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Sample records for alcohol intestinal bacterial

  1. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

  2. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, endotoxaemia, and tumour necrosis factor ? in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, A; Roberts-Thomson, I; Dymock, R; McCarthy, P; Grose, R; Cummins, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, perhaps by increasing intestinal permeability and promoting the absorption of endotoxin or other enteric bacterial products.?AIMS—To investigate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, elevated endotoxin, and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and in control subjects.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Twenty two patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 23 control subjects were studied. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by a combined 14C-D-xylose and lactulose breath test. Intestinal permeability was assessed by a dual lactulose-rhamnose sugar test. Serum endotoxin levels were determined using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and TNF-? levels using an ELISA.?RESULTS—Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in 50% of patients with non-alcoholic steatosis and 22% of control subjects (p=0.048). Mean TNF-? levels in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients and control subjects were 14.2 and 7.5 pg/ml, respectively (p=0.001). Intestinal permeability and serum endotoxin levels were similar in the two groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis have a higher prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, as assessed by the 14C-D-xylose-lactulose breath test, and higher TNF-? levels in comparison with control subjects. This is not accompanied by increased intestinal permeability or elevated endotoxin levels.???Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; intestinal permeability; endotoxin; tumour necrosis factor ? PMID:11156641

  3. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  4. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. PMID:26501337

  5. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. PMID:26501337

  6. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  7. Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

  8. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Wang, Hui J.; Wang, Lirui; McCole, Declan F.; Brandl, Katharina; Stärkel, Peter; Belzer, Clara; Hellerbrand, Claus; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ho, Samuel B.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2?/? mice. Muc2?/? mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2?/? mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2?/? mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2?/? mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2?/? mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2?/? mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease. PMID:23408358

  9. Bacterial census of poultry intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Morrison, M; Yu, Z

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a phylogenetic diversity census of bacteria identified in the intestinal tract of chickens and turkeys using a naïve analysis of all the curated 16S rRNA gene sequences archived in public databases. High-quality sequences of chicken and turkey gastrointestinal origin (3,184 and 1,345, respectively) were collected from the GenBank, Ribosomal Database Project, and Silva comprehensive ribosomal RNA database. Through phylogenetic and statistical analysis, 915 and 464 species-equivalent operational taxonomic units (defined at 0.03 phylogenetic distance) were found in the chicken and the turkey sequence collections, respectively. Of the 13 bacterial phyla identified in both bird species, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the largest phyla, accounting for >90% of all the sequences. The chicken sequences represent 117 established bacterial genera, and the turkey sequences represent 69 genera. The most predominant genera found in both the chicken and the turkey sequence data sets were Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides, but with different distribution between the 2 bird species. The estimated coverage of bacterial diversity of chicken and turkey reached 89 and 68% at species-equivalent and 93 and 73% at genus-equivalent levels, respectively. Less than 7,000 bacterial sequences from each bird species from various locations would be needed to reach 99% coverage for either bird species. Based on annotation of the sequence records, cecum was the most sampled gut segment. Chickens and turkeys were shown to have distinct intestinal microbiomes, sharing only 16% similarity at the species-equivalent level. Besides identifying gaps in knowledge on bacterial diversity in poultry gastrointestinal tract, the bacterial census generated in this study may serve as a framework for future studies and development of analytic tools. PMID:23436518

  10. The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

  11. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

    2013-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

  12. Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?15), non-alcoholic controls (n?=?14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p?=?0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p?=?0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results suggest that translocation of intestinal bacteria into liver may be involved as a one factor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:24564202

  13. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

  14. Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

  15. Diagnosis and management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Matthew; Siwiec, Robert M; Wo, John M

    2013-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can result from failure of the gastric acid barrier, failure of small intestinal motility, anatomic alterations, or impairment of systemic and local immunity. The current accepted criteria for the diagnosis of SIBO is the presence of coliform bacteria isolated from the proximal jejunum with >10(5) colony-forming units/mL. A major concern with luminal aspiration is that it is only one random sampling of the small intestine and may not always be representative of the underlying microbiota. A new approach to examine the underlying microbiota uses rapid molecular sequencing, but its clinical utilization is still under active investigation. Clinical manifestations of SIBO are variable and include bloating, flatulence, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Severe cases may present with nutrition deficiencies due to malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The current management strategies for SIBO center on identifying and correcting underlying causes, addressing nutrition deficiencies, and judicious utilization of antibiotics to treat symptomatic SIBO. PMID:23614961

  16. Pediatric Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted GI motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions that do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitat may be an under recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world. PMID:25486880

  17. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anant D.

    2014-01-01

    Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

  18. Resistance to intestinal parasites during murine AIDS: role of alcohol and nutrition in immune dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R

    1993-01-01

    A murine AIDS model with many similarities to human AIDS, LP-BM5 Murine Leukaemia, suppresses T and B cell numbers and functions in the intestine. This permits chronic colonization by Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cocaine and the nutrient alcohol, which are immunosuppressive, further reduce resistance to intestinal parasites and intestinal lymphocyte numbers. Protein undernutrition, vitamin E supplementation, and alcohol use further modify immune dysfunction induced by the murine retrovirus infection. This suggests that both undernutrition and nutrient supplementation could affect parasite resistance during AIDS. Thus this murine model of human AIDS has great potential to accelerate studies of the role of nutrients in immune dysfunction and resistance to intestinal parasites. PMID:8115187

  19. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  20. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  1. Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.

    PubMed

    Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

  2. Pentanol and Benzyl Alcohol Attack Bacterial Surface Structures Differently.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takehisa; Miyahara, Yoshiko; Morii, Noriyuki; Okano, Tetsuya; Kubota, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium tolerates hygiene agents like benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and infection with this organism is an important public health issue. Here, we found that the combination of BAC with particular alcohols at nonlethal concentrations in terms of their solitary uses significantly reduced bacterial viability after only 5 min of exposure. Among the alcohols, Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that pentanol (pentyl alcohol [PeA]) and benzyl alcohol (BzA) accelerated the cellular accumulation of BAC. Fluorescence spectroscopic assays and morphological assays with giant vesicles indicated that PeA rarely attacked membrane structures, while BzA increased the membrane fluidity and destabilized the structures. Other fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that PeA and BzA inactivate bacterial membrane proteins, including an efflux pump for BAC transportation. These findings suggested that the inactivation of membrane proteins by PeA and BzA led to the cellular accumulation but that only BzA also enhanced BAC penetration by membrane fluidization at nonlethal concentrations. PMID:26519389

  3. Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  4. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application. PMID:26617183

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  6. Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. )

    1991-08-01

    In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

  7. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions. PMID:26477048

  8. Identification of a Core Bacterial Community within the Large Intestine of the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The horse has a rich and complex microbial community within its gastrointestinal tract that plays a central role in both health and disease. The horse receives much of its dietary energy through microbial hydrolysis and fermentation of fiber predominantly in the large intestine/hindgut. The presence of a possible core bacterial community in the equine large intestine was investigated in this study. Samples were taken from the terminal ileum and 7 regions of the large intestine from ten animals, DNA extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA 454-pyrosequenced. A specific group of OTUs clustered in all ileal samples and a distinct and different signature existed for the proximal regions of the large intestine and the distal regions. A core group of bacterial families were identified in all gut regions with clear differences shown between the ileum and the various large intestine regions. The core in the ileum accounted for 32% of all sequences and comprised of only seven OTUs of varying abundance; the core in the large intestine was much smaller (5-15% of all sequences) with a much larger number of OTUs present but in low abundance. The most abundant member of the core community in the ileum was Lactobacillaceae, in the proximal large intestine the Lachnospiraceae and in the distal large intestine the Prevotellaceae. In conclusion, the presence of a core bacterial community in the large intestine of the horse that is made up of many low abundance OTUs may explain in part the susceptibility of horses to digestive upset. PMID:24204908

  9. The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2011-05-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

  10. Bacterial diversity in the intestine of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Congyao; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jianfeng; Ma, Yuexin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the bacterial community associated with the intestinal mucus of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes. Polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing was performed on DNA from bacteria cultivated on Zobell 2216E medium. All the isolates were classified into two phyla—Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Proteobacteria were the dominant, culturable intestinal microbiota (68.3%). At the genus level, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella were isolated from the intestine, with representatives of the genera Vibrio, Enterobacter and Bacillus accounting for 70.7% of the total. This is the first report of Enterobacter, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium and Staphylococcus as part of the intestinal bacterial microflora in T. rubripes. The profile of the culturable bacterial community differed between samples collected from the same tank at 2-month intervals, as indicated by Bray-Curtis and Sorensen indices, and the impact on the intestinal physiology and health of puffer fish requires further investigation.

  11. Curcumin utilizes the anti-inflammatory response pathway to protect the intestine against bacterial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, a major component of the Curcuma species, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, the functional role of curcumin as well as its molecular mechanism in anti-inflammatory response, particularly in intestinal cells, has been less investigated. The intestine epithelial barrier is the first barrier and the most important location for the substrate coming from the lumen of the gut. SUBJECTS/METHODS We administered curcumin treatment in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines, T84 and Caco-2. We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by thapsigargin, qPCR of XBP1 and BiP, electrophysiology by wild-type cholera toxin in the cells. RESULTS In this study, we showed that curcumin treatment reduces ER stress and thereby decreases inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, curcumin confers protection without damaging the membrane tight junction or actin skeleton change in intestine epithelial cells. Therefore, curcumin treatment protects the gut from bacterial invasion via reduction of ER stress and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of curcumin in protecting the intestine by modulating ER stress and inflammatory response post intoxication. PMID:25861416

  12. Hemocompatibility study of a bacterial cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Alexandre F; Gupta, Swati; Silva, João Pedro; Reviakine, Ilya; Gama, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been suggested to be a suitable biomaterial for the development of cardiovascular grafts. The combination of BC with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) results in nanocomposites with improved properties. Surprisingly, there are very few studies on the BC-blood interaction. This is the focus of this paper. We present the first thorough assessment of the hemocompatibility of the BC/PVA nanocomposite. Whole blood clotting time, plasma recalcification, Factor XII activation, platelet adhesion and activation, hemolytic index and complement activation are all determined. The platelet activation profiles on BC and BC/PVA surfaces are comprehensively characterized. BC and BC/PVA outperformed ePTFE--used as a point of comparison--thus evidencing their suitability for cardiovascular applications. PMID:23880088

  13. Identification of Population Bottlenecks and Colonization Factors during Assembly of Bacterial Communities within the Zebrafish Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, W. Zac; Wiles, Travis J.; Martinez, Emily S.; Jemielita, Matthew; Burns, Adam R.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a powerful model for studying bacterial colonization of the vertebrate intestine, but the genes required by commensal bacteria to colonize the zebrafish gut have not yet been interrogated on a genome-wide level. Here we apply a high-throughput transposon mutagenesis screen to Aeromonas veronii Hm21 and Vibrio sp. strain ZWU0020 during their colonization of the zebrafish intestine alone and in competition with each other, as well as in different colonization orders. We use these transposon-tagged libraries to track bacterial population sizes in different colonization regimes and to identify gene functions required during these processes. We show that intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition with a previously established bacterial population greatly reduces the ability of these two bacterial species to colonize. Further, using a simple binomial sampling model, we show that under conditions of interspecific competition, genes required for colonization cannot be identified because of the population bottleneck experienced by the second colonizer. When bacteria colonize the intestine alone or at the same time as the other species, we find shared suites of functional requirements for colonization by the two species, including a prominent role for chemotaxis and motility, regardless of the presence of another species. PMID:26507229

  14. State of the art; microbiology in health and disease. Intestinal bacterial flora in autism.

    PubMed

    Finegold, Sydney M

    2011-12-01

    Autism of the regressive variety is selected as an example of the importance of intestinal bacterial microflora in disease other than classical infection. Our studies have indicated that intestinal bacteria play a role in this disease since it responds to oral vancomycin, a drug that is not absorbed from the GI tract. Pyrosequencing studies document an abnormal gut microflora in regressive autism subjects as compared to controls. Finally, we present preliminary evidence suggesting that Desulfovibrio may play a key role in this disease. PMID:21524713

  15. Transfer of intestinal bacterial components to mammary secretions in the cow

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Hine, Brad C.; Wallace, Olivia A.M.; Callaghan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Results from large multicentre epidemiological studies suggest an association between the consumption of raw milk and a reduced incidence of allergy and asthma in children. Although the underlying mechanisms for this association are yet to be confirmed, researchers have investigated whether bacteria or bacterial components that naturally occur in cow’s milk are responsible for modulating the immune system to reduce the risk of allergic diseases. Previous research in human and mice suggests that bacterial components derived from the maternal intestine are transported to breast milk through the bloodstream. The aim of our study was to assess whether a similar mechanism of bacterial trafficking could occur in the cow. Through the application of culture-independent methodology, we investigated the microbial composition and diversity of milk, blood and feces of healthy lactating cows. We found that a small number of bacterial OTUs belonging to the genera Ruminococcus and Bifidobacterium, and the Peptostreptococcaceae family were present in all three samples from the same individual animals. Although these results do not confirm the hypothesis that trafficking of intestinal bacteria into mammary secretions does occur in the cow, they support the existence of an endogenous entero-mammary pathway for some bacterial components during lactation in the cow. Further research is required to define the specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria are transported into the mammary gland of the cow, and the health implications of such bacteria being present in milk. PMID:25922791

  16. Transfer of intestinal bacterial components to mammary secretions in the cow.

    PubMed

    Young, Wayne; Hine, Brad C; Wallace, Olivia A M; Callaghan, Megan; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Results from large multicentre epidemiological studies suggest an association between the consumption of raw milk and a reduced incidence of allergy and asthma in children. Although the underlying mechanisms for this association are yet to be confirmed, researchers have investigated whether bacteria or bacterial components that naturally occur in cow's milk are responsible for modulating the immune system to reduce the risk of allergic diseases. Previous research in human and mice suggests that bacterial components derived from the maternal intestine are transported to breast milk through the bloodstream. The aim of our study was to assess whether a similar mechanism of bacterial trafficking could occur in the cow. Through the application of culture-independent methodology, we investigated the microbial composition and diversity of milk, blood and feces of healthy lactating cows. We found that a small number of bacterial OTUs belonging to the genera Ruminococcus and Bifidobacterium, and the Peptostreptococcaceae family were present in all three samples from the same individual animals. Although these results do not confirm the hypothesis that trafficking of intestinal bacteria into mammary secretions does occur in the cow, they support the existence of an endogenous entero-mammary pathway for some bacterial components during lactation in the cow. Further research is required to define the specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria are transported into the mammary gland of the cow, and the health implications of such bacteria being present in milk. PMID:25922791

  17. Role of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor in bacterial translocation and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dombrowicz, D; Nutten, S; Desreumaux, P; Neut, C; Torpier, G; Peeters, M; Colombel, J F; Capron, M

    2001-01-01

    A role for immunoglobulin E and its high affinity receptor (Fc epsilon RI) in the control of bacterial pathogenicity and intestinal inflammation has been suggested, but relevant animal models are lacking. Here we compare transgenic mice expressing a humanized Fc epsilon RI (hFc epsilon RI), with a cell distribution similar to that in humans, to Fc epsilon RI-deficient animals. In hFc epsilon RI transgenic mice, levels of colonic interleukin 4 were higher, the composition of fecal flora was greatly modified, and bacterial translocation towards mesenteric lymph nodes was increased. In hFc epsilon RI transgenic mice, 2,4,6-tri-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis was also more pronounced, whereas Fc epsilon RI-deficient animals were protected from colitis, demonstrating that Fc epsilon RI can affect the onset of intestinal inflammation. PMID:11136818

  18. Role of the High Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor in Bacterial Translocation and Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowicz, David; Nutten, Sophie; Desreumaux, Pierre; Neut, Christel; Torpier, Gérard; Peeters, Marc; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Capron, Monique

    2001-01-01

    A role for immunoglobulin E and its high affinity receptor (Fc?RI) in the control of bacterial pathogenicity and intestinal inflammation has been suggested, but relevant animal models are lacking. Here we compare transgenic mice expressing a humanized Fc?RI (hFc?RI), with a cell distribution similar to that in humans, to Fc?RI-deficient animals. In hFc?RI transgenic mice, levels of colonic interleukin 4 were higher, the composition of fecal flora was greatly modified, and bacterial translocation towards mesenteric lymph nodes was increased. In hFc?RI transgenic mice, 2,4,6-tri-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis was also more pronounced, whereas Fc?RI-deficient animals were protected from colitis, demonstrating that Fc?RI can affect the onset of intestinal inflammation. PMID:11136818

  19. Rye Affects Bacterial Translocation, Intestinal Viscosity, Microbiota Composition and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are currently being evaluated. PMID:25849537

  20. Reduction of endotoxin attenuates liver fibrosis through suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation and remission of intestinal permeability in a rat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model.

    PubMed

    Douhara, Akitoshi; Moriya, Kei; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Kaji, Kosuke; Aihara, Yosuke; Nishimura, Norihisa; Takeda, Kosuke; Okura, Yasushi; Kawaratani, Hideto; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that endotoxin/toll?like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is critical in the inflammatory pathways associated with non?alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In human and animal studies, NASH was associated with portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the plasma LPS level was hypothesized to be associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, change in composition of the microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of endogenous endotoxin and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of NASH. The effects of antibiotics were assessed in vivo using a choline deficiency amino acid (CDAA)?induced experimental liver fibrosis model. Antibiotics, including polymyxins and neomycins, were orally administered in drinking water. Antibiotics attenuated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis via TGF?? and collagen in an experimental hepatic fibrosis model. The mechanism by which antibiotics attenuated LPS?TLR4 signaling and liver fibrosis was assessed. Notably, TLR4 mRNA level in the liver was elevated in the CDAA group and the CDAA?induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. However, no significant differences were observed in the intestine among all groups. Elevated mRNA levels of LPS binding protein, which was correlated with serum endotoxin levels, were recognized in the CDAA group and the CDAA?induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. The intestinal permeability of the CDAA group was increased compared with the choline?supplemented amino acid group. The tight junction protein (TJP) in the intestine, determined by immunohistochemical analysis was inversely associated with intestinal permeability. Antibiotics improved the intestinal permeability and enhanced TJP expression. Inhibition of LPS?TLR4 signaling with antibiotics attenuated liver fibrosis development associated with NASH via the inhibition of HSC activation. These results indicated that reduction of LPS and restoration of intestinal TJP may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis development in NASH. PMID:25421042

  1. Reduction of endotoxin attenuates liver fibrosis through suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation and remission of intestinal permeability in a rat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model

    PubMed Central

    DOUHARA, AKITOSHI; MORIYA, KEI; YOSHIJI, HITOSHI; NOGUCHI, RYUICHI; NAMISAKI, TADASHI; KITADE, MITSUTERU; KAJI, KOSUKE; AIHARA, YOSUKE; NISHIMURA, NORIHISA; TAKEDA, KOSUKE; OKURA, YASUSHI; KAWARATANI, HIDETO; FUKUI, HIROSHI

    2015-01-01

    Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is critical in the inflammatory pathways associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In human and animal studies, NASH was associated with portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the plasma LPS level was hypothesized to be associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, change in composition of the microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of endogenous endotoxin and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of NASH. The effects of antibiotics were assessed in vivo using a choline deficiency amino acid (CDAA)-induced experimental liver fibrosis model. Antibiotics, including polymyxins and neomycins, were orally administered in drinking water. Antibiotics attenuated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis via TGF-? and collagen in an experimental hepatic fibrosis model. The mechanism by which antibiotics attenuated LPS-TLR4 signaling and liver fibrosis was assessed. Notably, TLR4 mRNA level in the liver was elevated in the CDAA group and the CDAA-induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. However, no significant differences were observed in the intestine among all groups. Elevated mRNA levels of LPS binding protein, which was correlated with serum endotoxin levels, were recognized in the CDAA group and the CDAA-induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. The intestinal permeability of the CDAA group was increased compared with the choline-supplemented amino acid group. The tight junction protein (TJP) in the intestine, determined by immunohistochemical analysis was inversely associated with intestinal permeability. Antibiotics improved the intestinal permeability and enhanced TJP expression. Inhibition of LPS-TLR4 signaling with antibiotics attenuated liver fibrosis development associated with NASH via the inhibition of HSC activation. These results indicated that reduction of LPS and restoration of intestinal TJP may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis development in NASH. PMID:25421042

  2. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation

  3. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-15

    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less total sleep time and increased fragmentation of sleep (P < 0.05). AD also had significantly lower plasma melatonin levels compared with the HC [mean area under the curve (AUC) 322.78 ± 228.21 vs. 568.75 ± 304.26 pg/ml, P = 0.03]. In the AD group, AUC of melatonin was inversely correlated with small bowel and colonic intestinal permeability (lactulose-to-mannitol ratio, r = -0.39, P = 0.03; urinary sucralose, r = -0.47, P = 0.01). Cosinor analysis of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (marker of endotoxemia) and lipopolysaccharide every 4 h for 24 h in HC and AD subjects had a midline estimating statistic of rhythm of 5,026.15 ± 409.56 vs. 6,818.02 ± 628.78 ng/ml (P < 0.01) and 0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.19 EU/ml (P < 0.05), respectively. We found plasma melatonin was significantly lower in the AD group, and lower melatonin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability and a marker of endotoxemia. Our study suggests the suppression of melatonin in AD may promote gut leakiness and endotoxemia. PMID:25907689

  4. Active Transport of Phosphorylated Carbohydrates Promotes Intestinal Colonization and Transmission of a Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Brandon; Crowley, Shauna M.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Lai, Christine Chieh-Lin; Tang, Calvin; Hooda, Yogesh; Calmettes, Charles; Khambati, Husain; Ma, Caixia; Brumell, John H.; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient acquisition of extracellular nutrients is essential for bacterial pathogenesis, however the identities and mechanisms for transport of many of these substrates remain unclear. Here, we investigate the predicted iron-binding transporter AfuABC and its role in bacterial pathogenesis in vivo. By crystallographic, biophysical and in vivo approaches, we show that AfuABC is in fact a cyclic hexose/heptose-phosphate transporter with high selectivity and specificity for a set of ubiquitous metabolites (glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate). AfuABC is conserved across a wide range of bacterial genera, including the enteric pathogens EHEC O157:H7 and its murine-specific relative Citrobacter rodentium, where it lies adjacent to genes implicated in sugar sensing and acquisition. C. rodentium ?afuA was significantly impaired in an in vivo murine competitive assay as well as its ability to transmit infection from an afflicted to a naïve murine host. Sugar-phosphates were present in normal and infected intestinal mucus and stool samples, indicating that these metabolites are available within the intestinal lumen for enteric bacteria to import during infection. Our study shows that AfuABC-dependent uptake of sugar-phosphates plays a critical role during enteric bacterial infection and uncovers previously unrecognized roles for these metabolites as important contributors to successful pathogenesis. PMID:26295949

  5. The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma. Bacterial communities from broncho-alveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue were compared to samples taken from fecal matter (caecum) and vaginal lavage fluid from female BALB/cJ mice. Results Using a customized 16S rRNA sequencing protocol amplifying the V3-V4 region our study shows that the mice have a lung microbiome that cluster separately from mouse intestinal microbiome (caecum). The mouse lung microbiome is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria overlapping the vaginal microbiome. We also show that removal of host tissue or cells from lung fluid during the DNA extraction step has an impact on the resulting bacterial community profile. Sample preparation needs to be considered when choosing an extraction method and interpreting data. Conclusions We have consistently amplified bacterial DNA from mouse lungs that is distinct from the intestinal microbiome in these mice. The gut microbiome has been extensively studied for its links to development of disease. Here we suggest that also the lung microbiome could be important in relation to inflammatory lung diseases. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of the lung microbiome and the gut-lung axis to the development of lung diseases such as COPD and asthma. PMID:24373613

  6. In vitro evaluation of effects of gut region and fiber structure on the intestinal dominant bacterial diversity and functional bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Lu, Qi; Tan, Zhiliang; Guan, Leluo; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the intestinal bacteria in ruminants and their population kinetics is essential for their ecological function, as well as their interaction with the host. In this in vitro study, we aimed to determine whether gut region and fiber structure can influence bacterial diversity and functional bacterial population, together with the kinetics of functional bacterial species in the cecal inocula using PCR-DGGE and qPCR. A split plot design was conducted with gut regions (jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) as main plot, and substrates (neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and cellulose (CEL)) as subplot. Incubation time and gut region affected dominant bacterial diversity. The numbers of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, genus Prevotella and amylolytic bacteria in the hindgut inocula were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the small intestinal inocula. Fiber structure did not significantly influence the dominant bacterial diversity and the numbers of most examined functional bacterial species. The greatest increase rate of cellulolytic bacteria occurred earlier than amylolytic bacteria except for R. albus incubated with NDF. Changes in cellulolytic bacterial populations were not coordinative with alteration of fiber disappearance as well as CMCase and xylanase activities. All these suggest that the hindgut contents have greater potential to digest fiber than small intestinal contents, and cellulolytic bacteria are of significant value at the initial stage of fiber digestion among the fiber digestive microbes in the intestine. PMID:24972096

  7. Intestinal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Jin, Y H

    2001-12-01

    The fecal beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer and healthy controls were measured to determine the relationship between the fluctuation of intestinal bacterial beta-glucuronidase and colon cancer. The fecal beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer was 1.7 times higher than that of the healthy controls. However, when these fecal specimens were sonicated, the enzyme activity of patients with colon cancer was 12.1 times higher than that of the healthy controls. The fecal beta-glucuronidase activity of human intestinal bacteria was drastically induced by its substrate or the bile secreted after a subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and benzo[a]pyrene into rats. DMH- and benzo[a]pyrene-treated biles induced beta-glucuronidase activity in the human intestinal microflora by approximately 1.5- and 2.3-fold, respectively. They also induced beta-glucuronidase in E. coli HGU-3, which is a beta-glucuronidase-producing bacterium from the human intestine. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone similarly inhibited fecal beta-glucuronidase in several patients with colon cancer in addition to the healthy controls. This suggests that potent beta-glucuronidase activity is a prime factor in the etiology of colon cancer. PMID:11794536

  8. Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis by Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yvonne; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to resistance. In this review, we dissect the biological role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are fermentation end products of the intestinal microbiota, in host–pathogen interactions. SCFA exert an extensive influence on host physiology through nutritional, regulatory, and immunomodulatory functions and can also affect bacterial fitness as a form of acid stress. Moreover, SCFA act as a signal for virulence gene regulation in common enteric pathogens. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of the chemical environment where the biology of the host, the microbiota, and the pathogen intersects, which provides a basis for designing effective infection prevention and control. PMID:23942149

  9. Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial Community Structure along the Intestinal Tract of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chuan-Ching; Love, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial composition along the intestinal tract of Danio rerio was investigated by cultivation-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Clone libraries were constructed for three compartments of the intestinal tract of individual fish. 566 individual clones were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA), and clone representatives from each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) were sequenced. As reported in other studies, we found that Proteobacteria was the most prominent phylum among clone libraries from different fish. Data generated from this pilot study indicated some compositional differences in bacterial communities. Two dominant classes, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli, displayed different levels of abundance in different compartments; Gammaproteobacteria increased along the intestinal tract, while Bacilli decreased its abundance along the proximal-distal axis. Less obvious spatial patterns were observed for other classes. In general, bacterial diversity in the intestinal bulb was greater than that in the posterior intestine. Interindividual differences in bacterial diversity and composition were also noted in this study. PMID:23724326

  10. M2b Monocytes Provoke Bacterial Pneumonia and Gut Bacteria-Associated Sepsis in Alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimoto, Yusuke; Asai, Akira; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Ito, Ichiaki; Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Garcia, Melanie C; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Kobayashi, Makiko; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Suzuki, Fujio

    2015-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption markedly impairs host antibacterial defense against opportunistic infections. ?-irradiated NOD-SCID IL-2R?(null) mice inoculated with nonalcoholic PBMCs (control PBMC chimeras) resisted Klebsiella pneumonia and gut bacteria-associated sepsis, whereas the chimeras created with alcoholic PBMCs (alcoholic PBMC chimeras) were very susceptible to these infections. M1 monocytes (IL-12(+)IL-10(-)CD163(-)CD14(+) cells), major effector cells in antibacterial innate immunity, were not induced by a bacterial Ag in alcoholic PBMC cultures, and M2b monocytes (CCL1(+)CD163(+)CD14(+) cells), which predominated in alcoholic PBMCs, were shown to be inhibitor cells on the Ag-stimulated monocyte conversion from quiescent monocytes to M1 monocytes. CCL1, which functions to maintain M2b macrophage properties, was produced by M2b monocytes isolated from alcoholic PBMCs. These M2b monocytes reverted to quiescent monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(-)CCL1(-)CD163(-)CD14(+) cells) in cultures supplemented with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, and the subsequent quiescent monocytes easily converted to M1 monocytes under bacterial Ag stimulation. Alcoholic PBMC chimeras treated with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide were resistant against pulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae and sepsis stemming from enterococcal translocation. These results indicate that a majority of monocytes polarize to an M2b phenotype in association with alcohol abuse, and this polarization contributes to the increased susceptibility of alcoholics to gut and lung infections. Bacterial pneumonia and gut bacteria-associated sepsis, frequently seen in alcoholics, can be controlled through the polarization of macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26525287

  11. Safety and risk assessment of the genetically modified Lactococci on rats intestinal bacterial flora.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Chien; Liu, Chin-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Hsing; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between Lactococcus lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and intestinal microflora was evaluated as a method to assess safety of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK is one kind of GMM and able to produce the intracellular subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) under induction with nisin. The host strain L. lactis NZ9000 was a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganism. Six groups of Wistar rats were orally administered with L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and L. lactis NZ9000 for 6 weeks. Fecal and cecal contents were collected to determine the number of L. lactis NZ9000, L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK, Lactobacillus, coliform bacteria, beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and harmful bacteria Clostridium perfringens. The liver, spleen, kidney and blood were evaluated for the bacterial translocation. After 6 weeks consumption with GM and non-GM Lactococcus, no adverse effects were observed on the rat's body weight, hematological or serum biochemical parameters, or intestinal microflora. The bacterial translocation test showed that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK did not translocate to any organ or blood. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in feces after administration of both Lactococcus strains (L. lactis NZ9000 and L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK), while C. perfringens remained undetectable during the experiment. These results suggested that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK could be safe in animal experiments and monitoring of the interaction between test strains and intestinal microflora might be applied as a method for other GMM safety assessments. PMID:20619909

  12. Blockage of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates heat-stress induced intestinal high permeability and bacterial translocation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu-lin; Guo, Xiao-hua; Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhi-feng; Su, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidences indicate intestinal lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanisms by which heat stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in heat stress-induced intestinal hyper-permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal permeability in heat stressed mouse was evaluated by determining plasma endotoxin concentration and urinal lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio with gastric administration of L/M solution. Venous blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node tissues were collected for bacterial load test. Real time PCR was used to determine ileum PAR1 mRNA expression. In vitro study, permeability was assessed by determining trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. RWJ-58259, a selective antagonist of PAR1, was used both in vivo and in vitro studies. The results showed that heat stress could increase ileum PAR1 mRNA level, urinal L/M ratio, plasma endotoxin concentration and bacterial load in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blocking PAR1 with RWJ-58259 (10?mg/kg) pretreatment could significantly reduce heat stress-induced above changes, but have no role to PAR1 mRNA level. In Caco-2 cells, heat stress-induced high permeability could also be reduced by RWJ-58259 (5-20?µmol/L). In summary, our results demonstrated that PAR1 signaling pathway may play an important role in the heat stress-induced elevation of intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and the occurrence of endotoxemia. PMID:25492552

  13. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Diagnosed by Glucose Hydrogen Breath Test in Post-cholecystectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hea Jung; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients undergoing cholecystectomy may have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of SIBO in patients with intestinal symptoms following cholecystectomy. Methods Sixty-two patients following cholecystectomy, 145 with functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs), and 30 healthy controls undergoing hydrogen (H2)-methane (CH4) glucose breath test (GBT) were included in the study. Before performing GBT, all patients were interrogated using bowel symptom questionnaire. The positivity to GBT indicating the presence of SIBO, gas types and bowel symptoms were surveyed. Results Post-cholecystectomy patients more often had SIBO as evidenced by a positive (+) GBT than those with FGID and controls (29/62, 46.8% vs 38/145, 26.2% vs 4/30, 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.010). In the gas types, the GBT (H2) + post-cholecystectomy patients was significantly higher than those in FGIDs patients (P = 0.017). Especially, positivity to fasting GBT (H2) among the GBT (H2)+ post-cholecystectomy patients was high, as diagnosed by elevated fasting H2 level. The GBT+ group had higher symptom scores of significance or tendency in abdominal discomfort, bloating, chest discomfort, early satiety, nausea, and tenesmus than those of the GBT negative group. The status of cholecystectomy was the only significant independent factor for predicting SIBO. Conclusions The SIBO with high levels of baseline H2 might be the important etiologic factor of upper GI symptoms for post-cholecystectomy patients. PMID:26351251

  14. Contributions of microbiome and mechanical deformation to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation in a human gut-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Li, Hu; Collins, James J; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    A human gut-on-a-chip microdevice was used to coculture multiple commensal microbes in contact with living human intestinal epithelial cells for more than a week in vitro and to analyze how gut microbiome, inflammatory cells, and peristalsis-associated mechanical deformations independently contribute to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. This in vitro model replicated results from past animal and human studies, including demonstration that probiotic and antibiotic therapies can suppress villus injury induced by pathogenic bacteria. By ceasing peristalsis-like motions while maintaining luminal flow, lack of epithelial deformation was shown to trigger bacterial overgrowth similar to that observed in patients with ileus and inflammatory bowel disease. Analysis of intestinal inflammation on-chip revealed that immune cells and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin together stimulate epithelial cells to produce four proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?) that are necessary and sufficient to induce villus injury and compromise intestinal barrier function. Thus, this human gut-on-a-chip can be used to analyze contributions of microbiome to intestinal pathophysiology and dissect disease mechanisms in a controlled manner that is not possible using existing in vitro systems or animal models. PMID:26668389

  15. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Refractory Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Shino; Ishimura, Norihisa; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Uno, Goichi; Tamagawa, Yuji; Aimi, Masahito; Oshima, Naoki; Sato, Shuichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). However, the prevalence and clinical conditions of SIBO in patients with FGID remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the frequency of SIBO in patients with refractory FGID. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with refractory FGID based on Rome III criteria. A glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) was performed using a gas analyzer after an overnight fast, with breath hydrogen concentration measured at baseline and every 15 minutes after administration of glucose for a total of 3 hours. A peak hydrogen value ? 10 ppm above the basal value between 60 and 120 minutes after administration of glucose was diagnosed as SIBO. Results A total of 38 FGID patients, including 11 with functional dyspepsia (FD), 10 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 17 with overlapping with FD and IBS, were enrolled. Of those, 2 (5.3%) were diagnosed with SIBO (one patient diagnosed with FD; the other with overlapping FD and IBS). Their symptoms were clearly improved and breath hydrogen levels decreased to normal following levofloxacin administration for 7 days. Conclusions Two patients initially diagnosed with FD and IBS were also diagnosed with SIBO as assessed by GHBT. Although the frequency of SIBO is low among patients with FGID, it may be important to be aware of SIBO as differential diagnosis when examining patients with refractory gastrointestinal symptoms, especially bloating, as a part of routine clinical care. PMID:26554916

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

  17. Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine. PMID:17615175

  18. Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Victor; Dhalla, Sameer; Clarke, John O.; Roland, Bani Chander; Dunbar, Kerry B.; Koh, Joyce; Justino, Edmundo; Tomakin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have chronic intestinal and extraintestinal symptomatology which adversely affects their quality of life. Present treatment of SIBO is limited to oral antibiotics with variable success. A growing number of patients are interested in using complementary and alternative therapies for their gastrointestinal health. The objective was to determine the remission rate of SIBO using either the antibiotic rifaximin or herbals in a tertiary care referral gastroenterology practice. Design: One hundred and four patients who tested positive for newly diagnosed SIBO by lactulose breath testing (LBT) were offered either rifaximin 1200 mg daily vs herbal therapy for 4 weeks with repeat LBT post-treatment. Results: Three hundred ninety-six patients underwent LBT for suspected SIBO, of which 251 (63.4%) were positive 165 underwent treatment and 104 had a follow-up LBT. Of the 37 patients who received herbal therapy, 17 (46%) had a negative follow-up LBT compared to 23/67 (34%) of rifaximin users (P=.24). The odds ratio of having a negative LBT after taking herbal therapy as compared to rifaximin was 1.85 (CI=0.77-4.41, P=.17) once adjusted for age, gender, SIBO risk factors and IBS status. Fourteen of the 44 (31.8%) rifaximin non-responders were offered herbal rescue therapy, with 8 of the 14 (57.1%) having a negative LBT after completing the rescue herbal therapy, while 10 non-responders were offered triple antibiotics with 6 responding (60%, P=.89). Adverse effects were reported among the rifaximin treated arm including 1 case of anaphylaxis, 2 cases of hives, 2 cases of diarrhea and 1 case of Clostridium difficile. Only one case of diarrhea was reported in the herbal therapy arm, which did not reach statistical significance (P=.22). Conclusion: SIBO is widely prevalent in a tertiary referral gastroenterology practice. Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals also appear to be as effective as triple antibiotic therapy for SIBO rescue therapy for rifaximin non-responders. Further, prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and explore additional alternative therapies in patients with refractory SIBO. PMID:24891990

  19. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p?=?0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p?=?0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p?

  1. Burn Injury Alters the Intestinal Microbiome and Increases Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Zachary M.; Akhtar, Suhail; Green, Stefan J.; Naqib, Ankur; Khan, Omair; Cannon, Abigail R.; Hammer, Adam M.; Morris, Niya L.; Li, Xiaoling; Eberhardt, Joshua M.; Gamelli, Richard L; Kennedy, Richard H.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products (e.g., endotoxin) from the intestinal lumen to the circulation, thereby increasing the risk for sepsis in immunocompromised individuals. Since the maintenance of the epithelial barrier is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, we examined the diversity of the intestinal microbiome of severely burned patients and a controlled mouse model of burn injury. We show that burn injury induces a dramatic dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome of both humans and mice and allows for similar overgrowths of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the bacteria increasing in abundance have the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. This study provides an insight into how the diversity of the intestinal microbiome changes after burn injury and some of the consequences these gut bacteria can have in the host. PMID:26154283

  2. Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

    2015-05-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol. PMID:25746479

  3. Low dietary iron intake restrains the intestinal inflammatory response and pathology of enteric infection by food-borne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Mulder, Michelle L M; Richters, Thijs J W; Shanmugam, Nanda K N; Trebicka, Estela; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Roelofs, Rian; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Bolhuis, Albert; Cherayil, Bobby J; Tjalsma, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Orally administrated iron is suspected to increase susceptibility to enteric infections among children in infection endemic regions. Here we investigated the effect of dietary iron on the pathology and local immune responses in intestinal infection models. Mice were held on iron-deficient, normal iron, or high iron diets and after 2 weeks they were orally challenged with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Microbiome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed profound iron- and infection-induced shifts in microbiota composition. Fecal levels of the innate defensive molecules and markers of inflammation lipocalin-2 and calprotectin were not influenced by dietary iron intervention alone, but were markedly lower in mice on the iron-deficient diet after infection. Next, mice on the iron-deficient diet tended to gain more weight and to have a lower grade of colon pathology. Furthermore, survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was prolonged after iron deprivation. Together, these data show that iron limitation restricts disease pathology upon bacterial infection. However, our data also showed decreased intestinal inflammatory responses of mice fed on high iron diets. Thus additionally, our study indicates that the effects of iron on processes at the intestinal host-pathogen interface may highly depend on host iron status, immune status, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26046550

  4. Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-? (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-? (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-?B p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal bacterial community. CONCLUSION: Gln treatment protects from intestinal injury and regulates the gut flora imbalance in hypoxia environment. These effects may be related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24782618

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Intestinal Bacterial and RNA Viral Communities from Sentinel Birds Placed on Selected Broiler Chicken Farms

    PubMed Central

    Day, J. Michael; Oakley, Brian B.; Seal, Bruce S.; Zsak, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds (“sentinels”) placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

  6. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial and RNA viral communities from sentinel birds placed on selected broiler chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Day, J Michael; Oakley, Brian B; Seal, Bruce S; Zsak, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds ("sentinels") placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

  7. Dual oxidase in the intestinal epithelium of zebrafish larvae has anti-bacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Flores, Maria Vega; Crawford, Katie C; Pullin, Lisa M; Hall, Christopher J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2010-09-10

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) function in a range of physiological processes such as growth, metabolism and signaling, and also have a pathological role. Recent research highlighted the requirement for ROS generated by dual oxidase (DUOX) in host-defence responses in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but in vivo evidence to support this has, to date, been lacking. In order to investigate the involvement of Duox in gut immunity, we characterized the zebrafish ortholog of the human DUOX genes. Zebrafish duox is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Duox impaired larval capacity to control enteric Salmonella infection. PMID:20709024

  8. Fecal microbiota transplantation and bacterial consortium transplantation have comparable effects on the re-establishment of mucosal barrier function in mice with intestinal dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Liang, Pin; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Guobin; Gao, Hongwei; Wen, Shu; Tang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy, despite some reports of adverse side effects. Bacterial consortia transplantation (BCT) for targeted restoration of the intestinal ecosystem is considered a relatively safe and simple procedure. However, no systematic research has assessed the effects of FMT and BCT on immune responses of intestinal mucosal barrier in patients. We conducted complementary studies in animal models on the effects of FMT and BCT, and provide recommendations for improving the clinical outcomes of these treatments. To establish the dysbiosis model, male BALB/c mice were treated with ceftriaxone intra-gastrically for 7 days. After that, FMT and BCT were performed on ceftriaxone-treated mice for 3 consecutive days to rebuild the intestinal ecosystem. Post-FMT and post-BCT changes of the intestinal microbial community and mucosal barrier functions were investigated and compared. Disruption of intestinal microbial homeostasis impacted the integrity of mucosal epithelial layer, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. These outcomes were accompanied by overexpression of Muc2, significant decrease of SIgA secretion, and overproduction of defensins and inflammatory cytokines. After FMT and BCT, the intestinal microbiota recovered quickly, this was associated with better reconstruction of mucosal barriers and re-establishment of immune networks compared with spontaneous recovery (SR). Although based on a short-term study, our results suggest that FMT and BCT promote the re-establishment of intestinal microbial communities in mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, and contribute to the temporal and spatial interactions between microbiota and mucosal barriers. The effects of BCT are comparable to that of FMT, especially in normalizing the intestinal levels of Muc2, SIgA, and defensins. PMID:26217323

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. A Comparative Study of Bacterial and Parasitic Intestinal Infections in India

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Beena; Perween, Naz; Kumar, Shyam Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infectious diarrhea causes a major health problem in developing countries with significant morbidity and mortality. Very often, rehydration therapy alone does not suffice, mandating the use of antimicrobial agents. However, rapidly decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility is complicating the matters. Materials and Methods: The study aimed to determine the prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents of diarrhea in India. A cross-sectional study was done at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, during 2012-14. Stool samples were received from patients of all age groups and processed for bacteriological and parasitological identification by microscopy, bacterial culture, biochemical identification, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The study also aimed to identify the recent papers (after year 2000) reporting aetiology of infectious diarrhea in India involving the general population as a whole and compare them with present findings. Results: Out of 6527 samples, 581 (8.90%) were positive for bacterial pathogens. A total of 280 samples (of 3823 under-five year children) were positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Other organisms like Vibrio cholera were found in 159 (2.44%) cases, Shigella spp. in 126 (1.93%), Salmonella Typhi in 7 (0.11%), Salmonella Typhimurium in 6 (0.10%), Aeromonas hydrophila in 3 (0.05%) cases. Levels of resistance to nalidixic acid, amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin were alarmingly high. Third generation cephalosporins were seen to be moderately active except against E. coli. Parasites were identified in 312 (4.78%) cases. Giardia intestinalis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica were identified in 2.27%, 1.15% and 0.64% cases respectively. Conclusion: Analysis of recent nationwide studies revealed V. cholerae was the most common bacterial/parasitic agent of diarrhea across all populations, being followed by diarrheagenic E. coli and Giardia intestinalis. Periodic laboratory monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential, as is formulation of effective antibiotic use policy. PMID:25954615

  11. Composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose for drug controlled release.

    PubMed

    Pavaloiu, Ramona-Daniela; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Dobre, Tanase

    2014-07-01

    Mono and multilayer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose (PVA/chitosan/BC) have been prepared to achieve controlled release of ibuprofen sodium salt (IbuNa) as model drug. The composite films have been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Equilibrium swelling was measured in water at two different pH values and in vitro release of IbuNa in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 media was studied. The release experiments revealed that drug release is pH sensitive. The release kinetics of IbuNa could be described by the Fickian model of diffusion with a good agreement. The IbuNa release rate was decreasing for all the films as the BC concentration was increased in the films composition, the decrease being higher for the multilayer films. PMID:24769089

  12. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  13. Bacterial community associated with the intestinal tract of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) farmed in Lake Tai, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  14. Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiangrang; Idris, Umelaalim; Harmon, Barry; Hofacre, Charles; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2003-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus (6.5%), and Enterococcus (6.5%). In contrast, Clostridiaceae-related sequences (65%) were the most abundant group detected in the cecum, with the other most abundant sequences being related to Fusobacterium (14%), Lactobacillus (8%), and Bacteroides (5%). Statistical analysis comparing the compositions of the different 16S rRNA libraries revealed that population succession occurred during some sampling periods. The significant differences among cecal libraries at 3 and 7 days of age, at 14 to 28 days of age, and at 49 days of age indicated that successions occurred from a transient community to one of increasing complexity as the birds aged. Similarly, the ileum had a stable bacterial community structure for birds at 7 to 21 days of age and between 21 to 28 days of age, but there was a very unique community structure at 3 and 49 days of age. It was also revealed that the composition of the ileal and cecal libraries did not significantly differ when the birds were 3 days old, and in fact during the first 14 days of age, the cecal microflora was a subset of the ileal microflora. After this time, the ileum and cecum had significantly different library compositions, suggesting that each region developed its own unique bacterial community as the bird matured. PMID:14602645

  15. Campylobacter jejuni Outer Membrane Vesicles Play an Important Role in Bacterial Interactions with Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W.; Smith, David G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

  16. Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicles play an important role in bacterial interactions with human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W; Smith, David G E; Dorrell, Nick

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

  17. Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Ethanol feeding increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration and perturbed hepatic and serum metabolite profiles. Ethanol feeding with CB or MCT alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and attenuated ethanol-induced metabolic perturbation. Both CB and MCT also normalized ethanol-induced hepatic macrophage activation, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration. Ethanol feeding elevated serum endotoxin level, which was normalized by MCT but not CB. In accordance, ethanol-induced downregulations of intestinal occludin and zonula occludens-1 were normalized by MCT but not CB. However, CB normalized ethanol-increased hepatic endotoxin level in association with upregulation of an endotoxin detoxifying enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). Knockdown ASS1 in H4IIEC3 cells resulted in impaired endotoxin clearance and upregulated cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the protection of saturated fats against alcohol-induced liver injury occur via different actions at the gut-liver axis and are chain length dependent. PMID:24113767

  18. Slipping through the Cracks: Linking Low Immune Function and Intestinal Bacterial Imbalance to the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Terato, Kuniaki

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are considered to be caused by the host immune system which attacks and destroys its own tissue by mistake. A widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenic mechanism of ADs is “molecular mimicry,” which states that antibodies against an infectious agent cross-react with a self-antigen sharing an identical or similar antigenic epitope. However, this hypothesis was most likely established based on misleading antibody assay data largely influenced by intense false positive reactions involved in immunoassay systems. Thus reinvestigation of this hypothesis using an appropriate blocking agent capable of eliminating all types of nonspecific reactions and proper assay design is strongly encouraged. In this review, we discuss the possibility that low immune function may be the fundamental, common defect in ADs, which increases the susceptibility to potential disease causative pathogens located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), such as bacteria and their components or dietary components. In addition to these exogenous agents, aberrations in the host's physical condition may disrupt the host defense system, which is tightly orchestrated by “immune function,” “mucosal barrier function,” and “intestinal bacterial balance.” These disturbances may initiate a downward spiral, which can lead to chronic health problems that will evolve to an autoimmune disorder. PMID:25861466

  19. Efficacy of Soaking in 70% Isopropyl Alcohol on Aerobic Bacterial Decontamination of Surgical Instruments and Gloves for Serial Mouse Laparotomies

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Jessica N; Austin, MaryKay; Huang, Li-Shan; Messing, Susan; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Rodent surgeries in biomedical research facilities are often performed in series. This practice presents many challenges to maintaining aseptic technique between animals. Here, we examined using soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol for aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves used in a series of as many as 10 mouse laparotomy surgeries. These surgeries were performed on mice that were euthanized immediately prior to the procedure. Instruments and gloves were cultured before and after each procedure to determine the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. To assess the efficacy of the decontamination protocol, culture results were grouped by procedure and then paired (before soak and after soak) for analysis using McNemar test at an ? level of 0.05. In addition, by using the Fisher exact test, this modified aseptic method was compared with strict aseptic technique, for which autoclaved instruments and sterile surgical gloves were used for each procedure. In this study, we observed that the modified aseptic technique using 70% isopropyl alcohol soaks prevented aerobic bacterial contamination of instruments and gloves for as many as 5 mice. PMID:21205449

  20. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Alcohol KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to My Body > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... fun." "It's cool. Everybody drinks, right?" Wrong. Drinking alcohol is dangerous for kids and teens and sometimes ...

  2. L-arginine supplementation prevents increases in intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in male Swiss mice subjected to physical exercise under environmental heat stress.

    PubMed

    Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Santos, Rosana das Graças Carvalho dos; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with l-arginine has been shown to improve the intestinal barrier in many experimental models. This study investigated the effects of arginine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation (BT) induced by prolonged physical exercise under heat stress. Under anesthesia, male Swiss mice (5-wk-old) were implanted with an abdominal sensor to record their core body temperature (T(core)). After recovering from surgery, the mice were divided into 3 groups: a non-supplemented group that was fed the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G; control), a non-supplemented group that was fed the AIN-93G diet and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-NS), and a group supplemented with l-arginine at 2% and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-Arg). After 7 d of treatment, the H-NS and H-Arg mice were forced to run on a treadmill (60 min, 8 m/min) in a warm environment (34°C). The control mice remained at 24°C. Thirty min before the exercise or control trials, the mice received a diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or (99m)Tc-Escherichia coli by gavage to assess intestinal permeability and BT, respectively. The H-NS mice terminated the exercise with T(core) values of ?40°C, and, 4 h later, presented a 12-fold increase in the blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA and higher bacterial contents in the blood and liver than the control mice. Although supplementation with arginine did not change the exercise-induced increase in T(core), it prevented the increases in intestinal permeability and BT caused by exertional hyperthermia. Our results indicate that dietary l-arginine supplementation preserves the integrity of the intestinal epithelium during exercise under heat stress, acting through mechanisms that are independent of T(core) regulation. PMID:24259555

  3. Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Nathani, Milankumar; Jabeen, Shahgufta; Yazdani, Ijlal; Mouton, Charles D.; Bailey, Rahn K.; Mahr, Mona; Pate, Rebecca J.; Riley, Wayne J.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem in the United States as well as around the world. The significant role that alcohol plays in suicidality is well known and accepted in the scientific community. The use of alcohol does not necessarily lead to suicide, but through its action and effects, alcohol is an important proximal risk factor for suicidal behavior. There is very little data showing how and why alcohol exerts such tremendous influence and “lubricates the gears” to propel the act of committing suicide. This article will elucidate the complex relationship between alcohol and suicide and how alcohol use can lead to suicide. The article also describes how alcohol affects brain neurophysiology in regards to suicidal behavior. PMID:23440995

  4. [Alcohol].

    PubMed

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal. PMID:8925547

  5. Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

  6. Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bacterial overgrowth is most easily detected by the hydrogen breath test: The patient drinks a sugar solution ... amounts in the small intestine, they give off hydrogen, some of which is absorbed into the blood, ...

  7. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intestine (bacterial overgrowth) N Liver disease due to TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition) N Infections of the blood from the intravenous catheter used for TPN (continued on next page) Intestinal Failure continued N ...

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  9. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  10. Card9 Mediates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution, T-Helper 17 Responses, and Control of Bacterial Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    SOKOL, HARRY; CONWAY, KARA L.; ZHANG, MEI; CHOI, MYUNGHWAN; MORIN, BRET; CAO, ZHIFANG; VILLABLANCA, EDUARDO J.; LI, CHUN; WIJMENGA, CISCA; YUN, SEOK HYUN; SHI, HAI NING; XAVIER, RAMNIK J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) is an adaptor protein that integrates signals downstream of pattern recognition receptors. CARD9 has been associated with autoinflammatory disorders, and loss-of-function mutations have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the role of CARD9 in intestinal inflammation is unknown. We characterized the role of Card9 in mucosal immune responses to intestinal epithelial injury and infection. METHODS We induced intestinal inflammation in Card9-null mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium. We analyzed body weight, assessed inflammation by histology, and measured levels of cytokines and chemokines using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell populations were compared between wild-type and Card9-null mice by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS Colon tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes of Card9-null mice had reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-?, and T-helper (Th)17 cytokines after administration of DSS, compared with wild-type mice. IL-17A and IL-22 expression were reduced in the recovery phase after DSS administration, coincident with decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20). Although Card9-null mice had more intestinal fungi based on 18S analysis, their Th17 responses remained defective even when an antifungal agent was administered throughout DSS exposure. Moreover, Card9-null mice had impaired immune responses to C rodentium, characterized by decreased levels of colonic IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIII?), as well as fewer IL-22—producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in colon lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS The adaptor protein CARD9 coordinates Th17- and innate lymphoid cell-mediated intestinal immune responses after epithelial injury in mice. PMID:23732773

  11. The nitric oxide donor LA-419 [S-(6-Nitro-oxi-hexahydro-furo[3,2-b]furan-3-1-il)thioacetate] prevents intestinal dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and inflammation in a rat model of enteritis.

    PubMed

    Porras, Mónica; Martín, Maria Teresa; Terán, Evangelina; Mourelle, Marisabel; Vergara, Patri

    2008-02-01

    Indomethacin induces a chronic model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by spontaneous relapses of inflammation, bacterial translocation, and long-lasting motor disturbances derived from cyclical up-regulated inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and sustained down-regulated neuronal NOS (nNOS). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether LA-419 [S-(6-nitro-oxi-hexahydro-furo[3,2-b]furan-3-1-il)thioacetate], a NO-donor drug, could re-establish the normal expression of NOS and, hence, prevent the development of intestinal dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and relapses of inflammation associated to this model. Enteritis was induced in rats by administration of indomethacin with and without treatment with a novel NO-donor: LA-419 (0.5 mg/ml in the drinking water). Inflammatory reaction was evaluated by measuring blood leukocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor, and tissue myeloperoxidase. Intestinal motor activity was evaluated using strain-gauges. Ileal expression of iNOS and nNOS mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Bacterial translocation was evaluated in cultures from mesenteric lymph nodes. The indomethacin-induced acute inflammatory reaction was associated with a rise in blood leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor. In the chronic stage, blood leukocyte monitoring allowed the selection of animals in active and inactive phases. Active phase was associated with iNOS up-regulation, high myeloperoxidase levels, hypomotility, and bacterial translocation. In contrast, inactive phase was associated with hypermotility and absence of bacterial translocation. LA-419 treatment restored nitric-oxide synthase isoenzyme expression and prevented the oscillation of both inflammatory and motor parameters that could be cyclically observed in inflamed rats. LA-419 also prevented intestinal dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and relapses of intestinal inflammation. LA-419 might be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent acute inflammatory relapses in patients with IBD. PMID:17959746

  12. Metabolism of aloesin and related compounds by human intestinal bacteria: a bacterial cleavage of the C-glucosyl bond and the subsequent reduction of the acetonyl side chain.

    PubMed

    Che, Q M; Akao, T; Hattori, M; Kobashi, K; Namba, T

    1991-03-01

    By anaerobic incubation with a bacterial mixture from human feces, aloesin (aloeresin B; 1) was converted to 2-acetonyl-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone (aloesone; 3) and dl-7-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methylchromone (aloesol; 4a + 4b) through a cleavage of the C-glucosyl bond, followed by reduction of the acetonyl side chain. An analogous compound, aloeresin A (2), was converted to p-coumaric acid and aloesin (1), the latter being subsequently transformed to aloesone (3) and dl-aloesol (4a + 4b). On the other hand, 7-O-methylated derivatives (7, 5a and 5b) of aloesin and of 8-C-glucosylaloesol were not cleaved to the corresponding aglycones, suggesting the importance of a free hydroxy group adjacent to the C-glucosyl group in the molecule for the bacterial cleavage of aloesin derivatives. This is the first report on the cleavage of the C-glycosyl bond of chromone C-glucosides by intestinal bacteria. PMID:2070451

  13. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  14. Influence of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain on selected bacterial groups in the small intestine of growing turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Vahjen, W; Jadamus, Anke; Simon, O

    2002-12-01

    A feeding trial was carried out with turkey poults, which were fed a diet containing 10(10) viable probiotic E. faecium NCIB 10415 cells/kg feed. Samples of the intestinal tract were analyzed for lactate, colony forming units of total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and enterococci. Furthermore, metabolic activity of total eubacterial, lactobacilli and enterococci was recorded in selected RNA-extracts with specific ribosomal RNA oligonucleotide probes. Animals fed the probiotic diet showed continously increasing lactate concentrations throughout the sampling period up to day 42 of life. No correlation was found for colony forming units (cfu) of lactic acid bacteria, but metabolic activity of lactobacilli showed very close relation to continously increasing lactate concentrations. Throughout the feeding trial, enterococci in the control group continously increased to a maximum of 10(4) cfu/g wet weight, but 10-fold higher enterococci cfu were generally found in the treated group. However, rRNA content as measure for metabolic activity showed a drastic decline in both groups after high metabolic activities on day 7. This study shows that E. faecium NCIB 10415 (E. faecium SF68) stimulates other lactic acid bacteria in the small intestine, especially lactobacilli. PMID:12553692

  15. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains. PMID:1401067

  16. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  17. Comparison of the 1-gram (/sup 14/C)xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H/sub 2/, and 80-gram glucose-H/sub 2/ breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.E.; Toskes, P.P.

    1986-12-01

    The sensitivity of three breath tests (1-g (/sup 14/C)xylose, 10-g lactulose-H/sub 2/, and 80-g glucose-H/sub 2/) was studied in 20 subjects with culture-documented small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Elevated breath /sup 14/CO2 levels were seen within 30 min of (/sup 14/C)xylose administration in 19 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 0 of 10 controls. In contrast, H/sub 2/ breath tests demonstrated uninterpretable tests (absence of H/sub 2/-generating bacteria) in 2 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 1 of 10 controls and nondiagnostic increases in H/sub 2/ production in 3 of 18 glucose-H/sub 2/ and 7 of 18 lactulose-H/sub 2/ breath tests in subjects with bacterial overgrowth. These findings demonstrate continued excellent reliability of the 1-g (/sup 14/C)xylose breath test as a diagnostic test for bacterial overgrowth, indicate inadequate sensitivity of H/sub 2/ breath tests in detecting bacterial overgrowth, and suggest the need for evaluation of a /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ breath test having the same characteristics as the (/sup 14/C)xylose test (avidly absorbed substrate having minimal contact with the colonic flora) for nonradioactive breath detection of bacterial overgrowth in children and reproductive-age women.

  18. Dendritic cells are early cellular targets of Listeria monocytogenes after intestinal delivery and are involved in bacterial spread in the host.

    PubMed

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Berche, P; Milon, G; Geissmann, F; Gaillard, J L

    2001-05-01

    We studied the sequence of cellular events leading to the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes from the gut to draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) by confocal microscopy of immunostained tissue sections from a rat ligated ileal loop system. OX-62-positive cells beneath the epithelial lining of Peyer's patches (PPs) were the first Listeria targets identified after intestinal inoculation. These cells had other features typical of dendritic cells (DCs): they were large, pleiomorphic and major histocompatibility complex class II(hi). Listeria were detected by microscopy in draining MLNs as early as 6 h after inoculation. Some 80-90% of bacteria were located in the deep paracortical regions, and 100% of the bacteria were present in OX-62-positive cells. Most infected cells contained more than five bacteria each, suggesting that they had arrived already loaded with bacteria. At later stages, the bacteria in these areas were mostly present in ED1-positive mononuclear phagocytes. These cells were also infected by an actA mutant defective in cell-to-cell spreading. This suggests that Listeria are transported by DCs from PPs to the deep paracortical regions of draining MLNs and are then transmitted to other cell populations by mechanisms independent of ActA. Another pathway of dissemination to MLNs was identified, probably involving free Listeria and leading to the infection of ED3-positive mononuclear phagocytes in the subcapsular sinus and adjacent paracortical areas. This study provides evidence that DCs are major cellular targets of L. monocytogenes in PPs and that DCs may be involved in the early dissemination of this pathogen. DCs were not sites of active bacterial replication, making these cells ideal vectors of infection. PMID:11298655

  19. Molecular characterization of intestinal bacteria in healthy cats and a comparison of the fecal bacterial flora between healthy cats and cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Lauren Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    of this study was to describe the microflora along the intestinal tract in healthy cats using comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) analysis. Intestinal content from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon was collected from 4 healthy cats and one...

  20. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  1. Nutritional effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Falck-Ytter, Y; McCullough, A J

    2000-08-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently used drug worldwide and remains a socially acceptable hepatotoxin. Although the toxic effects of alcohol on various organs (liver, pancreas, heart, and intestine) are well recognized, the role of alcohol in overall energy and protein metabolism is less well understood. In particular, the efficiency of alcohol as a source of calories and as a substrate for energy production appears to be influenced by the amount of both alcohol and fat consumption as well as by gender. The relationship between alcohol intake and body weight is complex, but it is a clinical dilemma with important nutritional implications for weight management in addition to specific organ toxicity. PMID:10981033

  2. IL-22 modulates gut epithelial and immune barrier functions following acute alcohol exposure and burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Juan L.; Li, Xiaoling; Akhtar, Suhail; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)–22 maintains gut epithelial integrity and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3? and Reg3?. Our laboratory has shown that acute alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) exposure prior to burn injury results in increased gut permeability, intestinal T cell suppression and enhanced bacterial translocation. Herein, we determined the effect of combined EtOH intoxication and burn injury on intestinal levels of IL-22 as well as Reg3? and Reg3? expression. We further examined whether in vivo restitution of IL-22 restores gut permeability, Reg3? and Reg3? levels, and bacterial load (e.g. gut bacterial growth) within the intestine following EtOH and burn injury. Male mice, ~25g, were gavaged with EtOH (2.9 mg/kg) prior to receiving a ~12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were immediately treated with saline control or IL-22 (1 mg/kg) by i.p. injection. One day post injury, there was a significant decrease in intestinal IL-22, Reg3? and Reg3? expression along with an increase in intestinal permeability and gut bacterial load following EtOH combined with burn injury, as compared to sham injury. Treatment with IL-22 normalized Reg3? and Reg3? expression, and attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability following EtOH and burn injury. Qualitatively, IL-22 treatment reduced the bacterial load in nearly half of mice receiving EtOH combined with burn injury. Our data indicate that IL-22 maintains gut epithelial and immune barrier integrity following EtOH and burn injury; thus, the IL-22/AMP pathway may provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients who sustain burn injury under the influence of EtOH. PMID:23143063

  3. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay. PMID:23083400

  4. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of /sup 3/H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-09-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral /sup 3/H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided.

  5. Intestinal Malrotation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the intestines don't position themselves normally during fetal development and aren't attached inside properly as a result. The exact reason this occurs is unknown. When a fetus develops in the womb, the intestines start out ...

  6. Zinc deficiency mediates alcohol-induced alveolar epithelial and macrophage dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratibha C; Mehta, Ashish; Jabber, Wissam S; Fan, Xian; Guidot, David M

    2009-08-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse impairs both alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, and renders individuals susceptible to acute lung injury, pneumonia, and other serious lung diseases. Zinc deficiency, which is known to impact both epithelial and immune cell functions, is also associated with alcohol abuse. In this study, chronic alcohol ingestion (6 wk) in rats altered expression of key zinc transporters and storage proteins in the small intestine and the lung, and decreased zinc levels in the alveolar compartment. Zinc supplementation of alveolar epithelial monolayers derived from alcohol-fed rats in vitro, or of the diets of alcohol-fed rats in vivo, restored alveolar epithelial barrier function, and these improvements were associated with salutary changes in tight junction protein expression and membrane localization. In parallel, dietary zinc supplementation increased intracellular zinc levels, GM-CSF receptor expression, and bacterial phagocytic capacity in the alveolar macrophages of alcohol-fed rats. Together, these studies implicate zinc deficiency as a novel mechanism mediating alcohol-induced alveolar epithelial and macrophage dysfunction. Importantly, these findings argue that dietary supplementation can overcome alcohol-induced zinc deficiency and restore alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, and therefore could be an effective treatment for the susceptible alcoholic lung phenotype. PMID:19109243

  7. Zinc Deficiency Mediates Alcohol-Induced Alveolar Epithelial and Macrophage Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pratibha C.; Mehta, Ashish; Jabber, Wissam S.; Fan, Xian; Guidot, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse impairs both alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, and renders individuals susceptible to acute lung injury, pneumonia, and other serious lung diseases. Zinc deficiency, which is known to impact both epithelial and immune cell functions, is also associated with alcohol abuse. In this study, chronic alcohol ingestion (6 wk) in rats altered expression of key zinc transporters and storage proteins in the small intestine and the lung, and decreased zinc levels in the alveolar compartment. Zinc supplementation of alveolar epithelial monolayers derived from alcohol-fed rats in vitro, or of the diets of alcohol-fed rats in vivo, restored alveolar epithelial barrier function, and these improvements were associated with salutary changes in tight junction protein expression and membrane localization. In parallel, dietary zinc supplementation increased intracellular zinc levels, GM-CSF receptor expression, and bacterial phagocytic capacity in the alveolar macrophages of alcohol-fed rats. Together, these studies implicate zinc deficiency as a novel mechanism mediating alcohol-induced alveolar epithelial and macrophage dysfunction. Importantly, these findings argue that dietary supplementation can overcome alcohol-induced zinc deficiency and restore alveolar epithelial and macrophage function, and therefore could be an effective treatment for the susceptible alcoholic lung phenotype. PMID:19109243

  8. Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Binds Pro-Inflammatory Bacterial Compounds and Prevents Immune Activation in an Intestinal Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Warner, Christopher D.; Maas, Kenneth J.; Weaver, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-? cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (?50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI might improve immune status and reduce inflammation in various intestinal disease states. PMID:25830826

  9. Environmental contaminants and intestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, John G.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

  10. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  11. Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen Deletion Mutant and Effect of the Deletion on Bacterial Persistence in the Mouse Intestine and Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Lim, Ji Youn; Watkins, Maryann K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. To investigate the role of the O antigen in persistence and colonization in the animal host, we generated an E. coli O157:H7 mutant defective in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide side chain (O antigen) by deletion of a putative perosamine synthetase gene (per) in the rfb cluster. The lack of O antigen was confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and anti-O157 antibody. The growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the ?per mutant were similar to the growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the wild type. Changes in membrane and secreted proteins were observed, but the expression of intimin, EspA, and EspB, implicated in bacterial intestinal colonization, was not altered, as determined by immunoblotting and reverse transcription-PCR. Similar to other O-antigen deletion mutants, the ?per mutant was pleiotropic for autoaggregation and motility (it was FliC negative as determined by immunoblotting and flagellum negative as determined by electron microscopy). The abilities of the mutant and the wild type to persist in the murine intestine and to colonize the bovine terminal rectal mucosa were compared. Mice fed the ?per mutant shed lower numbers of bacteria (P < 0.05) over a shorter time than mice fed the wild-type or complemented strain. After rectal application in steers, lower numbers of the ?per mutant than of the wild type colonized the rectoanal junction mucosa, and the duration of the colonization was shorter (P < 0.05). Our previous work showed that flagella do not influence E. coli O157:H7 colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa, so the current findings suggest that the O antigen contributes to efficient bovine colonization. PMID:18552194

  12. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

  13. Gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bertino, Gaetano; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. PMID:25469033

  14. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  15. Immune response and the intestinal microbiota in control of susceptibility to Heligmosomoides polygyrus 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, Lisa Anne

    2013-06-29

    The mammalian intestinal tract is highly colonised with a diverse bacterial microbiota. The importance of this bacterial presence is now recognised; these bacteria contribute both to the nutritional status of their hosts ...

  16. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Burgess, Helen J; Swanson, Garth R; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in Clock(?19) mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our data support circadian mechanisms for alcohol-induced gut leakiness that could provide new therapeutic targets for ALD. PMID:25499101

  17. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  19. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  20. Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers

    E-print Network

    Swigon, David

    Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers Julia model of collective cell migration is used to predict the closure of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell the environment1 and injuries to the intestinal epithelial layer could result in bacterial sepsis. Tissue repair

  1. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition. PMID:25310762

  2. Inhibition of bacterial translocation by chronic ethanol consumption in the rat.

    PubMed

    Braulio, V B; De Queiroz Côrtes, M; Borges-Neto, A A; Bastos, M A; Cruz, M S; Fracalanza, S E

    2001-12-01

    Chronic ethanol ingestion has been associated with small intestine morphological changes, disrupted host mucosal defenses and bacterial overgrowth. Since bacterial translocation (BT) may result from such alterations, we have investigated the potential effect of chronic ethanol consumption on BT. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were fed a liquid diet containing 5% v/v ethanol for 4 weeks (EG, n=16), and a pair-fed group received equal daily amounts of calories in a similar diet without ethanol (PFG, n=16). On experimental day 29, distal ileum ligature and small intestine inoculation of a tetracycline-resistant E. coli strain (Tc E. coli R6) followed by duodenal ligature was performed. After 1 or 5 h post inoculation, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and kidney were excised. Unexpectedly, rats of the EG presented markedly less BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes (p<0.001) and to the other organs examined compared to rats of the PFG. This BT inhibition was observed at 1 and 5 h after bacterial inoculation, and may be attributed exclusively to chronic ethanol ingestion. Since alcoholism is well known to decrease host immunity, these results suggest that other factors, independent of the immune function, may be involved in the BT inhibition observed in this study. PMID:11846721

  3. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic

  4. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  5. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... the sickness. All types of food poisoning cause diarrhea . Other symptoms include: Abdominal cramps Abdominal pain Bloody ...

  6. The outer mucus layer hosts a distinct intestinal microbial niche

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Limenitakis, Julien P.; Fuhrer, Tobias; Geuking, Markus B.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Wyss, Madeleine; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Keller, Irene; Macpherson, Jamie A.; Rupp, Sandra; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V.; Stecher, Bärbel; Sauer, Uwe; McCoy, Kathy D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The overall composition of the mammalian intestinal microbiota varies between individuals: within each individual there are differences along the length of the intestinal tract related to host nutrition, intestinal motility and secretions. Mucus is a highly regenerative protective lubricant glycoprotein sheet secreted by host intestinal goblet cells; the inner mucus layer is nearly sterile. Here we show that the outer mucus of the large intestine forms a unique microbial niche with distinct communities, including bacteria without specialized mucolytic capability. Bacterial species present in the mucus show differential proliferation and resource utilization compared with the same species in the intestinal lumen, with high recovery of bioavailable iron and consumption of epithelial-derived carbon sources according to their genome-encoded metabolic repertoire. Functional competition for existence in this intimate layer is likely to be a major determinant of microbiota composition and microbial molecular exchange with the host. PMID:26392213

  7. Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

    1987-08-01

    We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility.

  8. Intestinal translocation of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in a rat model of bacterial colonization and liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Karin M; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Galvao, Flavio H; Lopes, Camila G; Costa, Silvia F; Abdala, Edson; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A; Levin, Anna S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a rat model of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and to evaluate intestinal translocation to blood and tissues after total and partial hepatic ischemia. Methods - We developed a model of rat colonization with VRE and ESBL-E coli. Then we studied four groups of colonized rats: Group I (with hepatic pedicle occlusion causing complete liver ischemia and intestinal stasis); Group II (with partial liver ischemia without intestinal stasis); Group III (surgical manipulation without hepatic ischemia or intestinal stasis); Group IV (anesthetized without surgical manipulation). After sacrifice, portal and systemic blood, large intestine, small intestine, spleen, liver, lungs, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured. Endotoxin concentrations in portal and systemic blood were determined. Results - The best inocula were: VRE: 2.4×10(10) cfu and ESBL-E. coli: 1.12×10(10) cfu. The best results occurred 24 hours after inoculation and antibiotic doses of 750 µg/mL of water for vancomycin and 2.1 mg/mL for ceftriaxone. There was a significantly higher proportion of positive cultures for ESBL-E. coli in the lungs in Groups I, II and III when compared with Group IV (67%; 60%; 75% and 13%, respectively; p:0.04). VRE growth was more frequent in mesenteric lymph nodes for Groups I (67%) and III (38%) than for Groups II (13%) and IV (none) (p:0.002). LPS was significantly higher in systemic blood of Group I (9.761 ± 13.804 EU/mL-p:0.01). No differences for endotoxin occurred in portal blood. Conclusion -We developed a model of rats colonized with resistant bacteria useful to study intestinal translocation. Translocation occurred in surgical procedures with and without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and probably occurred via the bloodstream. Translocation was probably lymphatic in the ischemia-reperfusion groups. Systemic blood endotoxin levels were higher in the group with complete hepatic ischemia. PMID:25255079

  9. Agent-based model of fecal microbial transplant effect on bile acid metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the C. difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, fecal microbial transplant. The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

  10. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ? 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation. PMID:24605013

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is help. Start by talking to your health care provider. Treatment may include medicines, counseling, and ...

  12. Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

  13. Alcohol’s Burden on Immunity Following Burn, Hemorrhagic Shock, or Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Patricia E.; Katz, Paige S.; Souza-Smith, Flavia; Ford, Stephen M.; Teng, Sophie X.; Dodd, Tracy Y.; Maxi, John K.; Mayeux, Jacques P.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption contributes to increased incidence and severity of traumatic injury. Compared with patients who do not consume alcohol, alcohol-consuming patients have higher rates of long-term morbidity and mortality during recovery from injury. This can be attributed in part to an impaired immune response in individuals who consume alcohol. Acute and chronic alcohol use can affect both the innate and adaptive immune defense responses within multiple organ systems; the combination of alcohol use and injury results in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral pathogens. This review examines the major deleterious effects of alcohol on immunity following tissue damage or traumatic injury, with a focus on alcohol’s influence on the ability of the immune and major organ systems to fight disease and to repair damaged tissues following injury.

  14. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  15. Establishment of intestinal bacteriology.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, "intestinal bacteriology" was established. PMID:25032084

  16. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  17. Intestinal-renal syndrome: mirage or reality?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    The recent interest in the role of the intestine in the cardiovascular stability of uremic patients, specifically on dialysis, but potentially also in chronic kidney disease, must be seen against the background of the recent great interest in the role of the gut in chronic heart failure [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008;11:632-639]. There has been a long-standing interest in the role of the intestine in renal failure, mainly concerning the role of metabolites of bacterial metabolism in the gut as potential uremic toxins. This area has recently been given a new twist by the finding that increased endotoxin concentrations in the blood of dialyzed patients are associated with hypotensive episodes and myocardial 'stunning'. Recent studies suggest that intradialytic underperfusion of myocardial areas, the so-called stunning, may be related to the entry of bacterial endotoxin and/or cytokines across the mucosal barrier into the circulation, where they have a negative impact on myocardial function (and presumably beyond the negative cardiac side effect also contribute to catabolism and malnutrition). Entry of bacterial endotoxin during dialysis sessions is presumably the result of intermittent underperfusion of the intestine if the effective blood volume is rapidly reduced causing breakdown of the mucosal barrier. Apart from the impact on myocardial perfusion, the entry of bacterial endotoxin and/or cytokines across the mucosal barrier may also contribute to malnutrition, wasting and reduced life expectancy in hemodialyzed patients. Such a causal relationship is absolutely plausible in view of an extensive literature on congestive heart failure where clinical and experimental evidence indicates that bacterial endotoxin and/or cytokines may escape from a hypoperfused edematous gut, entering the circulation, triggering an inflammatory response, upregulating circulating cytokines and interfering with the function of the heart through several pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:21228570

  18. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  19. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  20. Intestinal obstruction in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Sourkati, E O; Fahal, A H; Suliman, S H; el Razig, S A; Arabi, Y E

    1996-05-01

    The pattern of intestinal obstruction at Khartoum Teaching Hospital was reviewed in this study which included 239 patients. 170 of them were males and 68 were females. Their ages ranged from two days to 95 years (mean 31.4 +/- 5.3 years). The commonest causes of intestinal obstruction were strangulated external hernias (27.7%), intestinal adhesions (21%), intussusception (12%) and sigmoid volvulus (11%). Less frequent causes were paralytic ileus, large bowel tumours, peritoneal bands and Hirschsprung's disease. Of the strangulated hernias, inguinal hernia (70%) was the most frequent type of hernia seen, followed by paraumbilical hernia (20%). Previous appendicectomy (40%) and laparotomy for abdominal trauma (20%) were the commonest causes of adhesive intestinal obstruction. The mortality rate of intestinal obstruction was 19.7%. This high mortality is attributed to delayed presentation, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, intestinal ischaemia and gangrene. This could be minimised by health education, adequate preoperative preparation, meticulous surgical technique and good postoperative care. PMID:8756035

  1. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  2. Host-microbiota interactions in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Elson, Charles O; Alexander, Katie L

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive collection of bacterial species, termed microbiota, within human and other mammalian hosts has profound effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. Multiple host innate mechanisms contribute to intestinal homeostasis, including epithelial production of protective mucin layers maintaining spatial segregation in the intestine as well as epithelial cell secretion of a broad range of antimicrobial peptides. Additionally, epithelial cells employ autophagy to contain and eliminate invading bacteria; interestingly, genetic variants in specific autophagy genes are linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Innate lymphoid cells, which rapidly respond to cytokine and microbial signals, have emerged as important regulators of the intestinal immune response to the microbiota. With regard to adaptive immunity, specific microbial species stimulate induction of regulatory T cells while others induce effector T cells within the gut. Such stimulation is subject to dysregulation during inflammation and disease, contributing to 'dysbiosis' or an abnormal microbiota composition that has been associated with a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease. The microbiota communicates with the immune system and vice versa; thus, an abnormal microbiota composition likely translates into an altered host immune response, though the exact mechanisms of such are not yet clear. Immunoglobulin A plays a critical role in limiting bacterial access to the host and in maintaining mutualism with the microbiota. Perturbation of the mucosal barrier via infection or other means can induce effector T cells reactive to the intestinal microbiota, and these cells can persist as memory cells for extended periods of time and potentially serve as pathogenic effector cells upon re-encounter with antigen. Health is associated with a diverse microbiota that functions to maintain the balance between T effector and T regulatory cells in the intestine. Whether dysbiosis can be reversed in immune-mediated disease, thus restoring health, is a question of intense interest for this active area of research. PMID:25925913

  3. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  4. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  5. TLR2-independent induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Boulard, Olivier; Asquith, Mark J; Powrie, Fiona; Maloy, Kevin J

    2010-02-01

    Interactions between the intestinal microflora and host innate immune receptors play a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. Several studies have shown that TLR2 can modulate inflammatory responses in the gut. TLR2 signals enhance tight junction formation and fortify the epithelial barrier, and may play a crucial role in driving acute inflammatory responses towards intestinal bacterial pathogens. In addition, TLR2 agonists can have direct effects on both Th1 cells and Treg. To define the role of TLR2 in the induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation we examined the effects of TLR2 deletion on several complementary models of inflammatory bowel disease. Our results show that TLR2 signals are not required for the induction of chronic intestinal inflammation by either innate or adaptive immune responses. We further show that TLR2(-/-) mice harbor normal numbers of Foxp3(+) Treg that are able to suppress intestinal inflammation as effectively as their WT counterparts. We also did not find any intrinsic role for TLR2 for pathogenic effector T-cell responses in the gut. Thus, in contrast to their role in acute intestinal inflammation and repair, TLR2 signals may have a limited impact on the induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:19950179

  6. Incident Type Alcohol Violation

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    Incident Type Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation DUI/DWAI DUI/DWAI DUI/DWAI DUI/DWAI Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Harassment Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation-00002374 10/31/2015 04:05 3300 BASELINE RD Boulder CO 80303 POSSESSING/SELLING OF ALCOHOL BY MINORS Cleared

  7. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Semova, Ivana; Carten, Juliana D.; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mackey, Lantz C.; Knight, Rob; Farber, Steven A.; Rawls, John F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Regulation of intestinal dietary fat absorption is critical to maintaining energy balance. While intestinal microbiota clearly impact the host’s energy balance, their role in intestinal absorption and extra-intestinal metabolism of dietary fat is less clear. Using in vivo imaging of fluorescent fatty acid (FA) analogs delivered to gnotobiotic zebrafish hosts, we reveal that microbiota stimulate FA uptake and lipid droplet (LD) formation in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Microbiota increase epithelial LD number in a diet-dependent manner. The presence of food led to the intestinal enrichment of bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes. Diet-enriched Firmicutes and their products were sufficient to increase epithelial LD number, whereas LD size was increased by other bacterial types. Thus, different members of the intestinal microbiota promote FA absorption via distinct mechanisms. Diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition might influence fat absorption, providing mechanistic insight into how microbiota-diet interactions regulate host energy balance. PMID:22980325

  8. Establishing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection and intestinal colonization

    PubMed Central

    Everman, Jamie L.; Ziaie, Navid R.; Bechler, Jessica; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become a model system for studying the disease interaction between pathogens and the host. To determine whether the transparent nematode could serve as a useful model for Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) infection of the intestinal tract, worms were fed MAH and assayed for the effects of the bacterial infection on the worm. It was observed during feeding that viable MAH increases in the intestinal lumen in a time dependent manner. Ingestion of MAH was deemed non-toxic to worms as MAH-fed populations have similar survival curves to those fed E. coli strain OP50. Pulse-chase analysis using E. coli strain OP50 revealed that MAH colonize the intestinal tract, as viable MAH remain within the intestine after the assay. Visualization of intestinal MAH using histology and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that MAH localizes to the intestinal lumen, as well as establishes direct contact with intestinal epithelium. Bacterial colonization appears to have a detrimental effect on the microvilli of the intestinal epithelial cells. The MAH ?GPL/4B2 strain with a mutation in glycopeptidolipid production is deficient in binding to human epithelial cells (HEp-2), as well as deficient in its ability to bind to and colonize the intestinal tract of C. elegans as efficiently as wild-type MAH. These data indicate the C. elegans may serve as a useful model system for MAH pathogenesis and in determining the mechanisms used by MAH during infection and colonization of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:26405050

  9. MICROBIAL SUCCESSION AND INTESTINAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The succession of gastrointestinal flora in the developing rat was studied, concomitant with studies of intestinal enzyme activity. Aerobes and anaerobes were identified as members of 4 major bacterial groups, i.e., Lactobacilli spp., Gram positive enterococci, Gram negative rods...

  10. Alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ingall, Glynnis B

    2012-09-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption poses a wide variety of significant immediate and long-term health risks. Ethanol biomarkers have clinical utility for detection, diagnosis, and treatment of alcohol use disorders as well as for screening for fetal alcohol exposure. Indirect biomarkers are those that reflect the toxic effects of ethanol on organs, tissues, or body biochemistry, whereas direct biomarkers are products of ethanol metabolism. Liver enzymes, carbohydrate deficient transferrin and mean corpuscular volume are discussed as examples of indirect markers of alcohol use. Commentary on the direct ethanol markers includes the following: acetaldehyde adducts, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acids ethyl esters. PMID:22939298

  11. Intestinal Polyps (in Children)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the large intestine). Intestinal Polyps SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS : NASPGHAN •PO Box 6 •Flourtown, PA 19031 •215-233-0808 • Fax: 215-233-3918 REV 7/10 (continued on next page) How is the diagnosis made? If a child presents with a prolapse of a polyp, the ...

  12. Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Nur

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

  13. Alcohol Alert Measuring the Burden of Alcohol

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Alcohol Alert Number 87 Measuring the Burden of Alcohol Alcohol has been part of human culture for all imbibing and the greater society. But measuring the true burden posed by alcohol on a local, national

  14. Alcoholic liver disease: Clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; Malnick, Stephen; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M; Melzer, Ehud; Ferenci, Peter; Seitz, Helmut K; Mueller, Sebastian; Mell, Haim; Samuel, Didier; Cohen, Lawrence B; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Osna, Natalia A; Ganesan, Murali; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Bautista, Abraham; Bataller, Ramon; French, Samuel W

    2015-12-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical research, translational research, pathogenesis and therapies. A special accent is placed on alcohol misuse, as alcohol is a legally commercialized and taxable product. Drinking alcohol, particularly from a young age, is a major health problem. Alcoholism is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality. A systematic literature search was performed in order to obtain updated data (2008-2015). The review is focused on genetic polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes and the role of cytochrome p450 2E1 and iron in ALD. Alcohol-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis is also discussed in the presence or absence of co-morbidities such as viral hepatitis C as well as therapeutic the role of innate immunity in ALD-HCV. Moreover, emphasis was placed on alcohol and drug interactions, as well as liver transplantation for end-stage ALD. Finally, the time came to eradicate alcohol-induced liver and intestinal damage by using betaine. PMID:26342547

  15. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 6985 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  16. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition in which very large numbers of bacteria grow in the small intestine. ... of the intestine. These sacs allow too many bacteria to grow. These sacs can occur anywhere along the intestinal ...

  17. Intestinal glucose metabolism revisited.

    PubMed

    Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

    2014-09-01

    It is long known that the gut can contribute to the control of glucose homeostasis via its high glucose utilization capacity. Recently, a novel function in intestinal glucose metabolism (gluconeogenesis) was described. The intestine notably contributes to about 20-25% of total endogenous glucose production during fasting. More importantly, intestinal gluconeogenesis is capable of regulating energy homeostasis through a communication with the brain. The periportal neural system senses glucose (produced by intestinal gluconeogenesis) in the portal vein walls, which sends a signal to the brain to modulate hunger sensations and whole body glucose homeostasis. Relating to the mechanism of glucose sensing, the role of the glucose receptor SGLT3 has been strongly suggested. Moreover, dietary proteins mobilize intestinal gluconeogenesis as a mandatory link between their detection in the portal vein and their effect of satiety. In the same manner, dietary soluble fibers exert their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects via the induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis. FFAR3 is a key neural receptor involved in the specific sensing of propionate to activate a gut-brain reflex arc triggering the induction of the gut gluconeogenic function. Lastly, intestinal gluconeogenesis might also be involved in the rapid metabolic improvements induced by gastric bypass surgeries of obesity. PMID:24969963

  18. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  19. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as possible. PMID:26361414

  20. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as possible. PMID:26361414

  1. Dietary squid ink polysaccharides ameliorated the intestinal microflora dysfunction in mice undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qingjuan; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Shangyun; Wu, Juan; Wang, Jianghua; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Shiguo; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Gastrointestinal mucositis and infection by chemotherapy treatment are associated with alteration of intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation due to the potential damage induced by anti-cancer drugs on the intestinal barrier and microbiota homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of dietary polysaccharides on chemotherapy induced intestinal microflora dysfunction. In the current contribution, with a mouse model intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) of cyclophosphamide (Cy) for 2 days, we revealed that polysaccharides from the ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) altered the intestinal microflora composition. OBP retarded the excessive growth of intestinal bacteria induced by cyclophosphamide, based on 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) quantification. The clone libraries of intestinal bacteria 16S rDNA were used to decipher the difference in bacterial community structures in different groups of mice. Followed by RFLP evaluation and OTU abundance analysis, they imply that OBP changed the intestinal microflora composition, in which the quantity of probiotic Bifidobacterium got up-regulated but Bacteroidetes decreased in mice undergoing chemotherapy. Our results may have important implications for OBP as a functional food component or nutrient against chemotherapy induced intestinal injury and potential pathogenic intestinal disorders involving inflammation and infection. PMID:25131333

  2. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  3. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePLUS

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide test ... or drink anything for 4 hours before the test. ... This test is used to confirm the presence of a VIPoma , a tumor that releases VIP. VIPoma's are extremely ...

  4. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer found in the small intestine are adenocarcinoma , sarcoma , carcinoid tumors , gastrointestinal stromal tumor , and lymphoma . This summary discusses adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma (a type of sarcoma). Adenocarcinoma starts in glandular cells in the lining ...

  5. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... m amazed I didn't see it coming." Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read Peter's story Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery Does ...

  6. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  7. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Semova, Ivana; Carten, Juliana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mackey, Lantz C; Knight, Rob; Farber, Steven A; Rawls, John F

    2012-09-13

    Regulation of intestinal dietary fat absorption is critical to maintaining energy balance. While intestinal microbiota clearly impact the host's energy balance, their role in intestinal absorption and extraintestinal metabolism of dietary fat is less clear. Using in vivo imaging of fluorescent fatty acid (FA) analogs delivered to gnotobiotic zebrafish hosts, we reveal that microbiota stimulate FA uptake and lipid droplet (LD) formation in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Microbiota increase epithelial LD number in a diet-dependent manner. The presence of food led to the intestinal enrichment of bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes. Diet-enriched Firmicutes and their products were sufficient to increase epithelial LD number, whereas LD size was increased by other bacterial types. Thus, different members of the intestinal microbiota promote FA absorption via distinct mechanisms. Diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition might influence fat absorption, providing mechanistic insight into how microbiota-diet interactions regulate host energy balance. PMID:22980325

  8. Claudins in intestines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

  9. Incident Type Alcohol Violation

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    Incident Type Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Other Offense Traffic Offense Traffic Offense Criminal Trespass Criminal Trespass Other Offense Theft Theft Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Date/Time Occured 2015-00002337 10/30/2015 22:05 1955 COLORADO

  10. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pachunka, Joseph M; Mott, Justin L

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. PMID:26610589

  11. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pachunka, Joseph M.; Mott, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. PMID:26610589

  12. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  13. New Concepts of Microbial Translocation in the Neonatal Intestine: Mechanisms and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    In very-low-birth weight (VLBW, <1500 gram) infants, late-onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis prolong the hospital stay, increase the cost of care, and place the infant at greater risk for morbidity and mortality (1). Long-term follow-up studies have demonstrated that these infections significantly increase the risk of neurological disabilities (2). With incidences of ~20% and 5–10% respectively, late-onset sepsis [LOS] and necrotizing enterocolitis [NEC] in VLBW infants need new preventive approaches. A long-held belief is that LOS and NEC result from bacterial translocation [BT]. Bacterial translocation is defined as invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the mucosa into normally sterile tissue (3). This definition has been extended to include bacterial toxins or antigens, which damage intestinal epithelia and enter the circulation resulting in a systemic inflammatory response (4). Local BT through the intestinal mucosa, or toxin-related injury of intestinal epithelia, is associated with NEC (5), while BT beyond the intestine causes sepsis and multi-organ failure (6,7). This chapter describes: 1) development of the intestinal microbiota, 2) how immaturity of the nascent epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal [GI] tract and its sub-mucosal tissues mediate BT, 3) strategies to accelerate barrier functions in the immature GI tract and 4) the effects of nutrition and colonization by commensal bacteria on the susceptibility of the immature intestine to BT. PMID:20813271

  14. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine?s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  15. Human intestinal spirochetosis: right-side preference in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal bacterial infection, and its clinicopathologic features remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine its characteristics. We histologically reviewed paraffin-embedded section slides made in 2001, 2006, and 2011 at a single institution in Japan. Cases histologically exhibiting a distinct fringe formation were considered to have HIS. Information was obtained from pathology request forms. We identified 85 HIS cases among 4930 patients (7 cases [0.5%) in 2001, 29 [1.7%] in 2006, and 49 [2.8%] in 2011]. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 7.1% of HIS cases. Human intestinal spirochetosis was more frequent in the right-side large intestine than in the left side. Among 224 samples from HIS cases, conventional (tubular, tubulovillous, and villous) adenomas were found in 148 samples. These adenomas were more frequent in the right side than in the left side, although neither their size nor morphology differed between the sides. Histopathologic evaluation suggested a year-upon-year increasing prevalence of HIS in Japan. A small number exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms. Both histologic sign of HIS and conventional adenomas were more frequent in the right-side large intestine. Therefore, a right-side preference may be a characteristic of HIS. PMID:26597024

  16. Loss of NHE8 expression impairs intestinal mucosal integrity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Johansson, Malin E V; Xu, Hua; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2015-12-01

    The newest member of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) family, NHE8, is abundantly expressed at the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelia. We previously reported that mucin 2 expression was significantly decreased in the colon in NHE8(-/-) mice, suggesting that NHE8 is involved in intestinal mucosal protection. In this study, we further evaluated the role of NHE8 in intestinal epithelial protection after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) challenge. Compared with wild-type mice, NHE8(-/-) mice have increased bacterial adhesion and inflammation, especially in the distal colon. NHE8(-/-) mice are also susceptible to DSS treatment. Real-time PCR detected a remarkable increase in the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-4 in DSS-treated NHE8(-/-) mice compared with DSS-treated wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemistry showed a disorganized epithelial layer in the colon of NHE8(-/-) mice. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed a reduction in the number of mature goblet cells and the area of the goblet cell theca in NHE8(-/-) mice. Phyloxine/tartrazine staining revealed a decrease in functional Paneth cell population in the NHE8(-/-) small intestinal crypt. The expression of enteric defensins was also decreased in NHE8(-/-) mice. The reduced mucin production in goblet cells and antimicrobial peptides production in Paneth cells lead to disruption of the intestinal mucosa protection. Therefore, NHE8 may be involved in the establishment of intestinal mucosal integrity by regulating the functions of goblet and Paneth cells. PMID:26505975

  17. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  18. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  19. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meira Filho, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles Júnior, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; Almeida, Samira Scalso de; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990's, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  20. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  1. Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  2. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 Selected ... Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 Breast ...

  3. Children of Alcoholics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems than children whose parents are not alcoholics. Alcoholism runs in families, and children of alcoholics are ... situation. Although the child tries to keep the alcoholism a secret, teachers, relatives, other adults, or friends ...

  4. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  5. The intestinal calcistat.

    PubMed

    Garg, M K

    2013-10-01

    The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population. PMID:24251176

  6. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  7. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26346678

  8. Dietary synbiotic application modulates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) intestinal microbial communities and intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Abid, A; Davies, S J; Waines, P; Emery, M; Castex, M; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Bickerdike, R; Romero, J; Merrifield, D L

    2013-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary administration of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestinal health. Salmon (initial average weight 250 g) were allocated into triplicate sea pens and were fed either a control diet (commercial diet: 45% protein, 20% lipid) or a synbiotic treatment diet (control diet + P. acidilactici at 3.5 g kg(-1) and 7 g kg(-1) scFOS) for 63 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology, intestinal histology and the expression of selected immune-related genes (IL1?, TNF?, IL8, TLR3 and MX-1) in the intestine. Compared to the control fish, the total bacterial levels were significantly lower in the anterior mucosa, posterior mucosa and posterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish. qPCR revealed good recovery (log 6 bacteria g(-1)) of the probiotic in the intestinal digesta of the synbiotic fed fish and PCR-DGGE revealed that the number of OTUs, as well as the microbial community diversity and richness were significantly higher in the anterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish than the control. Compared to the control fed fish, the mucosal fold (villi) length and the infiltration of epithelial leucocytes were significantly higher in the anterior and posterior intestine, respectively, in the synbiotic group. Real-time PCR demonstrated that all of the genes investigated were significantly up-regulated in the anterior and posterior intestine of the synbiotic fed salmon, compared to the control group. At the systemic level, serum lysozyme activity was significantly higher in the synbiotic fed fish and growth performance, feed utilisation and biometric measurements (condition factor, gutted weight and gut loss) were not affected. Together these results suggest that the synbiotic modulation of the gut microbiota has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, improving morphology and stimulating the innate immune response without negatively affecting growth performance or feed utilization of farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24161776

  9. [Clinical and biological specificities of female alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2002-01-01

    Even though the number of alcohol-dependent women is only about 1/3 of the number of alcoholic men, the alcoholism in women, by its clinical features and its course, is the source of therapeutic and economic stakes, particularly in young women among whom an increase of alcohol consumption related problems is reported. Another specificity of the female alcoholism is the lack of care seeking, whereas women have tendency globally to solicit more often care structures than men. Women represent only 1/4 of the overall treated alcoholic patients. The main explanation for this phenomenon is the pejorative social and moral connotation of the female alcoholism, with frequent feelings of shame and deep guilt, that also account for the frequency of hidden and lonely alcohol intakes. The female alcoholism is essentially characterized by an increased vulnerability to the toxic effects of the alcohol, whereas the pathological consumption starts later and with smaller daily amounts. Most studies have revealed a higher vulnerability in women to somatic complications directly attributable to the alcohol organs toxicity, such as hepatic cirrhosis and cardiovascular complications (high blood pressure, non obstructive cardiomyopathy). The reported brain morphological abnormalities could also occur more precociously in alcoholic women than in men. A decreased corpus callosum size among alcoholic women, but not in alcoholic men, was thus found in a recent study, compared with healthy controls. Among the different hypothesis proposed to explain this increased alcohol toxicity, the most incriminated is higher alcohol blood rates for the same ingested amount, mainly of the fact of a lower size with a weaker proportion of the bodily total water, but also of weaker concentrations of gastro-intestinal tract ADH, or of a longer metabolism during some menstrual phases. Indeed, some experimental studies on animal showed that the alcohol toxic effects may occur only from a threshold of alcohol blood rate. More recent studies suggest that the explanation to keep is more related to the lower gastric metabolism in women (lower ADH activity), than the difference of gastric volume or alcohol hepatic oxidation. Regarding to comorbidity, in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey, 65% of women, versus 44% of men, with abuse and/or dependence to alcohol had at least one another life-time psychiatric disorder (mainly depression and anxiety disorders), compared to 36% of the overall women of the studied sample. On the other hand, the alcohol dependence is, more often than in men, secondary to other psychiatric disorders, essentially depressive episodes, but less associated to antisocial behaviours. Among the different etiopathogenic factors involved in the alcohol dependence occurrence, genetic factors seem to have a determinant impact. According to the previous family, separation/adoption and twins studies performed, genetic factors could explain 50 to 60% of the alcoholism vulnerability in both men and women. In this context, and whereas we assist to the development of etiopathogenic models with new therapeutic perspectives in alcohol dependence, it seems necessary not to neglect female alcoholism specificities. PMID:12506262

  10. Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism) FACT SHEET -Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism) National Institutes of Health

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism) FACT SHEET - Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism) National Institutes of alcohol dependence, or the nervous system changes that occur as a result of prolonged heavy drinking. Alcohol dependence was thought to be a disease of middle age. Disulfiram (Antabuse®) was the only

  11. Current management of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashwani K; Jampana, Sarat C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease accounts for significant economic burden with second most common cause for liver transplantation in the US. Although alcohol abstinence is most crucial, morbidity and mortality occur amongst those with continuing alcohol intake and with established end stage liver disease due to lack of specific treatment modalities to manage this disease. Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis, a distinct subset of alcoholic liver disease have a potential for mortality in about 25% within about 1 month despite treatment with available specific agents such as corticosteroids and/or pentoxifylline. Hence, there is clear need for newer and better treatment options to manage these patients. In this article, potential emerging newer targets to manage this disease are discussed including intestinal decontamination, caspase inhibitors, antioxidants, and interlukins. In the background of encouraging emerging data (retrospective data from the UNOS database and data from a case matched prospective French study) on the beneficial effects of liver transplantation amongst patients with alcoholic hepatitis who are non-responders to current medical treatments, this article would also deal controversies surrounding the role and use of liver transplantation in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Issues such as rule of 6 months of abstinence, ethical issues, and shortage of donor organs will be debated. PMID:25323125

  12. [Intestinal microbiota and cardiometabolic risk: mechanisms and diet modulation].

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ana Carolina Franco de; Silva, Isis Tande da; Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2014-06-01

    The gut microbiota obtained after birth is composed of a large range of bacteria that play different roles in the human host, such as nutrient uptake, protection against pathogens and immune modulation. The intestinal bacterial content is not completely known, but it is influenced by internal, and mainly by external factors, which modulate its composition and function. Studies indicate that the gut microbiota differs in lean and obese individuals, and in individuals with different food habits. There is evidence that the relationship between diet, inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk are, in part, mediated by the composition of intestinal bacteria. Knowledge about the gut microbiota may result in different strategies to manipulate bacterial populations and promote health. This review discusses the relevance of understanding the role of dietary factors or patterns in the composition of the microbiota, as well as pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic metabolic diseases, and the potential of prebiotics and probiotics on the cardiometabolic risk profile. PMID:24936725

  13. The Role of Hyaluronan in Innate Defense Responses of the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    de la Motte, Carol A.; Kessler, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is an abundant extracellular matrix component prevalent in the vertebrate intestinal tract. Here we discuss what is known about hyaluronan distribution during homeostasis and inflammatory diseases of the gut and discuss ways in which this glycosaminoglycan can participate in regulating innate host defense mechanisms. These natural responses include mechanisms promoting rapid leukocyte recruitment after bacterial challenge/colon tissue damage as well as promoting epithelial defense mechanisms in the intestine. PMID:25922605

  14. The Mucin degrader Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant resident of the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; Collado, M Carmen; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2008-03-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted probe, MUC-1437, was designed and validated in order to determine the presence and numbers of cells of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, in the human intestinal tract. As determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, A. muciniphila accounted more than 1% of the total fecal cells and was shown to be a common bacterial component of the human intestinal tract. PMID:18083887

  15. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  18. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

  19. Ethanol-Induced Mast Cell-Mediated Inflammation Leads to Increased Susceptibility of Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the APC ?468 Min Mouse Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Andre L.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Khan, Mohammad Wasim; Pemberton, Alan; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic and frequent ethanol (EtOH) intake has been associated with an increased incidence of several types of cancers including breast, mouth, throat, esophageal, stomach and colorectal (CRC). The underlying mechanism of this deleterious carcinogenic effect of alcohol has not been clearly established but inflammation may be one unifying feature of these cancers. We have recently shown that intestinal mast cells play a central role in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that mast cell-mediated inflammation is one underlying mechanism by which chronic alcohol promotes intestinal tumorigenesis. Methods APC ?468 mice were fed either an alcohol containing Nanji liquid diet or isocaloric dextrose containing Nanji diet for 10 weeks and then sacrificed to collect small and large intestine samples. Assessments of tumor number and size as well as mast cell number and mast cell activity and histology score for invasion were compared between Control (dextrose fed) and Alcohol fed APC?468 mice. The effect of alcohol on mast cell mediated tumor migration was also assessed using an in vitro migration assay. Results Alcohol feeding increased both polyp number and size within both the small and large intestines of APC?468 mice. Only alcohol fed mice showed evidence of tumor invasion. Chronic alcohol feeding also resulted in an increased mast cell number and activity in tumor stroma and invading borders. In vitro migration assay showed that alcohol significantly increases mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Conclusions Our data show that chronic alcohol intake promotes: (1) intestinal tumorigenesis and tumor invasion in genetically susceptible mice; (2) increases in polyp associated mast cells; (3) mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Both our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that mast cell mediated inflammation could be one mechanism by which alcohol promotes carcinogenesis. PMID:23320800

  20. [Pancreatitis in intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Gubergrits, N B; Lukashevich, G M; Golubova, O A; Fomenko, P G

    2010-01-01

    In article review of the literature and own data about pathogenesis of pancreatitis and secondary pancreatic insufficiency in various diseases of small and large intestines is presented. The special attention is given to pancreatic insufficiency in celiac disease and in inflammatory bowel disease. The main directions of pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency therapy are grounded. PMID:21268323

  1. Manipulation of the Gut Bacterial Community in a Ground Beetle, Harpalus pensylvanicus, Influences its Feeding Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional roles of non-obligatory bacterial symbionts found in the gut of insects are not well-described. We have found that the intestinal tract of an omnivorous ground beetle, Harpalus pensylvanicus, is colonized by relatively few bacterial species (six to nine species) that are common among fie...

  2. The role of immunomodulators on intestinal barrier homeostasis in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Maria Emília Rabelo; Araújo, Raquel Silva; de Barros, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Abrantes, Fernanda Alves; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    The intestinal epithelium is composed of specialized epithelial cells that form a physical and biochemical barrier to commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulation of the epithelial barrier function can lead to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation across the intestinal mucosa, which contributes to local and systemic immune activation. The increase in these parameters is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, physical exercise under heat stress, intestinal obstruction, ischemia, and mucositis, among other conditions. Lately, there has been growing interest in immunomodulatory nutrients and probiotics that can regulate host immune and inflammatory responses and possibly restore the intestinal barrier. Immunomodulators such as amino acids (glutamine, arginine, tryptophan, and citrulline), fatty acids (short-chain and omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids), and probiotics (Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Lactobacillus) have been reported in the literature. Here, we review the critical roles of immunomodulatory nutrients in supporting gut barrier integrity and function. PMID:25660317

  3. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  4. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  5. The migrating myoelectric complex of the small intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, Gordon L.; Sarna, Sushil K.

    1991-10-01

    Gastric and small intestinal myoelectric and motor activity is divided into two main patterns, fed and fasted. During fasting, the predominant pattern of activity is the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), a cyclically occurring pattern of electric and mechanical activity that is initiated in the stomach and duodenum almost simultaneously and, from there, propagates the length of the small intestine. Cyclic motor activity also occurs in the lower esophageal sphincter, the gallbladder, and the sphincter of Oddi with a duration that is related to the MMC in the small intestine. Of the possible mechanisms for initiation of the MMC in the small intestine (extrinsic neural control, intrinsic neural control, and hormonal control), intrinsic neural control via a series of coupled is the most likely. The keep this sentence in! hormone motilin also plays a role in the initiation of MMCs. After a meal, in man the MMC is disrupted and replaced by irregular contractions. The physiologic role of the MMC is to clear the stomach and small intestine of residual food, secretions, and desquamated cells and propel them to the colon. Disruption of the MMC cycle is associated with bacterial overgrowth in some patients, an observation that supports the proposed cleansing function of the MMC cycle.

  6. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. More than 80 HAs have been detected as constituents of PHAs, which allows these thermoplastic materials to have various mechanical properties resembling hard crystalline polymer or elastic rubber depending on the incorporated monomer units. Even though PHAs have been recognized as good candidates for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs, and the productivity of greater than 2 g PHA/L/h has been achieved. Recent advances in understanding metabolism, molecular biology, and genetics of the PHA-synthesizing bacteria and cloning of more than 20 different PHA biosynthesis genes allowed construction of various recombinant strains that were able to synthesize polyesters having different monomer units and/or to accumulate much more polymers. Also, genetically engineered plants harboring the bacterial PHA biosynthesis genes are being developed for the economical production of PHAs. Improvements in fermentation/separation technology and the development of bacterial strains or plants that more efficiently synthesize PHAs will bring the costs down to make PHAs competitive with the conventional plastics. PMID:18623547

  7. The Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    PubMed Central

    De Lisle, Robert C.; Borowitz, Drucy

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). The majority of people with CF have a limited life span as a consequence of CFTR dysfunction in the respiratory tract. However, CFTR dysfunction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract occurs earlier in ontogeny and is present in all patients, regardless of genotype. The same pathophysiologic triad of obstruction, infection, and inflammation that causes disease in the airways also causes disease in the intestines. This article describes the effects of CFTR dysfunction on the intestinal tissues and the intraluminal environment. Mouse models of CF have greatly advanced our understanding of the GI manifestations of CF, which can be directly applied to understanding CF disease in humans. PMID:23788646

  8. Metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and prenylflavonoids by intestinal bacteria: producer phenotyping and relation with intestinal community.

    PubMed

    Possemiers, Sam; Bolca, Selin; Eeckhaut, Ellen; Depypere, Herman; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-08-01

    Many studies have investigated the importance of the intestinal bacterial activation of individual phytoestrogens. However, human nutrition contains different phytoestrogens and the final exposure depends on the microbial potential to activate all different groups within each individual. In this work, interindividual variations in the bacterial activation of the different phytoestrogens were assessed. Incubation of feces from 100 individuals using SoyLife EXTRA, LinumLife EXTRA and isoxanthohumol suggested that individuals could be separated into high, moderate and low O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), equol, enterodiol (END), enterolactone (ENL) or 8-prenylnaringenin producers, but that the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and prenylflavonoids follows separate, independent pathways. However, O-DMA and equol production correlated negatively, whereas a positive correlation was found between END and ENL production. In addition, END production correlated negatively with Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale counts. Furthermore, O-DMA production was correlated with the abundance of methanogens, whereas equol production correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the metabolic fate of daidzein may be related to intestinal H(2) metabolism. PMID:17506823

  9. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore »BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  10. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  11. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Eric Lauga

    2015-09-07

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  12. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  13. Bacterial Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Lum, Donald F.; Leung, Joseph W.

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of acute bacterial cholangitis requires broad-spectrum antibiotics to cover against gram-negative aerobic enteric organisms (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species), gram-positive Enterococcus and anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens). Approximately 20% of patients with acute cholangitis fail to respond to conservative treatment with antibiotic therapy and require urgent biliary decompression, which is the mainstay of therapy. This is best accomplished by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and placement of a nasobiliary drainage tube or a large bore (10 F or larger) indwelling plastic stent. Alternative therapy includes percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or surgical biliary decompression, but these carry a significantly higher morbidity and mortality. Supportive care includes intravenous fluid hydration to prevent renal failure and close monitoring of vital signs for determination of potential septicemia. PMID:11469972

  14. Ultrasound of selected pathologies of the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Starzy?ska, Teresa; Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Intestines, especially the small bowel, are rarely subject to US assessment due to the presence of gases and chyme. The aim of this paper was to analyze ultrasound images in selected pathologies of the small intestine in adults, including the aspects of differential diagnosis. Material and methods In 2001–2012, abdominal ultrasound examinations were conducted in 176 patients with the following small bowel diseases: Crohn's disease (n=35), small bowel obstruction (n=35), yersiniosis (n=28), infectious diarrhea (n=26), bacterial overgrowth syndrome (n=25), coeliac disease (n=15) and small bowel ischemia (n=12). During examinations patients were fasting and no other particular preparations were needed. Convex transducers of 3.5–6 MHz and linear ones of 7–12 MHz were used. The assessment of the small intestine in four abdominal quadrants constituted an integral element of the examination. The following features of the small bowel ultrasound presentation were subject to analysis: thickness and perfusion of the walls, presence of thickened folds in the jejunum, reduction of their number, presence of fluid and gas contents in the intestine, its peristaltic activity, jejunization of the ileum and enteroenteric intussusception. Furthermore, the size of the mesenteric lymph nodes and the width of the superior mesenteric artery were determined and the peritoneal cavity was evaluated in terms of the presence of free fluid. Results Statistically significant differences were obtained between the thickness of the small intestine in Crohn's disease or in ischemic conditions and the thickness in the remaining analyzed pathological entities. Small bowel obstruction was manifested by the presence of distended loops due to gas and fluid as well as by severe peristaltic contractions occurring periodically. In the course of ischemic disease, the intestinal walls were thickened without the signs of increased perfusion and in the majority of cases intestinal stenosis was observed. Fluid in the intestine was detected in all patients with coeliac disease, gas in 86.7% of patients, thickening of the folds in the jejunum in 86.7%, their reduction in 80%, increased (enhanced) peristalsis in 93.3% and jejunization in 40%. In 80% of coeliac disease cases, the intestine showed the features of hyperemia on color Doppler examination and in 53.3% of patients the dilated lumen of the superior mesenteric artery was detected. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were visualized in 73.3% of the subjects, enteroenteric intussusception in 33.3% and free fluid in the peritoneal cavity in 60%. Conclusions Small bowel obstruction is manifested by the presence of evidently dilated intestinal loops filled with gas and fluid and periodical severe deepened peristalsis.Ischemic changes and Crohn's disease are characterized by the presence of fragmentarily thickened intestinal walls and intestinal stenosis. Moreover, in Crohn's disease, increased wall perfusion and mesenteric adenomegaly is encountered.Coeliac disease is manifested by: increased amount of fluid mainly in the jejunum, thickened and hyperemic jejunal walls, increased peristalsis;hypertrophied mucosal folds – often their number is reduced, jejunization and transient enteroenteric intussusception;ultrasound changes that require the differentiation with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome and, to a lesser degree, with infectious diarrhea. PMID:26672622

  15. Microbiota-Mediated Inflammation and Antimicrobial Defense in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Silvia; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    The diverse microbial populations constituting the intestinal microbiota promote immune development and differentiation, but because of their complex metabolic requirements and the consequent difficulty culturing them, they remained, until recently, largely uncharacterized and mysterious. In the last decade, deep nucleic acid sequencing platforms, new computational and bioinformatics tools, and full-genome characterization of several hundred commensal bacterial species facilitated studies of the microbiota and revealed that differences in microbiota composition can be associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases, that each human is colonized by a distinct bacterial flora, and that the microbiota can be manipulated to reduce and even cure some diseases. Different bacterial species induce distinct immune cell populations that can play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, and thus the composition of the microbiota determines, in part, the level of resistance to infection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent work characterizing commensal microbes that contribute to the antimicrobial defense/inflammation axis. PMID:25581310

  16. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Caroline I.; Mappley, Luke J.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Claus, Sandrine P.

    2015-01-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS. PMID:26679774

  17. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... analysis they found limited importance of nutrition, including alcoholic beverages in the precipitation of migraine. This work considered ... or facilitates the alcohol effect. Some components of alcoholic beverages such as tyramine, phenylethylamine, histamine, sulphites, flavonoid phenols, ...

  18. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. The heavy drinking could be every day, or just a ...

  19. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adults who drink, including: Increased Sensitivity to Alcohol Aging can lower the body’s tolerance for alcohol. Older adults generally experience the effects of alcohol more quickly than when they were ...

  20. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a ... cause miscarriage , preterm birth and stillbirth . How does alcohol during pregnancy harm your baby? When you drink ...

  1. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  3. Host Responses to Intestinal Microbial Antigens in Gluten-Sensitive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Natividad, Jane M.; Huang, Xianxi; Slack, Emma; Jury, Jennifer; Sanz, Yolanda; David, Chella; Denou, Emmanuel; Yang, Pinchang; Murray, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in gluten-sensitized HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice. Methodology/Principal Findings HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice were sensitized with gluten, and gavaged with indomethacin plus gluten. Intestinal permeability was assessed by Ussing chamber; epithelial cell (EC) ultra-structure by electron microscopy; RNA expression of genes coding for junctional proteins by Q-real-time PCR; immune response by in-vitro antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine analysis by cytometric bead array; intestinal microbiota by fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of systemic antibodies against intestinal microbiota by surface staining of live bacteria with serum followed by FACS analysis. Indomethacin led to a more pronounced increase in intestinal permeability in gluten-sensitized mice. These changes were accompanied by severe EC damage, decreased E-cadherin RNA level, elevated IFN-? in splenocyte culture supernatant, and production of significant IgM antibody against intestinal microbiota. Conclusion Indomethacin potentiates barrier dysfunction and EC injury induced by gluten, affects systemic IFN-? production and the host response to intestinal microbiota antigens in HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice. The results suggest that environmental factors that alter the intestinal barrier may predispose individuals to an increased susceptibility to gluten through a bystander immune activation to intestinal microbiota. PMID:19649259

  4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Click for More Information Alcohol Overdose Find Out Biosensor Competition Biosensor Competition ABCD Study Learn More NIAAA Twitter Chat Alcohol Overdose Biosensor Competition ABCD Study Latest News New & Noteworthy December ...

  5. Motility Disorders of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us Donate Motility Disorders of the Small Intestine The general function of the small intestine is the absorption of the food we eat. During and after a meal, the intestine normally shows very irregular or unsynchronized contractions. The ...

  6. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

  7. Campylobacter Colonization of the Turkey Intestine in the Context of Microbial Community Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between development of the turkey intestinal microbiota and colonization by the food borne pathogen Campylobacter were examined. Every week of the 18 week production cycle, cecal bacterial communities and Campylobacter isolates were examined from five birds for each of two flocks. Mole...

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus GG on intestinal integrity in Malawian children at risk of tropical enteropathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. This study tested the...

  9. EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS GG ON INTESTINAL INTEGRITY IN MALAWIAN CHILDREN AT RISK OF TROPICAL ENTEROPATHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. Objective:...

  10. Bacterial Translocation – Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system. PMID:24432024

  11. The study on the impact of glycated pea proteins on human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    ?wi?tecka, Dominika; Dominika, ?wi?tecka; Narbad, Arjan; Arjan, Narbad; Ridgway, Karyn P; Karyn, Ridgway P; Kostyra, Henryk; Henryk, Kostyra

    2011-01-31

    The traditionally perceived function of nutrition includes supplying the consumer with the appropriate quantity and quality of substrates. As nutritional substrates, proteins are prone to spontaneously occurring non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) which can alter their molecular structure, making them highly bioactive. Glycated food proteins are able to modify the bacterial intestinal ecosystem, which is of great importance for the optimal usage of nutrients and maintenance of both intestinal homeostasis and balanced health status of the consumer. This study aimed to determine the impact of glycated pea proteins on the intestinal bacteria from a healthy human. The analyses were conducted with the use of experimental batch-type simulator models imitating human intestinal conditions. The glycated pea proteins affected the growth of gut commensal bacteria, particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, whose levels increased significantly. There was a corresponding shift in the bacterial metabolites with increased levels of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs); acetate, propionate lactate and butyrate. Intestinal bacteria were able to utilize these pea proteins thus indicating that the energy encrypted in glycated pea proteins, partially inaccessible for gastric enzymes, may be salvaged by gut microbiota. Such changes in microbial composition may beneficially impact the intestinal environment and exert a health-promoting effect in humans. PMID:21276631

  12. Host-compound foraging by intestinal microbiota revealed by single-cell stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Stecher, Bärbel; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reichert, Jochen; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael

    2013-03-19

    The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some pathogenic microorganisms as well as members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds. Our understanding of host-compound degradation by the commensal microbiota has been limited to knowledge about simplified model systems because of the difficulty in studying the complex intestinal ecosystem in vivo. In this study, we introduce an approach that overcomes previous technical limitations and allows us to observe which microbial cells in the intestine use host-derived compounds. We added stable isotope-labeled threonine i.v. to mice and combined fluorescence in situ hybridization with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging to characterize utilization of host proteins by individual bacterial cells. We show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers in vivo. Using gnotobiotic mice we show that microbiota composition determines the magnitude and pattern of foraging by these organisms, demonstrating that a complex microbiota is necessary in order for this niche to be fully exploited. These results underscore the importance of in vivo studies of intestinal microbiota, and the approach presented in this study will be a powerful tool to address many other key questions in animal and human microbiome research. PMID:23487774

  13. Teleost intestinal immunology.

    PubMed

    Rombout, Jan H W M; Abelli, Luigi; Picchietti, Simona; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Kiron, Viswanath

    2011-11-01

    Teleosts clearly have a more diffuse gut associated lymphoid system, which is morphological and functional clearly different from the mammalian GALT. All immune cells necessary for a local immune response are abundantly present in the gut mucosa of the species studied and local immune responses can be monitored after intestinal immunization. Fish do not produce IgA, but a special mucosal IgM isotype seems to be secreted and may (partly) be the recently described IgZ/IgT. Fish produce a pIgR in their mucosal tissues but it is smaller (2 ILD) than the 4-5 ILD pIgR of higher vertebrates. Whether teleost pIgR is transcytosed and cleaved off in the same way needs further investigation, especially because a secretory component (SC) is only reported in one species. Teleosts also have high numbers of IEL, most of them are CD3-?+/CD8-?+ and have cytotoxic and/or regulatory function. Possibly many of these cells are TCR?? cells and they may be involved in the oral tolerance induction observed in fish. Innate immune cells can be observed in the teleost gut from first feeding onwards, but B cells appear much later in mucosal compartments compared to systemic sites. Conspicuous is the very early presence of putative T cells or their precursors in the fish gut, which together with the rag-1 expression of intestinal lymphoid cells may be an indication for an extra-thymic development of certain T cells. Teleosts can develop enteritis in their antigen transporting second gut segment and epithelial cells, IEL and eosinophils/basophils seem to play a crucial role in this intestinal inflammation model. Teleost intestine can be exploited for oral vaccination strategies and probiotic immune stimulation. A variety of encapsulation methods, to protect vaccines against degradation in the foregut, are reported with promising results but in most cases they appear not to be cost effective yet. Microbiota in fish are clearly different from terrestrial animals. In the past decade a fast increasing number of papers is dedicated to the oral administration of a variety of probiotics that can have a strong health beneficial effect, but much more attention has to be paid to the immune mechanisms behind these effects. The recent development of gnotobiotic fish models may be very helpful to study the immune effects of microbiota and probiotics in teleosts. PMID:20832474

  14. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, C A

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

  15. Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Yulan; Li, Shuang; Pi, Dingan; Zhu, Huiling; Hou, Yongqing; Shi, Haifeng; Leng, Weibo

    2015-08-28

    The intestine requires a high amount of energy to maintain its health and function; thus, energy deficits in intestinal mucosa may lead to intestinal damage. Asparagine (Asn) is a precursor for many other amino acids such as aspartate, glutamine and glutamate, which can be used to supply energy to enterocytes. In the present study, we hypothesise that dietary supplementation of Asn could alleviate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury via improvement of intestinal energy status. A total of twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS+0 % Asn; (3) LPS+0·5 % Asn; (4) LPS+1·0 % Asn. On day 19, piglets were injected with LPS or saline. At 24 h post-injection, piglets were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected. Asn supplementation improved intestinal morphology, indicated by higher villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and lower crypt depth. Asn supplementation also increased the ratios of RNA:DNA and protein:DNA as well as disaccharidase activities in intestinal mucosa. In addition, Asn supplementation attenuated bacterial LPS-induced intestinal energy deficits, indicated by increased ATP and adenylate energy charge levels, and decreased AMP:ATP ratio. Moreover, Asn administration increased the activities of key enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Finally, Asn administration decreased the mRNA abundance of intestinal AMP-activated protein kinase-?1 (AMPK?1), AMPK?2, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC1?), and reduced intestinal AMPK? phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate that Asn supplementation alleviates bacterial LPS-induced intestinal injury by modulating the AMPK signalling pathway and improving energy status. PMID:26277838

  16. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  17. Promotion of intestinal carcinogenesis by Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Ellmerich, S; Schöller, M; Duranton, B; Gossé, F; Galluser, M; Klein, J P; Raul, F

    2000-04-01

    The involvement of Streptococcus bovis, an member of the human gut flora, in colorectal neoplastic diseases is an object of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of S.bovis and of antigens extracted from the bacterial cell wall on early preneoplastic changes in the intestinal tract. Adult rats received i. p. injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) once per week for 2 weeks. Fifteen days (week 4) after the last injection of the carcinogen, the rats received, by gavage twice per week during 5 weeks, either S.bovis (10(10) bacteria) or wall-extracted antigens (100 microg). One week after the last gavage (week 10), we found that administration of either S.bovis or of antigens from this bacterium promoted the progression of preneoplastic lesions through the increased formation of hyperproliferative aberrant colonic crypts, enhanced the expression of proliferation markers and increased the production of IL-8 in the colonic mucosa. Our study suggests that S.bovis acts as a promoter of early preneoplastic lesions in the colon of rats. The fact that bacterial wall proteins are more potent inducers of neoplastic transformation than the intact bacteria may have important implications in colon cancer prevention. PMID:10753212

  18. Probiotic administration modifies the milk fatty acid profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal fatty acid profile of goats.

    PubMed

    Apás, A L; Arena, M E; Colombo, S; González, S N

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of potentially probiotic bacteria (MPPB; Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum strains) on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the middle stage of goat lactation, was determined. In addition, the effects of MPPB feeding on the FA profile in intestinal content and intestinal morphology in weaned goats were analyzed. The probiotic supplement was able to modify FA composition of milk and intestinal content. The unsaturated FA concentrations in milk (g of FA/L of milk) increased from 4.49 to 7.86 for oleic (18:1), from 0.70 to 1.39 for linoleic (18:2), from 0.063 to 0.187 for linolenic (18:3) acid, and from 0.093 to 0.232 for CLA. The atherogenicity index diminished 2-fold after MPPB ingestion. In the intestinal content of the weaned goats, no significant difference in saturated FA concentration compared with the control was observed. However, oleic acid, linolenic acid, CLA, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased by 81, 23, 344, and 74%, respectively, after probiotic consumption. The ruminal production of CLA was increased by the MPPB. However, bacterial strains of MPPB were unable to produce CLA in culture media. By histological techniques, it was observed that the treated group had intestinally more conserved morphological structures than the control group. The results obtained in this study indicate that the MPPB administration in lactating and weaned goats allows for the production of milk with improved concentrations of beneficial compounds, and also produces a protective effect in the goat intestine. The results obtained in this study reinforce the strategy of probiotics application to enhance goat health with the production of milk with higher concentrations of polyunsaturated FA. PMID:25465559

  19. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePLUS

    ... questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a variety of factors, including: How much you drink How often you drink Your age Your health status Your family history While drinking alcohol is itself not necessarily ...

  20. BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY

    E-print Network

    BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY Passed unanimously at the Committee on Alcohol Concerns November at Executive Committee April 23. 2010 Preamble: 1. The use of alcohol is a widely accepted accompaniment a common component of campus life for many years. However, alcohol-related incidents remain a significant

  1. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  2. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: novel functions and protective effects.

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Important protective roles of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP)--including regulation of intestinal surface pH, absorption of lipids, detoxification of free nucleotides and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, attenuation of intestinal inflammation, and possible modulation of the gut microbiota--have been reviewed recently. IAP is modulated by numerous nutritional factors. The present review highlights new findings on the properties of IAP and extends the list of its protective functions. Critical assessment of data suggests that some IAP properties are a direct result of dephosphorylation of proinflammatory moieties, while others (e.g., gut barrier protection and microbiota shaping) may be secondary to IAP-mediated downregulation of inflammation. IAP and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase isoforms characterize the small intestine and the colon, respectively. Gastrointestinal administration of exogenous IAP ameliorates gut inflammation and favors gut tissue regeneration, whereas enteral and systemic IAP administration attenuates systemic inflammation only. Finally, the IAP gene family has a strong evolutionary link to food-driven changes in gastrointestinal tract anatomy and microbiota composition. Therefore, stimulation of IAP activity by dietary intervention is a goal for preserving gut homeostasis and health by minimizing low-grade inflammation. PMID:24506153

  3. Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When diseased intestine (i.e., from colon cancer, diverticulitis) requires resection, its reconnection (termed anastomosis) can be complicated by non-healing of the newly joined intestine resulting in spillage of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity (termed anastomotic leakage). While it is suspected that the intestinal microbiota have the capacity to both accelerate and complicate anastomotic healing, the associated genotypes and functions have not been characterized. Results Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD0)) and the 6th day following surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD6)), we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats. Results indicated that anastomotic injury induced significant changes in the anastomotic tissue-associated microbiota with minimal differences in the luminal microbiota. The most striking difference was a 500-fold and 200-fold increase in the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Escherichia/Shigella, respectively. Functional profiling predicted the predominance of bacterial virulence-associated pathways in post-anastomotic tissues, including production of hemolysin, cytolethal toxins, fimbriae, invasins, cytotoxic necrotizing factors, and coccolysin. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that compositional and functional changes accompany anastomotic tissues and may potentially accelerate or complicate anastomotic healing. PMID:25250176

  4. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  5. Interleukin-23 drives innate and T cell-mediated intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Sophie; Ahern, Philip; Buonocore, Sofia; Kullberg, Marika C; Cua, Daniel J; McKenzie, Brent S; Powrie, Fiona; Maloy, Kevin J

    2006-10-30

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract involving aberrant activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. We have used two complementary models of IBD to examine the roles of interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines in bacterially induced intestinal inflammation. Our results clearly show that IL-23, but not IL-12, is essential for the induction of chronic intestinal inflammation mediated by innate or adaptive immune mechanisms. Depletion of IL-23 was associated with decreased proinflammatory responses in the intestine but had little impact on systemic T cell inflammatory responses. These results newly identify IL-23 as a driver of innate immune pathology in the intestine and suggest that selective targeting of IL-23 represents an attractive therapeutic approach in human IBD. PMID:17030949

  6. Host and Microbial Factors in Regulation of T Cells in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang H.

    2013-01-01

    The intestine is divided into specialized tissue areas that provide distinct microenvironments for T cells. Regulation of T-cell responses in the gut has been a major focus of recent research activities in the field. T cells in the intestine are regulated by the interplay between host and microbial factors. In the small intestine, retinoic acid (RA) is a major tissue factor that plays important roles in regulation of immune responses. In the large intestine, the influence of RA diminishes, but that of commensal bacterial products increases. RA, gut microbiota, and inflammatory mediators co-regulate differentiation, distribution, and/or effector functions of T cells. Coordinated regulation of immune responses by these factors promotes well-balanced immunity and immune tolerance. Dysregulation of this process can increase infection and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23772228

  7. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus domination of intestinal microbiota is enabled by antibiotic treatment in mice and precedes bloodstream invasion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ubeda, Carles; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; Equinda, Michele J.; Son, Tammy; Samstein, Miriam; Viale, Agnes; Socci, Nicholas D.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Kamboj, Mini; Pamer, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Bloodstream infection by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), is a growing clinical problem that increasingly defies medical intervention. Identifying patients at high risk for bacterial sepsis remains an important clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that antibiotics can alter microbial diversity in the intestine. Here, we characterized these effects using 16s rDNA pyrosequencing and demonstrated that antibiotic treatment of mice enabled exogenously administered VRE to efficiently and nearly completely displace the normal microbiota of the small and large intestine. In the clinical setting, we found that intestinal domination by VRE preceded bloodstream infection in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our results demonstrate that antibiotics perturb the normal commensal microbiota and set the stage for intestinal domination by bacteria associated with hospital-acquired infections. Thus, high-throughput DNA sequencing of the intestinal microbiota could identify patients at high risk of developing bacterial sepsis. PMID:21099116

  8. Bacterial Florae in Larvae of the Lake Fly Chironomus plumosus.

    PubMed

    Rouf, M A; Rigney, M M

    1993-04-01

    Chironomus plumosus midge larvae were collected from Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, for 10 weeks in the summer of 1985 and 10 weeks in the summer of 1986 in order to determine their bacterial floras. Altogether, 18 genera and 29 species of bacteria were found and identified. Some spirillum-like bacteria which were not isolated in culture were found by electron microscopy. Scanning electron micrographs of sectioned larvae revealed bacteria throughout the intestines. Gram-positive organisms were most prevalent in the larvae in the early part of the summer, and gram-negative organisms were most prevalent during the later part. Larvae accumulate bacteria within their intestines. PMID:16348917

  9. Bacterial Florae in Larvae of the Lake Fly Chironomus plumosus

    PubMed Central

    Rouf, M. A.; Rigney, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    Chironomus plumosus midge larvae were collected from Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, for 10 weeks in the summer of 1985 and 10 weeks in the summer of 1986 in order to determine their bacterial floras. Altogether, 18 genera and 29 species of bacteria were found and identified. Some spirillum-like bacteria which were not isolated in culture were found by electron microscopy. Scanning electron micrographs of sectioned larvae revealed bacteria throughout the intestines. Gram-positive organisms were most prevalent in the larvae in the early part of the summer, and gram-negative organisms were most prevalent during the later part. Larvae accumulate bacteria within their intestines. Images PMID:16348917

  10. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  11. The economics of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lehto, J

    1997-03-01

    The use of economic arguments with regard to four aspects of alcohol policy is described and discussed. The first aspect is the impact of a potential reduction in alcohol consumption on employment by alcohol production and trade. It is shown that employment is quite independent of the level of consumption. The second aspect is the opportunity for serving the public health and state finance interests at the same time by developing alcohol taxation. The third aspect is the relationship between the public revenue from alcohol and the public costs for alcohol-related problems. A "polluter pays" principle with regard to alcohol would mean higher taxation of alcoholic beverages. The fourth aspect is the need for cost-effectiveness analyses to support the choices by the decision makers between different alcohol policy options. It is concluded that such analyses could have impact on the priorities in public health policy on alcohol. PMID:9167288

  12. TGF-?2 Suppresses Macrophage Cytokine Production and Mucosal Inflammatory Responses in the Developing Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Akhil; Kelly, David R.; Nicola, Teodora; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Jain, Sunil K.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne; Athar, Mohammad; Shimamura, Masako; Bhandari, Vineet; Aprahamian, Charles; Dimmitt, Reed A.; Serra, Rosa; Ohls, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Premature neonates are predisposed to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an idiopathic, inflammatory bowel necrosis. We investigated the hypothesis that NEC occurs in the preterm intestine due to incomplete ‘non-inflammatory’ differentiation of intestinal macrophages, which increases the risk of a severe mucosal inflammatory response to bacterial products. Methods We compared inflammatory properties of human/murine fetal, neonatal, and adult intestinal macrophages. To investigate gut-specific macrophage differentiation, we next treated monocyte-derived macrophages with conditioned media from ex planted human fetal and adult intestinal tissues. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) expression and bioactivity were measured in fetal/adult intestine and in NEC. Finally, we used wild-type and transgenic mice to investigate the effects of deficient TGF-? signaling on NEC-like inflammatory mucosal injury. Results Intestinal macrophages in the human preterm intestine (fetus/premature neonate), but not in full-term neonates and adults, expressed inflammatory cytokines. Macrophage cytokine production was suppressed in the developing intestine by TGF-?, particularly the TGF-?2 isoform. NEC was associated with decreased tissue expression of TGF-?2 and decreased TGF-? bioactivity. In mice, disruption of TGF-? signaling worsened NEC-like inflammatory mucosal injury, whereas enteral supplementation with recombinant TGF-?2 was protective. Conclusions Intestinal macrophages progressively acquire a non-inflammatory profile during gestational development. TGF-?, particularly the TGF-?2 isoform, suppresses macrophage inflammatory responses in the developing intestine and protects against inflammatory mucosal injury. Enterally-administered TGF-?2 protected mice from experimental NEC-like injury. PMID:20875417

  13. Gut biogeography of the bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Gregory P; Lee, S Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2016-01-01

    Animals assemble and maintain a diverse but host-specific gut microbial community. In addition to characteristic microbial compositions along the longitudinal axis of the intestines, discrete bacterial communities form in microhabitats, such as the gut lumen, colonic mucus layers and colonic crypts. In this Review, we examine how the spatial distribution of symbiotic bacteria among physical niches in the gut affects the development and maintenance of a resilient microbial ecosystem. We consider novel hypotheses for how nutrient selection, immune activation and other mechanisms control the biogeography of bacteria in the gut, and we discuss the relevance of this spatial heterogeneity to health and disease. PMID:26499895

  14. Harnessing the intestinal microbiome for optimal therapeutic immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Viaud, S; Daillère, R; Boneca, I G; Lepage, P; Pittet, M J; Ghiringhelli, F; Trinchieri, G; Goldszmid, R; Zitvogel, L

    2014-08-15

    Distinct cytotoxic agents currently used in the oncological armamentarium mediate their clinical benefit by influencing, directly or indirectly, the immune system in such a way that innate and adaptive immunity contributes to the tumoricidal activity. Now, we bring up evidence that both arms of anticancer immunity can be triggered through the intervention of the intestinal microbiota. Alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide, set up the stage for enhanced permeability of the small intestine, facilitating the translocation of selected arrays of Gram-positive bacteria against which the host mounts effector pTh17 cells and memory Th1 responses. In addition, gut commensals, through lipopolysaccharide and other bacterial components, switch the tumor microenvironment, in particular the redox equilibrium and the TNF production of intratumoral myeloid cells during therapies with platinum salts or intratumoral TLR9 agonists combined with systemic anti-IL10R Ab respectively. Consequently, antibiotics can compromise the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic or immunomodulatory regimens. PMID:25074615

  15. Factors Determining Colorectal Cancer: The Role of the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Nistal, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, Nereida; Vivas, Santiago; Olcoz, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, holds a complex community of microorganisms, which are essential for maintaining homeostasis. However, in recent years, many studies have implicated microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), with this disease considered a major cause of death in the western world. The mechanisms underlying bacterial contribution in its development are complex and are not yet fully understood. However, there is increasing evidence showing a connection between intestinal microbiota and CRC. Intestinal microorganisms cause the onset and progression of CRC using different mechanisms, such as the induction of a chronic inflammation state, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation, the production of toxic metabolites, or heterocyclic amine activation of pro-diet carcinogenic compounds. Despite these advances, additional studies in humans and animal models will further decipher the relationship between microbiota and CRC, and aid in developing alternate therapies based on microbiota manipulation. PMID:26528432

  16. Microbiota-mediated colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Buffie, Charlie G.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal bacteria inhabit mucosal and epidermal surfaces in mice and humans, and have effects on metabolic and immune pathways in their hosts. Recent studies indicate that the commensal microbiota can be manipulated to prevent and even to cure infections that are caused by pathogenic bacteria, particularly pathogens that are broadly resistant to antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile. In this Review, we discuss how immune- mediated colonization resistance against antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens is influenced by the composition of the commensal microbiota. We also review recent advances characterizing the ability of different commensal bacterial families, genera and species to restore colonization resistance to intestinal pathogens in antibiotic-treated hosts. PMID:24096337

  17. LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

    2011-03-01

    In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

  18. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Lowered Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoru; Goto, Sae; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Okuno, Tatsuya; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Shibata, Akihide; Fujisawa, Yoshiro; Minato, Tomomi; Okamoto, Akira; Ohno, Kinji; Hirayama, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The intestine is one of the first affected organs in Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD subjects show abnormal staining for Escherichia coli and ?-synuclein in the colon. Methods We recruited 52 PD patients and 36 healthy cohabitants. We measured serum markers and quantified the numbers of 19 fecal bacterial groups/genera/species by quantitative RT-PCR of 16S or 23S rRNA. Although the six most predominant bacterial groups/genera/species covered on average 71.3% of total intestinal bacteria, our analysis was not comprehensive compared to metagenome analysis or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results In PD, the number of Lactobacillus was higher, while the sum of analyzed bacteria, Clostridium coccoides group, and Bacteroides fragilis group were lower than controls. Additionally, the sum of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria was lower in PD. A linear regression model to predict disease durations demonstrated that C. coccoides group and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup had the largest negative and positive coefficients, respectively. As a linear regression model to predict stool frequencies showed that these bacteria were not associated with constipation, changes in these bacteria were unlikely to represent worsening of constipation in the course of progression of PD. In PD, the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels were lower than controls, while the levels of serum diamine oxidase, a marker for intestinal mucosal integrity, remained unchanged in PD. Conclusions The permeability to LPS is likely to be increased without compromising the integrity of intestinal mucosa in PD. The increased intestinal permeability in PD may make the patients susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis may lead to the increased intestinal permeability. One or both of the two mechanisms may be operational in development and progression of PD. PMID:26539989

  19. Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration

    E-print Network

    Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting and alcohol abuse prevention. Distracted driving Examining the effect of various distractions on the driving

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  1. [Disturbances of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Cylwik, Bogdan; Chrostek, Lech

    2011-04-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse leads to malnutrition, and thus to the deficiency of many nutrients, including vitamins and trace elements. Most often comes to the deficiency of all vitamins, however because the clinical implications, the most important is folic acid (vitamin B9) deficiency. Biochemical effect of folate deficiency is elevated homocysteine concentration in the blood, named "cholesterol of XXI. century". In the paper, the folate and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse was discussed. Mechanisms of alcohol action on folate homeostasis in the human body have been indicated. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to deficiency of this vitamin due to their dietary inadequacy, intestinal malabsorption, decreased hepatic uptake and increased body excretion, mainly via urine. The decreased concentration of serum folic acid may occur in 80% of alcoholics. The cause of elevated concentrations of homocysteine in the serum of alcohol abusers is also a deficiency of vitamins involved such as vitamin B12 and pyridoxal phosphate. Disturbance of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abusers can lead to serious clinical consequences. Folic acid deficiency leads inter alia to macrocytic and megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia occurs in about half of alcohol abusers with chronic liver diseases. In turn, high level of homocysteine in blood is associated with an inreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor that favors the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes in patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:21595178

  2. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M.; Melzer, Ehud; Mell, Haim; Opris, Mihai; Cohen, Lawrence; Malnick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. PMID:26343741

  3. The Role of Mast Cells in Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Rönnberg, Elin; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are particularly abundant at host-environment interfaces, such as skin and intestinal mucosa. Because of their location, it has been hypothesized that MCs can act as sentinel cells that sense microbial attacks and initiate a protective immune response. Several studies have suggested that animals deficient in MCs exhibit a worsened pathology in various experimental models of bacterial infection. However, other studies have indicated that MCs under certain circumstances may have a detrimental impact on bacterial disease, and there are also recent studies indicating that MCs are dispensable for the clearance of bacterial pathogens. Herein, we review the current knowledge of the role of MCs in bacterial infection. PMID:26477818

  4. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are reconnected. In some cases, a colostomy or ileostomy is needed. The blockage of arteries to the ... Intestinal infarction may require a colostomy or ileostomy, which ... these cases. People who have a large amount of tissue death in ...

  5. Telescoping intestine in an adult.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Khaldoon; Eisa, Naseem; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Alraies, M Chadi; Merugu, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Protrusion of a bowel segment into another (intussusception) produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic. Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a 44-year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy. PMID:23983706

  6. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer found in the small intestine are adenocarcinoma , sarcoma , carcinoid tumors , gastrointestinal stromal tumor , and lymphoma . This summary discusses adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma (a type of sarcoma). Adenocarcinoma starts in glandular cells in the lining ...

  7. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated with Inflammation History in Mice Experiencing Recurring Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Kuzyk, Orest; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Schwab, Clarissa; Hainzl, Eva; Decker, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim; Wagner, Michael; Kenner, Lukas; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Acute colitis causes alterations in the intestinal microbiota, but the microbiota is thought to recover after such events. Extreme microbiota alterations are characteristic of human chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, although alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better understand the impact of periodic disturbances on the intestinal microbiota and its compositional difference between acute and relapsing colitis, we investigated the beginnings of recurrent inflammation using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model of chemically induced colitis. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing as well as quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, we profiled the intestinal and stool microbiota of mice over the course of three rounds of DSS-induced colitis and recovery. We found that characteristic inflammation-associated microbiota could be detected in recovery-phase mice. Successive inflammation episodes further drove the microbiota into an increasingly altered composition post-inflammation, and signatures of colitis history were detectable in the microbiota more sensitively than by pathology analysis. Bacterial indicators of murine colitis history were identified in intestinal and stool samples, with a high degree of consistency between both sample types. Stool may therefore be a promising non-invasive source of bacterial biomarkers that are highly sensitive to inflammation state and history. PMID:26697002

  8. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated with Inflammation History in Mice Experiencing Recurring Colitis.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Kuzyk, Orest; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Schwab, Clarissa; Hainzl, Eva; Decker, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim; Wagner, Michael; Kenner, Lukas; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Acute colitis causes alterations in the intestinal microbiota, but the microbiota is thought to recover after such events. Extreme microbiota alterations are characteristic of human chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, although alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better understand the impact of periodic disturbances on the intestinal microbiota and its compositional difference between acute and relapsing colitis, we investigated the beginnings of recurrent inflammation using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model of chemically induced colitis. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing as well as quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, we profiled the intestinal and stool microbiota of mice over the course of three rounds of DSS-induced colitis and recovery. We found that characteristic inflammation-associated microbiota could be detected in recovery-phase mice. Successive inflammation episodes further drove the microbiota into an increasingly altered composition post-inflammation, and signatures of colitis history were detectable in the microbiota more sensitively than by pathology analysis. Bacterial indicators of murine colitis history were identified in intestinal and stool samples, with a high degree of consistency between both sample types. Stool may therefore be a promising non-invasive source of bacterial biomarkers that are highly sensitive to inflammation state and history. PMID:26697002

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please ...

  10. Changes in the intestinal microbiota of wild Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. upon captive rearing.

    PubMed

    Dhanasiri, Anusha K S; Brunvold, Laila; Brinchmann, Monica F; Korsnes, Kjetil; Bergh, Øivind; Kiron, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    The commensal microbiota plays an important role in the well-being of the host organism, and it would be worthwhile to know the tenacious communities among them. Therefore, a study was undertaken to examine the changes in constitution of the intestinal microbiota of wild fish consequential to captivity. At first, the composition of intestinal microorganisms of Atlantic cod caught from the coastal area off Bodø, Norway, was examined. Thereafter, the changes in the bacterial community of the captive fish after offering them artificial feed or subjecting them to starvation were studied. The microbiota from the intestinal contents and wall segments were analyzed quantitatively by spread plate technique and DAPI staining and qualitatively by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The study revealed that the counts of intestinal microbes in wild-caught Atlantic cod were not affected by captive rearing for 6 weeks, either when fed or when starved. However, the diversity of intestinal bacterial community was reduced in response to artificial feeding, whereas the change was restricted upon starvation. PMID:20424834

  11. Intestinal barrier dysfunction in cirrhosis: Current concepts in pathophysiology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tsiaoussis, Georgios I; Assimakopoulos, Stelios F; Tsamandas, Athanassios C; Triantos, Christos K; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lumen is a host place for a wide range of microbiota and sets a unique interplay between local immune system, inflammatory cells and intestinal epithelium, forming a physical barrier against microbial invaders and toxins. Bacterial translocation is the migration of viable or nonviable microorganisms or their pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipopolysaccharide, from the gut lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes, systemic circulation and other normally sterile extraintestinal sites. A series of studies have shown that translocation of bacteria and their products across the intestinal barrier is a commonplace in patients with liver disease. The deterioration of intestinal barrier integrity and the consulting increased intestinal permeability in cirrhotic patients play a pivotal pathophysiological role in the development of severe complications as high rate of infections, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, progression of liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in the phenomenon of microbial translocation in liver cirrhosis have not been fully elucidated yet. PMID:26301048

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:? Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.? Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.? Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.? During pregnancy:?no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;?there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;?all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and?binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  13. [Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

    2015-02-01

    Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD. PMID:25566836

  14. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  15. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  16. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  17. The equine intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Weese, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    The equine intestinal tract contains a complex microbial population (microbiota) that plays an important role in health and disease. Despite the undeniable importance of a 'normal' microbiota, understanding of the composition and function of this population is currently limited. As methods to characterize the microbiota and its genetic makeup (the microbiome) have evolved, the composition and complexity of this population are starting to be revealed. As is befitting a hindgut fermenter, members of the Firmicutes phylum appear to predominate, yet there are significant populations of numerous other phyla. The microbiome appears to be profoundly altered in certain disease states, and better understanding of these alterations may offer hope for novel preventive and therapeutic measures. The development and increasing availability of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methods offer a revolution in microbiome evaluation and it is likely that significant advances will be made in the near future. Yet, proper use of these methods requires further study of basic aspects such as optimal testing protocols, the relationship of the fecal microbiome to more proximal locations where disease occurs, normal intra- and inter-horse variation, seasonal variation, and similar factors. PMID:22626511

  18. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can make cells more vulnerable to other carcinogens, like tobacco. People who drink heavily and smoke ... into harmless compounds or to disable certain existing carcinogens, alcohol’s effects may influence not only liver cancer ...

  19. Pathogenesis of alcoholic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kucera, P; Balaz, M; Varsik, P; Kurca, E

    2002-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is a medical, economical and social problem. Motility and mental function disorders are among the complications of chronic alcoholism and have been known for more than two centuries as "alcoholic paralysis", and are caused by alcoholic neuropathy. The pathogenesis of alcoholic neuropathy does not appear to be identical with central nervous system disorders which are caused by chronic alcoholism and it seems that it results from a failure of the protection barrier systems in the peripheral nervous system. To the pathogenesis of alcoholic neuropathy includes: 1. direct toxic effects of alcohol on the cellular population of the central nervous system and other tissues, especially of parenchymatous organs (in particular of the liver), 2. indirect metabolic and exotoxic changes mediated by malabsorption, maldigestion and secondary caloric and energy deprivation, 3. effects of genetic factors. (Fig. 2, Ref. 23.) PMID:12061083

  20. Interactions mixing alcohol

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    --including many popular painkillers and cough, cold, and allergy remedies--contain more than one ingredient. Cough syrup and laxatives may have some of the high- est alcohol concentrations. ALCOHOL AFFECTS WOMEN

  1. Alcohol and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... there potential benefits of drinking wine or other alcoholic beverages? Research is being done to find out what ... or some substances such as resveratrol found in alcoholic beverages may prevent platelets in the blood from sticking ...

  2. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  3. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... addition to medicine, your doctor may recommend some psychosocial treatments. These treatments can help you change your ... with your problems without using alcohol. Examples of psychosocial treatments include Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, counseling, family therapy, ...

  4. Intestinal IgA production and its role in host-microbe interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gutzeit, Cindy; Magri, Giuliana; Cerutti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Complex and diverse communities of bacteria establish mutualistic and symbiotic relationships with the gut after birth. The intestinal immune system responds to bacterial colonization by acquiring a state of hypo-responsiveness against commensals and active readiness against pathogens. The resulting homeostatic balance involves a continuous dialog between the microbiota and lymphocytes with the intermediation of epithelial and dendritic cells. This dialog causes massive production of immunoglobulin A (IgA), a non-inflammatory antibody specialized in mucosal protection. Here, we discuss recent advances on the regulation of intestinal IgA responses and their role in host-microbe interaction. PMID:24942683

  5. Candidate genes for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury identified by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Alaish, Samuel M; Timmons, Jennifer; Smith, Alexis; Buzza, Marguerite S; Murphy, Ebony; Zhao, Aiping; Sun, Yezhou; Turner, Douglas J; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Antalis, Toni M; Cross, Alan; Dorsey, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    The lack of bile flow from the liver into the intestine can have devastating complications including hepatic failure, sepsis, and even death. This pathologic condition known as cholestasis can result from etiologies as diverse as total parenteral nutrition (TPN), hepatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The intestinal injury associated with cholestasis has been shown to result in decreased intestinal resistance, increased bacterial translocation, and increased endotoxemia. Anecdotal clinical evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury. Recent animal research on two different strains of inbred mice demonstrating different rates of bacterial translocation with different mortality rates supports this premise. In this study, a microarray analysis of intestinal tissue following common bile duct ligation (CBDL) performed under general anesthesia on these same two strains of inbred mice was done with the goal of identifying the potential molecular mechanistic pathways responsible. Over 500 genes were increased more than 2.0-fold following CBDL. The most promising candidate genes included major urinary proteins (MUPs), serine protease-1-inhibitor (Serpina1a), and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the microarray results for these candidate genes. In an in vitro experiment using differentiated intestinal epithelial cells, inhibition of MUP-1 by siRNA resulted in increased intestinal epithelial cell permeability. Diverse novel mechanisms involving the growth hormone pathway, the acute phase response, and the innate immune response are thus potential avenues for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury. Changes in gene expression were at times found to be not only due to the CBDL but also due to the murine strain. Should further studies in cholestatic patients demonstrate interindividual variability similar to what we have shown in mice, then a “personalized medicine” approach to cholestatic patients may become possible. PMID:24179676

  6. PTEN-deficient intestinal stem cells initiate intestinal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    He, Xi C; Yin, Tong; Grindley, Justin C; Tian, Qiang; Sato, Toshiro; Tao, W Andy; Dirisina, Raminarao; Porter-Westpfahl, Kimberly S; Hembree, Mark; Johnson, Teri; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Barrett, Terrence A; Hood, Leroy; Wu, Hong; Li, Linheng

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal polyposis, a precancerous neoplasia, results primarily from an abnormal increase in the number of crypts, which contain intestinal stem cells (ISCs). In mice, widespread deletion of the tumor suppressor Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) generates hamartomatous intestinal polyps with epithelial and stromal involvement. Using this model, we have established the relationship between stem cells and polyp and tumor formation. PTEN helps govern the proliferation rate and number of ISCs and loss of PTEN results in an excess of ISCs. In PTEN-deficient mice, excess ISCs initiate de novo crypt formation and crypt fission, recapitulating crypt production in fetal and neonatal intestine. The PTEN-Akt pathway probably governs stem cell activation by helping control nuclear localization of the Wnt pathway effector ?-catenin. Akt phosphorylates ?-catenin at Ser552, resulting in a nuclear-localized form in ISCs. Our observations show that intestinal polyposis is initiated by PTEN-deficient ISCs that undergo excessive proliferation driven by Akt activation and nuclear localization of ?-catenin. PMID:17237784

  7. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  8. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  9. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  10. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  11. Alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, Marc A

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse or harmful use cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Alcohol-use disorders are associated with depressive episodes, severe anxiety, insomnia, suicide, and abuse of other drugs. Continued heavy alcohol use also shortens the onset of heart disease, stroke, cancers, and liver cirrhosis, by affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. Heavy drinking can also cause mild anterograde amnesias, temporary cognitive deficits, sleep problems, and peripheral neuropathy; cause gastrointestinal problems; decrease bone density and production of blood cells; and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol-use disorders complicate assessment and treatment of other medical and psychiatric problems. Standard criteria for alcohol dependence-the more severe disorder-can be used to reliably identify people for whom drinking causes major physiological consequences and persistent impairment of quality of life and ability to function. Clinicians should routinely screen for alcohol disorders, using clinical interviews, questionnaires, blood tests, or a combination of these methods. Causes include environmental factors and specific genes that affect the risk of alcohol-use disorders, including genes for enzymes that metabolise alcohol, such as alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase; those associated with disinhibition; and those that confer a low sensitivity to alcohol. Treatment can include motivational interviewing to help people to evaluate their situations, brief interventions to facilitate more healthy behaviours, detoxification to address withdrawal symptoms, cognitive-behavioural therapies to avoid relapses, and judicious use of drugs to diminish cravings or discourage relapses. PMID:19168210

  12. Incident Type Alcohol Violation

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    Incident Type Alcohol Violation Burglary Burglary Burglary Burglary Burglary Sex Offense Drug Violation Drug Violation Drug Violation Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Theft Theft Date/Time Occured 10:30 2015-00002301 10/28/2015 23:20 500 30TH ST Boulder CO 80303 POSSESSION OF DRUG PARAPHERNALIA (PETTY

  13. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  14. Marshall University Ethyl Alcohol

    E-print Network

    Sanyal, Suman

    Marshall University Guide for Use of Tax Free Ethyl Alcohol Including Excerpts from The Code of Federal Regulations TITLE 27--ALCOHOL, TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND FIREARMS CHAPTER I PART 22_DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL NOVEMBER 15, 2006 Brian Carrico, Director Health and Safety Office Marshall

  15. understanding alcohol's impact

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Beyond Hangovers understanding alcohol's impact on your health #12;Table of contents Beyond confounding a villain. And what wedding concludes without a champagne toast? Alcohol is part of our culture to these serious problems, alcohol abuse can damage organs, weaken the immune system, and contribute to cancers

  16. Alcohol Tips for youngadults

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    Alcohol Tips for youngadults Presented By The University of Texas at Arlington Police Department 817-272-3381 Tips for Young Adults: The Truth about Alcohol If you are the victim of a crime on the U. One 12-ounce bottle of beer or a 5-ounce glass of wine (about a half-cup) has as much alcohol as a 1

  17. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  18. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  19. Bacterial cell wall components regulate adipokine secretion from visceral adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Risa; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Shimizu, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kiminori; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Taira, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndromes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we assessed the effects of bacterial cell wall components on adiponectin, leptin and resistin secretion from rat visceral adipocytes in vitro. We also measured the relative population of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in fecal microbiota and the amount of fecal mucin as an intestinal barrier function, when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial cell wall components affect the secretion of adipokines, depending on the presence of antigens from gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide markedly inhibited adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion, whereas peptidoglycan increased adiponectin secretion and decreased resistin secretion in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the high-fat diet increased the population of Firmicutes and decreased that of Bacteroidetes. In contrast, the high-fat diet downregulated the stool output and fecal mucin content. These results demonstrate that bacterial cell wall components affect the onset of metabolic syndromes by mediating the secretion of adipokines from visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, we believe that metabolic endotoxemia is not due to the increasing dominance of gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroidetes, but due to the depression of intestinal barrier function. PMID:25759521

  20. Bacterial cell wall components regulate adipokine secretion from visceral adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Taira, Risa; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Shimizu, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kiminori; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Taira, Toshio

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest a relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndromes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we assessed the effects of bacterial cell wall components on adiponectin, leptin and resistin secretion from rat visceral adipocytes in vitro. We also measured the relative population of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in fecal microbiota and the amount of fecal mucin as an intestinal barrier function, when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial cell wall components affect the secretion of adipokines, depending on the presence of antigens from gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide markedly inhibited adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion, whereas peptidoglycan increased adiponectin secretion and decreased resistin secretion in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the high-fat diet increased the population of Firmicutes and decreased that of Bacteroidetes. In contrast, the high-fat diet downregulated the stool output and fecal mucin content. These results demonstrate that bacterial cell wall components affect the onset of metabolic syndromes by mediating the secretion of adipokines from visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, we believe that metabolic endotoxemia is not due to the increasing dominance of gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroidetes, but due to the depression of intestinal barrier function. PMID:25759521

  1. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao; Bi, Jingcheng; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-08-01

    Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2), and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05), loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001). The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05). Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota. PMID:26247961

  2. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiao; Bi, Jingcheng; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2), and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05), loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001). The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05). Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota. PMID:26247961

  3. Zinc Competition among the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gielda, Lindsay M.; DiRita, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bioavailable levels of trace metals, such as iron and zinc, for bacterial growth in nature are sufficiently low that most microbes have evolved high-affinity binding and transport systems. The microbe Campylobacter jejuni lives in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, the principal source of human infection. A high-affinity ABC transporter for zinc uptake is required for Campylobacter survival in chicken intestines in the presence of a normal microbiota but not when chickens are raised with a limited microbiota. Mass spectrometric analysis of cecal contents revealed the presence of numerous zinc-binding proteins in conventional chicks compared to the number in limited-microbiota chicks. The presence of a microbiota results in the production of host zinc-binding enzymes, causing a growth restriction for bacteria that lack the high-affinity zinc transporter. Such transporters in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria make them good targets for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Importance Zinc is an essential trace element for the growth of most organisms. Quantities of zinc inside cells are highly regulated, as too little zinc does not support growth, while too much zinc is toxic. Numerous bacterial cells require zinc uptake systems for growth and virulence. The work presented here demonstrates that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract reduces the quantity of zinc. Without a high-affinity zinc transporter, Campylobacter jejuni, a commensal organism of chickens, is unable to replicate or colonize the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first demonstration of zinc competition between microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of a host. These results could have profound implications in the field of microbial pathogenesis and in our understanding of host metabolism and the microbiota. PMID:22851657

  4. [Indigenous microflora associated with the tegument of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda) and the intestine of its pike host].

    PubMed

    Korneva, Zh V; Plotnikov, A O

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of the indigenous microflora associated with the mucous intestines of fish and its cestode parasites have been for the first time carried out using the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. New data on the bacterial biodiversity in the cestode and its fish host are obtained. Nanobacteria and spirochaetes are for the first time revealed in a fish host together with the previously known bacteria forming the intestinal microflora of fish. Spirochaetes were shown to be associated with the intestines of a pike host only, while nanobacteria cover abundantly the surface of the apical parts of the intestinal microvilli and the apical parts of the microtriches in the cestode tegument. The similarity of the bacterial floras associated with the apical surface of the parasite tegument and the intestine of the host should be noted. At the same time, deeper bacterial communities represented by obligate symbionts are specific. Thus, there is a normal indigenous microflora in cestodes, associated with the tegumental surface. This symbiotic microflora has specific morphological features and provides the balance of relations in the parasite-host system. PMID:17285757

  5. Interactions Between Bacteria and the Gut Mucosa: Do Enteric Neurotransmitters Acting on the Mucosal Epithelium Influence Intestinal Colonization or Infection?

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Brown, David R

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include enteric neurons, whose activity is influenced by bacterial pathogens, and their secreted products. Neurotransmitters appear to influence epithelial associations with bacteria in the intestinal lumen. For example, internalization of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the Peyer's patch mucosa of the small intestine is altered after the inhibition of neural activity with saxitoxin, a neuronal sodium channel blocker. Catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, also alter bacterial internalization in Peyer's patches. In the large intestine, norepinephrine increases the mucosal adherence of E. coli. These neurotransmitter actions are mediated by well-defined catecholamine receptors situated on the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells rather than through direct interactions with luminal bacteria. Investigations of the involvement of neuroepithelial communication in the regulation of interactions between the intestinal mucosa and luminal bacteria will provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying bacterial colonization and pathogenesis at mucosal surfaces. PMID:26589216

  6. Understanding how commensal obligate anaerobic bacteria regulate immune functions in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  7. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation modulates microbial community and activates innate immunity in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Jie; Liu, Gang; Cao, Zhong; Xiong, Xia; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with 1 % L-glutamine for 14 days on the abundance of intestinal bacteria and the activation of intestinal innate immunity in mice. The measured variables included (1) the abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium in the lumen of the small intestine; (2) the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial substances secreted by Paneth cells and goblet cells in the jejunum, ileum and colon; and (3) the activation of TLR4-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways in the jejunum and ileum. In the jejunum, glutamine supplementation decreased the abundance of Firmicutes, while increased mRNA levels for antibacterial substances in association with the activation of NF-?B and PI3K-Akt pathways. In the ileum, glutamine supplementation induced a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio in favor of Bacteroidetes, and enhanced mRNA levels for Tlr4, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial substances participating in NF-?B and JNK signaling pathways. These results indicate that the effects of glutamine on the intestine vary with its segments and compartments. Collectively, dietary glutamine supplementation of mice beneficially alters intestinal bacterial community and activates the innate immunity in the small intestine through NF-?B, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:25023447

  8. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  9. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-28

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  10. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  11. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  12. Therapeutic approaches targeting intestinal microflora in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease, are chronic intestinal disorders of unknown etiology in which in genetically susceptible individuals, the mucosal immune system shows an aberrant response towards commensal bacteria. The gastrointestinal tract has developed ingenious mechanisms to coexist with its autologous microflora, but rapidly responds to invading pathogens and then returns to homeostasis with its commensal bacteria after the pathogenic infection is cleared. In case of disruption of this tightly-regulated homeostasis, chronic intestinal inflammation may be induced. Previous studies showed that some commensal bacteria are detrimental while others have either no influence or have a protective action. In addition, each host has a genetically determined response to detrimental and protective bacterial species. These suggest that therapeutic manipulation of imbalance of microflora can influence health and disease. This review focuses on new insights into the role of commensal bacteria in gut health and disease, and presents recent findings in innate and adaptive immune interactions. Therapeutic approaches to modulate balance of intestinal microflora and their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:16874854

  13. IL-6 Stimulates Intestinal Epithelial Proliferation and Repair after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Kristine A.; Manieri, Nicholas A.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2014-01-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine often associated with inflammation. Inhibition of this pathway has led to successful treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but one unforeseen potential complication of anti-IL-6 therapy is bowel perforation. Within the intestine, IL-6 has been shown to prevent epithelial apoptosis during prolonged inflammation. The role of IL-6 in the intestine during an initial inflammatory insult is unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of IL-6 at the onset of an inflammatory injury. Using two murine models of bowel injury – wound by biopsy and bacterial triggered colitis – we demonstrated that IL-6 is induced soon after injury by multiple cell types including intraepithelial lymphocytes. Inhibition of IL-6 resulted in impaired wound healing due to decreased epithelial proliferation. Using intestinal tissue obtained from patients who underwent surgical resection of the colon due to traumatic perforation, we observed cells with detectable IL-6 within the area of perforation and not at distant sites. Our data demonstrate the important role of IL-6 produced in part by intraepithelial lymphocytes at the onset of an inflammatory injury for epithelial proliferation and wound repair. PMID:25478789

  14. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing bacteria in the intestine of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on different forage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Guang-Ying; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2011-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, is susceptible to entomopathogen infection when reared with tricuspid cudrania leaves. A total of 56 dominant bacterial strains, classified into 12 phylotypes based on bacteriological properties and analysis of 16S rRNA genes, were isolated from the intestine of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Ten and seven phylotypes exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae reared with mulberry leaves and tricuspid cudrania leaves, respectively. Four of them are common in the intestine of the two treatment groups. By screening their lipolytic ability on a Rhodamine B agar plate, nine lipase-producing bacterial strains were obtained and classified into six genera, including Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas. Except for Stenotrophomonas, which is common in both, the other genera only exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae fed with mulberry leaves. In addition, by culture and fermentation in vitro, the maximum cell density and lipase activity of lipase-producing bacteria were examined at about 48 hours. The results indicate that diet has a significant impact on the gut bacterial community, especially lipase-producing bacteria. We suggest that the difference of lipase-producing bacterial diversity might be related to disease resistance of the silkworm. PMID:22243438

  15. Loss of sigma factor RpoN increases intestinal colonization of vibrio parahaemolyticus in an adult mouse model"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, yet little is known about how this pathogen colonizes the human intestine. The alternative sigma factor RpoN/sigma-54 is a global regulator that controls flagella synthesis as well as a wide range of ...

  16. Alcohol and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has long been recognized as a risk factor for mortality. By combining data on alcohol per capita consumption, alcohol-drinking status and alcohol-drinking patterns, risk relationships, and mortality, the Comparative Risk assessment study estimated alcohol-attributable mortality for 1990 and 2010. Alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury were responsible for the majority of the burden of alcohol-attributable mortality in 1990 and 2010. In 2010, alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury caused 1,500,000 deaths (319,500 deaths among women and 1,180,500 deaths among men) and 51,898,400 potential years of life lost (PYLL) (9,214,300 PYLL among women and 42,684,100 PYLL among men). This represents 2.8 percent (1.3 percent for women and 4.1 percent for men) of all deaths and 3.0 percent (1.3 percent for women and 4.3 percent for men) of all PYLL in 2010. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury increased from 1990 to 2010 for both genders. In addition, the rates of deaths and PYLL per 100,000 people from alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury increased from 1990 to 2010 (with the exception of liver cirrhosis rates for women). Results of this paper indicate that alcohol is a significant and increasing risk factor for the global burden of mortality. PMID:24881325

  17. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life. PMID:26394519

  18. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Eimerbrink, Priya A; Nurnberger, John I

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol use and alcohol use disorders are substantially heritable. Variants in genes coding for alcohol metabolic enzymes have long been known to influence consumption. More recent studies in family-based samples have implicated GABRA2, nicotinic receptor genes such as CHRNB3, and a number of other specific single genes as associated with alcohol use disorders. The growing use of genetic analyses, in particular studies using polygenic risk scores; neurobiologic pathways; and methods for quantifying gene × gene and gene × environment interactions have also contributed to an evolving understanding of the genetic architecture of alcohol use disorders. Additionally, the study of behavioral traits associated with alcohol dependence such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the influences of demographic factors (i.e., sex and ethnicity) have significantly enhanced the genetics of alcoholism literature. This article provides a brief overview of the current topically relevant findings in the field to date and includes areas of research still requiring attention. PMID:25399692

  19. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible repair. We aim to (1) determine the immuno-pathology of alcohol-induced liver damage, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of ASH, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and NASH, (4) examine age differences, (5) develop common research tools to study alcohol-induced effects in clinical and pre-clinical studies, and (6) focus on factors that aggravate severity of organ-damage. The intention of these symposia is to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism. PMID:25217800

  20. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible repair. We aim to (1) determine the immuno-pathology of alcohol-induced liver damage, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of ASH, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and NASH, (4) examine age differences, (5) develop common research tools to study alcohol-induced effects in clinical and pre-clinical studies, and (6) focus on factors that aggravate severity of organ-damage. The intention of these symposia is to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism. PMID:25217800

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired sleep homeostasis. In conclusion, we suggest that alcohol may disrupt sleep homeostasis to cause sleep disruptions. PMID:25499829

  2. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109,...

  3. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  4. IBD Candidate Genes and Intestinal Barrier Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McCole, Declan F.

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances in the large scale analysis of human genetics have generated profound insights into possible genetic contributions to chronic diseases including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. To date, 163 distinct genetic risk loci have been associated with either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, with a substantial degree of genetic overlap between these 2 conditions. Although many risk variants show a reproducible correlation with disease, individual gene associations only affect a subset of patients, and the functional contribution(s) of these risk variants to the onset of IBD is largely undetermined. Although studies in twins have demonstrated that the development of IBD is not mediated solely by genetic risk, it is nevertheless important to elucidate the functional consequences of risk variants for gene function in relevant cell types known to regulate key physiological processes that are compromised in IBD. This article will discuss IBD candidate genes that are known to be, or are suspected of being, involved in regulating the intestinal epithelial barrier and several of the physiological processes presided over by this dynamic and versatile layer of cells. This will include assembly and regulation of tight junctions, cell adhesion and polarity, mucus and glycoprotein regulation, bacterial sensing, membrane transport, epithelial differentiation, and restitution. PMID:25215613

  5. Alterations in microbiota and fermentation products in equine large intestine in response to dietary variation and intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Proudman, Christopher J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J; Dyer, Jane; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of variations in dietary composition on equine gut microbiota and their fermentation products, and proposed that dietary modifications profoundly affect microbial ecosystems and their metabolites. Bacterial communities within the large intestine of three groups of horses were compared using oligonucleotide-RNA hybridisation methodology. Each group consisting of six horses was maintained on (1) a grass-only diet, (2) a concentrate diet (i.e. supplemented with hydrolysable carbohydrates) and (3) a concentrate diet but horses were affected by simple colonic obstruction and distension (SCOD), a prevalent form of dietary-induced intestinal disease. We show that in response to dietary change and intestinal disease, there is a progressive and significant increase in Lachnospiraceae, the Bacteroidetes assemblage and the lactic acid-producing, Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus (BLS) group. In contrast, there is a corresponding decrease in the proportion of obligate fibrolytic, acid-intolerant bacteria, Fibrobacter and Ruminococcaceae. Assessment of monocarboxylic acids indicated that there are significantly higher concentrations of lactic acid in the colonic contents of horses maintained on a concentrate diet and those suffering from SCOD, correlating with the observed increase in the population abundance of the BLS group. However, the population size of the Veillonellaceae (lactate utilisers) remained constant in each study group. The inability of this group to respond to increased lactic acid may be a contributory factor to the build-up of lactic acid observed in horses fed a concentrate diet and those suffering from SCOD. PMID:21816118

  6. Colonic bacterial metabolites and human health.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy R; Hoyles, Lesley; Flint, Harry J; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the microbial-mammalian metabolic axis is becoming increasingly important for human health. Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (CHOs) and proteins produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and a range of other metabolites including those from aromatic amino acid (AAA) fermentation. SCFA influence host health as energy sources and via multiple signalling mechanisms. Bacterial transformation of fibre-related phytochemicals is associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. The 'gut-liver axis' is an emerging area of study. Microbial deconjugation of xenobiotics and release of aromatic moieties into the colon can have a wide range of physiological consequences. In addition, the role of the gut microbiota in choline deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance is receiving increased attention. PMID:23880135

  7. Characterization of moose intestinal glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Miralda Madar; Dedic, Benjamin; Lundholm, Klara; Branzell, Filip Berner; Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann

    2015-08-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Gal?3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized. PMID:26104834

  8. Characterization and comparison of the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract compartments in horses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Silva, G; Ramos, R V; Staempfli, H R; Arroyo, L G; Kim, P; Weese, J S

    2015-07-01

    The advance of new sequencing technologies has allowed more comprehensive characterization of complex microbial communities, including the ones inhabiting the intestinal tract. The presence of extreme environmental filters, such as low pH, digestive enzymes and anaerobic conditions along the tract, acts on the selection of unique bacteria in each compartment. The intestinal microbiota has an enormous impact on the maintenance of health. However, data about the bacteria present in the different intestinal compartments of horses are sparse. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to characterize and compare bacterial profiles from different intestinal compartments of 11 horses scheduled for euthanasia for reasons other than gastrointestinal problems. Marked differences among compartments even at high taxonomic levels were found, with Firmicutes comprising the main bacterial phylum in all compartments. Lactobacillus spp. and Sarcina spp. predominated in the stomach and a marked increase of Streptococcus spp. occurred in the duodenum. Actinobacillus and Clostridium sensu stricto were the most abundant genera in the ileum and '5 genus incertae sedis', a genus from the Subdivision 5 class of the Verrucomicrobia, was the most abundant from the large colon through feces. There was a significant increase in diversity towards the distal gut with similar profiles observed from the cecum through feces at the class level. The bacterial population comprising the equine intestinal tract varies greatly among compartments and fecal samples may be useful as representative of changes occurring in the distal compartments. PMID:25975855

  9. Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions. PMID:25275396

  10. The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Development and Severity of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Michel J.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Mucositis, also referred to as mucosal barrier injury, is one of the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. Clinically, mucositis is associated with pain, bacteremia, and malnutrition. Furthermore, mucositis is a frequent reason to postpone chemotherapy treatment, ultimately leading towards a higher mortality in cancer patients. According to the model introduced by Sonis, both inflammation and apoptosis of the mucosal barrier result in its discontinuity, thereby promoting bacterial translocation. According to this five-phase model, the intestinal microbiota plays no role in the pathophysiology of mucositis. However, research has implicated a prominent role for the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development of several inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, pouchitis, and radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. Furthermore, chemotherapeutics have a detrimental effect on the intestinal microbial composition (strongly decreasing the numbers of anaerobic bacteria), coinciding in time with the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We hypothesize that the commensal intestinal microbiota might play a pivotal role in chemotherapy-induced mucositis. In this review, we propose and discuss five pathways in the development of mucositis that are potentially influenced by the commensal intestinal microbiota: 1) the inflammatory process and oxidative stress, 2) intestinal permeability, 3) the composition of the mucus layer, 4) the resistance to harmful stimuli and epithelial repair mechanisms, and 5) the activation and release of immune effector molecules. Via these pathways, the commensal intestinal microbiota might influence all phases in the Sonis model of the pathogenesis of mucositis. Further research is needed to show the clinical relevance of restoring dysbiosis, thereby possibly decreasing the degree of intestinal mucositis. PMID:20523891

  11. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alert Number 85 Print Version The Link Between Stress and Alcohol Today, more and more servicemen and ... in alleviating and perpetuating stress. Common Types of Stress Most causes of stress can be grouped into ...

  12. Markers of bacterial translocation in end-stage liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Bamias, Giorgos

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence. BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT. PMID:26380651

  13. Asphalt Showing Bacterial Degeneration 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    , has been expanded through a new project, Development of a Synergistic, Comprehensive Statewide Lone Star Healthy Streams Program. The LSHS Program initially developed and tested educational opportunities for cattlemen focusing on bacterial... contami- nation of watersheds by grazing animals and how that bacterial contamination can be reduced. The program also encouraged adoption of best management practices designed to reduce bacterial loading to Texas streams and waterways...

  14. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. PMID:25441463

  15. Broad diversity and newly cultured bacterial isolates from enrichment of pig feces on complex polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fascinating functions of the mammalian intestinal microbiota is the fermentation of plant cell wall components. We used 8 week continuous culture enrichments of pig feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin to isolated bacteria from this community. A total of 575 bacterial isolates were class...

  16. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II – contemporary contextual research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest concerning the ways in which the gastrointestinal tract – its functional integrity and microbial residents – might influence human mood (e.g. depression) and behavioral disorders. Once a hotbed of scientific interest in the early 20th century, this area lay dormant for decades, in part due to its association with the controversial term ‘autointoxication’. Here we review contemporary findings related to intestinal permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) exposure, D-lactic acid, propionic acid, and discuss their relevance to microbiota and mental health. In addition, we include the context of modern dietary habits as they relate to depression, anxiety and their potential interaction with intestinal microbiota. PMID:23497633

  17. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Mario M; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-11-17

    Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host's immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986

  18. Th17, intestinal microbiota and the abnormal immune response in the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Cicerone, Clelia; Nenna, Raffaella; Pontone, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals who carry the HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 alleles. The immune response is abnormal in celiac disease with small intestinal epithelial damage via CD8+CD4- intraepithelial lymphocytes. The etiology is multifactorial involving genetic and environmental factors, an abnormal immune response, and intestinal dysbiosis. The innate and acquired T-cell mediated immunity play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disease, particularly CD4+ Th17 cells, which have been shown to have critical functions in host defense against bacterial pathogens and in the inflammatory responses to deamidated gluten peptides. We review what is known about the interaction between immune system and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. PMID:25926936

  19. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  20. Personality disorders, alcohol use, and alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; French, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are psychiatric conditions that manifest early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are highly persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual and those with whom s/he interacts. In this study we offer new information on the associations between PDs and alcohol use/misuse. Specifically, we consider all 10 PDs recognized by the American Psychiatric Association; carefully address important sources of bias in our regression models; and study heterogeneity across PDs, drinking pattern, and gender. To investigate the relationships between PDs and alcohol consumption we analyze data from the 2004/2005 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34,653). We construct measures of any drinking, drinking quantity, and patterns of misuse that could lead to significant social costs including drinking to intoxication, driving after drinking, drinking during the day, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Results show that persons with PDs are significantly more likely to use and misuse alcohol, although associations vary across gender. Moreover, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PDs display the strongest links with alcohol use and misuse, and the relationships are strongest among the heaviest drinkers. These findings have important public health implications and underscore the potential social costs associated with mental health conditions. PMID:25262316

  1. Contribution of intestinal flora to surgical infections.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A K; Thadepalli, H

    1988-07-01

    Postoperative septic complications related to intestinal injury are regulated by a complex group of factors, including intestinal microflora, site of injury, surgical procedures used, and the type of antimicrobial therapy; however, a large number of yet-to-be understood factors also exist that influence septic morbidity associated with intestinal surgery. The authors present an overview of this serious complication of surgery. PMID:3404556

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Chi, Feifei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Chen, Yongquan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 was screened for high antioxidative activity from 55 lactobacilli. The present study attempted to explore the protective properties of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 in alcoholic liver injury. A mouse model was induced by orally feeding alcohol when simultaneously treated with L. rhamnosus CCFM1107, the drug Hu-Gan- Pian (HGP), L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), and L. plantarum CCFM1112 for 3 months. Biochemical analysis was performed for both serum and liver homogenate. Detailed intestinal flora and histological analyses were also carried out. Our results indicated that the administration of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 significantly inhibited the increase in the levels of serum aminotransferase and endotoxin, as well as the levels of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) in the serum and in the liver. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased. The enteric dysbiosis caused by alcohol was restored by increasing the numbers of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and decreasing the numbers of both enterococci and enterobacter. Histological analysis confirmed the protective effect of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107. Compared with the other lactobacilli and to the drug Hu-Gan-Pian, there is a high chance that L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 provides protective effects on alcoholic liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and restoring the intestinal flora. PMID:26626356

  3. Chronic gastritis, alcohol, and non-ulcer dyspepsia 1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of 102 men comprising alcoholics, patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, and healthy controls is reported. It demonstrates that alcohol is a cause of chronic gastritis and the severity of the mucosal lesion is directly related to the duration of excess drinking. Contrary to popular belief, chronic gastritis does not give rise to symptoms. The effect of alcohol on the gastric mucosa is a direct one and is not mediated by malnutrition, hepatic damage, intestinal malabsorption, anaemia, ascorbic acid deficiency, or any disturbance in immune tolerance. The natural history of chronic gastritis is described, involving an initial hypertrophy and hyperfunction of the gastric mucosa, followed by atrophy and hypofunction. Cigarette smoking is confirmed as another cause of chronic gastritis. The non-ulcer dyspepsia syndrome is unrelated to chronic gastritis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5087067

  4. Opposing effects of alcohol on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have described a dose-dependent effect of alcohol on human health with light to moderate drinkers having a lower risk of all-cause mortality than abstainers, while heavy drinkers are at the highest risk. In the case of the immune system, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced inflammation and improved responses to vaccination, while chronic heavy drinking is associated with a decreased frequency of lymphocytes and increased risk of both bacterial and viral infections. However, the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts a dose-dependent effect on the immune system remain poorly understood due to a lack of systematic studies that examine the effect of multiple doses and different time courses. This review will summarize our current understanding of the impact of moderate versus excessive alcohol consumption on the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system derived from both in vitro as well as in vivo studies carried out in humans and animal model studies. PMID:26375241

  5. [Alcohol and oropharyngolaryngeal and digestive tract cancer].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Omori, T

    2001-12-01

    Epidemiology has demonstrated that alcoholic beverages are causally related to oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal, and female breast cancer. Among Japanese male alcoholics screened by endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining and immunofecal occult blood tests, 4.2% had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); 1.2%, oropharyngolaryngeal SCC; 1.4%, stomach adenocarcinoma; 1.9%, colorectal adenocarcinoma. The inactive form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2, which is prevalent in Asians, exposes them to higher levels of acetaldehyde after drinking and was a strong risk factor for these cancers among Japanese heavy drinkers. Inactive ALDH2 was also associated with synchronous and metachronous multiple esophageal cancers. These results suggest a general role of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen, in carcinogenesis of the human alimentary tract. The oropharyngolarynx and esophagus lack ALDH2 activity, suggesting that after exposure to acetaldehyde derived from systemic, mucosal, salivary, or bacterial production or alcoholic beverages, these organs' inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde enhances the chances for local acetaldehyde-associated carcinogenesis. The normal alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), encoded by ADH2*1/2*1, is another risk factor for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For patients with both normal ADH2 and inactive ALDH2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer are enhanced in a multiplicative fashion. The responses to a simple questionnaire about both current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer can indicate an individual's ALDH2 phenotype fairly well. Use of this questionnaire to obtain information on ALDH2-associated cancer susceptibility could contribute to the prevention of alcohol-related cancer in Asians. PMID:11828713

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Intestinal Flora in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nidhi; Chaudhry, Rama; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the neonatal period the developing intestinal barrier function provides a sub-optimal mucosal defense against infection. Establishment of the normal commensal micro-flora plays a vital role in this process. Aims: To determine aerobic and anaerobic bacteria by quantitative and qualitative methods from faecal samples of neonates. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out in two groups in a tertiary care hospital, Group A-comprised preterm infant and in group B-full term infants. Materials and Methods: Sixty two preterm infants with the weight < 1500 gm and gestation age < 34 weeks and twenty nine full term infants with 4 weeks of age were included. Quantitation of bacterial load was done by ten-fold serial dilutions on respective media. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by using EPIINFO-Ver 6.04. Results and Conclusions: The predominant aerobic bacterium was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In pre term infants aerobic bacteria were colonized with an average of 2.1 and anaerobic bacteria 0.1. Quantitation showed faecal bacterial colony count ranging from 104-1013 CFU/gms. Gram negative and gram positive bacteria increased gradually over an interval of 2 to 3 weeks. Mean log CFU of gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria were statistically insignificant from day 3 to day 14 (P > 0.05). On day 21 there was a significant change in colonization of both bacterial sp (P < 0.05). Potential pathogenic aerobic bacteria dominate the intestinal flora of premature babies nursed in neonatal unit. There is a need to investigate interventions to offset this imbalance in gut micro-ecology of premature babies. PMID:23326075

  7. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  8. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  9. Acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vonghia, Luisa; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Bertini, Marco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2008-12-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication is a clinically harmful condition that usually follows the ingestion of a large amount of alcohol. Clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and involve different organs and apparatuses, with behavioral, cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, neurological, and metabolic effects. The management of an intoxicated patient occurs mainly in the emergency department and is aimed at stabilizing the clinical condition of the patient, depending on his/her clinical presentation. One specific drug that is useful in the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication is metadoxine, which is able to accelerate ethanol excretion. In patients presenting an acute alcohol intoxication, alcohol-related disorders should be detected so that the patient can be directed to an alcohol treatment unit, where a personalized, specific treatment can be established. PMID:19046719

  10. Metatranscriptomic discovery of plant biomass-degrading capacity from grass carp intestinal microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Ren, Yi; Peng, Chun; Hao, Yaotong; Xiong, Fan; Wang, Guitang; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Angert, Esther R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet. Although hydrolases and cellulosome-based systems predicted to be involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose, xylan, mannan and pectin were identified, transcripts with glycoside hydrolase modules targeting the side chains of noncellulosic polysaccharides were more abundant. Predominant 'COG' (Clusters of Orthologous Group) categories in the intestinal microbiome included those for energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate and amino acid transport and metabolism. These results suggest that the grass carp intestinal microbiome functions in carbohydrate turnover and fermentation, which likely provides energy for both host and microbiota. Grass carp intestinal microbiome thus reflects its evolutionary adaption for harvesting nutrients for an herbivore with a high-throughput nutritional strategy that is not dominated by cellulose digestion but rather the degradation of intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:26362922

  11. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  12. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  13. Cancer of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2015 9,410 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.6% Estimated Deaths in 2015 1,260 % of All Cancer ... intestine cancer is rare. Common Types of Cancer Estimated New Cases 2015 Estimated Deaths 2015 1. Breast ...

  14. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

  15. Treatment Factors in Alcoholic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selzer, Melvin L.

    This paper describes an attempt to ascertain differences between an alcoholic and a non-alcoholic group of males. The author feels that as long as the characteristics and needs of alcoholics are not understood treatment programs will continue simplistic ineffective and even harmful. The study compares the profiles of alcoholics and non-alcoholics

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  17. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears. PMID:21358758

  18. Bovine Intestinal Bacteria Inactivate and Degrade Ceftiofur and Ceftriaxone with Multiple ?-Lactamases?

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, R. Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J.; Cerniglia, Carl E.; Erickson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific ?-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases and metallo-?-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple ?-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-?-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading ?-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that ?-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple ?-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle. PMID:21876048

  19. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In: Nixon, S.J., ed. Neuropsychology for Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Press, ... alcoholic men: Relationships to changes in brain structure. Neuropsychology 14:178–188, 2000. (38) Rosenbloom, M. ; Sullivan, ...

  20. Iron-Induced Virulence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface Can Be Suppressed by Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Roelofs, Rian W. H. M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral iron therapy can increase the abundance of bacterial pathogens, e.g., Salmonella spp., in the large intestine of African children. Carvacrol is a natural compound with antimicrobial activity against various intestinal bacterial pathogens, among which is the highly prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study aimed to explore a presumed interaction between carvacrol and bacterial iron handling and to assess the potential of carvacrol in preventing the increase of bacterial pathogenicity during high iron availability. S. Typhimurium was cultured with increasing concentrations of iron and carvacrol to study the effects of these combined interventions on growth, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and iron uptake/influx in both bacterial and epithelial cells. In addition, the ability of carvacrol to remove iron from the high-affinity ligand transferrin and an Fe-dye complex was examined. Carvacrol retarded growth of S. Typhimurium at all iron conditions. Furthermore, iron-induced epithelial adhesion was effectively reduced by carvacrol at high iron concentrations. The reduction of growth and virulence by carvacrol was not paralleled by a change in iron uptake or influx into S. Typhimurium. In contrast, bioavailability of iron for epithelial cells was moderately decreased under these conditions. Further, carvacrol was shown to lack the properties of an iron binding molecule; however, it was able to weaken iron-ligand interactions by which it may possibly interfere with bacterial virulence. In conclusion, our in vitro data suggest that carvacrol has the potential to serve as a novel dietary supplement to prevent pathogenic overgrowth and colonization in the large intestine during oral iron therapy. PMID:24379194

  1. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-07-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  2. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 60 July 2003 The Genetics of Alcoholism

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 60 July 2003 The Genetics of Alcoholism Research has shown conclusively that familial transmission of alcoholism risk is at least in part genetic inherits that increases vulnerability to alcoholism and how inherited fac tors interact

  3. Alcohol and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey, found that those with a history of alcohol dependence (even former drinkers), had a more than ... a major depressive episode than those without a history of alcohol dependence. It isn’t always clear which comes ...

  4. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www. ...

  5. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development. PMID:23805681

  6. Delivery of a mucin domain enriched in cysteine residues strengthens the intestinal mucous barrier

    PubMed Central

    Gouyer, Valérie; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Neut, Christel; Singer, Elisabeth; Plet, Ségolène; Geboes, Karel; Desreumaux, Pierre; Gottrand, Frédéric; Desseyn, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    A weakening of the gut mucous barrier permits an increase in the access of intestinal luminal contents to the epithelial cells, which will trigger the inflammatory response. In inflammatory bowel diseases, there is an inappropriate and ongoing activation of the immune system, possibly because the intestinal mucus is less protective against the endogenous microflora. General strategies aimed at improving the protection of the intestinal epithelium are still missing. We generated a transgenic mouse that secreted a molecule consisting of 12 consecutive copies of a mucin domain into its intestinal mucus, which is believed to modify the mucus layer by establishing reversible interactions. We showed that the mucus gel was more robust and that mucin O-glycosylation was altered. Notably, the gut epithelium of transgenic mice housed a greater abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus spp. These modifications were associated with a reduced susceptibility of transgenic mice to chemically induced colitis. Furthermore, transgenic mice cleared faster Citrobacter rodentium bacteria which were orally given and mice were more protected against bacterial translocation induced by gavage with adherent–invasive Escherichia coli. Our data show that delivering the mucin CYS domain into the gut lumen strengthens the intestinal mucus blanket which is impaired in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25974250

  7. An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jonathan J; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E; Skepper, Jeremy N; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W; Kirkby, Karen J; Mabbott, Neil A; Donaldson, David S; Williams, Ifor R; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E; Haas, Carolin T; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Laman, Jon D; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P H; Pele, Laetitia C

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer's patches, small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild-type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule 'programmed death-ligand 1', whereas in NOD1/2 double knockout mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, programmed death-ligand 1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and show how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:25751305

  8. An Endogenous Nanomineral Chaperones Luminal Antigen and Peptidoglycan to Intestinal Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan J; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E; Skepper, Jeremy N; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W; Kirkby, Karen J; Mabbott, Neil A; Donaldson, David S; Williams, Ifor R; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E; Haas, Carolin T; Bruggraber, Sylvaine FA; Laman, Jon D; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P H; Pele, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    In humans and other mammals, it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally-fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer’s patches - small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally-formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule ‘programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)’, whereas in NOD1/2 double knock-out mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, PD-L1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:25751305

  9. An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jonathan J.; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A.; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W.; Kirkby, Karen J.; Mabbott, Neil A.; Donaldson, David S.; Williams, Ifor R.; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E.; Haas, Carolin T.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A.; Laman, Jon D.; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P. H.; Pele, Laetitia C.

    2015-05-01

    In humans and other mammals it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer's patches, small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild-type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule ‘programmed death-ligand 1’, whereas in NOD1/2 double knockout mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, programmed death-ligand 1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and show how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis.

  10. Smith Alcohol Knowledge Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Berneda C.

    High school students' knowledge of alcohol and its use is measured by a test composed of 76 five option multiple choice items. Areas covered include definition of terms, physical effects, psychological effects, the disease concept of alcoholism, treatment and prevention, socio-economic factors, and safety factors. Mean scores by age and sex for a…

  11. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  15. Incident Type Alcohol Violation

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    Incident Type Alcohol Violation Alcohol Violation Warrant Burglary Burglary Drug Violation Drug Violation Drug Violation Other Offense Other Offense Other Offense Other Offense Theft Theft Date/11/2015 23:19 2200 BAKER DR Boulder CO 80309 UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OR SALE OF MJ BY Cleared - Summons Date

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  17. Colby Alcohol Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitzinger, Janice

    Due to a variety of internal and external events the Student Affairs Committee of Colby College (Maine) studied alcohol use on campus and recommended solutions in two major areas, educational and social. Five educational strategies were recommended: (1) development of clear policies regarding alcohol and other drugs; (2) enforcement of…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer D.; Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, alcohol was not commonly recognized as a teratogen, an agent that can disrupt the development of a fetus. Today, we understand that prenatal alcohol exposure induces a variety of adverse effects on physical, neurological, and behavioral development. Research supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has contributed to the identification of the range and prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), as well as methods for prevention and treatment of FASD. The worldwide prevalence and high personal and societal costs of FASD speak to the importance of this research. This article briefly examines some of the ways that NIAAA has contributed to our understanding of FASD, the challenges that we still face, and how this research is translated into changes in public policy. PMID:23579942

  19. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Micha?; Zovko-Konci?, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  20. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  11. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  4. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  15. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

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  16. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  17. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  11. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  12. Role of defective methylation reactions in ethanol-induced dysregulation of intestinal barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Thomes, Paul G; Osna, Natalia A; Bligh, Sarah M; Tuma, Dean J; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2015-07-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major healthcare challenge worldwide. Emerging evidence reveals that ethanol administration disrupts the intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) complex; this defect allows for the paracellular translocation of gut-derived pathogenic molecules to reach the liver to cause inflammation and progressive liver injury. We have previously demonstrated a causative role of impairments in liver transmethylation reactions in the pathogenesis of ALD. We have further shown that treatment with betaine, a methylation agent that normalizes liver methylation potential, can attenuate ethanol-induced liver injury. Herein, we explored whether alterations in methylation reactions play a causative role in disrupting intestinal mucosal barrier function by employing an intestinal epithelial cell line. Monolayers of Caco-2 cells were exposed to ethanol or a-pan methylation reaction inhibitor, tubercidin, in the presence and absence of betaine. The structural and functional integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier was then examined. We observed that exposure to either ethanol or tubercidin disrupted TJ integrity and function by decreasing the localization of TJ protein occludin-1 to the intracellular junctions, reducing transepithelial electrical resistance and increasing dextran influx. All these detrimental effects of ethanol and tubercidin were attenuated by co-treatment with betaine. We further show that the mechanism of betaine protection was through BHMT-mediated catalysis. Collectively, our data suggest a novel mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness and identifies the importance of normal methylation reactions in maintaining TJ integrity. We also propose betaine as a potential therapeutic option for leaky gut in alcohol-consuming patients who are at the risk of developing ALD. PMID:25931143

  13. Carotenoid absorption in chicken intestine.

    PubMed

    Gómez, R; Alonso, A; Martín, M

    1978-09-01

    The powdered flowers of marigold (Tagetes erecta) are used as a cheap source of carotenoids in avicultura. Lutein (3,3'-dyhydroxi-alpha-carotene) constitutes up to 85 to 90% of marigold carotenoids. In the plant, lutein is found esterified to palmitic or estearic acid. In chicken, carotenoid is hydrolized in the first portion of the small intestine, and absorbed as free lutein. After the absorption, lutein is not re-esterified in the different chicken tissues. PMID:725226

  14. [Intestinal involvement in Behçet's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Roge, J

    1985-03-01

    Intestinal lesions in Behçet's syndrome are much more common in Japan than in the Western World. Colonic or ileo-colonic lesions develop after several years of recurrent aphthae and are manifested by acute complications, such as perforation or massive haemorrhage, or by protracted haemorrhagic diarrhoea with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. Radiological and endoscopic findings are similar to those of severe acute colitis, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome involving the bowel rests on the presence of numerous extra-intestinal lesions and of extensive colonic ulceration often located in otherwise healthy parts of the mucosa. Histology shows, beside a non-specific inflammatory infiltrate affecting the entire wall of the colon, lesions of vasculitis and perivasculitis with images of leucocytoclasia and fibrinoid necrosis. Surgery is often necessary, requiring wide intestinal resections and long-term derivation ileostomies because of the high incidence of recurrent ulcers at the site of anastomosis, where fistulae may also develop. PMID:3157167

  15. Physiopathological and therapeutical correlations in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Szalontay, Andreea Silvana

    2014-01-01

    No doubt, alcoholism represents nowadays the toxicomany with the highest expansion rate among all population groups, being recognized by the specialists from the medical, social, economic and legal field as a true "toxic pandemy". Researchers consider ethanol, this small but highly aggressive molecule, to have supremacy if we were to consider the number of pages dedicated to it worldwide on daily bases, in the medical or any other specialty literature. Nonetheless, the large volume of data regarding ethanol toxicity does not seen to simplify things, on the contrary it points out new information about the its negative effects on human body. Ethanol represents a toxic that is rapidly and completely absorbed in the intestinal tract being distributed to most tissues and organs; ethanol is recognized as an enzymatic inductor of its own metabolization but also of the metabolization of numerous therapeutic agents. PMID:25341287

  16. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  17. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  18. Electrooxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Amino Alcohol Ligated Ruthenium Complexes

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Electrooxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Amino Alcohol Ligated Ruthenium Complexes Kristen R-plane graphite electrodes are active electrocatalysts for the oxidation of alcohols. Electrooxidation of CH3OH (1 Alcohols are attractive chemical fuels for fuel cells due to their high energy densities, established

  19. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  20. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Recognizing Signs of Nail Fungus (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections by A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD NOTE: ...

  1. Microfluidics for bacterial chemotaxis

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Tanvir, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease ...

  2. Bacterial surface adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  3. Bacterial protein signals are associated with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Catherine; Kreil, David P; Beauvallet, Christian; Guillot, Alain; Vaca, Sebastian; Carapito, Christine; Mondot, Stanislas; Sykacek, Peter; Sokol, Harry; Blon, Florence; Lepercq, Pascale; Levenez, Florence; Valot, Benoît; Carré, Wilfrid; Loux, Valentin; Pons, Nicolas; David, Olivier; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Lepage, Patricia; Martin, Patrice; Monnet, Véronique; Seksik, Philippe; Beaugerie, Laurent; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Gibrat, Jean-François; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Doré, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Objective No Crohn’s disease (CD) molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls. Design We first developed and validated a workflow—including extraction of microbial communities, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and LC-MS/MS—to discover protein signals from CD-associated gut microbial communities. Then we used selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to confirm a set of candidates. In parallel, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for an integrated analysis of gut ecosystem structure and functions. Results Our 2D-DIGE-based discovery approach revealed an imbalance of intestinal bacterial functions in CD. Many proteins, largely derived from Bacteroides species, were over-represented, while under-represented proteins were mostly from Firmicutes and some Prevotella members. Most overabundant proteins could be confirmed using SRM. They correspond to functions allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonise the mucus layers, breach the host barriers and invade the mucosae, which could still be aggravated by decreased host-derived pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein GP2 in CD patients. Moreover, although the abundance of most protein groups reflected that of related bacterial populations, we found a specific independent regulation of bacteria-derived cell envelope proteins. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis. PMID:24436141

  4. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  5. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  6. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases. PMID:25619169

  7. Immobilization of Pichia pastoris cells containing alcohol oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maleknia, S; Ahmadi, H; Norouzian, D

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The attempts were made to describe the development of a whole cell immobilization of P. pastoris by entrapping the cells in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell Pichia pastoris was evaluated in comparison with yeast biomass production. Materials and Methods Methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris was obtained from Collection of Standard Microorganisms, Department of Bacterial Vaccines, Pasteur Institute of Iran (CSMPI). Stock culture was maintained on YPD agar plates. Alcohol oxidase was strongly induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were harvested by centrifugation then permeabilized. Finally the cells were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel beads. The activity of alcohol oxidase was determined by method of Tane et al. Results At the end of the logarithmic phase of cell culture, the alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell P. Pastoris reached the highest level. In comparison, the alcohol oxidase activity was measured in an immobilized P. pastoris when entrapped in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of cells was induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were permeabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and immobilized. CTAB was also found to increase the gel permeability. Alcohol oxidase activity of immobilized cells was then quantitated by ABTS/POD spectrophotometric method at OD 420. There was a 14% increase in alcohol oxidase activity in immobilized cells as compared with free cells. By addition of 2-butanol as a substrate, the relative activity of alcohol oxidase was significantly higher as compared with other substrates added to the reaction media. Conclusion Immobilization of cells could eliminate lengthy and expensive procedures of enzyme separation and purification, protect and stabilize enzyme activity, and perform easy separation of the enzyme from the reaction media. PMID:22530090

  8. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  9. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael L.; Thymann, Thomas; Cilieborg, Malene S.; Lykke, Mikkel; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Bent B.; Schmidt, Mette; Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment improves NEC resistance and intestinal structure, function, and immunity in neonates. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 days of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 days of enteral formula. Immediately after birth, they were assigned to receive either antibiotics (oral and parenteral doses of gentamycin, ampicillin, and metronidazole, ANTI, n = 11) or saline in the control group (CON, n = 13), given twice daily. NEC lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunity markers were recorded. None of the ANTI but 85% of the CON pigs developed NEC lesions by day 5 (0/11 vs. 11/13, P < 0.05). ANTI pigs had higher intestinal villi (+60%), digestive enzyme activities (+53–73%), and goblet cell densities (+110%) and lower myeloperoxidase (?51%) and colonic microbial density (105 vs. 1010 colony-forming units, all P < 0.05). Microarray transcriptomics showed strong downregulation of genes related to inflammation and innate immune response to microbiota and marked upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolism, in particular threonine, glucose transport systems, and cell cycle in 5-day-old ANTI pigs. In a follow-up experiment, 5 days of antibiotics prevented NEC at least until day 10. Neonatal prophylactic antibiotics effectively reduced gut bacterial load, prevented NEC, intestinal atrophy, dysfunction, and inflammation and enhanced expression of genes related to gut metabolism and immunity in preterm pigs. PMID:24157972

  10. Depletion of Murine Intestinal Microbiota: Effects on Gut Mucosa and Epithelial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Anders; Grcic, Vedrana; Jahnsen, Frode Lars; Gaustad, Peter; McCoy, Kathy D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Johansen, Finn-Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background Inappropriate cross talk between mammals and their gut microbiota may trigger intestinal inflammation and drive extra-intestinal immune-mediated diseases. Epithelial cells constitute the interface between gut microbiota and host tissue, and may regulate host responses to commensal enteric bacteria. Gnotobiotic animals represent a powerful approach to study bacterial-host interaction but are not readily accessible to the wide scientific community. We aimed at refining a protocol that in a robust manner would deplete the cultivable intestinal microbiota of conventionally raised mice and that would prove to have significant biologic validity. Methodology/Principal Findings Previously published protocols for depleting mice of their intestinal microbiota by administering broad-spectrum antibiotics in drinking water were difficult to reproduce. We show that twice daily delivery of antibiotics by gavage depleted mice of their cultivable fecal microbiota and reduced the fecal bacterial DNA load by 400 fold while ensuring the animals' health. Mice subjected to the protocol for 17 days displayed enlarged ceca, reduced Peyer's patches and small spleens. Antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the expression of antimicrobial factors to a level similar to that of germ-free mice and altered the expression of 517 genes in total in the colonic epithelium. Genes involved in cell cycle were significantly altered concomitant with reduced epithelial proliferative activity in situ assessed by Ki-67 expression, suggesting that commensal microbiota drives cellular proliferation in colonic epithelium. Conclusion We present a robust protocol for depleting conventionally raised mice of their cultivatable intestinal microbiota with antibiotics by gavage and show that the biological effect of this depletion phenocopies physiological characteristics of germ-free mice. PMID:21445311

  11. Three distinct quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are expressed when Pseudomonas putida is grown on different alcohols.

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, H; Fujii, A; Matsushita, K; Shinagawa, E; Ameyama, M; Adachi, O

    1995-01-01

    A bacterial strain that can utilize several kinds of alcohols as its sole carbon and energy sources was isolated from soil and tentatively identified as Pseudomonas putida HK5. Three distinct dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), each of which contained the prosthetic group pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), were formed in the soluble fractions of this strain grown on different alcohols. ADH I was formed most abundantly in the cells grown on ethanol and was similar to the quinoprotein ADH reported for P. putida (H. Görisch and M. Rupp, Antonie Leeuwenhoek 56:35-45, 1989) except for its isoelectric point. The other two ADHs, ADH IIB and ADH IIG, were formed separately in the cells grown on 1-butanol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. Both of these enzymes contained heme c in addition to PQQ and functioned as quinohemoprotein dehydrogenases. Potassium ferricyanide was an available electron acceptor for ADHs IIB and IIG but not for ADH I. The molecular weights were estimated to be 69,000 for ADH IIB and 72,000 for ADH IIG, and both enzymes were shown to be monomers. Antibodies raised against each of the purified ADHs could distinguish the ADHs from one another. Immunoblot analysis showed that ADH I was detected in cells grown on each alcohol tested, but ethanol was the most effective inducer. ADH IIB was formed in the cells grown on alcohols of medium chain length and also on 1,3-butanediol. Induction of ADH IIG was restricted to 1,2-propanediol or glycerol, of which the former alcohol was more effective. These results from immunoblot analysis correlated well with the substrate specificities of the respective enzymes. Thus, three distinct quinoprotein ADHs were shown to be synthesized by a single bacterium under different growth conditions. PMID:7730276

  12. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka ; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita ; Seino, Yutaka; Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka ; Inagaki, Nobuya; CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation , Kyoto

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather than through a GLP-1-mediated pathway.

  13. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Awareness

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Alcohol and Drug Abuse Awareness Alcohol and drug abuse impacts millions of people. It's not just or professional treatment to overcome. One myth is that people with alcohol and drug abuse issues are "weak alcohol or experiment with drugs with no consequences, while others become addicted almost instantly

  14. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  15. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  16. Intestinal mucosa of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    1975-02-01

    The intestinal mucosa of the platypus takes the form of numerous transverse surface folds. These folds are made up of a lamina propria covered by pseudostratified epithelium which lies on a thick modified basement membrane. The cells of the intestinal epithelium consist of columnar cells which generally resemble typical intestinal epithelium and cuboidal cells, which are undifferentiated in appearance, show few organelles and possess an electron lucent cytoplasm. Numerous desmosomes are found between the adjacent cell membranes of both cell types. Villi are absent and appear to be represented by the large surface folds. Intestinal glands are composed of columnar epithelium similar to that found in the intestinal glands of other mammalian species. Groups of these glands drain into common tubular ducts which follow a tortuous course and empty into the intestinal lumen between the surface folds. The peculiar morphological features of the platypus intestinal mucosa raise questions concerning traditional concepts of intestinal gland formation as well as the origin and migration of intestinal epithelium with regard to this particular species. PMID:1115355

  17. Diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Mika A B; Adler, Brent H; Arnold, Michael A; Kumar, Soma; Carvalho, Ryan; Besner, Gail E

    2013-05-01

    A 7 year old male with a history of congenital neutropenia and growth hormone deficiency presented with abdominal pain, fevers, and diarrhea. Imaging and endoscopy revealed significant inflammation of the ascending colon with stenosis at the level of the hepatic flexure. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and pathologic findings were consistent with diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis. Due to recurrent mass effect at the intestinal anastomotic site detected radiologically, a second intestinal resection was performed 7 months later. Genetic testing was negative for mutations in the RET protooncogene, NF1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes. We report a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child with congenital neutropenia. PMID:23701793

  18. Common occurrence of antibacterial agents in human intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Drissi, Fatima; Buffet, Sylvain; Raoult, Didier; Merhej, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have revealed many active mechanisms by which bacteria can inhibit the growth of other organisms. Bacteriocins are a diverse group of natural ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria and which seem to play an important role in mediating competition within bacterial communities. In this study, we have identified and established the structural classification of putative bacteriocins encoded by 317 microbial genomes in the human intestine. On the basis of homologies to available bacteriocin sequences, mainly from lactic acid bacteria, we report the widespread occurrence of bacteriocins across the gut microbiota: 175 bacteriocins were found to be encoded in Firmicutes, 79 in Proteobacteria, 34 in Bacteroidetes, and 25 in Actinobacteria. Bacteriocins from gut bacteria displayed wide differences among phyla with regard to class distribution, net positive charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure, but the ?-helix was the most abundant structure. The peptide structures and physiochemical properties of bacteriocins produced by the most abundant bacteria in the gut, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, seem to ensure low antibiotic activity and participate in permanent intestinal host defense against the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Meanwhile, the potentially harmful bacteria, including the Proteobacteria, displayed highly effective bacteriocins, probably supporting the virulent character of diseases. These findings highlight the eventual role played by bacteriocins in gut microbial competition and their potential place in antibiotic therapy. PMID:25999943

  19. Protection of Gastrointestinal Mucosa from Acute Heavy Alcohol Consumption: The Effect of Berberine and Its Correlation with TLR2, 4/IL1?-TNF? Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Wang, Yu-Gang; Yu, Xuan; Yan, Xiao-Jin; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to confirm the protective effect of berberine (BBR) on gastrointestinal injury caused by acute heavy alcohol exposure, an effect that has not been reported previously. Our research details how BBR protects against gastrointestinal injuries from acute alcohol exposure using both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Acute high alcohol concentrations lead to obvious damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa, resulting in necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Oral administration of BBR was able to significantly reduce this alcohol-induced damage, inhibit increases of alcohol-induced TNF? and IL-1? expression in gastrointestinal mucosa as well as their upstream signals TLR2 and TLR4, and regulate cytokines that modulate tight junctions. Alcohol consumption is a popular human social behavior worldwide, and the present study reports a comprehensive mechanism by which BBR protects against gastrointestinal injuries from alcohol stress, providing people with a novel application of BBR. PMID:26226164

  20. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-?-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555