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1). In the present study, the uptake and transport of PhIP-M1 in Ussing chamber experiments, its cytotoxicity in the different segments of the Fischer 344 rat gut and its transforming potential in the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay were analysed. At the most, 10-20% of the PhIP-M1 amount added to the mucosal compartment of the Ussing chambers per segment were absorbed within 90min. Therefore, the amount of PhIP-M1 detected in the tissues as well as in the serosal compartment of the Ussing chambers was extremely low. Moreover, human-relevant concentrations of PhIP-M1 were not cytotoxic and did not induce the malignant transformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells. In conclusion, even if one would assume that 100% of the daily amount of PhIP ingested by a human being is converted into PhIP-M1 in the colon, this concentration most probably would not lead to cytotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity in the colorectal mucosa. PMID:25707896

Nicken, Petra; Willenberg, Ina; Keutz, Anne von; Elsner, Leonie von; Hamscher, Gerd; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Schröder, Bernd; Breves, Gerhard; Schebb, Nils Helge; Steinberg, Pablo

2015-04-16

219

Alcohol project  

SciTech Connect

The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

Not Available

1980-12-01

220

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.  

PubMed

Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters. PMID:24133060

Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S; Chou, Tristan; Said, Hamid M

2013-12-01

221

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health.  

PubMed

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant have been shown to protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Here, we discuss the role of F. prausnitzii in balancing immunity in the intestine and the mechanisms involved. PMID:23831042

Miquel, S; Martín, R; Rossi, O; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G; Chatel, J M; Sokol, H; Thomas, M; Wells, J M; Langella, P

2013-06-01

222

Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production. Methodology/Principal Findings Changes in gut mucosa were assessed in the intestinal loops of inbred Wistar-AVN rats that were reared under germ-free conditions in the presence of various intestinal bacteria (enterobacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from CD patients and healthy children, respectively) and CD-triggering agents (gliadin and IFN-?) by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and a rat cytokine antibody array. Adhesion of the bacterial strains to the IEC-6 rat cell line was evaluated in vitro. Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-? significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the small intestine; this effect was more pronounced in the presence of Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8. Shigella CBD8 and IFN-? induced the highest mucin secretion and greatest impairment in tight junctions and, consequently, translocation of gliadin fragments into the lamina propria. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 strongly adhered to IEC-6 epithelial cells. The number of goblet cells in small intestine increased by the simultaneous incubation of Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 with gliadin, IFN-? and enterobacteria. B. bifidum IATA-ES2 also enhanced the production of chemotactic factors and inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which can contribute to gut mucosal protection. Conclusions Our results suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota affects the permeability of the intestinal mucosa and, consequently, could be involved in the early stages of CD pathogenesis. PMID:21249146

Cinova, Jana; De Palma, Giada; Stepankova, Renata; Kofronova, Olga; Kverka, Miloslav; Sanz, Yolanda; Tuckova, Ludmila

2011-01-01

223

Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.  

PubMed

Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

2011-01-01

224

Gram-Negative Bacteria Aggravate Murine Small Intestinal Th1Type Immunopathology following Oral Infection with Toxoplasma gondii1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial trans- location. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides\\/Prevotella

Markus M. Heimesaat; Stefan Bereswill; David Fuchs; Daniela Struck; Julia Niebergall; Hannah-Katharina Jahn; Annette Moter; Dorothee M. Gescher; Ralf R. Schumann; Ulf B. Gobel; Oliver Liesenfeld

225

Bacterial Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt is caused by the bacterium Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens. This pathogen grows throughout the water conducting tissues of the plant and impedes water movement, resulting in a wilt. Symptom development is favored by temperatures greater than 90°F. Infection is often caused by the planting of infected seed, but the pathogen may also survive in infested crop debris. Wilt

Howard F. Schwartz; David H. Gent; Gary D. Franc; Robert M. Harveson

226

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age, with a prevalence as high as 50% in some communities. The symptoms of discharge and offensive smell can cause considerable distress, although 50% of women are asymptomatic when diagnosed. Microbiologically the usually dominant lactobacillus flora is overwhelmed by an overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic organisms, accompanied

Phillip Hay

2010-01-01

227

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal discharge in women of child-bearing age. It is present in 10–20% women in the UK, and may recur or regress spontaneously. It is not regarded as an STI because it can occur in virgin women, but it is more common in sexually active women. Other associations include smoking, partner change, having a

Phillip Hay

2005-01-01

228

Interstellar Alcohols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

1995-01-01

229

Colonisation bactérienne de l'intestin dans l'enfance : pourquoi y accorder autant d'importance ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth process allows the progressive formation of complex intestinal microflora composed of myriad bacteria, leading to this recently identified host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. This kind of cross-talk originating from birth is opportunistically used by the young host to initiate its own immune system. Recent epidemiogical data support the hypothesis that some increasing immune deviances observed in the

J.-P. Langhendries

2006-01-01

230

[The metabolism of panthenol in patients with postoperative intestinal atony].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the examination of the metabolism and mechanism of action of D-pantothenyl alcohol in patients with postoperative intestinal atony. Seven metabolically healthy patients were examined on the 4th day following colorectal surgery, before bowel activity had started. Increased urinary excretion of the vitamin pantothenic acid was noted following the intravenous application of 2 gm of D-pantothenyl alcohol. Ten to 30% of the administered dose D-pantothenyl alcohol is excreted in the urine as pantothenic acid within 24 h. Simultaneously, the urinary excretion of beta-alanine, a pantothenic acid component, is increased. D-pantothenyl alcohol was metabolized to pantothenic acid in all the patients examined. Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A, a key substance in the intermediary pathway of metabolism. Coenzyme A plays a role in the synthesis of acetylcholine from choline (a co-enzyme of cholinacetylase). Peristalsis induced by D-pantothenyl alcohol may be due to the increased synthesis of coenzyme A and acetylcholine in the autonomic nerve plexus of the intestinal tract. PMID:2080639

Sachs, M; Asskali, F; Lanaras, C; Förster, H; Bockhorn, H

1990-12-01

231

Intestinal stem cells.  

PubMed

Self-renewal in the intestinal epithelia is fueled by a population of undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that give rise to daughter or progenitor cells, which can subsequently differentiate into the mature cell types required for normal gut function. The cellular signals that regulate self-renewal are poorly understood and the factors that mediate the transition from a stem cell to a progenitor cell in the gut are unknown. Recent studies have suggested that ISCs are located either at the crypt base interspersed between the Paneth cells (eg, Lgr-5+ve cells) or at or near position 4 within the intestinal crypt (eg, DCAMKL-1 or Bmi-1+ve cells). This raises the possibility that distinct stem cell regions exist in the crypts and that ISC's state of activation will determine how the self-renewal is regulated in the intestinal tract. PMID:20683682

Umar, Shahid

2010-10-01

232

Intestinal Complications of IBD  

MedlinePLUS

... is chronic (of long duration) LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS PERFORATION (RUPTURE) OF THE BOWEL Intestinal perforation occurs ... CANCER About 5% to 8% of people with ulcerative colitis will develop colorectal cancer within 20 years after ...

233

Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine?s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

234

Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700 G and those not administered AGPs after a 28 day withdrawal period. PMID:23578222

2013-01-01

235

Alcoholism and Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

1986-01-01

236

Intestinal adaptation following resection.  

PubMed

Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation. PMID:24586019

Tappenden, Kelly A

2014-05-01

237

Claudins in intestines  

PubMed Central

Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

2013-01-01

238

Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

1987-04-01

239

Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

2012-12-01

240

Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

2012-01-01

241

Adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelium in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Two porcine strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, one possessing K88 antigen and one lacking K88, were orally inoculated into conventional neonatal piglets. Athough both strains caused severe diarrhea, only the K88-possessing strain was able to proliferate in the anterior small intestine. Both K88-possessing and K88-lacking strains were found in large numbers in the posterior small intestine and, using fluorescent antibodies and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, were found adhering to the epitheial surface in these regions. The presence of an unusual surface structure on the bacterial cell of the K88-lacking strain was described. Images PMID:1104479

Hohmann, A; Wilson, M R

1975-01-01

242

Alcohol and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of consuming alcohol in moderation. What are the cardiovascular risks associated with drinking alcohol? Drinking too much ... a similar way.) How alcohol or wine affects cardiovascular risk merits further research, but right now the ...

243

Alcohol and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Alcohol and Your Health HealthDay February 11, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Alcohol Transcript Does alcohol consumption offer any health benefits? Researchers out of the United Kingdom and ...

244

Alcohol and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol and Cancer Basic description Research shows that alcohol consumption is linked to an increased chance of ... risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Alcohol and Cancer Written January 2015 ©2007, American Cancer ...

245

Alcohol Calorie Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply enter the number ... click ‘Compute’ and see the number of calories alcohol adds up for you in a month and ...

246

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

247

Overview of Alcohol Consumption  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults ... Services National Institutes of Health NIAAA: Understanding the impact of alcohol on human health and well-being

248

Behind the Label "Alcoholic."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

Wright, Deborah M.

1989-01-01

249

Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the intestinal homeostasis in a computer controlled model of the large intestine  

PubMed Central

Background Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus) consecutively or in combination were investigated and compared to controls without therapy using a standardized human fecal microbiota in a computer-controlled in vitro model of large intestine. Microbial metabolites (short chain fatty acids, lactate, branched chain fatty acids, and ammonia) and the intestinal microbiota were analyzed. Results Compared to controls and combination therapy, short chain fatty acids and lactate, but also ammonia and branched chain fatty acids, were increased under probiotic therapy. The metabolic pattern under combined therapy with antibiotics and probiotics had the most beneficial and consistent effect on intestinal metabolic profiles. The intestinal microbiota showed a decrease in several indigenous bacterial groups under antibiotic therapy, there was no significant recovery of these groups when the antibiotic therapy was followed by administration of probiotics. Simultaneous application of anti- and probiotics had a stabilizing effect on the intestinal microbiota with increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Conclusions Administration of VSL#3 parallel with the clindamycin therapy had a beneficial and stabilizing effect on the intestinal metabolic homeostasis by decreasing toxic metabolites and protecting the endogenic microbiota from destruction. Probiotics could be a reasonable strategy in prevention of antibiotic associated disturbances of the intestinal homeostasis and disorders. PMID:22452835

2012-01-01

250

Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. (Laboratoire de Gastroenterologie et de Nutrition, U.E.R. de Medecine, Nice (France))

1990-02-01

251

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Problems Science Database (ETOH) is "the most comprehensive online bibliographic database containing over 100,000 records on alcohol abuse and alcoholism." This database (updated monthly) contains scientific literature from the late 1960s to the present, as well as a recently added thesaurus of alcohol and other drug terms. The Web site offers four search options and a useful Quick Search Guide for help with each one.

252

Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

2014-01-01

253

Selective proliferation of intestinal Barnesiella under fucosyllactose supplementation in mice.  

PubMed

The oligosaccharides 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose are major constituents of human breast milk but are not found in mouse milk. Milk oligosaccharides have a prebiotic action, thus affecting the colonisation of the infant intestine by microbiota. To determine the specific effect of fucosyllactose exposure on intestinal microbiota in mice, in the present study, we orally supplemented newborn mice with pure 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose. Exposure to 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose increased the levels of bacteria of the Porphyromonadaceae family in the intestinal gut, more precisely members of the genus Barnesiella as analysed by 16S pyrosequencing. The ability of Barnesiella to utilise fucosyllactose as energy source was confirmed in bacterial cultures. Whereas B. intestinihominis and B. viscericola did not grow on fucose alone, they proliferated in the presence of 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose following the secretion of linkage-specific fucosidase enzymes that liberated lactose. The change in the composition of intestinal microbiota mediated by fucosyllactose supplementation affected the susceptibility of mice to dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis, as indicated by increased resistance of mice subjected to 2-fucosyllactose supplementation for 6 weeks. The present study underlines the ability of specific milk oligosaccharides to change the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby to shape an intestinal milieu resilient to inflammatory diseases. PMID:24411010

Weiss, Gisela A; Chassard, Christophe; Hennet, Thierry

2014-05-01

254

Assistant Director -Drugs, Alcohol, &  

E-print Network

Assistant Director - Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs iTEAM Director of Specialty Counseling Services Learning Assistance Services Assistant Director - Graduate Training Assistant Director of Alcohol

Rutledge, Steven

255

Small Intestinal Tumours  

PubMed Central

Objective. Balloon enteroscopy (BE) and capsule enteroscopy (CE) are enteroscopy methods that allow examination and treatment of the small bowel. Before the CE and BE era, the small intestine was difficult to access for investigation. Small intestinal tumours are infrequent conditions, but about half of them are malignant. Materials and Methods. A total of 303 BEs were performed in 179 patients. Oral insertion was performed in 240 and anal in 63 BEs. Indications for the procedure in our patients with small bowel tumours were anaemia and/or bleeding, obstruction, suspicion of carcinoid tumour, or suspicion of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Results. In 50 of our 179 patients (28%), we diagnosed some small intestinal tumours: hamartomas in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in 16 patients, adenocarcinoma in 7, lymphoma in 6, carcinoid tumour in 4, melanoma and stromal tumour in 3, adenoma, lipoma, and inflammatory polyps in 2, and granular cell tumour, cavernous lymphangioma, fibrolipoma, Cronkhite-Canada polyps, and metastatic involvement in individual cases. Conclusion. BE facilitates exploration and treatment of the small intestine. The procedure is generally safe and useful. BE and CE are essential modalities for the management of small intestinal diseases. PMID:24348540

Kopá?ová, Marcela; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja

2013-01-01

256

Intestinal Malrotation: A Rare Cause of Small Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation is established by the age of 1 year in most cases, and the condition is seldom seen in adults. In this paper, a patient with small intestinal malrotation-type intraperitoneal hernia who underwent surgery at an older age because of intestinal obstruction is presented. Case. A 73-year-old patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction underwent surgery as treatment. Distended jejunum and ileum loops surrounded by a peritoneal sac and located between the stomach and transverse colon were determined. The terminal ileum had entered into the transverse mesocolon from the right lower part, resulting in kinking and subsequent segmentary obstruction. The obstruction was relieved, and the small intestines were placed into their normal position in the abdominal cavity. Conclusion. Small intestinal malrotations are rare causes of intestinal obstructions in adults. The appropriate treatment in these patients is placement of the intestines in their normal positions. PMID:25371842

Sipahi, Mesut; Caglayan, Kasim; Arslan, Ergin; Erkoc, Mustafa Fatih; Aytekin, Faruk Onder

2014-01-01

257

Intestinal Permeability of Lamivudine Using Single Pass Intestinal Perfusion  

PubMed Central

The intestinal transport of lamivudine, a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion technique in male Wistar rats. Single pass intestinal perfusion was performed in small intestine at a flow rate of 0.20 ml/min. Lamivudine exhibits a high intestinal permeability over the length of the small intestine indicative of compounds that are well absorbed. The Peff of lamivudine is in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability and high fraction of dose absorbed indicating that lamivudine readily crosses the intestine. This also suggests that lamivudine belongs to biopharmaceutics classification system class I and is a good candidate for biopharmaceutics classification system based biowaiver. The permeability values obtained from this study may be useful in models of exposure assessment. PMID:23716881

Patel, J. R.; Barve, Kalyani H.

2012-01-01

258

Water-soluble ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose prevents bacterial translocation induced by major liver resection in the rat.  

PubMed Central

Enteric bacteria might act as pathogens, translocating across the intestinal barrier to extraintestinal sites after major liver resection. In the current study, water-soluble ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC) was administered before hepatectomy to evaluate the influence on bacterial translocation induced by major liver resection, phagocytic capacity by visceral and circulating macrophages, enteric bacterial population, and bacterial adherence on the intestinal surface in rats subjected to sham operation or to 70% or 90% hepatectomy. Oral or intravenous (IV) administration of EHEC reduced the incidence of bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and blood after major liver resection. Oral EHEC appeared more effective than IV administration in protecting against bacterial translocation to MLN in animals with 90% hepatectomy. Ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose (oral and IV) significantly diminished intestinal macrophage uptake capacity of 125I-labeled, heat-killed Escherichia coli as compared with animals without EHEC administration. Overgrowth or colonization of enteric bacteria after major liver resection could be prevented by oral or IV EHEC. Adherence of 14C-labeled, alive E. coli on the intestinal mucosa decreased after EHEC treatment in animals subjected to major liver resection. Systemic arterial pressure and intestinal blood flow markedly decreased from 1 hour and on after 90% hepatectomy. Intravenous administration of EHEC did not improve these alterations. Bacterial hydrophobicity and surface negative charge were significantly reduced 1 hour after bacterial culture with EHEC. Thus, EHEC appears to be a potent agent preventing translocation of enteric bacteria from the gut after major liver resection, by altering the surface characters of enteric bacteria, balancing the enteric microflora, inhibiting bacterial attachment onto the intestinal surface, and blocking phagocytosis by intestinal macrophages. PMID:8439213

Wang, X; Andersson, R; Soltesz, V; Guo, W; Bengmark, S

1993-01-01

259

Metabolism of liriodendrin and syringin by human intestinal bacteria and their relation to in vitro cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When liriodendrin or syringin was incubated for 24 h with human intestinal bacteria, two metabolites, (+)-syringaresinol-?-d-glucopyranoside and (+)-syringaresinol, from liriodendrin and one metabolite, synapyl alcohol, from syringin were produced.\\u000a The metabolic time course of liriodendrin was as follows: at early time, liriodendrin was converted to (+)-syringaresinol-?-d-glucopyranoside, and then (+)-syringaresinol. Thein vitro cytotoxicities of these metabolites, (+)-syringaresinol and synapyl alcohol, were

Dong-Hyun Kim; Kyung Tae Lee; Eun-Ah Bae; Myung Joo Han; Hee-Juhn Park

1999-01-01

260

Alcohol use and safe drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... not drink if you have a history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism. If alcoholism runs in your family, ... are interested in more information regarding alcohol use, alcohol abuse , or support groups You are unable to reduce ...

261

Treatment Options for Small Intestine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Small Intestine Cancer Small ... from the NCI Web site . Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer Treatment of recurrent small intestine cancer that has spread ...

262

The intestinal calcistat  

PubMed Central

The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population. PMID:24251176

Garg, M. K.

2013-01-01

263

Effects of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde on Tight Junction Integrity: In Vitro Study in a Three Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIntestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of endotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde at relatively high concentrations have been shown to disrupt intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the conventional two dimensional cell culture models. The present study investigated quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of ethanol at concentrations detected in the

Elhaseen Elamin; Daisy Jonkers; Kati Juuti-Uusitalo; Sven van IJzendoorn; Freddy Troost; Hans Duimel; Jos Broers; Fons Verheyen; Jan Dekker; Ad Masclee

2012-01-01

264

Intestinal SGLT1-mediated absorption and metabolism of benzyl beta-glucoside contained in Prunus mume: carrier-mediated transport increases intestinal availability.  

PubMed

The intestinal absorption of benzyl beta-glucoside (BNZ beta glc) contained in the fruit of Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC. (Rosaceae), which is traditionally used as a medicinal food in Japan, was studied in rat intestines. BNZ beta glc was absorbed from the mucosal to serosal sides. Its metabolite, benzyl alcohol (BAL), was also detected on both the mucosal and serosal sides. In the presence of phloridzin (Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) inhibitor) or in the absence of Na+ (driving force), BNZ beta glc absorption was significantly decreased. Transport clearance of BNZ beta glc across the brush border membrane decreased as its concentration increased. These results indicate that BNZ beta glc is transported by SGLT1. Metabolic clearance of BNZ beta glc also decreased as its concentration increased. The amount ratio of BNZ beta glc to BAL on the serosal side increased with the increase of BNZ beta glc concentration. The intestinal availability of BNZ beta glc was lower in the absence of Na+ than in the presence of Na+, indicating that the SGLT1-mediated transport of BNZ beta glc increases intestinal availability by decreasing the intestinal extraction ratio. This neutraceutical study concluded that intestinal carrier-mediated transport across the brush border membrane improves the intestinal availability of nutritionally, pharmacologically or physiologically active compounds that undergo intestinal metabolism (first-pass effect). PMID:15716003

Mizuma, Takashi; Nakamura, Maya; Ina, Hiroji; Miyazaki, Toshio; Hayashi, Masahiro

2005-03-11

265

Intestinal obstruction repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... abdominal wall, through which loops of intestine can slip and become trapped. Colon cancer is one of ... the intestine look unhealthy from lack of blood flow during the period of obstruction, they are removed ...

266

Small intestine contrast injection (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

267

Stages of Small Intestine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... The disease is metastatic small intestine cancer, not liver cancer . Small intestine cancer is grouped according to whether or not the tumor can be completely removed by surgery. Treatment depends on whether the tumor can be removed ...

268

Luminal and mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent studies have suggested a role for an altered intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome\\u000a (IBS). However, no consensus has been reached regarding the association between specific enteric bacterial groups and IBS.\\u000a The aim of this study was to investigate the fecal and mucosal-associated microbiota using two independent techniques in intestinal\\u000a samples from diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) and

Ian M Carroll; Young-Hyo Chang; Jiwon Park; R Balfour Sartor; Yehuda Ringel

2010-01-01

269

The establishment of an intestinal microflora in developing goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) of culture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial flora in the intestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) was investigated at different stages of fish development. The floras of the diets and the water and sediment of a culture pond were also analyzed. The total counts in the intestine ranged from 2.2 × 106?2.1 × 108 cells g?1 wet weight.Aeromonas hydrophila, A. punctata, Pseudomonas, Bacteroidaceae andClostridium species

H. Sugita; M. Tsunohara; T. Ohkoshi; Y. Deguchi

1988-01-01

270

The allometry of rodent intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon\\u000a and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects\\u000a associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents.

Barry G. Lovegrove

2010-01-01

271

Lipocalin-2 resistance of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium confers an advantage during life in the inflamed intestine  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium thrives in the lumen of the acutely inflamed intestine, which suggests that this pathogen is resistant to antimicrobials encountered in this environment. However, the identity of these antimicrobials and the corresponding bacterial resistance genes remains elusive. Here we show that enteric infection with S. Typhimurium evoked marked interleukin (IL)–22/IL-17 mediated induction in intestinal epithelial cells of lipocalin-2, an antimicrobial protein that prevents bacterial iron acquisition. Lipocalin-2 accumulated in the intestinal lumen of rhesus macaques during S. Typhimurium infection. Resistance to lipocalin-2, mediated by the iroBCDE iroN locus, conferred a competitive advantage upon the S. Typhimurium wild-type in colonizing the inflamed intestine of wild-type, but not of lipocalin-2 deficient mice. These data support that resistance to lipocalin-2 defines a specific adaptation to growth in the inflamed intestine. PMID:19454351

Raffatellu, Manuela; George, Michael D.; Akiyama, Yuko; Hornsby, Michael J.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Paixao, Tatiane A.; Butler, Brian P.; Chu, Hiutung; Santos, Renato L.; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bevins, Charles L.; Solnick, Jay V.; Dandekar, Satya; Bäumler, Andreas J.

2009-01-01

272

Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

273

Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical in- testinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure

M. T. Muñoz; J. A. Solís Herruzo

2007-01-01

274

Bacterial adhesion and disease activity in Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural examination of biopsies showing Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis reveals close attachment between gastric surface epithelial cells and the organism. The finding of 'adhesion pedestals', which represents a cellular response to the presence of the organism, is analogous to the response of intestinal cells to enteropathogenic E coli. Thus the development of bacterial attachment sites in H pylori associated

S J Hessey; J Spencer; J I Wyatt; G Sobala; B J Rathbone; A T Axon; M F Dixon

1990-01-01

275

Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the metabolism of chemical compounds found within food. Bacterial metabolites are different from those that can be generated by human enzymes because bacterial processes occur under anaerobic conditions and are based mainly on reactions of reduction and/or hydrolysis. In most cases, bacterial metabolism reduces the activity of dietary compounds; however, sometimes a specific product of bacterial transformation exhibits enhanced properties. Studies on the metabolism of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota are crucial for understanding the role of these compounds and their impact on our health. This review article presents possible pathways of polyphenol metabolism by intestinal bacteria and describes the diet-derived bioactive metabolites produced by gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on polyphenols and their potential impact on human health. Because the etiology of many diseases is largely correlated with the intestinal microbiome, a balance between the host immune system and the commensal gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining health. Diet-related and age-related changes in the human intestinal microbiome and their consequences are summarized in the paper. PMID:25672526

Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?

2015-04-01

276

Arginine Consumption by the Intestinal Parasite Giardia intestinalis Reduces Proliferation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the host´s production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that citrulline especially should gain further attention in future treatment strategies. PMID:23028934

Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C.; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G.

2012-01-01

277

Coinfection with an Intestinal Helminth Impairs Host Innate Immunity against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Exacerbates Intestinal Inflammation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative food-borne pathogen that is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. The ability of the host to control such bacterial pathogens may be influenced by host immune status and by concurrent infections. Helminth parasites are of particular interest in this context because of their ability to modulate host immune responses and because their geographic distribution coincides with those parts of the world where infectious gastroenteritis is most problematic. To test the hypothesis that helminth infection may negatively regulate host mucosal innate immunity against bacterial enteropathogens, a murine coinfection model was established by using the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and S. Typhimurium. We found that mice coinfected with S. Typhimurium and H. polygyrus developed more severe intestinal inflammation than animals infected with S. Typhimurium alone. The enhanced susceptibility to Salmonella-induced intestinal injury in coinfected mice was found to be associated with diminished neutrophil recruitment to the site of bacterial infection that correlated with decreased expression of the chemoattractants CXCL2/macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and CXCL1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), poor control of bacterial replication, and exacerbated intestinal inflammation. The mechanism of helminth-induced inhibition of MIP-2 and KC expression involved interleukin-10 (IL-10) and, to a lesser extent, IL-4 and IL-13. Ly6G antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils reproduced the adverse effects of H. polygyrus on Salmonella infection. Our results suggest that impaired neutrophil recruitment is an important contributor to the enhanced severity of Salmonella enterocolitis associated with helminth coinfection. PMID:24980971

Su, Libo; Su, Chien-wen; Qi, Yujuan; Yang, Guilian; Zhang, Mei; Cherayil, Bobby J.; Zhang, Xichen

2014-01-01

278

Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.  

PubMed

Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:23150643

Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

2013-07-01

279

Intestinal permeability: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans has a 20-year history. Because the tests are increasingly used in clinical practice and research and because there is much controversy, we reviewed the literature and outlined the potential and possible shortcomings of these procedures. Data was obtained from personal files and from a systemic search through MEDLINE and EMBASE. The principle

Ingvar Bjarnason; Andrew Macpherson; Daniel Hollander

1995-01-01

280

Malrotation of the intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malrotation of the intestinal tract is a product of a well defined aberrant embryology. Because the consequences of malrotation associated with a midgut volvulus may be catastrophic, an understanding of the anatomy, diagnostic criteria, and appropriate therapy for this putative emergency illness is imperative. This report summarizes a recent 18-month experience with this diagnosis and contrasts this experience with that

A. Margarita Torres; Moritz M. Ziegler

1993-01-01

281

Small intestinal fungal overgrowth.  

PubMed

Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is characterized by the presence of excessive number of fungal organisms in the small intestine associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Candidiasis is known to cause GI symptoms particularly in immunocompromised patients or those receiving steroids or antibiotics. However, only recently, there is emerging literature that an overgrowth of fungus in the small intestine of non-immunocompromised subjects may cause unexplained GI symptoms. Two recent studies showed that 26 % (24/94) and 25.3 % (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. The most common symptoms observed in these patients were belching, bloating, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, and gas. The underlying mechanism(s) that predisposes to SIFO is unclear but small intestinal dysmotility and use of proton pump inhibitors has been implicated. However, further studies are needed; both to confirm these observations and to examine the clinical relevance of fungal overgrowth, both in healthy subjects and in patients with otherwise unexplained GI symptoms. Importantly, whether eradication or its treatment leads to resolution of symptoms remains unclear; at present, a 2-3-week course of antifungal therapy is recommended and may be effective in improving symptoms, but evidence for eradication is lacking. PMID:25786900

Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C

2015-04-01

282

Intestinal microbiota containing Barnesiella species cures vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization.  

PubMed

Bacteria causing infections in hospitalized patients are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Classical infection control practices are only partially effective at preventing spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within hospitals. Because the density of intestinal colonization by the highly antibiotic-resistant bacterium vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) can exceed 10(9) organisms per gram of feces, even optimally implemented hygiene protocols often fail. Decreasing the density of intestinal colonization, therefore, represents an important approach to limit VRE transmission. We demonstrate that reintroduction of a diverse intestinal microbiota to densely VRE-colonized mice eliminates VRE from the intestinal tract. While oxygen-tolerant members of the microbiota are ineffective at eliminating VRE, administration of obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria to mice results in a billionfold reduction in the density of intestinal VRE colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of intestinal bacterial populations isolated from mice that cleared VRE following microbiota reconstitution revealed that recolonization with a microbiota that contains Barnesiella correlates with VRE elimination. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation demonstrated that intestinal colonization with Barnesiella confers resistance to intestinal domination and bloodstream infection with VRE. Our studies indicate that obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Barnesiella genus enable clearance of intestinal VRE colonization and may provide novel approaches to prevent the spread of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:23319552

Ubeda, Carles; Bucci, Vanni; Caballero, Silvia; Djukovic, Ana; Toussaint, Nora C; Equinda, Michele; Lipuma, Lauren; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Xavier, Joao B; Pamer, Eric G

2013-03-01

283

Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration  

E-print Network

Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting and alcohol abuse prevention. Distracted driving Examining the effect of various distractions on the driving

284

Alcohol Taxes Up, Binge Drinking Down?  

MedlinePLUS

... 8, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse THURSDAY, Jan. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Higher alcohol ... reserved. More Health News on: Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Recent Health News Page last updated on 9 ...

285

Amphiregulin Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration: Roles of Intestinal Subepithelial Myofibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor family plays critical roles in intestinal epithelial proliferation and differentiation. The precise function of amphiregulin (AREG), a member of the epidermal growth factor family, in intestinal biology is largely unknown. The present study attempted to address the functional roles of AREG in intestinal epithelial regeneration. Total body irradiation was performed, and intestinal regeneration was assessed in AREG knockout mice. Genetically disruption of AREG significantly impaired intestinal regeneration after radiation injury. It is known that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts radio-protective and growth-stimulatory effects on intestinal epithelium. We found that PGE2 radio-protective action did not involve AREG. However, PGE2 growth-stimulatory effects required functional AREG. Localization of AREG expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in regenerative intestine. The immunoreactivity of AREG was predominantly localized in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF). Primary ISEMF cultures were established, and growth-stimulatory actions of ISEMF-generated AREG were demonstrated in cell coculture system. In addition, we found that the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway robustly induced AREG in cultured ISEMF. These studies suggest that AREG plays critical roles in intestinal epithelial growth. Modulation of levels of AREG by targeting ISEMF represents a novel strategy for treatment of certain intestinal disorders. PMID:20534719

Shao, Jinyi; Sheng, Hongmiao

2010-01-01

286

Alterations of intestinal barrier and microbiota in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies have highlighted the close relationship between the kidney and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract-frequently referred to as the kidney-gut axis-in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this regard, two important pathophysiological concepts have evolved: (i) production and accumulation of toxic end-products derived from increased bacterial fermentation of protein and other nitrogen-containing substances in the GI tract, (ii) translocation of endotoxins and live bacteria from gut lumen into the bloodstream, due to damage of the intestinal epithelial barrier and quantitative/qualitative alterations of the intestinal microbiota associated with the uraemic milieu. In both cases, these gut-centred alterations may have relevant systemic consequences in CKD patients, since they are able to trigger chronic inflammation, increase cardiovascular risk and worsen uraemic toxicity. The present review is thus focused on the kidney-gut axis in CKD, with special attention to the alterations of the intestinal barrier and the local microbiota (i.e. the collection of microorganisms living in a symbiotic coexistence with their host in the intestinal lumen) and their relationships to inflammation and uraemic toxicity in CKD. Moreover, we will summarize the most important clinical data suggesting the potential for nutritional modulation of gut-related inflammation and intestinal production of noxious by-products contributing to uraemic toxicity in CKD patients. PMID:25190600

Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Brusasco, Irene; Cabassi, Aderville; Morabito, Santo; Fiaccadori, Enrico

2014-09-01

287

Gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth: pathogenesis and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as the presence of an abnormally high number of coliform bacteria in the small bowel. It is associated with a broad range of predisposing small intestinal motility disorders and with surgical procedures that result in bowel stasis. The most common symptoms associated with SIBO include diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and bloating. Quantitative culture of small bowel contents and a variety of indirect tests have been used over the years in an attempt to facilitate the diagnosis of SIBO. The indirect tests include breath tests and biochemical tests based on bacterial metabolism of a variety of substrates. Unfortunately, there is no single valid test for SIBO, and the accuracy of all current tests remains limited due to the failure of culture to be a gold standard and the lack of standardization of the normal bowel flora in the small intestine. Currently, the ideal approach to treat SIBO is to treat the underlying disease, eradicate overgrowth, and address nutritional deficiencies that may be associated with the development of SIBO. PMID:23997926

Sachdev, Amit H.

2013-01-01

288

Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol-flush reaction occurs in Asians who inherit the mutantALDH2*2 allele that produces an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. In these individuals, high blood acetaldehyde levels are believed to be the cause of the unpleasant symptoms that follow drinking. We measured the alcohol elimination rates and intensity of flushing in Chinese subjects in whom the alcohol dehydrogenaseADH2 andALDH2 genotypes were determined.

Holly R. Thomasson; David W. Crabb; Howard J. Edenberg; Ting-Kai Li

1993-01-01

289

Alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (? 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and those who did not develop cirrhosis mainly died from causes related to alcohol abuse. In conclusion, the present thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used prognostic models may be helpful adjuvants in the routine management of patients with AH, provided that clinicians are aware of the models' limitations. The causes of death in AH are primarily due to liver-related complications, suggesting that patients with AH could benefit from continued follow-up by a hepatologist after the acute episode. PMID:25283626

Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

2014-10-01

290

[Measuring breath alcohol levels].  

PubMed

The authors review the breath alcohol measurement method based on infrared absorptiometry and its literature. In a comparative study a person's breath alcohol content was measured by either Siemens Alcomat or Seres Ethylometer instrument in routine road-blocks controls and in experiments and was compared to his/her blood alcohol level. Using the conversion factor of 2100:1 there was a high correlation between the breath and blood alcohol levels using either instrument. Despite using a single method either Siemens Alcomat or Seres Ethylometer 679-TH instrument can be recommended for evidential breath alcohol testing of driving under the influence of alcohol in routine road-blocks controls. PMID:9312693

Varga, M; Buris, L; Fodor, M; Posta, J

1997-08-24

291

Could moderate alcohol intake be recommended to improve vaccine responses?  

PubMed Central

Summary The impacts of alcohol consumption on human health are complex and modulated by several factors such as patterns and amounts of drinking, genetics, the organ system studied, as well as the sex and the age of the user. There is strong evidence that chronic ethanol abuse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, immunosuppression, and increased susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, moderate alcohol consumption exerts positive effects including decreased mortality, and improved cardiovascular disease and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, accumulating evidence also supports an immune boosting effect of moderate alcohol. In this editorial, we summarize the findings that support a positive effect of moderate alcohol on host immunity. We also discuss the limitations of the previous data and emphasize the importance of additional studies to uncover mechanisms for these immune-stimulating effects in order to extend these benefits to vulnerable segments of the population who cannot consume alcohol. PMID:24872009

Messaoudi, Ilhem; Pasala, Sumana; Grant, Kathleen

2014-01-01

292

Could moderate alcohol intake be recommended to improve vaccine responses?  

PubMed

The impact of alcohol consumption on human health is complex and modulated by several factors such as patterns and amount of drinking, genetics, the organ system studied, as well as the sex and age of the user. There is strong evidence that chronic ethanol abuse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, moderate alcohol consumption exerts positive effects including decreased mortality, and improved cardiovascular disease and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, accumulating evidence also supports an immune-boosting effect of moderate alcohol. In this editorial, we summarize the findings that support a positive effect of moderate alcohol on host immunity. We also discuss the limitations of the previous data and emphasize the importance of additional studies to uncover mechanisms for these immune-stimulating effects in order to extend these benefits to vulnerable segments of the population who cannot consume alcohol. PMID:24872009

Messaoudi, Ilhem; Pasala, Sumana; Grant, Kathleen

2014-07-01

293

Microbiota-mediated inflammation and antimicrobial defense in the intestine.  

PubMed

The diverse microbial populations constituting the intestinal microbiota promote immune development and differentiation, but because of their complex metabolic requirements and the consequent difficulty culturing them, they remained, until recently, largely uncharacterized and mysterious. In the last decade, deep nucleic acid sequencing platforms, new computational and bioinformatics tools, and full-genome characterization of several hundred commensal bacterial species facilitated studies of the microbiota and revealed that differences in microbiota composition can be associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases, that each human is colonized by a distinct bacterial flora, and that the microbiota can be manipulated to reduce and even cure some diseases. Different bacterial species induce distinct immune cell populations that can play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, and thus the composition of the microbiota determines, in part, the level of resistance to infection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent work characterizing commensal microbes that contribute to the antimicrobial defense/inflammation axis. PMID:25581310

Caballero, Silvia; Pamer, Eric G

2015-03-21

294

Alcohol's Effects on the Body  

MedlinePLUS

... the Body In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Genetics of ...

295

Deciding to quit drinking alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... or recovery program. These programs: Teach people about alcohol abuse and its effects Offer counseling and support about ...

296

THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

297

Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Intestinal Injury and Enteric Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I Contribute to Liver Fibrosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Progression of liver fibrosis in experimental models depends on gut-derived bacterial products, but little is known about mechanisms of disruption of the mucosal barrier or translocation. We used a mouse model of cholestatic liver disease to investigate mechanisms of intestinal barrier disruption following liver injury. Methods Liver fibrosis and bacterial translocation were assessed in Toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)I-deficient mice subjected to bile duct ligation. Epithelial and lamina propria cells were isolated and analyzed by immunoblot analyses and flow cytometry. We analyzed bone-marrow chimeras and mice with a conditional gain-of-function allele for the TNFRI receptor. By crossing TNFRIflxneo/flxneo mice with mice that expressed the VillinCre transgene specifically in intestinal epithelial cells, we created mice that express functional TNFRI specifically on intestinal epithelial cells (VillinCreTNFRIflxneo/flxneo mice). Results Following bile duct ligation, TLR2-deficient mice had less liver fibrosis and intestinal translocation of bacteria and bacterial products than wild-type mice. Mice with hematopoietic cells that did not express TLR2 also had reduced bacterial translocation, indicating that TLR2 expression by hematopoietic cells regulates intestinal barrier function. The number of TLR2+ monocytes that produce TNF_ increased in the intestinal lamina propria of wild-type mice following bile duct ligation; bacterial translocation was facilitated by TNFRI-mediated signals on intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusion Intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation contribute to liver fibrosis via TLR2 signaling on monocytes in the lamina propria and TNFRI signaling on intestinal epithelial cells in mice. Enteric TNFRI therefore is an important mediator of cholestatic liver fibrosis. PMID:22841787

Hartmann, Phillipp; Haimerl, Michael; Mazagova, Magdalena; Brenner, David A.; Schnabl, Bernd

2012-01-01

298

The impact of farnesoid X receptor activation on intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

The most important function of the intestinal mucosa is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the intestine. Defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier have been observed in several intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have identified a number of factors that contribute to development of IBD including environmental triggers, genetic factors, immunoregulatory defects and microbial exposure. The current review focuses on the influence of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on the inhibition of intestinal inflammation in patients with IBD. The development and investigation of FXR agonists provide strong support for the regulatory role of FXR in mucosal innate immunity. Activation of FXR in the intestinal tract decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, thus contributing to a reduction in inflammation and epithelial permeability. In addition, intestinal FXR activation induces the transcription of multiple genes involved in enteroprotection and the prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. These data suggest that FXR agonists are potential candidates for exploration as a novel therapeutic strategy for IBD in humans. PMID:22993736

Stojancevic, Maja; Stankov, Karmen; Mikov, Momir

2012-01-01

299

Large intestine permeability is increased in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Increased intestinal permeability has been found in patients with liver cirrhosis, but data on small and large intestine permeability and tight junctions (TJs) in patients with compensated cirrhosis are scarce. We aimed to investigate both small and large intestine permeability in patients with stable compensated cirrhosis compared with healthy controls and evaluated the expression of TJ proteins in mucosal biopsies at duodenal and sigmoid level. Intestinal permeability was assessed in 26 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 27 matched controls using a multisugar test. Duodenal and sigmoid biopsies were available from a subgroup for analyses of gene transcription and expression of key TJ proteins by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Median 0-5-h urinary sucrose excretion and lactulose/rhamnose ratio were comparable between patients with compensated cirrhosis and controls, whereas 5-24-h urinary sucralose/erythritol ratio was increased in these patients. Downregulation of gene transcription was found for claudin-3 in duodenal biopsies and claudin-4 in sigmoid biopsies, and at the protein level occludin expression was significantly increased in both duodenal and sigmoid biopsies. This study shows that gastroduodenal and small intestine permeability are not altered, whereas large intestine permeability is increased in patients with stable compensated cirrhosis. Only limited alterations were found regarding the expression of TJ proteins in both the small and large intestine. PMID:24264047

Pijls, Kirsten E; Koek, Ger H; Elamin, Elhaseen E; de Vries, Hanne; Masclee, Ad A M; Jonkers, Daisy M A E

2014-01-01

300

Benzyl Alcohol Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

301

Alcohol and Cancer Risk  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that summarizes the evidence linking alcohol consumption to the risk of various cancers. Includes information about factors that affect the risk of alcohol-associated cancers, such as a person’s genes and tobacco use.

302

Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells  

PubMed Central

There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

2008-01-01

303

[Anal symptoms of gastro-intestinal diseases].  

PubMed

In most cases the ano-cutaneous clinical symptoms correlated to diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract are not specific (erythema, itching, wounds or scarring). However in the following diseases occasional dermatological lesions may directly contribute to their diagnosis: in Crohn's disease, tuberculosis of bowel, chronic entamoebiasis and bilharziosis, the skin lesions of the anal area have the same histological structure as the gut lesions. Perianal fistulas and ulcers are frequent in Crohn's disease especially if there is a colonic and rectal spreading; they respond badly to steroid therapy and are often correlated with a worse prognosis. Perianal specific lesions occur often in oxyuriasis in children, in candidiasis of the digestive tract, in systemic aphthosis and in some malignancies. In other gastro-intestinal disturbances, the dermatological and features are less specific and can only be suggestive: iatrogenic and microbial diarrheas, side-effects of laxatives, proctological diseases. It has to be emphasized that pruritus ani is only induced by deeper lesions when they spread to the perianal skin. In proctological practice, contact dermatitis by sensitivity to anaesthetics or suppository balsams (Peruvian balsam), itching or burning atrophy by topical steroid abuse, non-diagnosed fungal (candidiasis), bacterial (erythrasma) or psoriatic intertrigos (flexural psoriasis) may sometimes explain the failure of therapy. PMID:485013

Grosshans, E; Jenn, P; Baumann, R; Weill, J P; Basset, A

1979-01-01

304

Role of intestinal inflammation in predisposition of Edwardsiella tarda infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Edwardsiella tarda, an enteric opportunistic pathogen, is associated with acute to chronic edwardsiellosis in cultured fish, resulting in heavy losses in aquaculture. To date, the pathogenesis of E. tarda has been extensively studied and a great deal of vaccine candidates have been attempted. However, the research on the predisposition of E. tarda infection is poorly reported. In this study, the effects of intestinal inflammation on E. tarda infection were investigated using a zebrafish model that influenced by perturbation of intestinal microbiota. Featured symptoms of edwardsiellosis were observed in intestinal inflammatory zebrafish compared with healthy fish. Higher bacterial numbers were detected in both mucosal tissues (intestine, skin and gills) and lymphoid tissues (liver, spleen and kidney) of inflammatory zebrafish while the bacterial loads in healthy zebrafish appeared to be relatively lower by 10-100 folds. Moreover, significant up-regulation of IL-1?, TNF-? and iNOS was noticed in multiple tissues of zebrafish with intestinal inflammation between 6 and 72 h post infection. However, only moderate elevation was observed in the gills and liver of healthy fish. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in neutrophil recruitment (mpx, IL-8 and LECT2) and antimicrobial response (?-defensin and hepcidin) showed notable up-regulation in the intestine of inflammatory zebrafish. These results demonstrate that fish with intestinal inflammation is more susceptible to E. tarda and the antimicrobial response during E. tarda infection might inhibit the growth of intestinal microbiota. Our results suggest that maintaining good management to avoid intestinal inflammation is a feasible prevention measure against edwardsiellosis. PMID:25224880

Liu, Xiaohong; Chang, Xinyue; Wu, Haizhen; Xiao, Jingfan; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2014-12-01

305

How to make an intestine  

PubMed Central

With the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, there is great interest in establishing in vitro models of human intestinal disease and in developing drug-screening platforms that more accurately represent the complex physiology of the intestine. We will review how recent advances in developmental and stem cell biology have made it possible to generate complex, three-dimensional, human intestinal tissues in vitro through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. These are currently being used to study human development, genetic forms of disease, intestinal pathogens, metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:24496613

Wells, James M.; Spence, Jason R.

2014-01-01

306

The effects of adult-onset alcoholism on cortical bone  

E-print Network

, Liquid and Chow Diets Bio-Serv Ethanol Liquid Diet' Bio-Serv Control Liquid Diet Teklad 4'/o Rat Diet Protein Fat Carbohydrate Phosphorus Calcium Vitamin D 3 Ethanol Kilocalories 28. 4'/a 30. 3'/a 20. 9'/a 1. 75 JoL 1. 30 g/L 400 IU 35. 0...; vitamins, such as A, C and thiamin and calcium are consumed in amounts below the RDA. Chronic alcohol use can cause decreased levels of serum vitamin D, which is important in stimulating calcium absorption in the intestine. In addition, alcohol can alter...

Moe, Atha Louise

2001-01-01

307

Alcohol and oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, particularly when associated with tobacco use, has been recognized as an important risk factor for mouth cancer for almost 50 years. Together, they are associated with approximately 75% of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. However, intake of alcohol remains high in many countries. The rising incidence of oral cancer has prompted a revaluation of the role of alcohol (both alone

Graham R. Ogden

2005-01-01

308

Alcohol and the law.  

PubMed

Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

2014-01-01

309

Alcohol and Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

Covington, Stephanie S.

310

Polysubstance Use Among Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary alcoholics often use multiple substances, but there is little systematic research on this. This study examines the drug use comorbidity of alcoholics (DSM diagnosis, frequency and quantity of drug use); the relationship between drinking and drug use; the relative severity of alcohol- and drug-related problems; and the validity of reports of illicit drug use. Data on substance use were

Graham L. Staines; Stephen Magura; Jeffrey Foote; Alexander Deluca; Nicole Kosanke

2001-01-01

311

ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Effective November, 2010 to the possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages. These standards conform to state and federal laws. The policy described in this brochure pertains to alcohol and other drug use behaviors in residence halls

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

312

Alcohol in the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research findings conclude that an alcohol dependent worker is impaired cognitively and physically. The present study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of co-workers to their peers' alcohol related behaviors. This preliminary study suggests that employers should consider expanding the breadth of Employee Assistance Programs to not only provide treatment for alcohol dependent employees, but to provide supportive and

Alison K. Esler; Robert W. Bell

1998-01-01

313

Hispanic Alcoholic Treatment Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A path analytic model for Hispanic alcoholics relating socioclinical prognostic variables to outcome following treatment in a therapeutic community differs markedly from that fitted to Anglo alcoholics. When Hispanics and Anglos were combined, a third model dropped out a socioclinical prognostic triad as Hispanic and Anglo effects cancelled out. The differential relationship of education to alcoholism severity and outcome was

Raymond M. Costello

1987-01-01

314

Alcohol Facts and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol and Public Health: Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/Alcohol/ 9 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2012 Motor vehicle crashes: Overview. Available at: http://www-nrd.nhtsa. ...

315

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy leads to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in their children. FASD is characterized by typical facial features, growth retardation, intellectual dysfunction and behavioral problems. Justification: Alcohol is neurotoxic to the brain during the developmental stage. Behavioral problems in children with FASD start at an early age and progress to adulthood. It is an important

RAGHAVENDRA BHEEMAPPA N AYAK; PRATIMA MURTHY

316

Alcohol Tips for youngadults  

E-print Network

to coma or even death. Driving and drinking can also be deadly. In 2003, 31 percent of drivers age 15 the law. It is illegal to buy or possess alcohol if you are under age 21. Get the facts. One drink can with an alcohol problem developed symptoms -- such as binge drinking -- by age 19. Know the risks. Alcohol

Texas at Arlington, University of

317

Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

Gress, James R.

1988-01-01

318

Campylobacter Colonization of the Turkey Intestine in the Context of Microbial Community Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Relationships between development of the turkey intestinal microbiota and colonization by the food borne pathogen Campylobacter were examined. Every week of the 18 week production cycle, cecal bacterial communities and Campylobacter isolates were examined from five birds for each of two flocks. Mole...

319

Vibrio alginolyticus , a tetrodotoxin-producing bacterium, in the intestines of the fish Fugu vermicularis vermicularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the mechanism of toxification in animals contaminated with tetrodotoxin, the intestinal contents of the puffer Fugu vermicularis vermicularis were examined for bacterial flora in 1985. Twenty-six out of 33 strains belonged to the genus Vibrio. These bacteria were classified into Groups I to VII, based on biological and biochemical characters. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,

T. Noguchi; D. F. Hwang; O. Arakawa; H. Sugita; Y. Deguchi; Y. Shida; K. Hashimoto

1987-01-01

320

EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS GG ON INTESTINAL INTEGRITY IN MALAWIAN CHILDREN AT RISK OF TROPICAL ENTEROPATHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. Objective:...

321

Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

322

Effect of Lactobacillus GG on intestinal integrity in Malawian children at risk of tropical enteropathy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. This study tested the...

323

Shigella's ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box  

E-print Network

REVIEW Shigella's ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system on the mechanisms employed by Shigella to manipulate the host innate response in order to escape early bacterial effect of Shigella on B and T lymphocytes, their impact on the development of adaptive immunity, and how

Cai, Long

324

Paneth cells, defensins, and the commensal microbiota: A hypothesis on intimate interplay at the intestinal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces are colonized by a diverse and dynamic microbiota. Much investigation has focused on bacterial colonization of the intestine, home to the vast majority of this microbiota. Experimental evidence has highlighted that these colonizing microbes are essential to host development and homeostasis, but less is known about host factors that may regulate the composition of this ecosystem. While evidence

Nita H. Salzman; Mark A. Underwood; Charles L. Bevins

2007-01-01

325

The effect of ciprofloxacin in the prevention of bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding are prone to bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic intestinal decontamination with oral ciprofloxacin for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: A total of 120 cirrhotic patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding were enrolled. Sixty patients received ciprofloxacin

Wen-Jen Hsieh; Han-Chieh Lin; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Ming-Chih Hou; Fa-Yauh Lee; Full-Young Chang; Shou-Dong Lee

1998-01-01

326

General Information about Small Intestine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... that examine the small intestine are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage small intestine cancer. Procedures ... be removed by surgery . Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage small intestine cancer are usually ...

327

Prom1 Function in Development, Intestinal Inflammation, and Intestinal Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. Its potential molecular function as well as its role as a marker of intestinal regeneration is still not fully known. We evaluated the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), determined the function of Prom1, and characterized the effect of a lack of Prom1 on intestinal tumor formation in animal models. Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. Also, Prom1 knockout mice are more susceptible to intestinal tumor formation. We conclude that Prom1 likely plays a role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and that these results clearly illustrate the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration. We further conclude that Prom1 may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal conditions such as IBD, short bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer. PMID:25452936

Karim, Baktiar O.; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Liu, Guosheng; Yun, Kyuson; Brant, Steven R.

2014-01-01

328

Functional metagenomic profiling of intestinal microbiome in extreme ageing  

PubMed Central

Age-related alterations in human gut microbiota composition have been thoroughly described, but a detailed functional description of the intestinal bacterial coding capacity is still missing. In order to elucidate the contribution of the gut metagenome to the complex mosaic of human longevity, we applied shotgun sequencing to total fecal bacterial DNA in a selection of samples belonging to a well-characterized human ageing cohort. The age-related trajectory of the human gut microbiome was characterized by loss of genes for shortchain fatty acid production and an overall decrease in the saccharolytic potential, while proteolytic functions were more abundant than in the intestinal metagenome of younger adults. This altered functional profile was associated with a relevant enrichment in “pathobionts”, i.e. opportunistic pro-inflammatory bacteria generally present in the adult gut ecosystem in low numbers. Finally, as a signature for long life we identified 116 microbial genes that significantly correlated with ageing. Collectively, our data emphasize the relationship between intestinal bacteria and human metabolism, by detailing the modifications in the gut microbiota as a consequence of and/or promoter of the physiological changes occurring in the human host upon ageing. PMID:24334635

Rampelli, Simone; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Collino, Sebastiano; Franceschi, Claudio; O'Toole, Paul W; Brigidi, Patrizia

2013-01-01

329

Alcohol, Chemistry and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.

Boggan, William

330

Alcohol and Mortality  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption has long been recognized as a risk factor for mortality. By combining data on alcohol per capita consumption, alcohol-drinking status and alcohol-drinking patterns, risk relationships, and mortality, the Comparative Risk assessment study estimated alcohol-attributable mortality for 1990 and 2010. Alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury were responsible for the majority of the burden of alcohol-attributable mortality in 1990 and 2010. In 2010, alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury caused 1,500,000 deaths (319,500 deaths among women and 1,180,500 deaths among men) and 51,898,400 potential years of life lost (PYLL) (9,214,300 PYLL among women and 42,684,100 PYLL among men). This represents 2.8 percent (1.3 percent for women and 4.1 percent for men) of all deaths and 3.0 percent (1.3 percent for women and 4.3 percent for men) of all PYLL in 2010. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury increased from 1990 to 2010 for both genders. In addition, the rates of deaths and PYLL per 100,000 people from alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury increased from 1990 to 2010 (with the exception of liver cirrhosis rates for women). Results of this paper indicate that alcohol is a significant and increasing risk factor for the global burden of mortality. PMID:24881325

Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

331

Enteropatía congénita y trasplante intestinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoLa insuficiencia intestinal (II) exige el uso de nutrición parenteral (NP). Entre las causas de II prolongada grave destacan el síndrome del intestino corto, trastornos de la motilidad grave (aganglionosis total o subtotal o síndrome de seudoobstrucción intestinal crónica) y enfermedades congénitas del desarrollo de los enterocitos. Puede aparecer insuficiencia hepática grave en pacientes con II como consecuencia de una

Olivier Goulet

2006-01-01

332

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a se- vere digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a

Alexandra Antonucci; Fronzoni L; Cogliandro L; Cogliandro RF; Caputo C; Rosanna F Cogliandro; Roberto De Giorgio; Francesca Pallotti; Giovanni Barbara; Roberto Corinaldesi; Vincenzo Stanghellini

2008-01-01

333

Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible repair. We aim to (1) determine the immuno-pathology of alcohol-induced liver damage, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of ASH, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and NASH, (4) examine age differences, (5) develop common research tools to study alcohol-induced effects in clinical and pre-clinical studies, and (6) focus on factors that aggravate severity of organ-damage. The intention of these symposia is to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism. PMID:25217800

Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

2014-12-01

334

Probiotic administration modifies the milk fatty acid profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal fatty acid profile of goats.  

PubMed

The effect of a mixture of potentially probiotic bacteria (MPPB; Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum strains) on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the middle stage of goat lactation, was determined. In addition, the effects of MPPB feeding on the FA profile in intestinal content and intestinal morphology in weaned goats were analyzed. The probiotic supplement was able to modify FA composition of milk and intestinal content. The unsaturated FA concentrations in milk (g of FA/L of milk) increased from 4.49 to 7.86 for oleic (18:1), from 0.70 to 1.39 for linoleic (18:2), from 0.063 to 0.187 for linolenic (18:3) acid, and from 0.093 to 0.232 for CLA. The atherogenicity index diminished 2-fold after MPPB ingestion. In the intestinal content of the weaned goats, no significant difference in saturated FA concentration compared with the control was observed. However, oleic acid, linolenic acid, CLA, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased by 81, 23, 344, and 74%, respectively, after probiotic consumption. The ruminal production of CLA was increased by the MPPB. However, bacterial strains of MPPB were unable to produce CLA in culture media. By histological techniques, it was observed that the treated group had intestinally more conserved morphological structures than the control group. The results obtained in this study indicate that the MPPB administration in lactating and weaned goats allows for the production of milk with improved concentrations of beneficial compounds, and also produces a protective effect in the goat intestine. The results obtained in this study reinforce the strategy of probiotics application to enhance goat health with the production of milk with higher concentrations of polyunsaturated FA. PMID:25465559

Apás, A L; Arena, M E; Colombo, S; González, S N

2015-01-01

335

Neural networks in intestinal immunoregulation  

PubMed Central

Key physiological functions of the intestine are governed by nerves and neurotransmitters. This complex control relies on two neuronal systems: an extrinsic innervation supplied by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and an intrinsic innervation provided by the enteric nervous system. As a result of constant exposure to commensal and pathogenic microflora, the intestine developed a tightly regulated immune system. In this review, we cover the current knowledge on the interactions between the gut innervation and the intestinal immune system. The relations between extrinsic and intrinsic neuronal inputs are highlighted with regards to the intestinal immune response. Moreover, we discuss the latest findings on mechanisms underlying inflammatory neural reflexes and examine their relevance in the context of the intestinal inflammation. Finally, we discuss some of the recent data on the identification of the gut microbiota as an emerging player influencing the brain function. PMID:23867810

Costes, Léa MM; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; de Jonge, Wouter J; Cailotto, Cathy

2013-01-01

336

Host and Microbial Factors in Regulation of T Cells in the Intestine  

PubMed Central

The intestine is divided into specialized tissue areas that provide distinct microenvironments for T cells. Regulation of T-cell responses in the gut has been a major focus of recent research activities in the field. T cells in the intestine are regulated by the interplay between host and microbial factors. In the small intestine, retinoic acid (RA) is a major tissue factor that plays important roles in regulation of immune responses. In the large intestine, the influence of RA diminishes, but that of commensal bacterial products increases. RA, gut microbiota, and inflammatory mediators co-regulate differentiation, distribution, and/or effector functions of T cells. Coordinated regulation of immune responses by these factors promotes well-balanced immunity and immune tolerance. Dysregulation of this process can increase infection and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23772228

Kim, Chang H.

2013-01-01

337

Intestinal bile acid malabsorption in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

This study aimed at examining the mechanisms participating in excessive faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis. The study was designed to define the relation between faecal fat and faecal bile acid loss in patients with and without cystic fibrosis related liver disease; to assess terminal ileal bile acid absorption by a seven day whole body retention of selenium labelled homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT); and to determine if small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to faecal bile acid loss. The study population comprised 40 patients (27 men; median age 18 years) with cystic fibrosis (n = 8) and without (n = 32) liver disease and eight control subjects. Faecal bile acid excretion was significantly higher in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease compared with control subjects (mean (SEM) 21.5 (2.4) and 7.3 (1.2) micromoles/kg/24 hours respectively; p < 0.01) and patients with liver disease (7.9 (1.3) micromoles/kg/24 hours; p < 0.01). No correlation was found between faecal fat (g fat/24 hours) and faecal bile acid (micromoles 24 hours) excretion. Eight (33%) of cystic fibrosis patients had seven day SeHCAT retention < 10% (normal retention > 20%). SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients with liver disease was comparable with control subjects (30.0 (SEM) 8.3% v 36.8 (5.9)%; p = NS) while SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients who did not have liver disease was significantly reduced (19.9 (3.8); p < 0.05). Although evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth was present in 40% of patients no relation was found between breath hydrogen excretion, faecal fat, and faecal bile acid loss. The results are consistent with the presence of an abnormality in terminal ideal function in patients with cystic fibrosis who do not have liver disease and that a defect in the ileal absorption of bile acids may be a contributory factor to excessive faecal bile acid loss. Faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis is unrelated to the presence of intraluminal fat or intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:8174969

O'Brien, S; Mulcahy, H; Fenlon, H; O'Broin, A; Casey, M; Burke, A; FitzGerald, M X; Hegarty, J E

1993-08-01

338

Intestinal bile acid malabsorption in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at examining the mechanisms participating in excessive faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis. The study was designed to define the relation between faecal fat and faecal bile acid loss in patients with and without cystic fibrosis related liver disease; to assess terminal ileal bile acid absorption by a seven day whole body retention of selenium labelled homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT); and to determine if small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to faecal bile acid loss. The study population comprised 40 patients (27 men; median age 18 years) with cystic fibrosis (n = 8) and without (n = 32) liver disease and eight control subjects. Faecal bile acid excretion was significantly higher in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease compared with control subjects (mean (SEM) 21.5 (2.4) and 7.3 (1.2) micromoles/kg/24 hours respectively; p < 0.01) and patients with liver disease (7.9 (1.3) micromoles/kg/24 hours; p < 0.01). No correlation was found between faecal fat (g fat/24 hours) and faecal bile acid (micromoles 24 hours) excretion. Eight (33%) of cystic fibrosis patients had seven day SeHCAT retention < 10% (normal retention > 20%). SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients with liver disease was comparable with control subjects (30.0 (SEM) 8.3% v 36.8 (5.9)%; p = NS) while SeHCAT retention in cystic fibrosis patients who did not have liver disease was significantly reduced (19.9 (3.8); p < 0.05). Although evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth was present in 40% of patients no relation was found between breath hydrogen excretion, faecal fat, and faecal bile acid loss. The results are consistent with the presence of an abnormality in terminal ideal function in patients with cystic fibrosis who do not have liver disease and that a defect in the ileal absorption of bile acids may be a contributory factor to excessive faecal bile acid loss. Faecal bile acid loss in cystic fibrosis is unrelated to the presence of intraluminal fat or intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:8174969

O'Brien, S; Mulcahy, H; Fenlon, H; O'Broin, A; Casey, M; Burke, A; FitzGerald, M X; Hegarty, J E

1993-01-01

339

Bacterial Gene Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed instructions for carrying out several laboratory exercises relating to bacterial transformation and conjugation. In this multi-session experiment, students are exposed to various techniques in microbiology, including bacterial transformation and assay and sterile techniques.

Roberta Ellington (Northwestern University; )

1991-01-01

340

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Bacterial Vaginosis (BV): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is BV? Bacterial vaginosis, more commonly called BV, is an infection that ...

341

Alcohol expectancies of Irish and Canadian alcoholics.  

PubMed

Recent approaches in alcohol research have dealt with the positive and negative expectations of drinkers regarding alcohol consumption. In this study 61 White male alcoholics from a residential treatment program in Ireland were compared with 53 White male alcoholics from a similar program in Canada on their rank ordering of 13 positive and 12 negative expected consequences from drinking. The Irish seemed to drink for social reasons, striving for tranquilization, detachment, and self-absorption. Their greatest concern was that tranquilization would fail, and they also feared the physical consequences of drinking. Canadians drank for social/sexual enhancement and worried most about trouble with authorities over aggression and getting into debt. PMID:3235223

Teahan, J E

1988-10-01

342

Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... onset of DSM–IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 67:113–123, 2010. PMID: 20124111 6 Enoch, ... interaction on alcohol, heroin, and cocaine dependence. Biological Psychiatry 67:20–27, 2010. PMID: 19833324 7 Alim, ...

343

Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

2004-01-01

344

LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

2011-03-01

345

Synergistic Protection of Combined Probiotic Conditioned Media against Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis-Like Intestinal Injury  

PubMed Central

Balance among the complex interactions of the gut microbial community is important for intestinal health. Probiotic bacteria can improve bacterial balance and have been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening inflammatory bowel disorder primarily affecting premature infants. NEC is associated with extensive inflammatory NF-?B signaling activation as well as intestinal barrier disruption. Clinical studies have shown that probiotic administration may protect against NEC, however there are safety concerns associated with the ingestion of large bacterial loads in preterm infants. Bacteria-free conditioned media (CM) from certain probiotic organisms have been shown to retain bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties without the risks of live organisms. We hypothesized that the CM from Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), Bifidobacterium infantis (Bi), and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp), used separately or together would protect against NEC. A rodent model with intestinal injury similar to NEC was used to study the effect of CM from Lp, La/Bi, and La/Bi/Lp on the pathophysiology of NEC. All the CM suppressed NF-?B activation via preserved I?B? expression and this protected I?B? was associated with decreased liver activity of the proteasome, which is the degrading machinery for I?B?. These CM effects also caused decreases in intestinal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-?, a downstream target of the NF-?B pathway. Combined La/Bi and La/Bi/Lp CM in addition protected intestinal barrier function by maintaining tight junction protein ZO-1 levels and localization at the tight junction. Double combined La/Bi CM significantly reduced intestinal injury incidence from 43% to 28% and triple combined La/Bi/Lp CM further reduced intestinal injury incidence to 20%. Thus, this study demonstrates different protective mechanisms and synergistic bioactivity of the CM from different organisms in ameliorating NEC-like intestinal injury in an animal model. PMID:23717690

Shiou, Sheng-Ru; Yu, Yueyue; Guo, Yuee; He, Shu-Mei; Mziray-Andrew, C. Haikaeli; Hoenig, Jeanette; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O.; Claud, Erika C.

2013-01-01

346

Effect of 3,4,4?-trichlorocarbanilide on growth of lactic acid bacteria contaminants in alcoholic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4,4?-trichlorocarbanilide (TCC) was tested as a new method of bacterial growth control for S. cerevisiae alcoholic fermentations of diluted high test molasses (HTM). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was tested to determine the necessary concentration of TCC to control bacterial growth. The fed-batch alcoholic fermentation process was used with cell recycle similar to industrial conditions and Lactobacillus fermentum CCT 1407 was

Pedro-de Oliva-Neto; Fumio Yokoya

1998-01-01

347

Gut Microbial Colonization Orchestrates TLR2 Expression, Signaling and Epithelial Proliferation in the Small Intestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The gut microbiota is an environmental factor that determines renewal of the intestinal epithelium and remodeling of the intestinal mucosa. At present, it is not resolved if components of the gut microbiota can augment innate immune sensing in the intestinal epithelium via the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we report that colonization of germ-free (GF) Swiss Webster mice with a complex gut microbiota augments expression of TLR2. The microbiota-dependent up-regulation of components of the TLR2 signaling complex could be reversed by a 7 day broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. TLR2 downstream signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and protein-kinase B (AKT) induced by bacterial TLR2 agonists resulted in increased proliferation of the small intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K. Mice that were colonized from birth with a normal gut microbiota (conventionally-raised; CONV-R) showed signs of increased small intestinal renewal and apoptosis compared with GF controls as indicated by elevated mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1, elevated transcripts of the apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells per intestinal villus structure. In accordance, TLR2-deficient mice showed reduced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that a tuned proliferation response of epithelial cells following microbial colonization could aid to protect the host from its microbial colonizers and increase intestinal surface area. PMID:25396415

Hörmann, Nives; Brandão, Inês; Jäckel, Sven; Ens, Nelli; Lillich, Maren; Walter, Ulrich; Reinhardt, Christoph

2014-01-01

348

Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics  

PubMed Central

The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLRs play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation. PMID:24600450

de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L.

2014-01-01

349

Autophagy and Intestinal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host’s epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

Patel, Khushbu K.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

2013-01-01

350

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

Asetoyer, Charon

351

Genetic studies in alcohol research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis

Robert W. Karp

1994-01-01

352

Fetal alcohol syndrome: Behavioral teratology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of physical malformations observed in the offspring of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. The most serious effect of in utero exposure to alcohol is mental retardation. Although the physical characteristics associated with the FAS have been attributed to the direct effects of alcohol, conditions secondary to alcohol intake (e.g., altered nutrition)

Ernest L. Abel

1980-01-01

353

Mixing proteomics and alcohol.  

PubMed

Techniques for high-throughput measurement of protein expression and posttranslational modification are just beginning to be applied to alcohol research. Studies using this proteomic approach to examine tissue from alcoholic humans and alcohol-exposed nonhuman primates have appeared in the last year. In the present issue of Alcohol, Bell et al. present the first such analysis of brain protein expression in relation to alcohol drinking in rodents. This study found changes in several interesting classes of proteins, including molecules involved in vesicular neurotransmitter release, cellular metabolism, and cell structure. These new and exciting findings are discussed in relation to the proteomics studies in primates, and the future of proteomics in the alcohol research field. PMID:17157715

Lovinger, David M

2006-08-01

354

Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment  

PubMed Central

The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

2014-01-01

355

Alcoholism and women's health.  

PubMed Central

There are a variety of reasons why women are believed to be more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Physical factors, such as body water content and hereditary predisposition to alcoholism, differentiate women from men. Social factors include secretive drinking, role model in the family, and a perceived increase in promiscuity. Societal stigmas make it difficult for alcoholic women to seek help, yet the mortality rates are high for those women who continue to drink. PMID:3120219

Blume, S B

1987-01-01

356

Intestinal macrophages: differentiation and involvement in intestinal immunopathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal macrophages, preferentially located in the subepithelial lamina propria, represent the largest pool of tissue macrophages\\u000a in humans. As an adaptation to the local antigen- and bacteria-rich environment, intestinal macrophages exhibit several distinct\\u000a phenotypic and functional characteristics. Notably, microbe-associated molecular pattern receptors, including the lipopolysaccharide\\u000a (LPS) receptors CD14 and TLR4, and also the Fc receptors for IgA and IgG are

Benjamin Weber; Leslie Saurer; Christoph Mueller

2009-01-01

357

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions ...

358

Paradox in alcoholism.  

PubMed

This work focuses upon paradoxical aspects of alcoholism. Current information suggests that double-binding dynamics exist in alcoholism and that paradoxical life-style themes do contribute to alcoholism abuse. Emphasis in this paper is focused upon the utilization of paradoxical dynamics within a therapeutic framework. It is suggested that treatment interventions must effectively alter negative paradoxical patterns operating in the alcoholic's life-style. Recent clinical findings are cited, and therapeutic uses of paradoxical and reframing and interventions are discussed. PMID:6753571

Feeney, D J; Silverman, M S

359

Alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as ?-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.???Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

2000-01-01

360

EVALUATION OF PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT THE FLOCCULATION OF YEASTS AND BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL FERMENTATION PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial contamination in the alcoholic fermentation is one of the problems with the process of alcohol production and yeast flocculation is one of the consequences of this contamination. Many factors exert influence in the yeast flocculation like genetic c ompounds, proteins, temperature, pH, fermentation p roducts like e thanol and requirement of metallic ions, specifically calcium. This research was

Valmir Eduardo Alcarde; Taís Helena Martins Lacerda

361

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease and the use of fish oil-based lipid emulsions.  

PubMed

Intestinal failure (IF) is caused by the critical reduction of functional gut mass below the minimal amount necessary for adequate digestion and absorption to satisfy body nutrient and fluid requirements for maintenance in adults and growth in children. The advent of parenteral nutrition (PN) resulted in a dramatic improvement in life expectancy of patients suffering IF, but it has its own complications, such as catheter related sepsis. In pediatric patients suffering IF, intraluminal intestinal bacterial overgrowth may cause bacterial translocation and subsequent cholestasis and liver fibrosis. With our current understanding of the genesis of intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD), it should be prevented or at least early recognized and treated especially in patients experiencing prematurity and/or sepsis. Targeting harmful cytokine responses can be expected to reduce the severity and frequency of IFALD. In that view, prevention of sepsis, appropriate management of enteral feeding, prevention and treatment of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and the effects of fish oil, as providing omega-3 fatty with anti-inflammatory effects, are promising in avoiding or reversing cholestasis. This chapter aims to review both IF and PN related factors of liver disease with special emphasize on inflammation as cause of liver injury and on the use of fish oil based lipid emulsions as a provision of both alpha-tocopherol (200 g/l of 20% emulsion), as anti-oxidant agent and long-chain PUFAs. PMID:25471806

Goulet, Olivier J

2015-01-01

362

Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to determine how an E. coli challenge and dietary clays affect the intestinal barrier of pigs. Two groups of 32 pigs (initial BW: 6.9?±?1.0 kg) were distributed in a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design (2 challenge treatments: sham or E. coli, and 4 dietary treatments: control, 0.3% smectite A, 0.3% smectite B and 0.3% zeolite), with 8 replicates total. Diarrhea score, growth performance, goblet cell size and number, bacterial translocation from intestinal lumen to lymph nodes, intestinal morphology, and relative amounts of sulfo and sialo mucins were measured. The E. coli challenge reduced performance, increased goblet cell size and number in the ileum, increased bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the lymph nodes, and increased ileal crypt depth. One of the clays (smectite A) tended to increase goblet cell size in ileum, which may indicate enhanced protection. In conclusion, E. coli infection degrades intestinal barrier integrity but smectite A may enhance it. PMID:24359581

2013-01-01

363

Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine how an E. coli challenge and dietary clays affect the intestinal barrier of pigs. Two groups of 32 pigs (initial BW: 6.9?±?1.0 kg) were distributed in a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design (2 challenge treatments: sham or E. coli, and 4 dietary treatments: control, 0.3% smectite A, 0.3% smectite B and 0.3% zeolite), with 8 replicates total. Diarrhea score, growth performance, goblet cell size and number, bacterial translocation from intestinal lumen to lymph nodes, intestinal morphology, and relative amounts of sulfo and sialo mucins were measured. The E. coli challenge reduced performance, increased goblet cell size and number in the ileum, increased bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the lymph nodes, and increased ileal crypt depth. One of the clays (smectite A) tended to increase goblet cell size in ileum, which may indicate enhanced protection. In conclusion, E. coli infection degrades intestinal barrier integrity but smectite A may enhance it. PMID:24359581

Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Liu, Yanhong; Song, Minho; Lee, Jeong Jae; Gaskins, H Rex; Maddox, Carol Wolfgang; Osuna, Orlando; Pettigrew, James Eugene

2013-01-01

364

Effects of continuous renal replacement therapy on intestinal mucosal barrier function during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a porcine model  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been recommended for treatment of acute, potentially reversible, life-threatening respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional therapy. Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction is one of the most critical pathophysiological disorders during ECMO. This study aimed to determine whether combination with CRRT could alleviate damage of intestinal mucosal barrier function during VV ECMO in a porcine model. Methods Twenty-four piglets were randomly divided into control(C), sham(S), ECMO(E) and ECMO?+?CRRT(EC) group. The animals were treated with ECMO or ECMO?+?CRRT for 24 hours. After the experiments, piglets were sacrificed. Jejunum, ileum and colon were harvested for morphologic examination of mucosal injury and ultrastructural distortion. Histological scoring was assessed according to Chiu’s scoring standard. Blood samples were taken from the animals at -1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h during experiment. Blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymphnode were collected for bacterial culture. Serum concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were tested as markers to assess intestinal epithelial function and permeability. DAO levels were determined by spectrophotometry and I-FABP levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results Microscopy findings showed that ECMO-induced intestinal microvillus shedding and edema, morphological distortion of tight junction between intestinal mucous epithelium and loose cell-cell junctions were significantly improved with combination of CRRT. No significance was detected on positive rate of serum bacterial culture. The elevated colonies of bacterial culture in liver and mesenteric lymphnode in E group reduced significantly in EC group (p?intestinal mucosal dysfunction and bacterial translocation during VV ECMO, which may extenuate the ECMO-associated SIRS and raise the clinical effect and safety. PMID:24758270

2014-01-01

365

Small intestinal ischemia and infarction  

MedlinePLUS

... the bowel are reconnected. In some cases, a colostomy or ileostomy is needed. The blockage of arteries ... Intestinal infarction may require a colostomy or ileostomy, which may be ... is common in these cases. People who have a large amount ...

366

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

2008-01-01

367

Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... while increasing enteral nutrition. Pre-digested and hypoallergenic formulas improve intestinal absorption, and extra vitamins and minerals are often added. These formulas are usually given slowly by a feeding tube ...

368

Nonabsorbable antibiotics reduce bacterial and endotoxin translocation in hepatectomised rats.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by administering neomycin sulphate and cefazoline. Hepatectomy was found to increase translocation, while administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics decreased it significantly. In addition, hepatectomy increased the aerobic cecal bacterial population, which normalised in the group receiving antibiotics. Among the histological parameters evaluated, villus height demonstrated a significant reduction after hepatectomy, while the number of villi per cm and the number of mitoses per crypt, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics presents a positive effect on bacterial and endotoxin translocation after extended hepatectomy, and this may be related to reduction of colonic bacterial load as an intraluminal effect of antibiotics. PMID:9298382

Kakkos, S K; Kirkilesis, J; Scopa, C D; Arvaniti, A; Alexandrides, T; Vagianos, C E

1997-01-01

369

Investigating Bacterial-Animal Symbioses with Light Sheet Microscopy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Microbial colonization of the digestive tract is a crucial event in vertebrate development, required for maturation of host immunity and establishment of normal digestive physiology. Advances in genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies are providing a more detailed picture of the constituents of the intestinal habitat, but these approaches lack the spatial and temporal resolution needed to characterize the assembly and dynamics of microbial communities in this complex environment. We report the use of light sheet microscopy to provide high resolution imaging of bacterial colonization of the zebrafish intestine. The methodology allows us to characterize bacterial population dynamics across the entire organ and the behaviors of individual bacterial and host cells throughout the colonization process. The large four-dimensional datasets generated by these imaging approaches require new strategies for image analysis. When integrated with other “omics” datasets, information about the spatial and temporal dynamics of microbial cells within the vertebrate intestine will provide new mechanistic insights into how microbial communities assemble and function within hosts. PMID:22983029

Taormina, Michael J.; Jemielita, Matthew; Stephens, W. Zac; Burns, Adam R.; Troll, Joshua V.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Guillemin, Karen

2014-01-01

370

Bacterial cell wall components regulate adipokine secretion from visceral adipocytes.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest a relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndromes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we assessed the effects of bacterial cell wall components on adiponectin, leptin and resistin secretion from rat visceral adipocytes in vitro. We also measured the relative population of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in fecal microbiota and the amount of fecal mucin as an intestinal barrier function, when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial cell wall components affect the secretion of adipokines, depending on the presence of antigens from gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide markedly inhibited adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion, whereas peptidoglycan increased adiponectin secretion and decreased resistin secretion in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the high-fat diet increased the population of Firmicutes and decreased that of Bacteroidetes. In contrast, the high-fat diet downregulated the stool output and fecal mucin content. These results demonstrate that bacterial cell wall components affect the onset of metabolic syndromes by mediating the secretion of adipokines from visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, we believe that metabolic endotoxemia is not due to the increasing dominance of gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroidetes, but due to the depression of intestinal barrier function. PMID:25759521

Taira, Risa; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Shimizu, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kiminori; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Taira, Toshio

2015-03-01

371

Investigating bacterial-animal symbioses with light sheet microscopy.  

PubMed

Microbial colonization of the digestive tract is a crucial event in vertebrate development, required for maturation of host immunity and establishment of normal digestive physiology. Advances in genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies are providing a more detailed picture of the constituents of the intestinal habitat, but these approaches lack the spatial and temporal resolution needed to characterize the assembly and dynamics of microbial communities in this complex environment. We report the use of light sheet microscopy to provide high-resolution imaging of bacterial colonization of the intestine of Danio rerio, the zebrafish. The method allows us to characterize bacterial population dynamics across the entire organ and the behaviors of individual bacterial and host cells throughout the colonization process. The large four-dimensional data sets generated by these imaging approaches require new strategies for image analysis. When integrated with other "omics" data sets, information about the spatial and temporal dynamics of microbial cells within the vertebrate intestine will provide new mechanistic insights into how microbial communities assemble and function within hosts. PMID:22983029

Taormina, Michael J; Jemielita, Matthew; Stephens, W Zac; Burns, Adam R; Troll, Joshua V; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Guillemin, Karen

2012-08-01

372

Bacterial cell wall components regulate adipokine secretion from visceral adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest a relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndromes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we assessed the effects of bacterial cell wall components on adiponectin, leptin and resistin secretion from rat visceral adipocytes in vitro. We also measured the relative population of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in fecal microbiota and the amount of fecal mucin as an intestinal barrier function, when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial cell wall components affect the secretion of adipokines, depending on the presence of antigens from gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide markedly inhibited adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion, whereas peptidoglycan increased adiponectin secretion and decreased resistin secretion in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the high-fat diet increased the population of Firmicutes and decreased that of Bacteroidetes. In contrast, the high-fat diet downregulated the stool output and fecal mucin content. These results demonstrate that bacterial cell wall components affect the onset of metabolic syndromes by mediating the secretion of adipokines from visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, we believe that metabolic endotoxemia is not due to the increasing dominance of gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroidetes, but due to the depression of intestinal barrier function. PMID:25759521

Taira, Risa; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Shimizu, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kiminori; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Taira, Toshio

2015-01-01

373

The effects of moderate exercise on chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and antimicrobial defense.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moderate exercise on repeated restraint stress (RRS)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and explore possible mechanisms in a mouse model. Male Balb/c mice (6weeks) were randomized into 7 groups: CON functioned as controls with no intervention; RRS was subjected to 6h per day RRS for 7 consecutive days; RRS+SWIM received 30min per day of swimming prior to RRS; CON+SWIM only received 30min per day of swimming; and the other groups received one session of 30min swimming prior to sacrifice at 1-, 3- and 6h recovery. Intestinal permeability was quantified with FITC-dextran. Bacterial translocation was determined by quantification of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) in cultured mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Antimicrobial related gene expression at baseline and 1h after one session of 30min swimming was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in small intestinal segments. Protein expression of 5 genes with statistically significant increase was measured at baseline, and 1-, 3- and 6h post-swimming using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty minutes per day of swimming before RRS attenuated bacterial translocations and maintained intestinal permeability. Gene expression and protein levels for four antimicrobial peptides (?-defensin 5, ?-defensin 1, RegIII? and RegIII?) were significantly increased after one 30min swimming session. In conclusion, moderate exercise attenuated chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice, possibly due to augmentation of antimicrobial responses in the small intestine. PMID:24291325

Luo, Beibei; Xiang, Dao; Nieman, David C; Chen, Peijie

2014-07-01

374

Intestinal angioedema mimicking Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Angioedema usually presents as episodic attacks of swelling of the face, airway and extremities, but it may also involve visceral tissues. A 58-year-old woman with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting had two laparotomies and was treated for Crohn's disease for two years before a diagnosis of acquired intestinal angioedema was made. This case provides important insights into the presentation of intestinal angioedema. PMID:10590745

Malcolm, A; Prather, C M

1999-10-18

375

Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development.  

PubMed

The neonatal intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem composed of numerous genera, species and strains of bacteria. This enormous cell mass performs a variety of unique activities that affect both the colonic and systemic physiology. Its primary activities include nutritive, metabolic, immunological and protective functions. Most studies of infants have been based on faecal samples using the classical plating techniques with culturing on specific media. The limitations of these methods must be taken into account when evaluating the varying results of the different studies. The establishment of the gut microbial population is not strictly a succession in the ecological sense; it is rather a complex process influenced by microbial and host interactions and by external and internal factors. The climax intestinal flora is attained in successive stages. The foetal intestine is sterile and bathed in swallowed amniotic fluid. Following delivery, multiple different antigens challenge the intestine of the newborn. The maternal intestinal flora is a source of bacteria for the neonatal gut. The bacterial flora is usually heterogeneous during the first few days of life, independently of feeding habits. After the first week of life, a stable bacterial flora is usually established. In full-term infants a diet of breast milk induces the development of a flora rich in Bifidobacterium spp. Other obligate anaerobes, such as Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp., are more rarely isolated and also enterobacteria and enterococci are relatively few. During the corresponding period, formula-fed babies are often colonized by other anaerobes in addition to bifidobacteria and by facultatively anaerobic bacteria; the development of a "bifidus flora" is unusual. In other studies the presence of a consistent number of bifidobacteria in infants delivered in large urban hospitals has not been demonstrated, whether the babies were bottle fed or exclusively breastfed. The predominant faecal bacteria were coliforms and bacteroides. According to these studies, environmental factors may be more important than breastfeeding in gut colonization after delivery. Environmental factors are indeed extremely important for the intestinal colonization of infants born by caesarean section. In these infants, the establishment of a stable flora characterized by a low incidence of Bacteroides spp. and by the isolation of few other bacteria is consistently delayed. In extremely low-birthweight infants, hospitalization in neonatal intensive care units, characterized by prolonged antibiotic therapy, parenteral nutrition, delayed oral feedings and intubation seems to affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. The gut is colonized by a small number of bacterial species; Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp. are seldom, if ever, identified. According to the few studies so far performed, the predominant species are Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Hygienic conditions and antimicrobial procedures strongly influence the intestinal colonization pattern. PMID:14599042

Fanaro, S; Chierici, R; Guerrini, P; Vigi, V

2003-09-01

376

[Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD. PMID:25566836

Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

2015-02-01

377

76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2011-08-16

413

78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date:...

2013-07-29

414

78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

2013-07-16

415

78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June...

2013-04-08

416

77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2012-09-06

417

77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

2012-08-29

418

77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2012-04-17

419

77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National...

2012-04-17

420

76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

2011-07-26

421

77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2012-01-11

422

75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2010-10-15

423

78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

2013-04-11

424

75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, Office Of...

2010-02-25

425

76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2011-07-26

426

78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial [[Page...Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

2013-04-11

427

76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date:...

2011-07-06

428

76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National,...

2011-05-06

429

75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting...conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration...Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2010-08-04

430

76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2011-06-14

431

76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2011-01-12

432

75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2010-08-31

433

75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2010-07-21

434

78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date:...

2013-11-29

435

75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of...

2010-09-21

436

75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review...Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2010-03-19

437

78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...Place: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2013-10-31

438

75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of...

2010-03-05

439

75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date:...

2010-12-22

440

75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2010-07-21

441

76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June...

2011-05-06

442

76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

2011-06-14

443

76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2011-03-25

444

75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

2010-11-24

445

76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on