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1

Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: Summary of a symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth

Vishnudutt Purohit; J. Christian Bode; Christiane Bode; David A. Brenner; Mashkoor A. Choudhry; Frank Hamilton; Y. James Kang; Ali Keshavarzian; Radhakrishna Rao; R. Balfour Sartor; Christine Swanson; Jerrold R. Turner

2008-01-01

2

Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity  

PubMed Central

Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sebastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, Francois; Starkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Backhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

2014-01-01

3

Impaired intestinal immunity and barrier function: a cause for enhanced bacterial translocation in alcohol intoxication and burn injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol intoxication is being recognized increasingly as the major factor in pathogenesis after burn injury. Findings from multiple studies support the suggestion that, in comparison with burn-injured patients who sustained injury in the absence of alcohol intoxication, burn-injured patients who sustained injury under the influence of alcohol exhibit higher rates of infection and are more likely to die. Thus, infection

Mashkoor A. Choudhry; Shadab N. Rana; Michael J. Kavanaugh; Elizabeth J. Kovacs; Richard L. Gamelli; Mohammed M. Sayeed

2004-01-01

4

Mucin Dynamics in Intestinal Bacterial Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue\\/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4,

Sara K. Lindén; Timothy H. J. Florin; Michael A. McGuckin; Nick Gay

2008-01-01

5

Bacterial infections after intestine and multivisceral transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe frequency of bacterial infections (BI) in intestinal transplant (IT) patients is high with sepsis being the leading cause of death after this procedure. We herein report our experience with major BI to ascertain the incidence, microbiological and clinical factors, risk factors and outcome.

C Loinaz; T Kato; S Nishida; D Weppler; D Levi; L Dowdy; J Madariaga; J. R Nery; R Vianna; N Mittal; A Tzakis

2003-01-01

6

Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver disease in mice  

PubMed Central

The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2?/? mice. Muc2?/? mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2?/? mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2?/? mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2?/? mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2?/? mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2?/? mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease. PMID:23408358

Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Wang, Hui J.; Wang, Lirui; McCole, Declan F.; Brandl, Katharina; Starkel, Peter; Belzer, Clara; Hellerbrand, Claus; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ho, Samuel B.; Schnabl, Bernd

2013-01-01

7

The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

2012-01-01

8

The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

2012-01-01

9

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

2013-08-01

10

Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, which are produced as components of the intestinal epithelial cell proinflammatory program in the early period after bacterial invasion, play an important role in the later induction and regulation of the epithelial cell apoptotic program. Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers. PMID:9819367

Kim, J M; Eckmann, L; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Witthoft, T; Kagnoff, M F

1998-01-01

11

Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics  

PubMed Central

Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?15), non-alcoholic controls (n?=?14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p?=?0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p?=?0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results suggest that translocation of intestinal bacteria into liver may be involved as a one factor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:24564202

2014-01-01

12

Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

2013-01-01

13

Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of serious subnutrition, associated to intestinal bacterial overgrowth,\\u000a in two patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Two female patients (body mass index, 49 and 50 kg\\/m2, respectively) were submitted to Y-en-Roux gastric bypass. The first patient evolved a 52% loss of body weight within 21 months\\u000a after surgery; the other, a 34%

Juliana Deh Carvalho Machado; Camila Scalassara Campos; Carolina Lopes Dah Silva; Vivian Miguel Marques Suen; Carla Barbosa Nonino-Borges; José Ernesto Dos Santos; Reginaldo Ceneviva; Júlio Sérgio Marchini

2008-01-01

14

Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.

2014-01-01

15

Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability.  

PubMed

We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated with alcohol or H?O? with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) anti-oxidant, and CLOCK and PER2 proteins were measured at 4 or 2 h. In vivo Cyp2e1 protein and mRNA were also measured in colon tissue from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol increased CYP2E1 protein by 93% and enzyme activity by 69% in intestinal cells in vitro. Alcohol feeding also increased mouse colonic Cyp2e1 protein by 73%. mRNA levels of Cyp2e1 were not changed by alcohol in vitro or in mouse intestine. siRNA knockdown of CYP2E1 in Caco-2 cells prevented alcohol-induced hyperpermeability and induction of CLOCK and PER2 proteins. Alcohol-induced and H?O?-induced increases in intestinal cell CLOCK and PER2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with NAC. We concluded that our data support a novel role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability via a mechanism involving CYP2E1-dependent induction of oxidative stress and upregulation of circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2. PMID:23660503

Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

2013-07-15

16

The protective effect of VSL#3 on intestinal permeability in a rat model of alcoholic intestinal injury  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the probiotic VSL#3 in acute alcoholic intestinal injury, and evaluate the effect of VSL#3, glutamine,VSL#3+glutamine and heat-killed VSL#3 therapy in a rat model. Methods Six- to eight-week-old male wild-type rats were divided into seven groups. To establish the acute alcohol liver disease model, rats received three doses of corn starch dissolved in PBS/40% alcohol administered intra-gastrically every 12 hours. Treatment groups received an intra-gastric dose of VSL#3, Glutamine, heat-killed VSL#3, or VSL#3+Glutamine 30 minutes prior to alcohol administration. The placebo group was treated with PBS prior to alcohol administration. TNF? and endotoxin in plasma was measured by ELISA and Tachypleus Ameboctye Lysate assays, and electron microscopy, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the mechanisms of VSL#3 in the regulation of epithelial permeability. Results First, compared with control group, endotoxin and TNF? in alcohol group was obviously high. At the same time, in VSL#3 group,the expression of endotoxin and TNF? obviously lower than the alcohol group. And the trends of the expression of tight junction proteins in these groups were reversed with the change of endotoxin and TNF?. Second, compared the groups of VSL#3 with glutamine,VSL#3+glutamine and heat-killed VSL#3,we found that both VSL#3 and heat-killed VSL#3, glutamine were as effective as VSL#3+glutamine in the treatment of acute alcohol liver disease, the expression of endotoxin and TNF? were lower than the alcohol group, and tight junction proteins were higher than the alcohol group whereas the expression of tight junction proteins were higher in VSL#3 + glutamine group than either agent alone, but have no significant difference. Conclusion We conclude that VSL#3 treatment can regulate the ecological balance of the gut microflora, preventing passage of endotoxin and other bacterial products from the gut lumen into the portal circulation and down-regulating the expression of TNF?, which could otherwise down-regulate the expression of tight junction proteins and increase epithelial permeability. PMID:24138544

2013-01-01

17

A Model of Bacterial Intestinal Infections in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens is an entomopathogenic bacterium that opportunistically infects a wide range of hosts, including humans. In a model of septic injury, if directly introduced into the body cavity of Drosophila, this pathogen is insensitive to the host's systemic immune response and kills flies in a day. We find that S. marcescens resistance to the Drosophila immune deficiency (imd)-mediated humoral response requires the bacterial lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. If ingested by Drosophila, bacteria cross the gut and penetrate the body cavity. During this passage, the bacteria can be observed within the cells of the intestinal epithelium. In such an oral infection model, the flies succumb to infection only after 6 days. We demonstrate that two complementary host defense mechanisms act together against such food-borne infection: an antimicrobial response in the intestine that is regulated by the imd pathway and phagocytosis by hemocytes of bacteria that have escaped into the hemolymph. Interestingly, bacteria present in the hemolymph elicit a systemic immune response only when phagocytosis is blocked. Our observations support a model wherein peptidoglycan fragments released during bacterial growth activate the imd pathway and do not back a proposed role for phagocytosis in the immune activation of the fat body. Thanks to the genetic tools available in both host and pathogen, the molecular dissection of the interactions between S. marcescens and Drosophila will provide a useful paradigm for deciphering intestinal pathogenesis. PMID:18039029

Nehme, Nadine T; Liegeois, Samuel; Kele, Beatrix; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Pradel, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Jules A; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Ferrandon, Dominique

2007-01-01

18

Emerging insights on intestinal dysbiosis during bacterial infections?  

PubMed Central

Infection of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly linked to pathological imbalances of the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. In recent years, advanced high-throughput genomic approaches have allowed us to examine the microbiota in an unprecedented manner, revealing novel biological insights about infection-associated dysbiosis at the community and individual species levels. A dysbiotic microbiota is typically reduced in taxonomic diversity and metabolic function, and can harbour pathobionts that exacerbate intestinal inflammation or manifest systemic disease. Dysbiosis can also promote pathogen genome evolution, while allowing the pathogens to persist at high density and transmit to new hosts. A deeper understanding of bacterial pathogenicity in the context of the intestinal microbiota should unveil new approaches for developing diagnostics and therapies for enteropathogens. PMID:24581695

Pham, Tu Anh N; Lawley, Trevor D

2014-01-01

19

Bacterial Overgrowth in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Null Mouse Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported the inflammation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse small intestine, and we hypothesized bacterial overgrowth as a possible cause. Quantitative PCR of bacterial 16S genomic DNA in the CF mouse small intestine revealed an increase of greater than 40-fold compared to controls. Sequencing of 16S PCR products and Gram staining showed that the majority of bacteria in

Oxana Norkina; Tim G. Burnett; Robert C. De Lisle

2004-01-01

20

Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

2012-09-01

21

Normal bacterial floras in intestinal tract of ring-necked pheasant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal bacterial floras in intestinal tract of ring-necked pheasant were investigated. Eight age groups were chosen. Samples\\u000a of intestines were diluted in 10 fold series and incubated on different selective media. After incubation, aimed bacterial\\u000a colonies were counted then the number of CFU\\/g of gut inclusions was evaluated. The data were analyzed in statistics. The\\u000a physiological values of eight

Xu Shulin; Shen Xiuli

1998-01-01

22

Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.  

PubMed

Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v) for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease. PMID:23326376

Bull-Otterson, Lara; Feng, Wenke; Kirpich, Irina; Wang, Yuhua; Qin, Xiang; Liu, Yanlong; Gobejishvili, Leila; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ayvaz, Tulin; Petrosino, Joseph; Kong, Maiying; Barker, David; McClain, Craig; Barve, Shirish

2013-01-01

23

Bacterial Modulation of Small Intestinal Goblet Cells and Mucin Composition During Early Posthatch Development of Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucins possess potential binding sites for both commensal and pathogenic organisms and may per- form a defensive role during establishment of the intesti- nal barrier. To observe the effects of bacteria on intestinal goblet cell mucin production during posthatch develop- ment, differences in the small intestine of conventionally reared (CR) and low bacterial load (LBL) broiler chicks were examined. Jejunal

R. E. A. Forder; G. S. Howarth; D. R. Tivey; R. J. Hughes

2007-01-01

24

Intestinal Bacterial Flora and Transit Time of Three Neotropical Bat Species  

PubMed Central

Klite, P. D. (Middle America Research Unit, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone). Intestinal bacterial flora and transit time of three neotropical bat species. J. Bacteriol. 90:375–379. 1965.—Quantitative studies on the intestinal bacterial flora of three neotropical bat species revealed the following average bacterial populations: Molossus major, 104.8 bacteria per intestinal contents; Carollia perspicillata, 103.3; Chilonycteris rubiginosa, 103.9. In comparison, laboratory mice had an average of 109.7 bacteria per intestinal contents. Of 236 bacterial isolates obtained from 60 bats, bacteria of the Klebsiella-Aerobacter-Serratia group were found most frequently, followed by enterococci and Proteus spp. Bacteria of eight other groups were less frequently recovered. A large intestine, cecum, or appendix was absent in all three bat species, and the intestinal length was one-third to one-fifth of that in a mouse of comparable weight. The transit time through the short bat intestine was 15 min. The possible relationship of these unusual anatomical and physiological phenomena to the ability of Histoplasma capsulatum to survive in bat feces is discussed. PMID:14329450

Klite, P. D.

1965-01-01

25

Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2013-01-01

26

Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

27

Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets.  

PubMed

Abstract The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-08-01

28

Local and Systemic Complement Activity in Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unknown whether bacteriolysis due toluminal complement activation contributes to localdefense mechanisms against small intestinal bacterialovergrowth, particularly with gramnegative bacteria.This study addressed this issue. Thirty adultsubjects were investigated with culture of luminalsecretions adherent to proximal small intestinal mucosa.Luminal and plasma concentrations of C3 and C3d andC3d\\/C3 ratios were determined. Activated terminalcomplement complex was sought in surface epithelium towhich aspirated

Vic M. Duncombe; Terry D. Bolin; Stephen M. Riordan; Christopher J. Mciver; Denis Wakefield; Phillip C. Andreopoulos; Mervyn C. Thomas

1997-01-01

29

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury  

PubMed Central

Endotoxemia is a contributing cofactor to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability is one of the mechanisms of endotoxin absorption. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in ALD. Although it is highly possible that some common molecules secreted by probiotics contribute to this action in IBD, the effect of probiotic culture supernatant has not yet been studied in ALD. We examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGG-s) on the acute alcohol-induced intestinal integrity and liver injury in a mouse model. Mice on standard chow diet were supplemented with supernatant from LGG culture (109 colony-forming unit/mouse) for 5 days, and one dose of alcohol at 6 g/kg body wt was administered via gavage. Intestinal permeability was measured by FITC-FD-4 ex vivo. Alcohol-induced liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and liver steatosis was evaluated by triglyceride content and Oil Red O staining of the liver sections. LGG-s pretreatment restored alcohol-induced reduction in ileum mRNA levels of claudin-1, intestine trefoil factor (ITF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), which play important roles on intestinal barrier integrity. As a result, LGG-s pretreatment significantly inhibited the alcohol-induced intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and subsequently liver injury. Interestingly, LGG-s pretreatment increased ileum mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2?, an important transcription factor of ITF, P-gp, and CRAMP. These results suggest that LGG-s ameliorates the acute alcohol-induced liver injury by promoting HIF signaling, leading to the suppression of alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. The use of bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant provides a novel strategy for prevention of acute alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:22538402

Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Sidhu, Anju; Ma, Zhenhua; McClain, Craig

2012-01-01

30

Effects of alcohol on intestinal epithelial barrier permeability and expression of tight junction-associated proteins.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of alcohol on intestinal epithelial barrier permeability and expression of the tight junction-associated proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1. An alcohol-treated Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer in vitro model was used to investigate whether alcohol is able to induce intestinal barrier dysfunction and decrease expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1. MTT assay results revealed unaltered cell viability at alcohol concentrations of <5%. Caco-2 cells in the 5% alcohol-treated groups exhibited a significant time-dependent decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and an increase in fluorescent yellow flux rate compared with the control cells. ZO?l expression exhibited a progressive decline following 20 min of incubation, reached its minimum levels at 60 min and then showed an increasing trend following 60 min of incubation. In addition, claudin-1 expression exhibited a progressive increase following 60 min of incubation, reached its maximum levels at 60 min and then showed an increasing trend following 60 min of incubation. Alterations in the expression of the ZO-l and claudin-1 proteins revealed trends consistent with changes in the TEER value and the fluorescent yellow transmittance rate in the Caco-2 cells. The results of this study indicate that alcohol is able to increase the intestinal epithelial barrier permeability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Alcohol induces a change in the expression of the tight junction-associated proteins, ZO-1 and claudin-1, which are two major sites of alcohol action, thus increasing intestinal epithelial barrier permeability. PMID:24718485

Wang, Ying; Tong, Jing; Chang, Bing; Wang, Baifang; Zhang, Dai; Wang, Bingyuan

2014-06-01

31

Vitamin D Receptor Negatively Regulates Bacterial-Stimulated NF-?B Activity in Intestine  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays an essential role in gastrointestinal inflammation. Most investigations have focused on the immune response; however, how bacteria regulate VDR and how VDR modulates the nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway in intestinal epithelial cells remain unexplored. This study investigated the effects of VDR ablation on NF-?B activation in intestinal epithelia and the role of enteric bacteria on VDR expression. We found that VDR?/? mice exhibited a pro-inflammatory bias. After Salmonella infection, VDR?/? mice had increased bacterial burden and mortality. Serum interleukin-6 in noninfected VDR+/+ mice was undetectable, but was easily detectable in VDR?/? mice. NF-?B p65 formed a complex with VDR in noninfected wild-type mouse intestine. In contrast, deletion of VDR abolished VDR/P65 binding. P65 nuclear translocation occurred in colonic epithelial cells of untreated VDR?/? mice. VDR deletion also elevated NF-?B activity in intestinal epithelia. VDR was localized to the surface epithelia of germ-free mice, but to crypt epithelial cells in conventionalized mice. VDR expression, distribution, transcriptional activity, and target genes were regulated by Salmonella stimulation, independent of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our study demonstrates that commensal and pathogenic bacteria directly regulate colonic epithelial VDR expression and location in vivo. VDR negatively regulates bacterial-induced intestinal NF-?B activation and attenuates response to infection. Therefore, VDR is an important contributor to intestinal homeostasis and host protection from bacterial invasion and infection. PMID:20566739

Wu, Shaoping; Liao, Anne P.; Xia, Yinglin; Li, Yan Chun; Li, Jian-Dong; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

2010-01-01

32

The Role of Milk Sialyllactose in Intestinal Bacterial Colonization123  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides influence the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby mucosal inflammation. Some of the major milk oligosaccharides are ?2,3-sialyllactose (3SL) and ?2,6-sialyllactose, which are mainly produced by the sialyltransferases ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1, respectively. Recently, we showed that mice fed milk deficient in 3SL were more resistant to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. By contrast, the exposure to milk containing or deficient in 3SL had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. Milk 3SL mainly affected the colonization of the intestine by clostridial cluster IV bacteria. PMID:22585928

Weiss, G. Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry

2012-01-01

33

Bacterial Pollution Indicators in the Intestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish  

PubMed Central

A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and persistence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish. A total of 132 fish representing 14 different species were used in various phases of these experiments. Examination of the intestinal contents of 78 fish from moderately polluted sections of the Little Miami River indicated that fecal coliform densities were lowest in bluegills (less than 20 per gram) and highest in catfish (1,090,000 per gram). Levels of fecal streptococci for these two species were 220 and 240,000 per gram, respectively. The occurrence of fecal coliforms in fish caught in this stream reflected the warm-blooded-animal-pollution level of the water. All fish used in this phase of the study were caught during July, August, and September when the water temperatures were between 13 and 18 C. The fate of fecal coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis in the fish intestine indicated that these organisms can probably survive and multiply when fish and water temperatures are 20 C or higher, but only when the organisms are retained in the gut for periods beyond 24 hr. Based on the biochemical reactions for 3,877 coliform strains isolated from 132 freshwater fish of 14 different species, 91.4% of all strains were composed of five IMViC types. In a similar study of the biochemical reactions of 850 streptococci isolated from the intestinal tract of 55 freshwater fish, the predominant strains included S. faecalis and various closely associated biotypes. No consistently recurring pattern for either coliforms or streptococci could be developed to identify species of fish investigated. The composition of the intestinal flora is, however, related in varying degree to the level of contamination of water and food in the environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6008184

Geldreich, Edwin E.; Clarke, Norman A.

1966-01-01

34

Intestinal absorption of cholecalciferol in alcoholic liver disease and primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal absorption of (3H)cholecalciferol was studied in five patients with alcoholic liver disease, six patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, and 15 healthy subjects. The rate of appearance in plasma of (3H)cholecalciferol after oral ingestion and the subsequent appearance of (3H) polar metabolites in the alcoholic subjects were similar to those in the healthy subjects. In subjects with primary biliary

J M Barragry; R G Long; M W France; M R Wills; B J Boucher; S Sherlock

1979-01-01

35

Three-dimensional intestinal villi epithelium enhances protection of human intestinal cells from bacterial infection by inducing mucin expression.  

PubMed

Current in vitro cell culture models do not reflect human physiology, and various efforts have been made to enhance existing models. Reconstitution of three-dimensional (3D) tissue structure has been one of the strategies, since 3D tissue structure provides essential cellular environmental cues for cell functions. Previously, we developed a novel hydrogel microfabrication technique for constructing an accurate 3D replica of human intestinal villi epithelium. In this study, genetic and physiological properties of the 3D villi model were examined to gain a better insight into the barrier function of gut epithelium and its interaction with microbes. Gene expression study of Caco-2 on the 3D villi scaffold revealed that expression of MUC17, which is one of the transmembrane mucins, was highly enhanced in the 3D villi model, compared to a monolayer culture. Cells on the scaffold were almost immune to bacterial infection, while MUC17 knockdown in Caco-2 cells restored bacterial infectivity. The 3D villi model also exhibited changes in the barrier function compared to the 2D model, manifested by changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of FITC-dextran. Knockdown of MUC17 resulted in reduction of tight junction protein expression and further increase in permeability, suggesting an important role of MUC17 in the barrier function against pathogens and xenobiotics. Our study suggests that mimicking the 3D tissue architecture of the small intestine induces physiological changes in human intestinal cells. PMID:25200891

Kim, Si Hyun; Chi, Meiying; Yi, Banya; Kim, So Hyun; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Younghoon; Park, Sungsu; Sung, Jong Hwan

2014-12-18

36

A Case of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth with Peripheral Edema Caused by Intestinal Bypass Surgery and Relieved by Repair  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bypass surgery, particularly jejuno-ileal bypass surgery, performed for the purpose of weight reduction may cause an unexpected exacerbation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we report a case of NASH caused by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, which developed after jejuno-colic bypass surgery and resolved dramatically after surgical correction. PMID:23170161

Sung, Young Kyung; Gwak, Geum Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Koh, Kwang Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

2012-01-01

37

The role of Innate Immunity in the Host Defense Against intestinal Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Eradication of infectious disease is our global health challenge. After encountering intestinal infection with a bacterial pathogen, the host defense program is initiated by local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that eliminate invading pathogens by phagocytosis and establish localized inflammation by secreting cytokines and chemokines. These pathogen-experienced APCs migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes, where host immune responses are precisely orchestrated. Initiation and regulation of this defense program appear to be largely dependent on innate immunity which is antigen non-specific and provides a rapid defense against broader targets. On the other hand, many bacterial enteropathogens have evoked abilities to modify the host defense program to their advantage. Therefore, better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is essential to establish effective eradication strategies for enteric infectious diseases. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of innate immune regulation of the host defense mechanisms against intestinal infection by bacterial pathogens. PMID:22139594

Sotolongo, John; Ruiz, Jose; Fukata, Masayuki

2012-01-01

38

Determinants of intestinal mucosal uptake of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake rates across the jejunal brush border have been measured for water-soluble fatty acids and alcohols and analyzed to determine the relative roles of the unstirred water layer and the lipid cell membrane as determinants of the in- testinal absorptive process. Initial studies involving measure- ment of time courses of electrical transients developed across the intestine exposed to poorly permeant

Verney L. Weel; John M. Dietachy

39

Surface Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Is Upregulated on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Response to Pathogenic Bacterial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonic epithelial cells are constantly exposed to high levels of bacterial DNA in the intestinal lumen and must recognize and respond appropriately to pathogens, while they maintain a tolerance to non- pathogenic commensal bacterial strains. Bacterial DNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). The aim of this study was to investigate TLR9 expression and localization in colonic epithelial cells

Julia B. Ewaschuk; Jody L. Backer; Thomas A. Churchill; Florian Obermeier; Denis O. Krause; Karen L. Madsen

2007-01-01

40

Compression properties of polyvinyl alcohol--bacterial cellulose nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Despite the established use of total joint replacement for the treatment of advanced degeneration of articular cartilage, component loosening due to wear and osteolysis limits the lifespan of these joint prostheses. In the present study, nanocomposites consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were investigated as possible improved cartilage replacement materials. Nanocomposites were synthesized by adding small amounts (<1%) of BC to PVA, and subjecting the mixture to thermal cycling. The mechanical properties of the resulting material were evaluated using unconfined compression testing. By the addition of BC nanofibers to the PVA matrix, a nanocomposite with a wide range of compressive mechanical properties control was obtained, with elastic modulus values similar to those reported for native articular cartilage. The nanocomposite also showed improved strain-rate dependence and adequate viscoelastic properties. The PVA-BC nanocomposite is therefore a promising biomaterial to be considered as a possible replacement material for localized articular cartilage injuries and other orthopedic applications such as intervertebral discs. PMID:19360889

Millon, Leonardo E; Oates, Christine J; Wan, Wankei

2009-08-01

41

[The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of various wintering geese species].  

PubMed

The aerobic fecal flora of wintering Brent Goos (Branta bernicla), Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), Greylag Goose (Anser anser), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) was studied. There were no specific differences between the various geese. Bacterial counts were in the range of 10(5)-10(7) CPU per gram of feces. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor rotavirus could be detected in the fecal samples of the wintering geese, so that a contamination of the environment with those pathogenic organisms could be excluded. The majority of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas; enterobacteria and streptococci were less common. The observations are discussed regarding their epidemiological and ecological significance. PMID:7136353

Holländer, R

1982-07-01

42

Molecular analysis of intestinal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing fermented cottonseed meal.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal (FCM) on the ileal and cecal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens. A total of 300 newborn yellow-feathered broiler chickens were randomly divided into 2 treatments with 3 replicates each (50 birds per replicate): control and 80 g/kg of FCM group. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d. Ileal and cecal digesta samples were collected from 8 chicks per replicate at 21 and 42 d of age to determine the composition of bacterial microbiota using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, sequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The results demonstrated that the microbial composition in the ileum and cecum were considerably affected by the diet. The similarity dendrogram of banding profiles showed a more rapid stabilization of intestinal bacterial microbiota in broilers fed diets supplemented with FCM, compared with that of the birds fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in total number of bands and Shannon-Weaver index, indicating that FCM had no effects on bacterial diversity. However, enumeration of bacteria in the ileal and cecal contents by quantitative PCR showed an increased (P < 0.05) population of lactobacilli, as well as a decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli number by the dietary inclusion of FCM. In summary, dietary inclusion of FCM did not affect the intestinal microbial diversity but shifted intestinal microbiota, with a more homogenous population and an increased colonization of lactobacilli. The results also support the concept that dietary FCM inclusion could promote the beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract. PMID:23300306

Sun, H; Tang, J W; Fang, C L; Yao, X H; Wu, Y F; Wang, X; Feng, J

2013-02-01

43

Development of Fatal Intestinal Inflammation in MyD88 Deficient Mice Co-infected with Helminth and Bacterial Enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection. PMID:25010669

Su, Libo; Qi, Yujuan; Zhang, Mei; Weng, Meiqian; Zhang, Xichen; Su, Chienwen; Shi, Hai Ning

2014-01-01

44

The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma. Bacterial communities from broncho-alveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue were compared to samples taken from fecal matter (caecum) and vaginal lavage fluid from female BALB/cJ mice. Results Using a customized 16S rRNA sequencing protocol amplifying the V3-V4 region our study shows that the mice have a lung microbiome that cluster separately from mouse intestinal microbiome (caecum). The mouse lung microbiome is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria overlapping the vaginal microbiome. We also show that removal of host tissue or cells from lung fluid during the DNA extraction step has an impact on the resulting bacterial community profile. Sample preparation needs to be considered when choosing an extraction method and interpreting data. Conclusions We have consistently amplified bacterial DNA from mouse lungs that is distinct from the intestinal microbiome in these mice. The gut microbiome has been extensively studied for its links to development of disease. Here we suggest that also the lung microbiome could be important in relation to inflammatory lung diseases. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of the lung microbiome and the gut-lung axis to the development of lung diseases such as COPD and asthma. PMID:24373613

2013-01-01

45

Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because only 30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a factor other than heavy alcohol consumption must be involved in the development of alcohol-induced liver injury. Animal and human studies suggest that bacterial products, such as endotoxins, are the second key co-factors, and oxidant-mediated gut leakiness is one of the sources of endotoxemia. Probiotics have been used to prevent

Christopher B. Forsyth; Ashkan Farhadi; Shriram M. Jakate; Yueming Tang; Maliha Shaikh; Ali Keshavarzian

2009-01-01

46

In vitro evaluation of effects of gut region and fiber structure on the intestinal dominant bacterial diversity and functional bacterial species.  

PubMed

Understanding the intestinal bacteria in ruminants and their population kinetics is essential for their ecological function, as well as their interaction with the host. In this in vitro study, we aimed to determine whether gut region and fiber structure can influence bacterial diversity and functional bacterial population, together with the kinetics of functional bacterial species in the cecal inocula using PCR-DGGE and qPCR. A split plot design was conducted with gut regions (jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) as main plot, and substrates (neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and cellulose (CEL)) as subplot. Incubation time and gut region affected dominant bacterial diversity. The numbers of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, genus Prevotella and amylolytic bacteria in the hindgut inocula were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the small intestinal inocula. Fiber structure did not significantly influence the dominant bacterial diversity and the numbers of most examined functional bacterial species. The greatest increase rate of cellulolytic bacteria occurred earlier than amylolytic bacteria except for R. albus incubated with NDF. Changes in cellulolytic bacterial populations were not coordinative with alteration of fiber disappearance as well as CMCase and xylanase activities. All these suggest that the hindgut contents have greater potential to digest fiber than small intestinal contents, and cellulolytic bacteria are of significant value at the initial stage of fiber digestion among the fiber digestive microbes in the intestine. PMID:24972096

Jiao, Jinzhen; Lu, Qi; Tan, Zhiliang; Guan, Leluo; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng

2014-08-01

47

Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.  

PubMed

The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions. PMID:25003516

Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore

2014-07-01

48

Effect of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal morphology in obstructive jaundice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal villus histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups each including 10 animals: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and section of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, bile duct ligation followed by oral supplementation of honey (BDL + honey) 10 g/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electrone microscopic examination. RESULTS: Although the number of villi per centimeter and the height of the mucosa were higher in sham group, there was no statistically significant difference between sham and BDL + honey groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between BDL group and other groups (P < 0.05). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and honey groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (P > 0.05). BDL group had significantly higher rates of bacterial translocation as compared with sham and honey groups. Bacterial translocation was predominantly detected in mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of honey in presence of obstructive jaundice ameliorates bacterial translocation and improves ileal morphology. PMID:18528939

Gencay, Cem; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

2008-01-01

49

Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ? 20 ppm or CH4 ? 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. RESULTS: Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon. PMID:23139610

Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Ligia Cristina FL; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

2012-01-01

50

Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).  

PubMed Central

The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were slightly less than those from the other two groups of frogs. Another group of 14 summer frogs, after treatment to induce hibernation, showed a drop in bacterial counts accompanied by a change in the composition of the flora. In most frogs, Bacteroides was the dominant organism. Other bacteria repeatedly isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including butyrigenic and acetogenic helically coiled bacteria; fusobacteria; and acetogenic, small, gram-positive bacilli. These data indicate that the intestinal flora of frogs is similar to that of mammals and birds and that this flora can be maintained at temperatures close to freezing. PMID:6982025

Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

1982-01-01

51

Metronidazole improves intestinal microcirculation in septic rats independently of bacterial burden.  

PubMed

To explore the effects of metronidazole (Me) on intestinal microcirculation in septic rats, intravital microscopy (IVM) following 16 hours of colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP model) was used. Four groups of animals were studied: control group (sham operation) and CASP group, each with and without Me treatment (10 mg/kg i.v.). In order to investigate the substance-specific effects of Me independently of the antibacterial effects within a pathologically altered microcirculation, a second experimental series with lipopolysaccharide challenge (LPS model) was carried out. The LPS model consisted of the four groups (control animals and LPS animals (15 mg/kg i.v. LPS from E. coli) with and without Me). IVM in the LPS experiments was performed following a two hour observation period. Me treated CASP or LPS animals, as compared with untreated, demonstrated significant improvement of functional capillary density (FCD) of the intestinal wall. The increase in the number of leukocytes firmly adhered to the endothelium (leukocyte sticking) in the untreated CASP or LPS animals within the V1 venules of the intestinal submucosal layer, was significantly reduced in the Me treated animals. In conclusion, Me exerts beneficial anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects within the septic microcirculation. PMID:16614467

Lehmann, Ch; Bac, V H; Pavlovic, D; Lustig, M; Maier, S; Feyerherd, F; Usichenko, T-I; Meissner, K; Haase, H; Jünger, M; Wendt, M; Heidecke, C-D; Gründling, M

2006-01-01

52

Sensitivity of bile acid breath test in the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine with and without the stagnant (blind) loop syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bile acid breath test was studied to examine its sensitivity for establishing the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in comparison to that of the Schilling test and small-intestinal cultures in 12 patients with a stagnant (blind) loop syndrome, as well as in 38 patients who had other conditions with suspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine. The presence of bile

Sirus Farivar; Hans Fromm; Detlef Schindler; Friedrich W. Schmidt

1979-01-01

53

Propolis reduces bacterial translocation and intestinal villus atrophy in experimental obstructive jaundice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of propolis on bacterial translocation and ultrastructure of intestinal morphology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into three groups, each including 10 animals: groupI, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BDL followed by oral supplementation of propolis 100 mg/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electron microscopic examination on postoperative 7th d after sacrification. RESULTS: The mean number of villi per centimeter and mean mucosal height of the propolis group were significantly different in the BDL group (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and BDL + propolis groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (BT). The BDL group had significantly higher rates of BT as compared with sham and BDL + propolis groups. BT was predominantly detected in MLNs and the most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: Propolis showed a significant protective effect on ileal mucosa and reduced bacterial translocation in the experimental obstructive jaundice model. Further studies should be carried out to explain the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:17876893

Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

2007-01-01

54

Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

Sen, Velat; Uluca, Unal; Ece, Ayd?n; Gunes, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Turkcu, Gul; Tekin, Recep

2014-01-01

55

Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies  

E-print Network

of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We alsoCharacterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical

Selinger, Brent

56

Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.  

PubMed

The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, ?- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-?) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

2014-05-01

57

Effect of Bacterial Pneumonia on Lung SIV Replication in Alcohol Consuming SIV Infected Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons have been shown to increase the rate of HIV replication. In populations where prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia is utilized, bacterial pneumonia is now the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in HIV+ patients. Our prior studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption in simian demarcated immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaques increases plasma viral load set point and accelerates progression to end-stage AIDS. While chronic alcohol abuse is well-known to increase the incidence and severity of bacterial pneumonia, the impact of alcohol consumption on local and systemic SIV/HIV burden during lung infection is unknown. Therefore, we utilized the macaque SIV infection model to examine the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on SIV burden during the course of pulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified etiology of bacterial pneumonia in HIV+ and HIV- persons in developed countries. Methods Alcohol was administered starting 3 months before SIVMac251 inoculation to the end of the study via an indwelling intragastric catheter to achieve a plasma alcohol concentration of 50–60 mM. Control animals received isocaloric sucrose. Four months after SIV infection, the right lung was inoculated with 2 × 106 CFU S. pneumoniae. Results Leukocyte recruitment into the lung, pulmonary bacterial clearance, and clinical course were similar between ethanol and control groups. While plasma SIV viral load was similar between groups post-pneumonia, chronic ethanol-fed macaques showed a prolonged increase in SIV RNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Alveolar macrophages isolated from ethanol-fed macaques one day post-pneumonia showed greater nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) activation. Conclusions This study indicates that chronic ethanol feeding results in enhanced local, but not systemic, SIV replication following pneumococcal pneumonia. Increased NF-kB activity in the setting of chronic ethanol ingestion may play a mechanistic role in this observation. PMID:23414480

Nelson, Steve; Happel, Kyle I.; Zhang, Ping; Myers, Leann; Dufour, Jason P.; Bagby, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

58

In vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.  

PubMed

Rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with the pathogenesis of IBS. This study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against SIBO micro-organisms from humans. Fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed SIBO in 117 patients (20.6%). A total of 170 aerobic micro-organisms were isolated and the in vitro efficacy of rifaximin was studied by (i) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing by a microdilution technique and (ii) time-kill assays using bile to simulate the small intestinal environment. At a breakpoint of 32 ?g/mL, rifaximin inhibited in vitro 85.4% of Escherichia coli, 43.6% of Klebsiella spp., 34.8% of Enterobacter spp., 54.5% of other Enterobacteriaceae spp., 82.6% of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative spp., 100% of Enterococcus faecalis, 100% of Enterococcus faecium and 100% of Staphylococcus aureus. For the time-kill assays, 11 E. coli, 15 non-E. coli Gram-negative enterobacteria and three E. faecalis isolates were studied. Rifaximin produced a >3 log10 decrease in the starting inoculum against most of the tested isolates at 500 ?g/mL after 24h of growth. The results indicate that rifaximin has a potent effect on specific small bowel flora associated with SIBO. This conclusion should be regarded in light of the considerable time-kill effect at concentrations lower than those achieved in the bowel lumen after administration of conventional doses in humans. PMID:24461710

Pistiki, Aikaterini; Galani, Irene; Pyleris, Emmanouel; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

2014-03-01

59

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn's disease: Influence of thiopurine and biological treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressants and/or biological drugs do not induce SIBO in inactive CD. Fistulizing disease pattern and meteorism are associated with SIBO. PMID:25320539

Sanchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Ester; Yago, Maria; Beltran, Belen; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

2014-01-01

60

Long-term treatment with cisapride and antibiotics in liver cirrhosis: effect on small intestinal motility, bacterial overgrowth, and liver function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Altered small-bowel motility, lengthening of the orocecal transit time, and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth have been described in patients with liver cirrhosis. These changes might be related to the progressive course and poor prognosis of the disease. We investigated the effect of a long-term treatment with cisapride and an antibiotic regimen on small-intestinal motor activity, orocecal transit time, bacterial overgrowth, and

Ana Maria Madrid; Carmen Hurtado; Mauricio Venegas; Francisco Cumsille; Carlos Defilippi

2001-01-01

61

Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

2014-01-01

62

Host-Microbiome Interactions in Alcoholic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and liver-related death worldwide. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis induced by ethanol ingestion play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. After exposure to alcohol in the lumen, enteric bacteria alter their metabolism and thereby disturb intestinal homeostasis. Disruption of the mucosal barrier results in the translocation of microbial products that contribute to liver disease by inducing hepatic inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiome, and in particular, its effects on bacterial metabolism, bacterial translocation and ecological balance. A better understanding of the interactions among alcohol, the host and the microbiome will reveal new targets for therapy and lead to new treatments. PMID:24827618

Chen, Peng

2014-01-01

63

Inhibition of Intestinal Bacterial Translocation with Rifaximin Modulates Lamina propria Monocytic Cells Reactivity and Protects against Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A modification of the intestinal flora and an increased bacterial translocation is a common finding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in animal model of colitis. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable derivative of rifamycin, is an effective antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial ribonucleic acid synthesis. Aims: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the administration

Stefano Fiorucci; Eleonora Distrutti; Andrea Mencarelli; Miriam Barbanti; Ernesto Palazzini; Antonio Morelli

2002-01-01

64

Effects of oat ?-glucan and barley ?-glucan on fecal characteristics, intestinal microflora, and intestinal bacterial metabolites in rats.  

PubMed

The primary objective was to determine the beneficial effects of oat ?-glucan (OG) and barley ?-glucan (BG) on gut health. A total of 200 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 40 rats each, control group (CON), low-dose OG-administered group (OGL), high-dose OG-administered group (OGH), low-dose BG-administered group (BGL), and high-dose BG-administered group (BGH). OGL and OGH were administered oat ?-glucan by intragastric gavage at a dose of 0.35 g/kg of body weight (BW) and 0.70 g/kg of BW daily for 6 weeks, and BGL and BGH were administered barley ?-glucan. The CON received normal saline. Intestinal-health-related indexes were analyzed at baseline, week 3, week 6, and week 7. Cereal ?-glucan significantly influenced the fecal water content, pH value, ammonia levels, ?-glucuronidase activity, azoreductase activity, and colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations (p < 0.05). Moreover, the population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increased (p < 0.05), whereas the number of Enterobacteriaceae decreased (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner during the period of cereal ?-glucan administration. These results suggested that cereal ?-glucan might exert favorable effects on improving intestinal functions and health but the gut-health-promoting effects of oat ?-glucan were better than those of barley ?-glucan. PMID:23113683

Shen, Rui-Ling; Dang, Xue-Ya; Dong, Ji-Lin; Hu, Xin-Zhong

2012-11-14

65

MONOCYTE HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN–DR EXPRESSION—A TOOL TO DISTINGUISH INTESTINAL BACTERIAL INFECTIONS FROM INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE?  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to determine the quantitative expression of human leukocyte antigen–DR (HLA-DR) on monocytes in patients with acute intestinal bacterial infections and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods The quantitative expression of HLA-DR on monocytes was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in patients with IBD, patients with acute intestinal bacterial infections (bact.), and healthy subjects (contr.). Results The quantitative expression of HLA-DR in patients with bact. (n = 20; 90,000 molecules per monocyte; confidence interval [CI], 79,000–102,000) was significantly higher than that in patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 40, 30,000; CI, 30,000–38,000; P < 0.0001), Crohn disease (n = 80, 31,000; CI, 32,000–39,000; P < 0.0001), or in contr. (n = 28, 39,000; CI, 36,000–46,000; P < 0.0001). In patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, HLA-DR expression was significantly decreased, as compared with contr. (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). With a cutoff point of 50,000, HLA-DR showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 92% in discriminating between bact. and active IBD. Conclusion The quantitative measurement of HLA-DR expression could serve as a valuable tool to discriminate between bact. and active IBD. PMID:23860582

Tillinger, Wolfgang; Jilch, Ruth; Waldhoer, Thomas; Reinisch, Walter; Junger, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

66

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN BACTERIAL CULTURES ON THE MOVEMENT OF THE INTESTINES  

PubMed Central

Following intravenous injection, filtrates of young cultures of B. paratyphosus B often produce marked diarrhea in rabbits. A study was made of the effect of these toxic filtrates on the motility of the small intestines of the rabbit. The observations were made on a segment of the small intestines in situ, and in the living animal. It was found that an immediate slight rise of tone of the longitudinal muscles occurred following intravenous injection of sterile broth. The same rise was noted after the injection of the toxic filtrate; but with these it was followed later (10 minutes elapsing at least) by a very strong but gradual rise of the diastolic and systolic tone, i.e., by spasmodic contraction of the intestinal muscle, which persisted at times for as long as 2 hours. In order to record simultaneously the effect on the longitudinal and circular muscles, and the propulsive efficiency of the segment the Sollmann and Rademaekers modification of Baur's technique was employed. This arrangement showed that the stimulation of the longitudinal muscles is accompanied by a similarly strong stimulation of the circular muscles, by peristalsis, and therefore by a greatly increased propulsion of intestinal contents which was sufficient to overcome the inhibition that usually occurs after preparation of the animal. With this arrangement an instance of peristaltic spasm was also noted. Broth alone failed to produce the phenomenon. Isotonic magnesium chloride or sulfate added to the bath relaxed the muscles again. Animals under deep urethane anesthesia did not show the diarrhea occurring in the intact controls, but sometimes exhibited it after the effect of the anesthetic had disappeared. So far no effects have been observed on the isolated strip (Magnus method), and further studies are being made to localize the effect, to neutralize it with a specific antiserum, and to observe the effect of filtrates of other members of the bacterial group including the dysentery bacilli. PMID:19869160

Ecker, E. E.; Rademaekers, A.

1926-01-01

67

Role of TLR4/NF-?B in Damage to Intestinal Mucosa Barrier Function and Bacterial Translocation in Rats Exposed to Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-?B) in intestinal mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation under hypoxic exposure is unclear. Here, we investigated their role using an acute hypobaric hypoxia model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia+NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) (100 mg. kg) (HP), hypoxia+0.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (HPL), and hypoxia+PDTC+LPS (HPL) group. Except control group, other four groups were placed in a hypobaric chamber set at 7000 m. Samples were collected at 72 h after pressure reduction. Damage in ultrastructure of the intestinal tract was examined by transmission electron microscopy and bacterial translocation was detected by cultivation. Kinetic turbidimetric assay was used to measure the serum LPS. ELISA was performed to detect TNF-? and IL-6 serum concentrations. Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure TLR4 mRNA levels was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and protein of NF-?B p65 was measured by western blotting. Different degrees of intestinal mucosa damage were observed in groups H and HL. The damage was significantly alleviated after blockage of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. PDTC- treatment also reversed hyoxia- and LPS-induced bacterial translocation rate and increased serum levels of LPS, TNF-?, and IL-6. TLR4 mRNA levels and NF-?B p65 expression were consistent with the serum factor results. This study suggested that TLR4 and NF-?B expression increased in rat intestinal tissues after acute hypoxia exposure. PDTC-treatment reversed TLR4 and NF-?B upregulation and alleviated damage to the intestinal tract and bacterial translocation. Thus, the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway may be critical to the mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced damage to intestinal barrier function and bacterial translocation. PMID:23082119

Luo, Han; Guo, Ping; Zhou, Qiquan

2012-01-01

68

Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.  

PubMed

T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R

2014-06-01

69

Effects of glutamine on intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in TPN-rats with endotoxemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the protective effect and mechanism of glutamine on the intestinal barrier function in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) rats with trauma or endotoxemia. METHODS: To perform prospective, randomized and controlled animal experimentation of rats with surgical trauma, TPN and endotoxemia, thirty-four male, adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group (n=8), TPN group (n=9), trauma

Lian-An Ding; Jie-Show Li

70

Pseudomonas reactans, a bacterial strain isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica with anti-Beauveria bassiana activity.  

PubMed

Anti-Beauveria bassiana activity of aqueous fecal extracts from conventional German cockroaches [Blattella germanica (L.)] was detected, but was not detected in samples from germ-free German cockroaches. Subsequently, bacterial strain BGI-14 was isolated from the gut of conventional German cockroaches and was identified as Pseudomonas reactans based on 16S rDNA sequence. The strain BGI-14 not only inhibited the germination of conidia, but also inhibited the growth of B. bassiana hyphae. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-14 fermentation were significantly weakened. Compared with the control group, the cumulative mortality rate of treatment group was reduced by 10.3% at 20 d postinoculation. These studies imply that intestinal flora with anti-B. bassiana activity might contribute to resistance of infection by entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:23726054

Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yan Hong; Liu, Shu Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Bo Tai; Zhao, Xiao Xu; Fu, Ying; Liu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xue Xia

2013-06-01

71

Genetic evidence for a protective role of the peritrophic matrix against intestinal bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The peritrophic matrix (PM) forms a layer composed of chitin and glycoproteins that lines the insect intestinal lumen. This physical barrier plays a role analogous to that of mucous secretions of the vertebrate digestive tract and is thought to protect the midgut epithelium from abrasive food particles and microbes. Almost nothing is known about PM functions in Drosophila, and its function as an immune barrier has never been addressed by a genetic approach. Here we show that the Drosocrystallin (Dcy) protein, a putative component of the eye lens of Drosophila, contributes to adult PM formation. A loss-of-function mutation in the dcy gene results in a reduction of PM width and an increase of its permeability. Upon bacterial ingestion a higher level of expression of antibacterial peptides was observed in dcy mutants, pointing to an influence of this matrix on bacteria sensing by the Imd immune pathway. Moreover, dcy-deficient flies show an increased susceptibility to oral infections with the entomopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas entomophila and Serratia marcescens. Dcy mutant flies also succumb faster than wild type upon ingestion of a P. entomophila toxic extract. We show that this lethality is due in part to an increased deleterious action of Monalysin, a pore-forming toxin produced by P. entomophila. Collectively, our analysis of the dcy immune phenotype indicates that the PM plays an important role in Drosophila host defense against enteric pathogens, preventing the damaging action of pore-forming toxins on intestinal cells. PMID:21896728

Kuraishi, Takayuki; Binggeli, Olivier; Opota, Onya; Buchon, Nicolas; Lemaitre, Bruno

2011-01-01

72

Seasonal Trends in Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Farm-Raised Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial floras in the alimentary tracts of farm-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were qualitatively examined. Fish were raised in six different earthen ponds in Mississippi stocked at three different densities. Fish stocking density had no detectable effect on the composition of the microflora. In total, 26 different species of bacteria from 20 different genera were isolated. Jaccard similarity indices

John R. Macmillan; Tim Santucci

1990-01-01

73

Orchestration of Neutrophil Movement by Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Response to Salmonella typhimurium Can Be Uncoupled from Bacterial Internalization  

PubMed Central

Intestinal epithelial cells respond to Salmonella typhimurium by internalizing this pathogen and secreting, in a polarized manner, an array of chemokines which direct polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) movement. Notably, interleukin-8 (IL-8) is secreted basolaterally and directs PMN through the lamina propria, whereas pathogen-elicited epithelial chemoattractant (PEEC) is secreted apically and directs PMN migration across the epithelial monolayer to the intestinal lumen. While most studies of S. typhimurium pathogenicity have focused on the mechanism by which this bacterium invades its host, the enteritis characteristically associated with salmonellosis appears to be more directly attributable to the PMN movement that occurs in response to this pathogen. Therefore, we sought to better understand the relationship between S. typhimurium invasion and epithelial promotion of PMN movement. First, we investigated whether S. typhimurium becoming intracellular was necessary or sufficient to induce epithelial promotion of PMN movement. Blocking S. typhimurium invasion by preventing, with cytochalasin D, the epithelial cytoskeletal rearrangements which mediate internalization did not reduce the epithelial promotion of PMN movement. Conversely, bacterial attainment of an intracellular position was not sufficient to induce model epithelia to direct PMN transmigration, since neither basolateral invasion by S. typhimurium nor apical internalization of an invasion-deficient mutant (achieved by inducing membrane ruffling with epidermal growth factor) induced this epithelial cell response. These results indicate that specific interactions between the apical surface of epithelial cells and S. typhimurium, rather than simply bacterial invasion, mediate the epithelial direction of PMN transmigration. To further investigate the means by which S. typhimurium induces epithelia to direct PMN movement, we investigated whether the same signaling pathways regulate secretion of IL-8 and PEEC. IL-8 secretion, but not PEEC secretion, was activated by phorbol myristate acetate and blocked by an inhibitor (mg-132) of the proteosome which mediates NF-?? activation. Further, secretion of IL-8, but not PEEC, was activated by an entry-deficient (Hil?) S. typhimurium mutant or by basolateral invasion of a wild-type strain. Together, these results indicate that distinct signaling pathways mediate S. typhimurium invasion, induction of IL-8 secretion, and induction of PEEC secretion in model intestinal epithelia. PMID:9916066

Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Siber, Andrew M.; Madara, James L.; McCormick, Beth A.

1999-01-01

74

6-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol aerobic biodegradation in soil and mixed bacterial culture.  

PubMed

The first studies to explore 6-2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6-2 FTOH, F(CF(2))(6)CH(2)CH(2)OH] aerobic biodegradation are described. Biodegradation yields and metabolite concentrations were determined in mixed bacterial culture (90d) and aerobic soil (180d). 6-2 FTOH primary degradation half-life was less than 2d in both. The overall mass balance in mixed bacterial culture (day 90) was approximately 60%. At day 90, the molar yield was 6% for 6-2 FTA [F(CF(2))(6)CH(2)COOH], 23% for 6-2 FTUA [F(CF(2))(5)CFCHCOOH], 16% for 5-2 sFTOH [F(CF(2))(5)CHOHCH(3)], 6% for 5-3 acid [F(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)COOH], and 5% for PFHxA [F(CF(2))(5)COOH]. The overall mass balance in aerobic soil was approximately 67% (day 180). At day 180, the major terminal metabolites were PFPeA, [F(CF(2))(4)COOH, 30%], PFHxA (8%), PFBA [F(CF(2))(3)COOH, 2%], and 5-3 acid (15%). A new metabolite 4-3 acid [F(CF(2))(4)CH(2)CH(2)COOH] accounted for 1%, 6-2 FTOH for 3%, and 5-2 sFTOH for 7%. Based on 8-2 FTOH aerobic biodegradation pathways, PFHxA was expected in greatest yield from 6-2 FTOH degradation. However, PFPeA was observed in greatest yield in soil, suggesting a preference for alternate degradation pathways. Selected metabolites were also studied in aerobic soil. 5-3 Acid degraded to only 4-3 acid with a molar yield of 2.3%. 5-2 sFTOH degraded to PFPeA and PFHxA, and 5-2 FT Ketone [F(CF(2))(5)COCH(3)] degraded to 5-2 sFTOH, suggesting that 5-2 sFTOH is the direct precursor to PFPeA and PFHxA. Another new metabolite, 5-3 ketone aldehyde [F(CF(2))(5)COCH(2)CHO] was also identified in mixed bacterial culture. The formation of PFBA, PFPeA, and 4-3 acid indicates that multiple -CF(2)- groups in 6-2 FTOH were removed during microbial biodegradation. PMID:19931114

Liu, Jinxia; Wang, Ning; Szostek, Bogdan; Buck, Robert C; Panciroli, Patricia K; Folsom, Patrick W; Sulecki, Lisa M; Bellin, Cheryl A

2010-01-01

75

Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different ? radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with 137Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during ? irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for ? irradiated products.

Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin; Zaharescu, Traian

2012-05-01

76

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

77

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

78

Maternal 18:3n-3 favors piglet intestinal passage of LPS and promotes intestinal anti-inflammatory response to this bacterial ligand.  

PubMed

We recently observed that maternal 18:3n-3 increases piglet jejunal permeability. We hypothesized that this would favor intestinal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) passage and alter gut immune system education toward this bacterial ligand. Sows were fed 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6 diets throughout gestation and lactation. In each litter, two piglets were given oral Gram-negative spectrum antibiotic from post-natal day (PND) 14 to 28. All piglets were weaned on a regular diet at PND28. 18:3n-3 piglets exhibited greater jejunal permeability to FITC-LPS at PND28. Levels of 18:3n-3 but neither 20:5n-3 nor 20:4n-6 were greater in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of 18:3n-3 piglets. Jejunal explant or MLN cell cytokine responses to LPS were not influenced by the maternal diet. Antibiotic increased jejunal permeability to FITC-LPS and lowered the level of 20:5n-3 in MLN, irrespective of the maternal diet. At PND52, no long-lasting effect of the maternal diet or antibiotic treatment on jejunal permeability was noticed. 18:3n-3 and 20:4n-6 levels were greater and lower, respectively, in MLN of 18:3n-3 compared to 18:2n-6 piglets. IL-10 production by MLN cells in response to LPS was greater in the 18:3n-3 group, irrespective of the neonatal antibiotic treatment. IL-8 secretion by jejunal explants in response to LPS was lower in antibiotic-treated 18:3n-3 compared to 18:2n-6 piglets. Finally, proportion of MHC class II(+) antigen-presenting cells was greater in 18:3n-3 than 18:2n-6 MLN cells. In conclusion, maternal 18:3n-3 directs the intestinal immune response to LPS toward an anti-inflammatory profile beyond the breastfeeding period; microbiota involvement seems dependent of the immune cells considered. PMID:25087993

Desaldeleer, Cécile; Ferret-Bernard, Stéphanie; de Quelen, Francine; Le Normand, Laurence; Perrier, Cécile; Savary, Gérard; Romé, Véronique; Michel, Catherine; Mourot, Jacques; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaëlle

2014-10-01

79

Diversity and Succession of the Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Maturing Broiler Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus

Jiangrang Lu; Umelaalim Idris; Barry Harmon; Charles Hofacre; John J. Maurer; Margie D. Lee

2003-01-01

80

Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Defense against attaching and effacing (A/E) bacteria requires the sequential generation of interleukin 23 (IL-23) and IL-22 to induce protective mucosal responses. While CD4+ and NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the critical source of IL-22 during infection, the precise source of IL-23 is unclear. We used genetic techniques to deplete specific subsets of classical dendritic cells (cDCs) and analyzed immunity to the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. We found that Notch2 controlled the terminal stage of cDC differentiation. Notch2-dependent intestinal CD11b+ cDCs, but not Batf3-dependent CD103+ cDCs, were an obligate source of IL-23 required to survive C. rodentium infection. These results provide the first demonstration of a non-redundant function of CD11b+ cDCs in response to pathogens in vivo. PMID:23913046

Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Briseno, Carlos G.; Lee, Jacob S.; Ng, Dennis; Manieri, Nicholas A.; KC, Wumesh; Wu, Xiaodi; Thomas, Stephanie R.; Lee, Wan-Ling; Turkoz, Mustafa; McDonald, Keely G.; Meredith, Matthew M.; Song, Christina; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Newberry, Rodney D.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Murphy, Theresa L.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Colonna, Marco; Kopan, Raphael; Murphy, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

81

Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora  

PubMed Central

The composition of the human intestinal flora is important for the health status of the host. The global composition and the presence of specific pathogens are relevant to the effects of the flora. Therefore, accurate quantification of all major bacterial populations of the enteric flora is needed. A TaqMan real-time PCR-based method for the quantification of 20 dominant bacterial species and groups of the intestinal flora has been established on the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA taxonomy. A PCR with conserved primers was used for all reactions. In each real-time PCR, a universal probe for quantification of total bacteria and a specific probe for the species in question were included. PCR with conserved primers and the universal probe for total bacteria allowed relative and absolute quantification. Minor groove binder probes increased the sensitivity of the assays 10- to 100-fold. The method was evaluated by cross-reaction experiments and quantification of bacteria in complex clinical samples from healthy patients. A sensitivity of 101 to 103 bacterial cells per sample was achieved. No significant cross-reaction was observed. The real-time PCR assays presented may facilitate understanding of the intestinal bacterial flora through a normalized global estimation of the major contributing species. PMID:15184435

Ott, Stephan J.; Musfeldt, Meike; Ullmann, Uwe; Hampe, Jochen; Schreiber, Stefan

2004-01-01

82

Campylobacter jejuni Outer Membrane Vesicles Play an Important Role in Bacterial Interactions with Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W.; Smith, David G. E.

2012-01-01

83

Effects of chronic protein-calorie malnutrition on small intestinal repair after an acute bacterial enteritis: a study in infant rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if recovery of intestinal function in infant rabbits subjected to protein-calorie malnutrition was delayed as a result of inflammatory injury induced by an experimental bacterial enteritis. Rabbits were malnourished by expanding litter size at 7 days of age and infecting undernourished animals and dietary controls with Yersinia enterocolitica at either 17 or 21 days of age. Intestinal morphology and function were evaluated in infected and noninfected animals from both dietary groups at 27 days of age. Undernutrition alone significantly reduced animal weight, small intestinal weight, segmental jejunal and ileal mucosal weight, villus height, crypt depth, disaccharidase activities, mucosal protein and DNA contents, but increased ileal short-circuited glucose-stimulated Na+ absorption compared to controls. The jejunum of undernourished rabbits at 6 days postinfection exhibited an intestinal injury, as evidenced by a mild inflammatory infiltrate and further reductions in villus height, mucosal weight, lactase activity, protein and DNA content, not seen in infected dietary controls. Jejunal recovery was complete by 10 days postinfection. In the ileum of infected animals of both dietary groups at 6 days post-infection, a severe inflammatory response, decreased villus height, elongated crypts, and depressed stimulation of Na+ absorption by glucose was observed. By 10 days after infection, while recovery was nearly complete in dietary controls, intestinal damage persisted in the undernourished rabbits, as evidenced by absent glucose-stimulated Na+ absorption, continued severe inflammation and microabscess formation. We conclude that intestinal injury is more severe and chronic in the undernourished, compared to dietary control infant rabbits subjected to an acute bacterial enteritis. PMID:3131727

Butzner, J D; Gall, D G

1988-04-01

84

Culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community structure from the intestinal tracts of earthworms(Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

The bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of earthworm were investigated by culture-dependent and - independent approaches. In total, 72 and 55 pure cultures were isolated from the intestinal tracts of earthworms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Aerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (40%), Bacillus (37%), Photobacterium (10%), Pseudomonas (7%), and Shewanella (6%). Anaerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (52%), Bacillus (27%), Shewanella (12%), Paenibacillus (5%), Clostridium (2%), and Cellulosimicrobium (2%). The dominant microorganisms were Aeromonas and Bacillus species under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In all, 39 DNA fragments were identified by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Aeromonas sp. was the dominant microorganism in feeds, intestinal tracts, and casts of earthworms. The DGGE band intensity of Aeromonas from feeds, intestinal tracts, and casts of earthworms was 12.8%, 14.7%, and 15.1%, respectively. The other strains identified were Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Photobacterium, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Streptomyces, uncultured Chloroflexi bacterium, and uncultured bacterium. These results suggest that PCR-DGGE analysis was more efficient than the culture-dependent approach for the investigation of bacterial diversity and the identification of unculturable microorganisms. PMID:21952364

Hong, Sung Wook; Kim, In Su; Lee, Ju Sam; Chung, Kun Sub

2011-09-01

85

Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

86

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Alcohol KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to My Body > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... fun." "It's cool. Everybody drinks, right?" Wrong. Drinking alcohol is dangerous for kids and teens and sometimes ...

87

Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a major public health problem in the United States as well as around the world. The significant role that alcohol plays in suicidality is well known and accepted in the scientific community. The use of alcohol does not necessarily lead to suicide, but through its action and effects, alcohol is an important proximal risk factor for suicidal behavior. There is very little data showing how and why alcohol exerts such tremendous influence and “lubricates the gears” to propel the act of committing suicide. This article will elucidate the complex relationship between alcohol and suicide and how alcohol use can lead to suicide. The article also describes how alcohol affects brain neurophysiology in regards to suicidal behavior. PMID:23440995

Nathani, Milankumar; Jabeen, Shahgufta; Yazdani, Ijlal; Mouton, Charles D.; Bailey, Rahn K.; Mahr, Mona; Pate, Rebecca J.; Riley, Wayne J.

2013-01-01

88

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Association with Colon Motility, Bowel Symptoms, and Psychological Distress  

PubMed Central

Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although with significant controversy. Aims To determine the prevalence of SIBO in IBS and its association with colonic motility, bowel symptoms and psychological distress. Methods Sucrose hydrogen and methane breath tests were performed in 158 IBS and 34 healthy controls (HC). Thresholds for pain and urgency were tested by barostat in the descending colon. The motility index (MI) was calculated as the average area under the curve for all phasic contractions. Questionnaires assessed psychological distress, IBS symptom severity (IBSSS), IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) and self reported bowel symptoms. Results 52/158 (32.9%) IBS patients had abnormal breath tests compared with 6/34 (17.9%) HC (?2=0.079). SIBO (SIBO+) and Non-SIBO (SIBO?) did not differ in the prevalence of IBS-subtypes, IBS-SS, IBS-QOL and psychological distress variables. IBS had a greater post-distension increase in MI than HC, but there was no difference between SIBO+ and SIBO?. Predominant methane producers had higher urge thresholds (28.4 vs. 18.3, p<0.05) and higher baseline MI (461 vs. 301.45, p<0.05) than SIBO? IBS, and they reported more “hard or lumpy stools” when compared to predominant hydrogen producers (p<0.05) and SIBO? IBS (p< 0.05). Conclusions SIBO is unlikely to contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methane production is associated with constipation. PMID:18482250

Grover, Madhusudan; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Palsson, Olafur S.; Chitkara, Denesh K.; Gangarosa, Lisa M.; Drossman, Douglas A.; Whitehead, William E.

2013-01-01

89

Pharmacokinetic evidence on the contribution of intestinal bacterial conversion to beneficial effects of astragaloside IV, a marker compound of astragali radix, in traditional oral use of the herb.  

PubMed

Astragaloside IV (AIV) is the most abundant saponin and a marker compound in Astragali Radix, a Chinese herb notable for its anti-aging and immune-enhancing effects. The present study investigated the role of intestinal bacterial conversion in the in vivo fate of AIV administered through a traditional oral route for the first time. When incubated anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria, AIV generated five metabolites with three [monoglycosides brachyoside B and cyclogaleginoside B, the aglycone cycloastragenol (CA)] via stepwise deglycosylation and two from further epimerization (CA-iso) and dehydrogenation (CA-2H). Hydrolytic removal of C-6 glucose was a rate-limiting step for formations of CA and its derivatives. When AIV was orally administered to the rat, CA and CA-iso presented as the main components in plasma following AIV, and the AUC(0-?) were 88.60 ± 9.66 (CA), 179.06 ± 28.53 (CA-iso) and 452.28 ± 43.33 nM·h (AIV). CA-2H was the predominant form in feces but was not detected in urine or plasma. This agreed well with in vitro data including rapid hepatic metabolism of CA-2H to form CA and CA-iso and reversible conversions between CA-2H and CA/CA-iso by intestinal bacteria. These findings support a crucial role of gut bacterial conversion of AIV in the traditional application of Astragali herb and warrant further investigational emphasis on CA and CA-iso. PMID:22673033

Zhou, Rui-Na; Song, Yue-Lin; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wang, Yi-Tao; Yan, Ru

2012-01-01

90

Bacterial diversity within the equine large intestine as revealed by molecular analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of the microflora present within the equine large intestine was investigated through the analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Total genomic DNA, recovered from samples of large intestinal wall tissue and lumen contents, was used to generate 272 random clones that were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analysis. The 272 sequences were classified into 168 operational

Kristian Daly; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint; Soraya P. Shirazi-Beechey

2001-01-01

91

[Alcohol, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas].  

PubMed

The intake of larger quantities of alcoholic beverages leads to manifold functional disturbances and organ injury in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These damaging effects of alcohol are frequently the cause of complaints, such as heart burn, symptoms of dyspepsia and diarrhoea. Examples of more pronounced organ injury which can occur even following a single episode of heavy drinking are tears in the mucosa at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach (Mallory-Weiss-lesion) and hemorrhagic erosions in the stomach and/or the duodenum which may lead to massive bleeding. In the small intestine alcohol abuse interferes with the absorption of glucose, amino acids, lipids, water, sodium and vitamins (especially thiamine and folic acid). This inhibition of absorption of nutrients may contribute to nutritional deficiencies frequently observed in alcoholics. Acute alcohol ingestion can also damage the mucosa in the upper region of the small intestine and may lead to the disruption of the tips of the villi. Chronic alcohol abuse increases markedly the prevalence of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. The findings of human and animal studies suggest that the mucosal injury together with bacterial overgrowth favour the following sequence of events: Alcohol induced mucosal injury in the small intestine increases the permeability of the mucosa to macromolecules, such as endotoxin and/or other bacterial toxins, into the blood or lymph. This results in the release of potentially toxic cytokines and other mediators like Kupfer cells and other phagocytes. These cytokines and other mediators, in turn, exert multiple injurious effects on the microcirculation and membranes. The result is cell damage and even cell death (apoptosis, necrosis) in the liver and other organs. Chronic alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for the development of cancers of the tongue, larynx, pharynx and esophagus. In many countries alcohol abuse is the most important cause for the development of chronic pancreatitis. In the initial phase the disease is frequently characterised by episodes of 'acute' pancreatitis. These episodes develop only on the basis of prolonged alcohol abuse leading to subclinical damage of the gland. The latter is found in about 20-50% of patients with chronic alcohol abuse while the clinically overt pancreatitis is observed in only 1%-3% of alcoholics. Despite numerous studies performed in animal experiments and man the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis until now has not been clarified. PMID:10804879

Bode, J C; Bode, C

2000-04-01

92

Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue  

PubMed Central

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

2014-01-01

93

Alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Physicians can be most helpful to alcoholic patients, whatever the stage of progression of their illness, by adopting the\\u000a following strategies:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Become familiar with the interactional dynamics that result from denial so as to improve data gathering and interpretation,\\u000a resulting in better diagnostic acumen. Expect to feel uncomfortable because of the interpersonal nature of alcoholism’s defenses.\\u000a Tolerate these feelings

Brian Johnson; William Clark

1989-01-01

94

Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense.  

PubMed

Microbial penetration of the intestinal epithelial barrier triggers inflammatory responses that include induction of the bactericidal C-type lectin RegIII?. Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and protects mice from intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Flagellin-induced RegIII? expression is IL-22 dependent, but how TLR signaling leads to IL-22 expression is incompletely defined. By using conditional depletion of lamina propria dendritic cell (LPDC) subsets, we demonstrated that CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, but not monocyte-derived CD103(-)CD11b(+) LPDCs, expressed high amounts of IL-23 after bacterial flagellin administration and drove IL-22-dependent RegIII? production. Maximal expression of IL-23 subunits IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 occurred within 60 min of exposure to flagellin. IL-23 subsequently induced a burst of IL-22 followed by sustained RegIII? expression. Thus, CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria. PMID:22306017

Kinnebrew, Melissa A; Buffie, Charlie G; Diehl, Gretchen E; Zenewicz, Lauren A; Leiner, Ingrid; Hohl, Tobias M; Flavell, Richard A; Littman, Dan R; Pamer, Eric G

2012-02-24

95

Impact of Intestinal PepT1 on the Kinetics and Dynamics of N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, a Bacterially-Produced Chemotactic Peptide  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the intestinal permeability (Peff) of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe), a bacterially derived chemotactic tripeptide, in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon of wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice. A secondary purpose was to determine if the presence of intestinal PepT1 translated into fMet-Leu-Phe directed neutrophil migration in these animals. Using an in situ single pass perfusion technique, the Peff of [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe was substantially reduced in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of PepT1 knockout mice as compared to wild-type animals. In contrast, the Peff of [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe in colon was unchanged between genotypes and about 5% of that in small intestine. Jejunal uptake of [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe was specific for PepT1 and saturable with an intrinsic K0.5 of 1.6 mM. The peptide/histidine transporters PhT1 and PhT2 were not involved in [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe uptake. Myeloperoxidase activity (a measure of neutrophil migration) was significantly increased following 4 h perfusions of 10 ?M fMet-Leu-Phe in the jejunum of wild-type mice and was abolished by 50 mM glycylglycine; no change was observed in the jejunum of PepT1 knockout mice. Likewise, fMet-Leu-Phe perfusions had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in the colon of either genotype. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that PepT1 had a major influence on the permeability of fMet-Leu-Phe in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in wild-type mice and on inflammatory response in intestinal regions that expressed PepT1. PMID:23259992

Wu, Shu-Pei; Smith, David E.

2013-01-01

96

Adherence and Cytokine Induction in Caco-2 Cells by Bacterial Populations from a Three-Stage Continuous-Culture Model of the Large Intestine?  

PubMed Central

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W.; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.

2011-01-01

97

Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human gastrointestinal tract typically contains 300–500 bacterial species. Most bacterial species are acquired during\\u000a the birth process and although some changes to the flora may occur during later stages of life, the composition of the intestinal\\u000a microflora remains relatively constant. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) is defined as an excessive increase in the\\u000a number of bacteria in the upper

Rosemary J. Young; Jon A. Vanderhoof

98

A small-scale, low-cost isolation system for the incubation and rearing of low bacterial load chicks as a model to study microbial-intestinal interactions.  

PubMed

A small-scale, economical isolator system was adapted to hatch and raise chicks in a bacteria-free environment as a means to observe bacterial interactions with the intestinal mucosa during early development. The design and construction of flexible plastic isolators for incubation and brooding are described along with methodologies for preparation of eggs for entry into the isolators, incubation and hatching. Two trials were conducted, the first in August 2005 and the second in March 2006. Results from both trials showed no differences in body weights of chicks raised in isolation when compared with those raised conventionally. Growth of bacteria was detected from rectal swabs at day 2 post-hatch, with both trials, showing a light growth of Bacillus sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci and haemolytic streptococcus in trial 1, and a light growth of Bacillus cereus only in trial 2. Although not germfree, the growth of bacteria in chicks raised in isolation was decreased or absent when compared with chicks raised conventionally. Feed was negative for contamination and surface swabs of equipment were also negative until day 3 post-hatch, suggesting possible contamination within the eggs themselves. Despite the presence of bacterial species, the isolator system was successful in producing low bacterial load chicks for comparison studies with conventionally raised chicks. PMID:18435876

Forder, Rebecca E A; Firth, Gordon A; Tivey, David R; Howarth, Gordon S; Hughes, Robert J

2008-04-01

99

Card9 Mediates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution, T-Helper 17 Responses, and Control of Bacterial Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) is an adaptor protein that integrates signals downstream of pattern recognition receptors. CARD9 has been associated with autoinflammatory disorders, and loss-of-function mutations have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the role of CARD9 in intestinal inflammation is unknown. We characterized the role of Card9 in mucosal immune responses to intestinal epithelial injury and infection. METHODS We induced intestinal inflammation in Card9-null mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium. We analyzed body weight, assessed inflammation by histology, and measured levels of cytokines and chemokines using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell populations were compared between wild-type and Card9-null mice by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS Colon tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes of Card9-null mice had reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-?, and T-helper (Th)17 cytokines after administration of DSS, compared with wild-type mice. IL-17A and IL-22 expression were reduced in the recovery phase after DSS administration, coincident with decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20). Although Card9-null mice had more intestinal fungi based on 18S analysis, their Th17 responses remained defective even when an antifungal agent was administered throughout DSS exposure. Moreover, Card9-null mice had impaired immune responses to C rodentium, characterized by decreased levels of colonic IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIII?), as well as fewer IL-22—producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in colon lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS The adaptor protein CARD9 coordinates Th17- and innate lymphoid cell-mediated intestinal immune responses after epithelial injury in mice. PMID:23732773

SOKOL, HARRY; CONWAY, KARA L.; ZHANG, MEI; CHOI, MYUNGHWAN; MORIN, BRET; CAO, ZHIFANG; VILLABLANCA, EDUARDO J.; LI, CHUN; WIJMENGA, CISCA; YUN, SEOK HYUN; SHI, HAI NING; XAVIER, RAMNIK J.

2013-01-01

100

The identification of a bacterial strain BGI-1 isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica, and its anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain BGI-1 was isolated from the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characters. The strain BGI-1 inhibited the growth of Beauveria bassiana; the diameter of the inhibition zone exceeded 30 mm. Vesicles were observed in B. bassiana hyphae on the edge of the inhibition zone. Fermentation of BGI-1 reduced the conidial germination rate by 12%. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-1 fermentation were significantly weakened. Cumulative mortality rate was 49.5% in the treatment group at the 20 d, while that of the control group was 62.3%. The study intends to understand the relationship between the intestinal flora and the cockroach. Those microbes with anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity might contribute to resisting the infection of pathogenic fungi. PMID:23448013

Huang, Y H; Wang, X J; Zhang, F; Huo, X B; Fu, R S; Liu, J J; Sun, W B; Kang, D M; Jing, X

2013-02-01

101

Characterization and Ecology of Carboxymethylcellulase-Producing Anaerobic Bacterial Communities Associated with the Intestinal Tract of the Pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides  

PubMed Central

Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase)-producing obligate anaerobes were isolated from the intestinal tract contents but not the feeding habitat of seagrass-consuming pinfish. Taxonomic characterization of these CMCase-producing strains revealed four taxonomic clusters; three were clostridial and one was of unknown taxonomic affinity. Our results demonstrated that the CMCase-producing obligate anaerobe community from pinfish differed from functionally similar microbial communities in terrestrial herbivores. PMID:16534945

Stellwag, E. J.; Smith, T. D.; Luczkovich, J. J.

1995-01-01

102

Gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance, bacterial translocation and mortality following cholestasis depend on the genetic background of the host  

PubMed Central

Failure of the intestinal barrier is a characteristic feature of cholestasis. We have previously observed higher mortality in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We hypothesized the alteration in gut barrier function following cholestasis would vary by genetic background. Following one week of CBDL, jejunal TEER was significantly reduced in each ligated mouse compared with their sham counterparts; moreover, jejunal TEER was significantly lower in both sham and ligated C57BL/6J compared with sham and ligated A/J mice, respectively. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly increased in C57BL/6J mice vs. A/J mice. Four of 15 C57BL/6J mice were bacteremic; whereas, none of the 17 A/J mice were. Jejunal IFN-? mRNA expression was significantly elevated in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in occludin protein expression in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following both sham operation and CBDL. Only C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a marked decrease in ZO-1 protein expression following CBDL compared with shams. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples showed a dysbiosis only in C57BL/6J mice following CBDL when compared with shams. This study provides evidence of strain differences in gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance and bacterial translocation which supports the notion of a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury following cholestasis. PMID:23652772

Alaish, Samuel M.; Smith, Alexis D.; Timmons, Jennifer; Greenspon, Jose; Eyvazzadeh, Daniel; Murphy, Ebony; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Cirimotich, Shana; Mongodin, Emmanuel; Zhao, Aiping; Fasano, Alessio; Nataro, James P.; Cross, Alan S

2013-01-01

103

Effect of Obstructive Jaundice and Nitric Oxide on the Profiles of Intestinal Bacterial Flora in Wild and iNOS?/? Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that the plasma level of endotoxin and colonic expression of IgA in the mouse increased with obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). To elucidate the mechanism of the BDL-induced increase, we analyzed the effect of BDL on intestinal flora in wild type and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-deficient mice (iNOS?/?) using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA clone libraries. The amounts of bacterial DNA detected in fecal samples from both animal groups pretreated with antibiotics were extremely low as compared with untreated groups. We found that the profiles of enteric bacteria changed markedly after BDL. The bacterial composition is significantly different between not only wild type and iNOS?/? mice but also those before and after BDL, respectively. Among enteric bacteria examined, Lactobacillus murinus was found to increase markedly after BDL in rectum of both animal groups. However, Escherichia coli markedly increased after BDL in the iNOS?/? mice. These findings suggest that profiles of enteric flora change markedly in animals during obstructive jaundice by some mechanism that is affected by bile constituents and iNOS-derived NO. PMID:19308270

Hong, Ji-Young; F. Sato, Eisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Inoue, Masayasu

2009-01-01

104

Sampling of Intestinal Microbiota and Targeted Amplification of Bacterial 16S rRNA Genes for Microbial Ecologic Analysis.  

PubMed

Dysbiosis of host-associated commensal microbiota is emerging as an important factor in risk and phenotype of immunologic, metabolic, and behavioral diseases. Accurate analysis of microbial composition and functional state in humans or mice requires appropriate collection and pre-processing of biospecimens. Methods to sample luminal and mucosal microbiota from human or mouse intestines and to profile microbial phylogenetic composition using 16S rRNA sequencing are presented here. Data generated using the methods in this unit can be used for downstream quantitative analysis of microbial ecology. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367129

Tong, Maomeng; Jacobs, Jonathan P; McHardy, Ian H; Braun, Jonathan

2014-01-01

105

Alcohol Studies  

E-print Network

1 Alcohol is taken into the body through the mouth. It produces a ‘burning ’ taste on the back of the throat. 2 The alcohol is absorbed by the stomach wall and enters the blood stream. The amount of food in the stomach and type of drink consumed will significantly affect the rate of absorption. 3 The remaining alcohol passes into the small intestines where it is absorbed into the blood more rapidly than from the stomach. (About two-thirds of the alcohol is absorbed in this way). 4 Once in the blood, alcohol travels to all parts of the body. 5 When alcohol enters the body it soon affects the brain, being carried there by the bloodstream. Alcohol enters the nerve cells, slowing down their activity. ABSORPTION is the process whereby the capillaries, tiny blood vessels in the stomach and intestines, pick up alcohol and transport it to all parts of the human body within a few moments after it has been drunk. It is during this stage that alcohol affects the brain and its functions. It is not the amount of alcohol taken into the stomach, but the percentage actually circulating at any given time in the blood, which decides the degree of impairment to the brain. The amount of alcohol circulating in the blood is described as Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Broadly, one standard drink raises the BAC by 15mg % in an adult male of average weight and build. In the UK, a standard drink is defined as a measure containing 8g of alcohol. This is approximately the amount of alcohol contained in the standard measures of alcoholic drinks. However, the advent of both higher and lower strength beers and wines, etc. has complicated the picture and the below should only be regarded as a rough guide to equivalence:

unknown authors

106

Development of the intestinal bacterial composition in hospitalized preterm infants in comparison with breast-fed, full-term infants.  

PubMed

The establishment and succession of bacterial communities in hospitalized preterm infants has not been extensively studied. Because earlier studies depended on classical cultural techniques, their results were limited. This study monitored the establishment and succession of the neonatal microbiota in the first weeks of life by analyzing the 16S rDNA variety in fecal samples applying PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Fecal samples from 29 preterm infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit, including samples from antibiotic-treated infants and one with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, were subjected to PCR-DGGE analysis. Daily DGGE profiles from all preterm infants during the first 4 wk were obtained and analyzed. In addition, feces of 15 breast-fed, full-term infants and a variety of clinical bacterial isolates were examined and compared with the PCR-DGGE profiles of the preterm infants. During the first days of life, the DGGE profiles were rather simple but increased in their complexity over time. It became obvious that not only the intraindividual band-pattern similarity increased over time, but also the interindividual. During the observation period, similarity values (Cs) increased in each preterm infant from 0 to 80%, whereas interindividual Cs increased from 18.1 to 57.4%, revealing the acquisition of a highly similar bacterial community in these infants. In contrast, Cs-values obtained for breast-fed, full-term infants were rather low (11.2%). Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the bacteria most commonly found in all preterm infants. The interindividual bacterial composition in hospitalized preterm infants is more similar in comparison with breast-fed, full-term infants and is not necessarily influenced by birth weight, diet, or antibiotic treatment. PMID:12788986

Schwiertz, Andreas; Gruhl, Bärbel; Löbnitz, Manuela; Michel, Peter; Radke, Michael; Blaut, Michael

2003-09-01

107

Morphine Induces Bacterial Translocation in Mice by Compromising Intestinal Barrier Function in a TLR-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Opiates are among the most prescribed drugs for pain management. However, morphine use or abuse results in significant gut bacterial translocation and predisposes patients to serious infections with gut origin. The mechanism underlying this defect is still unknown. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms underlying compromised gut immune function and bacterial translocation following morphine treatment. We demonstrate significant bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and liver following morphine treatment in wild-type (WT) animals that was dramatically and significantly attenuated in Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and 4) knockout mice. We further observed significant disruption of tight junction protein organization only in the ileum but not in the colon of morphine treated WT animals. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) blocked the effects of both morphine and TLR ligands, suggesting the role of MLCK in tight junction modulation by TLR. This study conclusively demonstrates that morphine induced gut epithelial barrier dysfunction and subsequent bacteria translocation are mediated by TLR signaling and thus TLRs can be exploited as potential therapeutic targets for alleviating infections and even sepsis in morphine-using or abusing populations. PMID:23349783

Meng, Jingjing; Yu, Haidong; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jinghua; Banerjee, Santanu; Charboneau, Rick; Barke, Roderick A.; Roy, Sabita

2013-01-01

108

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

109

Interferon Gamma-Dependent Intestinal Pathology Contributes to the Lethality in Bacterial Superantigen-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by the superantigen exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes is characterized by robust T cell activation, profound elevation in systemic levels of multiple cytokines, including interferon-? (IFN-?), followed by multiple organ dysfunction and often death. As IFN-? possesses pro- as well as anti-inflammatory properties, we delineated its role in the pathogenesis of TSS. Antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of IFN-? or targeted disruption of IFN-? gene conferred significant protection from lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Following systemic high dose SEB challenge, whereas the HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ mice became sick and succumbed to TSS, HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? mice appeared healthy and were significantly protected from SEB-induced lethality. SEB-induced systemic cytokine storm was significantly blunted in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice. Serum concentrations of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40 and IL-17) and chemokines (KC, rantes, eotaxin and MCP-1) were significantly lower in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice. However, SEB-induced T cell expansion in the spleens was unaffected and expansion of SEB-reactive TCR V?8+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was even more pronounced in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice when compared to HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ mice. A systematic histopathological examination of several vital organs revealed that both HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ and HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice displayed comparable severe inflammatory changes in lungs, and liver during TSS. Remarkably, whereas the small intestines from HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ transgenic mice displayed significant pathological changes during TSS, the architecture of small intestines in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice was preserved. In concordance with these histopathological changes, the gut permeability to macromolecules was dramatically increased in HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ but not HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? mice during TSS. Overall, IFN-? seemed to play a lethal role in the immunopathogenesis of TSS by inflicting fatal small bowel pathology. Our study thus identifies the important role for IFN-? in TSS. PMID:21304813

Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; Holz, Marah; Wu, Tsung-Teh; David, Chella S.; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

2011-01-01

110

Alterations of the gut microbiome and metabolome in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of liver diseases and liver-related death worldwide. The gut is a habitat for billions of microorganisms which promotes metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations of gut microbiome by alcohol consumption are referred to bacterial overgrowth, release of bacteria-derived products, and/or changed microbiota equilibrium. Alcohol consumption also perturbs the function of gastrointestinal mucosa and elicits a pathophysiological condition. These adverse effects caused by alcohol may ultimately result in a broad change of gastrointestinal luminal metabolites such as bile acids, short chain fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Gut microbiota alterations, metabolic changes produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment, and the host factors are all critical contributors to the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of how alcohol-induced alterations of gut microbiota and metabolome, and discusses the mechanistic link between gastrointestinal dyshomeostasis and alcoholic liver injury.

Zhong, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2014-01-01

111

Parenteral long-acting amoxicillin reduces intestinal bacterial community diversity in piglets even 5 weeks after the administration.  

PubMed

We investigated the long-term effects of a single intramuscular administration of amoxicillin (15 mg kg(-1)) 1 day after birth, on piglet intestinal microbiota. Animals received no creep feed before weaning on day 28 of age. For the next 11 days, the piglets received a wheat-barley-based diet. Colon digesta samples were collected on day 39 and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. DGGE fingerprint diversity indices differed between the group treated with amoxicillin and the untreated group (0.8+/-0.19 and 1.03+/-0.17, respectively, P=0.012). Reamplification and sequencing of two bands present in all samples revealed that a Roseburia faecalis-related population was strongly reduced in relative abundance (98% identity) in the treated group, while an enterobacterial population with 100% identity to Shigella spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was enriched. A band corresponding to Lactobacillus sobrius was present only in the control group. The protective effect of prophylactic antibiotic administration may be outweighed by the long-lasting disturbance of the gut ecosystem. PMID:18043627

Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang Bernhard; Bimczok, Diane; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Smidt, Hauke

2007-06-01

112

Novel interpenetrating network microspheres of xanthan gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) for the delivery of diclofenac sodium to the intestine--in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Xanthan gum (XG), a trisaccharide branched polymer and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), was used to develop pH-sensitive interpenetrating network (IPN) microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method in the presence of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker to deliver model anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DS) to the intestine. Various formulations were prepared by changing the ratio of XG:PVA, extent of cross-linking in order to optimize the formulation variables on drug encapsulation efficiency, and release rate. Formation of interpenetrating network and the chemical stability of DS after penetration of microspheres was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were done on the drug loaded microspheres which confirmed molecular dispersion of DS in the IPN. Microspheres formed were spherical with smooth surfaces, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mean particle size, as measured by laser light scattering technique ranged between 310.25-477.10 microm. Drug encapsulation of up to 82.94% was achieved as measured by UV method. Both equilibrium and dynamic swelling studies and in vitro release studies were performed in pH 1.2 and 6.8. Release data indicated a Fickian trend of drug release which depends on the extent of cross-linking and the ratio of XG:PVA present in the microsphere. When subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in rabbits, microparticles show slow and prolonged drug release when compared with DS solution. Based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies it was concluded that these IPN microspheres provided oral controlled release of water-soluble DS. PMID:20482471

Ray, Somasree; Banerjee, Subham; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Laha, Bibek; Barik, Saikat; Sa, Biswanath; Bhattacharyya, Uttam Kumar

2010-01-01

113

Antitumor promotional effects of a novel intestinal bacterial metabolite (IH-901) derived from the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in mouse skin.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ginseng intake decreases the risk of cancer. Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) have been regarded as principal components responsible for the majority of pharmacological activities exerted by ginseng. IH-901 [20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol], an intestinal bacterial metabolite derived from protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess antitumor effects, including inhibition of invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor promotion often accompanies an elevated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, acute inflammation and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. Here we examined the effects of IH-901 on tumor promotion and related molecular events in mouse skin in vivo. Mouse ear edema induced by the prototype tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was repressed by IH-901 pre-treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Topical application of IH-901 onto shaven backs of female ICR mice led to the inhibition of TPA-induced expression of COX-2 and production of prostaglandin E(2). The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB has been involved in intracellular signaling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis. IH-901 pre-treatment inhibited TPA-induced epidermal NF-kappaB DNA binding in mouse skin, which appeared to be mediated by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha. In an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which IH-901 inactivates NF-kappaB, its effects on activation of upstream signaling kinases were explored. IH-901 also inhibited the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling. When IH-901 was treated topically prior to TPA, expression and activity of ODC were inhibited dose-dependently. In addition, IH-901 given prior to each topical dose of TPA markedly lowered the number of papillomas in mouse skin induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Taken together, these findings suggest that IH-901 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting TPA-induced COX-2 expression, which may contribute to its antitumor-promoting effects on mouse skin carcinogenesis. PMID:15498788

Lee, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Jun-Wan; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Bang, Yung-Jue; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Surh, Young-Joon

2005-02-01

114

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

115

Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of viable indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites, such as the mesenteric-lymph-node complex, liver, spleen and bloodstream. Three major mechanisms promote bacterial translocation: intestinal bacterial overgrowth, deficiencies in host immune defenses and increased permeability or damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier.

Rodney D. Berg

1995-01-01

116

Intestinal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

117

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

PubMed Central

Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay. PMID:23083400

2012-01-01

118

Small Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes Expressing CD8 and T Cell Receptor ?? Are Involved in Bacterial Clearance during Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection  

PubMed Central

The intestinal immune system is crucial for the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis and has evolved under the dual pressure of protecting the host from pathogenic infection and coexisting with the dense and diverse commensal organisms in the lumen. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) are the first element of the host T cell compartment available to respond to oral infection by pathogens. This study demonstrated that oral infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium promoted the expansion of iIELs, particularly CD8+ TCR??+ IELs, enhanced expression of NKG2D on iIELs, increased expression of MULT1, and decreased expression of Qa-1 by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), leading to activation of, particularly, CD8+ TCR??+ iIELs and cytolytic activity against S. Typhimurium-infected IECs. Blockade of NKG2D recognition or depletion of TCR??+ cells using a depleting monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated the clearance of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and other tissues. This study suggests that iIELs, particularly CD8+ TCR??+ iIELs, play important roles in the detection of pathogenic bacteria and eradication of infected epithelial cells and, thus, provide protection against invading pathogens. These data further our understanding of the mechanisms by which the immune system of the intestinal mucosa discriminates between pathogenic and commensal organisms. PMID:22144492

Li, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Zhixia; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jian

2012-01-01

119

Alcohol-Related Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diarrhea related to alcohol abuse may be either acute or chronic. Acute diarrheas are the result of dietary indiscretion,\\u000a transient anatomic or motility changes of the stomach or small intestine, impaired nutrient absorption, mucosal barrier function\\u000a or pancreatic secretion as well as hormonal\\/cytokine abnormalities related to alcohol hangover. Chronic diarrheas may result\\u000a from alcohol withdrawal, pancreatic or hepatobiliary dysfunction, morphologic

Nischita K. Reddy; Ashwani Singal; Don W. Powell

120

IL-22 modulates gut epithelial and immune barrier functions following acute alcohol exposure and burn injury  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL)–22 maintains gut epithelial integrity and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3? and Reg3?. Our laboratory has shown that acute alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) exposure prior to burn injury results in increased gut permeability, intestinal T cell suppression and enhanced bacterial translocation. Herein, we determined the effect of combined EtOH intoxication and burn injury on intestinal levels of IL-22 as well as Reg3? and Reg3? expression. We further examined whether in vivo restitution of IL-22 restores gut permeability, Reg3? and Reg3? levels, and bacterial load (e.g. gut bacterial growth) within the intestine following EtOH and burn injury. Male mice, ~25g, were gavaged with EtOH (2.9 mg/kg) prior to receiving a ~12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were immediately treated with saline control or IL-22 (1 mg/kg) by i.p. injection. One day post injury, there was a significant decrease in intestinal IL-22, Reg3? and Reg3? expression along with an increase in intestinal permeability and gut bacterial load following EtOH combined with burn injury, as compared to sham injury. Treatment with IL-22 normalized Reg3? and Reg3? expression, and attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability following EtOH and burn injury. Qualitatively, IL-22 treatment reduced the bacterial load in nearly half of mice receiving EtOH combined with burn injury. Our data indicate that IL-22 maintains gut epithelial and immune barrier integrity following EtOH and burn injury; thus, the IL-22/AMP pathway may provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients who sustain burn injury under the influence of EtOH. PMID:23143063

Rendon, Juan L.; Li, Xiaoling; Akhtar, Suhail; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

2012-01-01

121

Elemental sulfur: toxicity in vivo and in vitro to bacterial luciferase, in vitro yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, and bovine liver catalase.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to analyze the effects and the modes of action of elemental sulfur (S(0)) in bioluminescence and respiration of Vibrio fischeri cells and the enzymes crude luciferase, pure catalase, and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Metallic copper removed sulfur and reduced the toxicity of acetone extracts of sediment samples analyzed in the bioluminescence test. The sulfur inhibition of cell bioluminescence was noncompetitive with decanal, the luciferase substrate; reversible, with maximum toxicity after 15 min (EC(50) = 11.8 microg/L); and almost totally recovered after 2 h. In vitro preincubation of crude luciferase extract with sulfur (0.28 ppm) weakly inhibited bioluminescence at 5 min, but at 30 min the inhibition reached 60%. Increasing the concentration of sulfur in the parts per million concentration range in vitro decreased bioluminescence, which was not constant, but depended on exposure time, and no dead-end/total inhibition was observed. The redox state of enzymes in the in vitro system significantly affected inhibition. Hydrogen peroxide restored fully and the reducing agent dithiothreitol, itself toxic, restored only partially luciferase activity in the presence of sulfur. Sulfur (5.5 ppm) slightly inhibited ADH and catalase, and dithiothreitol enhanced sulfur inhibition. High sulfur concentrations (2.2 ppm) inhibited the bioluminescence and enhanced the respiration rate of V. fischeri cells. Elemental sulfur data were interpreted to show that sulfur acted on at least a few V. fischeri cell sites: reversibly modifying luciferase at sites sensitive to/protected by oxidative and reducing agents and by affecting electron transport processes, resulting in enhanced oxygen consumption. Sulfur together with an enzyme reducing agent inhibited the oxidoreductive enzymes ADH and catalase, which have --SH groups, metal ion cofactors, or heme, respectively, in their active centers. PMID:15269910

Cetkauskaite, Anolda; Pessala, Piia; Södergren, Anders

2004-08-01

122

Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith  

E-print Network

as many bacterial cells on our skin and in our large intestine as cells in our own body. We are nothing for insulin into bacteria and let them produce it in large industrial fermenters. So it is important

Smith, Hal

123

Bacterial Probiotic Modulation of Dendritic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal dendritic cells are continually exposed to ingested microorganisms and high concentrations of endogenous bacterial flora. These cells can be activated by infectious agents and other stimuli to induce T-cell responses and to produce chemokines which recruit other cells to the local environment. Bacterial probiotics are of increasing use against intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. They act as

Maureen Drakes; Thomas Blanchard; Steven Czinn

2004-01-01

124

Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen Deletion Mutant and Effect of the Deletion on Bacterial Persistence in the Mouse Intestine and Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa?  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. To investigate the role of the O antigen in persistence and colonization in the animal host, we generated an E. coli O157:H7 mutant defective in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide side chain (O antigen) by deletion of a putative perosamine synthetase gene (per) in the rfb cluster. The lack of O antigen was confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and anti-O157 antibody. The growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the ?per mutant were similar to the growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the wild type. Changes in membrane and secreted proteins were observed, but the expression of intimin, EspA, and EspB, implicated in bacterial intestinal colonization, was not altered, as determined by immunoblotting and reverse transcription-PCR. Similar to other O-antigen deletion mutants, the ?per mutant was pleiotropic for autoaggregation and motility (it was FliC negative as determined by immunoblotting and flagellum negative as determined by electron microscopy). The abilities of the mutant and the wild type to persist in the murine intestine and to colonize the bovine terminal rectal mucosa were compared. Mice fed the ?per mutant shed lower numbers of bacteria (P < 0.05) over a shorter time than mice fed the wild-type or complemented strain. After rectal application in steers, lower numbers of the ?per mutant than of the wild type colonized the rectoanal junction mucosa, and the duration of the colonization was shorter (P < 0.05). Our previous work showed that flagella do not influence E. coli O157:H7 colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa, so the current findings suggest that the O antigen contributes to efficient bovine colonization. PMID:18552194

Sheng, Haiqing; Lim, Ji Youn; Watkins, Maryann K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

2008-01-01

125

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

126

Bacterial flora of fishes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial floras isolated from eggs, skin, gills, and intestines have been described for a limited number of fish species. Generally, the range of bacterial genera isolated is related to the aquatic habitat of the fish and varies with factors such as the salinity of the habitat and the bacterial load in the water. In many investigations, identification of isolates to

Marian M. Cahill

1990-01-01

127

Alterations of the gut microbiome and metabolome in alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of liver diseases and liver-related death worldwide. The gut is a habitat for billions of microorganisms which promotes metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations of gut microbiome by alcohol consumption are referred to bacterial overgrowth, release of bacteria-derived products, and/or changed microbiota equilibrium. Alcohol consumption also perturbs the function of gastrointestinal mucosa and elicits a pathophysiological condition. These adverse effects caused by alcohol may ultimately result in a broad change of gastrointestinal luminal metabolites such as bile acids, short chain fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Gut microbiota alterations, metabolic changes produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment, and the host factors are all critical contributors to the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of how alcohol-induced alterations of gut microbiota and metabolome, and discusses the mechanistic link between gastrointestinal dyshomeostasis and alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400995

Zhong, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2014-11-15

128

Intestinal obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

Obstruction of the bowel may due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

129

Intestinal motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The motor activity of the small intestine and colon has been studied in 27 asymptomatic patients by means of manometry by endoradiosonde combined with synchronized fluorocinematography.In the small intestine, Type I waves were associated with ring-like, nonpropulsive contractions and Type III waves were seen to accompany propulsion of intraluminal contents.Ingestion of food caused an increase in rate and amplitude of

Maria Letizia Ramorino; Corrado Colagrande

1964-01-01

130

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still have a serious problem. The drinking may cause problems at home, work, or school. It may cause you to ...

131

Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism)  

MedlinePLUS

... sequencing of treatments to improve compliance and enhance treatment outcome. For additional information contact: John Bowersox jbowersox@niaaa.nih.gov . 301-443-2857 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): http://www.niaaa.nih.gov

132

Linking membrane trafficking and intestinal homeostasis.  

PubMed

A major challenge for the human body is to maintain symbiotic relationships with bacterial communities that colonize their intestines. Although several molecules important for intestinal homeostasis have been discovered, the vast array still needs to be identified. We approached this task using a forward genetic approach, which revealed several molecules essential for intestinal homeostasis. One recently identified molecule is Ypt1p-interacting protein 1 domain family, member 6 (Yipf6). Mice with a null mutation in Yipf6 are hypersensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis and develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. Members of the Yip1 family are believed to be involved in ER to Golgi membrane transport.   In this review we summarize recent advances in the understanding of genes involved in intestinal homeostasis with a specific focus on the Yip family members. We speculate on how deficiency or dysfunction of Yip molecules may dysregulate intestinal homeostasis leading to pathogenic states. PMID:24665373

Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Brandl, Katharina

2013-01-01

133

Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

2014-01-01

134

Assessment of the canine intestinal microflora using molecular methods and serum markers  

E-print Network

in the intestine including secretion of gastric acid and antibacterial factors (i.e., pancreatic and biliary secretions) in the small intestine, and most importantly, intestinal motility. Most ingested bacteria are inactivated by gastric acid. Humans...). The pancreatic juice contains antimicrobial substances that suppress excessive bacterial growth in the proximal small intestine (108). Dogs with spontaneous exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) appear to have a higher incidence of duodenal bacterial...

Suchodolski, Jan S.

2007-04-25

135

Bacterial degradation of tert-amyl alcohol proceeds via hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol by employing the tertiary alcohol desaturase function of the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ.  

PubMed

Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H; Rohwerder, Thore

2012-03-01

136

Small Intestinal Nematode Infection of Mice Is Associated with Increased Enterobacterial Loads alongside the Intestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Parasitic nematodes are potent modulators of immune reactivity in mice and men. Intestinal nematodes live in close contact with commensal gut bacteria, provoke biased Th2 immune responses upon infection, and subsequently lead to changes in gut physiology. We hypothesized that murine nematode infection is associated with distinct changes of the intestinal bacterial microbiota composition. We here studied intestinal inflammatory and immune responses in mice following infection with the hookworm Heligmosomoidespolygyrusbakeri and applied cultural and molecular techniques to quantitatively assess intestinal microbiota changes in the ileum, cecum and colon. At day 14 post nematode infection, mice harbored significantly higher numbers of ?-Proteobacteria/Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Bacteroides/Prevotella group in their cecum as compared to uninfected controls. Abundance of Gram-positive species such as Lactobacilli, Clostridia as well as the total bacterial load was not affected by worm infection. The altered microbiota composition was independent of the IL-4/-13 – STAT6 signaling axis, as infected IL-4R?-/- mice showed a similar increase in enterobacterial loads. In conclusion, infection with an enteric nematode is accompanied by distinct intestinal microbiota changes towards higher abundance of gram-negative commensal species at the small intestinal site of infection (and inflammation), but also in the parasite-free large intestinal tract. Further studies should unravel the impact of nematode-induced microbiota changes in inflammatory bowel disease to allow for a better understanding of how theses parasites interfere with intestinal inflammation and bacterial communities in men. PMID:24040152

Rausch, Sebastian; Held, Josephin; Fischer, André; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Kühl, Anja A.; Bereswill, Stefan; Hartmann, Susanne

2013-01-01

137

Bacterial Translocation in Adult Small Bowel Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of intestinal transplantation is limited by the high rate of infectious complications that can occur; the migration of enteric microorganisms to extraintestinal sites (bacterial translocation) has been suggested to be responsible for this event. We reviewed 95 intestinal biopsies performed on 28 transplanted patients to identify histologic features predictive of isolation of enteric microorganisms in extraintestinal sites within

A. Cucchetti; A. Siniscalchi; A. Bagni; A. Lauro; M. Cescon; N. Zucchini; A. Dazzi; C. Zanfi; S. Faenza; A. D. Pinna

2009-01-01

138

Alcohol Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... page Alcohol Facts Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ... alcohol in it than beer, malt liquor, or wine. These drink sizes have about the same amount ...

139

Mucosal control of the intestinal microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the knowledge of the effects of bacterial colonization on the immune system is rapidly expanding, surprisingly little\\u000a is known about the immunological mechanisms that shape the intestinal microbial community. Specifically, the complexity of\\u000a the intestinal microbiota and what constitutes a “healthy” microbial composition has only recently been addressed, facilitated\\u000a by large-scale metagenomic screens. Containment of such a vast number

Sylvia Brugman; Edward E. S. Nieuwenhuis

2010-01-01

140

Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

2012-01-01

141

Intestinal spirochaetosis  

PubMed Central

An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

1971-01-01

142

The intestinal microbiota and chronic disorders of the gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces of the gut are colonized by large numbers of heterogeneous bacteria that contribute to intestinal health and disease. In genetically susceptible individuals, a 'pathogenic community' may arise, whereby abnormal gut flora contributes to alterations in the mucosa and local immune system leading to gastrointestinal disease. These diseases include enteric infections, such as Clostridium difficile infection, small intestinal bacterial

Herbert L. DuPont; Andrew W. DuPont

2011-01-01

143

Alcoholic disease: Liver and beyond  

PubMed Central

The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

2014-01-01

144

Alcoholism and alcohol abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking completely. These programs usually offer: Education about alcoholism and its effects Counseling and therapy to discuss how to control your thoughts and behaviors Physical health care For the best chance of success, you should live ...

145

Intestinal barrier: Molecular pathways and modifiers  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract is frequently challenged by pathogens/antigens contained in food and water and the intestinal epithelium must be capable of rapid regeneration in the event of tissue damage. Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to a number of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, and celiac disease. The intestinal mucosa is composed of different types of epithelial cells in specific barrier functions. Epithelial cells control surface-associated bacterial populations without disrupting the intestinal microflora that is crucial for host health. They are also capable of modulating mucosal immune system, and are thus essential in maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Thus, the regulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of the structure of the mucosa and the defensive barrier functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell polarity. These include the Wnt, Notch, Hippo, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog pathways, most of which were identified in lower organisms where they play important roles during embryogenesis. These pathways are also used in adult organisms to regulate multiple self-renewing organs. Understanding the interactions between these molecular mechanisms and intestinal barrier function will therefore provide important insight into the pathogenesis of intestinal-based immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24244877

Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

2013-01-01

146

Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes

Marleen TJ van Ampting; Arjan J Schonewille; Carolien Vink; Robert Jan M Brummer; Roelof Meer; Ingeborg MJ Bovee-Oudenhoven

2009-01-01

147

Alcoholic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... this condition. In severe cases, nerves that regulate internal body functions (autonomic nerves) may be involved. Risks of alcoholic neuropathy include: Long-term, heavy alcohol use Alcoholism that is present for 10 years or more

148

Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

2005-01-01

149

P-32effects of intestinal motility on ethanol absorption in small intestine.  

PubMed

Administration of caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin markedly decreases the metabolic rate of ethanol. The effect of caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin on ethanol absorption in small intestine was investigated. Sample animals were used male Wistar rats (6 week). The rate of intestinal absorption of ethanol was measured using the small intestine of rats according to Creine and Wilson method (J Appl Physiol 12: : 145-146, 1958). The solution which transmitted small intestine was measured for ethanol levels at 0 to 30 minutes in presence or absence of caffeine or Ryokucha Saponin with ethanol solution. Contractile activity of the intestine was investigated by Magnus apparatus. A small intestine was removed from rats and were placed in a Tyrode solution. The opposite end of the tissue was secured to a sensitive strain gauge and tension measurement were recorded on a kymographion. The rate of intestinal absorption of ethanol was found that the increase in the ethanol absorption is depending on time. In the presence of caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin reduced ethanol absorption about over 10% of control. Caffeine and Ryokucha Saponin inhibits intestinal motility. Based on these results, we speculate that intestinal motility by increase and decrease were augment and suppres s alcohol absorption. PMID:25221263

Isobe, E; Taniguchi, Y; Uchigasaki, S

2014-09-01

150

Alcohol Control Policies, Alcohol Consumption, and Alcoholism.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the implications of two alcoholism prevention models. The single distribution (log-normal) model posits that the average level of consumption in a society is sufficient to account for the rate of alcoholism; the sociocultural model suggests that variables other than consumption account for alcoholism. Factor analysis and multiple regression were used to assess interstate differences in average alcohol consumption and alcoholism rates. Consumption, controlling for alcoholism rate, was found not wholly to be an economic phenomenon but rather was predicted by urban conditions (a factor measuring unintegrated foreign-born and minority groups and external social control) and two alcohol availability factors. Alcoholism rate was predicted by urban conditions and a social isolation factor, isolated females. Consumption was not a significant predictor of alcoholism in this multivariable analysis. It was concluded that it is an oversimplification to view alcoholism merely as an extension of heavy drinking. Availability is not a unitary dimension and appears, furthermore, to have little potential utility in controlling consumption of alcoholism. Neither of the two availability factors was related to alcoholism; bootlegging appears to be a compensatory mechanism for offsetting low legal availability. The results imply that alcohol control policies and alcoholism prevention need to be directed toward alleviating anomie and social isolation. A variety of efforts toward these ends are suggested: senior citizens programs, minority employment programs, English enhancement training for the foreign-born, etc. PMID:6978607

Colón, I; Cutter, H S; Jones, W C

1981-01-01

151

Development of an online-SPE-LC-MS method for the investigation of the intestinal absorption of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PHIP) and its bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 in a Caco-2 Transwell system.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic aromatic amines such as PHIP are formed during the heat processing of food. PHIP undergoes bacterial metabolism leading to 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PHIP-M1) as main metabolite. We developed an LC-MS method with automated sample preparation by online-solid-phase-extraction for the simultaneous quantification of PHIP and its mammalian and bacterial metabolites N-hydroxy-PHIP, 4-OH-PHIP and PHIP-M1 in biological samples. The method was used to investigate the transport of PHIP-M1 through a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The experiments show that PHIP-M1 rapidly crosses the cell monolayer and that PHIP-M1 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein and the multiple drug resistance 2 transporter. The intestinal absorption of PHIP-M1 is comparable with that of PHIP and a moderate to high bioavailability has to be expected. Thus, not only the human metabolites of PHIP but also the bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 formed in the gut could contribute to the toxic effects of PhIP. PMID:25053091

Willenberg, Ina; von Elsner, Leonie; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

2015-01-01

152

Alcohol withdrawal  

MedlinePLUS

... Alateen - www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ... O'Connor PG. Alcohol abuse and dependence. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 32. ...

153

Intestinal Translocation of Clinical Isolates of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli in a Rat Model of Bacterial Colonization and Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to develop a rat model of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and to evaluate intestinal translocation to blood and tissues after total and partial hepatic ischemia. Methods - We developed a model of rat colonization with VRE and ESBL-E coli. Then we studied four groups of colonized rats: Group I (with hepatic pedicle occlusion causing complete liver ischemia and intestinal stasis); Group II (with partial liver ischemia without intestinal stasis); Group III (surgical manipulation without hepatic ischemia or intestinal stasis); Group IV (anesthetized without surgical manipulation). After sacrifice, portal and systemic blood, large intestine, small intestine, spleen, liver, lungs, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured. Endotoxin concentrations in portal and systemic blood were determined. Results – The best inocula were: VRE: 2.4×1010 cfu and ESBL-E. coli: 1.12×1010 cfu. The best results occurred 24 hours after inoculation and antibiotic doses of 750 µg/mL of water for vancomycin and 2.1 mg/mL for ceftriaxone. There was a significantly higher proportion of positive cultures for ESBL-E. coli in the lungs in Groups I, II and III when compared with Group IV (67%; 60%; 75% and 13%, respectively; p:0.04). VRE growth was more frequent in mesenteric lymph nodes for Groups I (67%) and III (38%) than for Groups II (13%) and IV (none) (p:0.002). LPS was significantly higher in systemic blood of Group I (9.761±13.804 EU/mL?p:0.01). No differences for endotoxin occurred in portal blood. Conclusion –We developed a model of rats colonized with resistant bacteria useful to study intestinal translocation. Translocation occurred in surgical procedures with and without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and probably occurred via the bloodstream. Translocation was probably lymphatic in the ischemia-reperfusion groups. Systemic blood endotoxin levels were higher in the group with complete hepatic ischemia. PMID:25255079

van der Heijden, Karin M.; van der Heijden, Inneke M.; Galvao, Flavio H.; Lopes, Camila G.; Costa, Silvia F.; Abdala, Edson; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A.; Levin, Anna S.

2014-01-01

154

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... vaginosis can increase your chance of getting an STD. What is bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is ... contributes to BV. BV is not considered an STD, but having BV can increase your chances of ...

155

Agent-based model of Fecal Microbial Transplant effect on Bile Acid Metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the Clostridium difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, Fecal Microbial Transplant (FMT). The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

2014-01-01

156

Agent-based model of fecal microbial transplant effect on bile acid metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the C. difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, fecal microbial transplant. The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

2014-10-01

157

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Clinical question What is the best treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis? Results Topical antibiotics expedite recovery from bacterial conjunctivitis. The choice of antibiotic usually does not affect outcome. Implementation Recognition of key distinguishing features of bacterial conjunctivitis Pitfalls that can be recognized in the history and physical examinationChoice of antibioticWhen to refer for specialist treatment. PMID:21188158

Hutnik, Cindy; Mohammad-Shahi, Mohammad H

2010-01-01

158

Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility.

Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

1987-08-01

159

Bacterial infection causes stress-induced memory dysfunction in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe brain–gut axis is a key regulator of normal intestinal physiology; for example, psychological stress is linked to altered gut barrier function, development of food allergies and changes in behaviour. Whether intestinal events, such as enteric bacterial infections and bacterial colonisation, exert a reciprocal effect on stress-associated behaviour is not well established.ObjectiveTo determine the effects of either acute enteric infection

Mélanie G Gareau; Eytan Wine; David M Rodrigues; Joon Ho Cho; Mark T Whary; Dana J Philpott; Glenda MacQueen; Philip M Sherman

2010-01-01

160

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... alcohol policy at the State government level. Minimum Legal Drinking Age Even with this flexibility for the States, Congress ... promote certain alcohol policies, such as the minimum legal drinking age. The Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act of 1984 ...

161

Alcohol Alert  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Use [ PDF - 1.52 MB] No. 77: Neuroscience: Pathways to Alcohol Dependence (2009) [ PDF -1.31 ... Issue (2004) [ PDF --0.4 MB] No. 61: Neuroscience Research and Therapeutic Targets (2004) [ PDF --0.5 ...

162

Alcoholic hallucinosis.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

2012-07-01

163

Alcoholic Dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dream-accounts of recovering alcoholics in Alcoholics Anonymous are discussed as they pertain to slips and relapses. In the drinking dream alcoholics re-enact the troubling act that brought them to A.A. in the first place.

Norman K. Denzin

1988-01-01

164

Alcohol Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

2003-01-01

165

Ascites Drainage Leading to Intestinal Adhesions at the Mesentery of the Small Intestine with Fatal Outcome  

PubMed Central

A common problem in patients with chronic liver diseases and liver cirrhosis is the development of ascites. First line therapy for ascites is the restriction of sodium intake and a diuretic treatment. Paracentesis is indicated in patients with large compromising volumes of ascites. In selected cases, permanent drainage of ascites over prolonged periods of time may be indicated. In the case presented here, a 66-year-old male patient, who was hospitalized with liver cirrhosis caused by alcoholic abuse, required permanent drainage of ascites. After three weeks of continuous ascites drainage, he developed bacterial peritonitis. Conventional attempts to remove the catheter by transcutaneous pulling failed and we thus decided to perform a median laparotomy to remove the catheter surgically. Intraoperatively an adhesion of the ascites drain (a so called ‘basket catheter’) to the mesentery very close to the small intestine was found, approximately 50 mm distal of the ligament suspensorium duodeni (ligament of Treitz). The basket catheter used for this patient was especially designed to drain infections, not fluids. We solved the adhesion, removed the basket catheter, placed a new surgical drain and finished the operation. The patient developed a rupture of his abdominal fascia suture 12 days later, which was caused by massive ascites and complicated by hepatorenal syndrome type I. The patient was taken to the operating theater again. After the second operation, the chronic liver failure decompensated and the patient died. Ascites caused by liver cirrhosis is still a medical challenge. The indication for the use of the correct percutaneous catheter for permanent paracentesis should be carefully considered. Some catheters are obviously not suited to drain ascites and may lead to fatal outcomes. PMID:24453504

Kettler, B.; Schrem, H.; Klempnauer, J.; Grannas, G.

2014-01-01

166

Intestinal Metabolism of Fructose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolism of fructose by the small intestine can be analyzed in terms of the following scheme: (1) hydrolysis of fructose containing saccharides especially sucrose; (2) movement of fructose into the intestinal cell; (3) transformation of fructose int...

F. B. Stifel, H. L. Greene, R. H. Herman, Y. F. Herman

1972-01-01

167

Intestinal Polyps (in Children)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the lining of the small and / or large intestine or stomach. Most commonly, polyps are shaped like ... they? A polyp(s) may be found in the large intestine in about 1-2% of children. The most ...

168

Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... associated with the medial frontal response to alcohol cues in an fMRI study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental ... importance of genetic and environmental influences on adolescent smoking. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116(1):213–218, ...

169

Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions  

PubMed Central

Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

2014-01-01

170

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

2014-01-01

171

Bacterial amyloids.  

PubMed

Many bacteria can assemble functional amyloid fibers on their cell surface. The majority of bacterial amyloids contribute to biofilm or other community behaviors where cells interact with a surface or with another cell. Bacterial amyloids, like all functional amyloids, share structural and biochemical properties with disease-associated eukaryotic amyloids. The general ability of amyloids to bind amyloid-specific dyes, such as Congo red, and their resistance to denaturation have provided useful tools for scoring and quantifying bacterial amyloid formation. Here, we present basic approaches to study bacterial amyloids by focusing on the well-studied curli amyloid fibers expressed by Enterobacteriaceae. These methods exploit the specific tinctorial and biophysical properties of amyloids. The methods described here are straightforward and can be easily applied by any modern molecular biology lab for the study of other bacterial amyloids. PMID:22528099

Zhou, Yizhou; Blanco, Luz P; Smith, Daniel R; Chapman, Matthew R

2012-01-01

172

Alcohol during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Smoking, alcohol and drugs > Alcohol during pregnancy Smoking, alcohol and drugs Don’t smoke, drink alcohol or ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol during pregnancy Drinking alcohol when you're pregnant ...

173

Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

Human body has developed a holistic defence system, which mission is either to recognize and destroy the aggressive invaders or to evolve mechanisms permitting to minimize or restore the consequences of harmful actions. The host immune system keeps the capital role to preserve the microbial intestinal balance via the barrier effect. Specifically, pathogenic invaders such as, bacteria, parasites, viruses and other xenobiotic invaders are rejected out of the body via barriers formed by the skin, mucosa and intestinal flora. In case physical barriers are breached, the immune system with its many components comes into action in order to fence infection. The intestine itself is considered as an "active organ" due to its abundant bacterial flora and to its large metabolic activity. The variation among different species or even among different strains within a species reflects the complexity of the genetic polymorphism which regulates the immune system functions. Additionally factors such as, gender, particular habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, religion, age, gender, precedent infections and vaccinations must be involved. Hormonal profile and stress seems to be associated to the integrity microbiota and inducing immune system alterations. Which bacterial species are needed for inducing a proper barrier effect is not known, but it is generally accepted that this barrier function can be strongly supported by providing benefic alimentary supplements called functional foods. In this vein it is stressed the fact that early intestinal colonization with organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and possibly subsequent protection from many different types of diseases. Moreover, this benefic microflora dominated but Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli support the concept of their ability to modify the gut microbiota by reducing the risk of cancer following their capacity to decrease ?-glucoronidase and carcinogen levels. Because of their beneficial roles in the human gastrointestinal tract, LAB are referred to as "probiotics", and efforts are underway to employ them in modern nutrition habits with so-called functional foods. Members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera are normal residents of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract, in which they developed soon after birth. But, whether such probiotic strains derived from the human gut should be commercially employed in the so-called functional foods is a matter of debate between scientists and the industrial world. Within a few hours from birth the newborn develops its normal bacterial flora. Indeed human milk frequently contains low amounts of non-pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Bifidobacterium. In general, bacteria start to appear in feces within a few hours after birth. Colonization by Bifidobacterium occurs generally within 4 days of life. Claims have been made for positive effects of Bifidobacterium on infant growth and health. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem is largely discussed during the last years by many authors. Bifidobacterium is reported to be a probiotic bacterium, exercising a beneficial effect on the intestinal flora. An antagonism has been reported between B. bifidum and C. perfringens in the intestine of newborns delivered by cesarean section. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and restore the protective effect. However, the possible ways in which the gut microbiota is being influenced by probiotics is yet unknown. PMID:21515397

Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

2011-12-01

174

Vertebrate Intestinal Endoderm Development  

PubMed Central

The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. PMID:21246663

Spence, Jason R.; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F.

2010-01-01

175

Bacterial replacement therapy: adapting ‘germ warfare’ to infection prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The individual bacterial members of our indigeneous microbiota are actively engaged in an on-going battle to prevent colonisation and overgrowth of their terrain by competing microbes, some of which might have pathogenic potential for the host. Humans have long attempted to intervene in these bacterial interactions. Ingestion of probiotic bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, is commonly practiced to promote well-balanced intestinal microflora.

John R. Tagg; Karen P. Dierksen

2003-01-01

176

From gut microflora imbalance to mycobacteria infection: is there a relationship with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases?  

PubMed

The gut of a healthy adult harbours a myriad of different microbial species. It is estimated that approximately 10 14 are present in total bacterial colony forming units (CFU). Each colony colonizes a specific intestinal tract. In healthy adult, the main control of intestinal bacterial colonization occurs through gastric acidity but also other factors can influence the intestinal microenvironment such as pH, temperature, competition among different bacterial strains, peristalsis, drugs, radiotherapy and much more. Impaired microbial homeostasis leads to an alteration of the permeability of tissue, together with the activation of the intestinal immune system MALT (mucosal associated lymphoid tissue). In this regard we discuss the increasing experimental evidences of the role of commensal microbiota in the activation of specific intestinal immunocompetent cells. The aforementioned micro-environmental changes provide the substrate for the etiopathogenetic outbreak of numerous pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, such as intestinal chronic inflammation (Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis), together with a miscellany of extra intestinal disorders. This article is an overview of the latest scientific findings about the close causal relationship between intestinal microbial flora and inflammatory bowel diseases or other extra-intestinal diseases; it is also mentioned the possible relationship between mycobacteria and Chron's disease. Finally we analyse the beneficial role of probiotics. PMID:21988043

Tomasello, Giovanni; Bellavia, Maurizio; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiani, Provvidenza; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

2011-01-01

177

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

178

Chemically induced intestinal damage models in zebrafish larvae.  

PubMed

Several intestinal damage models have been developed using zebrafish, with the aim of recapitulating aspects of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These experimentally induced inflammation models have utilized immersion exposure to an array of colitogenic agents (including live bacteria, bacterial products, and chemicals) to induce varying severity of inflammation. This technical report describes methods used to generate two chemically induced intestinal damage models using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Methods to monitor intestinal damage and inflammatory processes, and chemical-genetic methods to manipulate the host response to injury are also described. PMID:23448252

Oehlers, Stefan H; Flores, Maria Vega; Hall, Christopher J; Okuda, Kazuhide S; Sison, John Oliver; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

2013-06-01

179

Gastrointestinal hormones in alcoholic patients with and without liver disease  

E-print Network

To assess the effects of both alcoholism and liver disease on gastroenteropancreatic hormones, fasting and post-prandial concentrations were analysed in the following four groups: (1) Alcoholic subjects with liver disease; (2) Alcoholic subjects without liver disease; (3) Control subjects with liver disease; (4) Control subjects without liver disease. Liver disease was associated with increased fasting serum glucose, plasma insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Alcoholism in the absence of liver disease did not influence either the fasting or post-prandial concentrations of serum glucose, plasma gastrin, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, N- and C-terminal glucagon or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Alcoholism with liver disease depressed plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide concentrations. The results suggest that the abnormalities in gastroenteropancreatic hormone in alcoholics are likely to be related to liver disease which is often concurrent.

W W Dinsmore; M E Callender; A H G Love; K D Buchanan

180

Alcohol Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alcohol problems can be broadly defined as negative consequences that people experience as a result of their use of alcohol.\\u000a People may drink alcohol for a number of reasons: to promote feelings of relaxation, to increase feelings of sociability,\\u000a to elevate mood, to conform to social expectations, or to reduce feelings of stress (Anonymous, 2000). Information from the\\u000a US National

David C. Hodgins; Katherine Diskin; Jonathan N. Stea

181

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Field Search Button Advanced Search NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Bacterial Vaginosis Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

182

Control of Intestinal Homeostasis, Colitis, and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer  

E-print Network

or immunological breach, requires a robust innate immunity network at intestinal mucosal surfaces. BacterialImmunity Article Control of Intestinal Homeostasis, Colitis, and Colitis-Associated Colorectal exhibited defects in mucosal tissue repair and succumbed rapidly after dextran sulfate sodium administration

183

Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from

Peter Schierack; Kristina Kadlec; Sebastian Guenther; Matthias Filter; Stefan Schwarz; Christa Ewers; Lothar H Wieler

2009-01-01

184

Alcohol project  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

Not Available

1980-12-01

185

Alcoholism & depression.  

PubMed

One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment. PMID:23026991

Hall, Mellisa

2012-10-01

186

Physics in intestinal intubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  1. Increasing the number of holes in intestinal decompression tubes increases their efficiency because such tubes do not depend\\u000a upon a negative suction pressure at the end of the tube, but rather the intestinal contents are forced into the tube by an\\u000a increase in the intra-luminal intestinal pressure.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Increasing the size of the holes increases the efficiency of the

Meyer O. Cantor

1950-01-01

187

Small intestine tissue sample (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A sample of small intestine is obtained by the use of a flexible scope that is passed through the ... small intestine. In the small intestine, a small sample is removed and placed on a microscope slide. ...

188

MICROBIAL SUCCESSION AND INTESTINAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The succession of gastrointestinal flora in the developing rat was studied, concomitant with studies of intestinal enzyme activity. Aerobes and anaerobes were identified as members of 4 major bacterial groups, i.e., Lactobacilli spp., Gram positive enterococci, Gram negative rods...

189

Alcohol conversion  

DOEpatents

Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

2002-01-01

190

Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Methods Cftrtm1UNC (CF) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 ?g/kg-day) was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Results Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone did not affect WT crypt width but, unexpectedly, increased CF crypt width 22% (P = 0.001). Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008). Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005). Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P < 0.001) and CF mice (P < 0.001). Lubiprostone enhanced small intestinal transit in WT mice (P = 0.024) but not in CF mice (P = 0.377). Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. Conclusions These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype, especially on bacterial overgrowth and the innate immune response. The unexpected observation of increased mucus accumulation in the crypts of lubiprostone-treated CF mice suggests the possibility that lubiprostone increases mucus secretion. PMID:20843337

2010-01-01

191

Bacterial glycoproteomics.  

PubMed

Glycosylated proteins are ubiquitous components of eukaryote cellular surfaces, where the glycan moieties are implicated in a wide range of cell-cell recognition events. Once thought to be restricted to eukaryotes, glycosylation is now being increasingly reported in prokaryotes. Many of these discoveries have grown from advances in analytical technologies and genome sequencing. This review highlights the capabilities of high-sensitivity mass spectrometry for carbohydrate structure determination of bacterial glycoproteins and the emergence of glycoproteomic strategies that have evolved from proteomics and genomics for the functional analysis of bacterial glycosylation. PMID:16735721

Hitchen, Paul G; Dell, Anne

2006-06-01

192

High-Throughput Quantitative Analysis of the Human Intestinal Microbiota with a Phylogenetic Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gut microbiota carry out key functions in health and participate in the pathogenesis of a growing number of diseases. The aim of this study was to develop a custom microarray that is able to identify hundreds of intestinal bacterial species. We used the Entrez nucleotide database to compile a data set of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences isolated from human

Oleg Paliy; Harshavardhan Kenche; Frank Abernathy; Sonia Michail

2009-01-01

193

Bacterial Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial mining (biomining) represents the use of microorganisms to leach out metals from ores or mine tailings (wastes), followed by the subsequent recovery of metals of interest from the leaching solution. This leaching of metals from ores is a natural process, which can be considerably accelerated by inducing and\\/or supporting the microbial activity of certain species with the ability to

I. G. Petrisor; I. Lazar; T. F. Yen

2007-01-01

194

Alcoholics Anonymous  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous has successfully restored some 200,000 compulsive alcoholics to sobriety. Thousands more have tried to affiliate with A.A. but have failed. The movement, however, has spread through out the world and is still growing. Changes in the self-conception of members constitute the main therapeutic effect. Possession of an ability to adjust to the casual, informal group

Harrison M. Trice

1958-01-01

195

Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders.  

PubMed

A major task of the intestine is to form a defensive barrier to prevent absorption of damaging substances from the external environment. This protective function of the intestinal mucosa is called permeability. Clinicians can use inert, nonmetabolized sugars such as mannitol, rhamnose, or lactulose to measure the permeability barrier or the degree of leakiness of the intestinal mucosa. Ample evidence indicates that permeability is increased in most patients with Crohn's disease and in 10% to 20% of their clinically healthy relatives. The abnormal leakiness of the mucosa in Crohn's patients and their relatives can be greatly amplified by aspirin preadministration. Permeability measurements in Crohn's patients reflect the activity, extent, and distribution of the disease and may allow us to predict the likelihood of recurrence after surgery or medically induced remission. Permeability is also increased in celiac disease and by trauma, burns, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The major determinant of the rate of intestinal permeability is the opening or closure of the tight junctions between enterocytes in the paracellular space. As we broaden our understanding of the mechanisms and agents that control the degree of leakiness of the tight junctions, we will be increasingly able to use permeability measurements to study the etiology and pathogenesis of various disorders and to design or monitor therapies for their management. PMID:10980980

Hollander, D

1999-10-01

196

Innate Immunity in the Small Intestine of the Preterm Infant  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract comprises the largest surface area of the human body. This area is constantly exposed to myriad antigens as well as the large number of bacteria that coexist in the intestinal lumen. To protect against this exposure and help distinguish “self ” from “foreign,” the intestinal tract has evolved a sophisticated barrier defense system that includes both innate and adaptive immune systems. However, infants who are born preterm do not have the benefit of an adequate immune response and, therefore, are more susceptible to bacterial injury, inflammation, and intestinal diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. In this review, we discuss the components of innate immunity that help to protect the small intestine as well as current knowledge about the role of these components in the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:22639551

McElroy, Steven J.; Weitkamp, Jorn-Hendrik

2012-01-01

197

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.  

PubMed

Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters. PMID:24133060

Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S; Chou, Tristan; Said, Hamid M

2013-12-01

198

Alcohol presents a pressing issue in today's society. It affects the mind and body in a number of ways, making it an ideal object for study to understand the process. This study focuses on how alcohol moves  

E-print Network

Abstract Alcohol presents a pressing issue in today's society. It affects the mind and body alcohol moves through the body, from ingestion through final metabolism. A three compartment model was developed to show the alcohol being ingested into the stomach, then being transferred to the small intestine

Olufsen, Mette Sofie

199

[Bacterial translocation: gap in the shield].  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is not only regarded as a system where nutrient absorption takes place, but also as a vital barrier against intraluminal pathogens entering the circulation and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Bacterial translocation is defined as the penetration of viable bacteria or bacterial compounds from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites. This disorder has been described in several clinical conditions. The main promoting factors for bacterial translocation have been proposed to be changes in the intestinal microflora, mucosal barrier failure and defects in host immunity. The presence of bacterial translocation has been associated with higher complications and mortality rates; therefore it should be taken into account in the therapeutic strategies of patients with predisposing factors. PMID:24534878

Rosero, Olivér; Kovács, Tibor; Onody, Péter; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

2014-02-23

200

Alcohol to Ester 21 ALCOHOL TO ESTER  

E-print Network

Alcohol to Ester 21 ALCOHOL TO ESTER Acid-Catalyzed Esterification of an Unknown Alcohol Summary: You will be given an unknown alcohol, you will convert it to an ester, and you will identify both the original alcohol and the derived ester using boiling point and H-NMR. Some Learning Goals: 1. Observe

Jasperse, Craig P.

201

Alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

2012-11-01

202

Inhibition of Methylazoxymethanol-induced Intestinal Tumors in the Rat by Pyrazole with Paradoxical Effects on Skin and Kidney1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylazoxymethanol is a potent carcinogen and induces tumors predominantly of the small intestine and colon following a single injection. Previous data indicated that alcohol dehy- drogenase could convert this carcinogen to a reactive alkylat- ing agent. Rats were treated with an inhibitor of this enzyme, pyrazole, 2 hr prior to their receiving the carcinogen. The development of intestinal and colonie

James Notman; Queng Hui Tan; Morris S. Zedeck

203

Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production. Methodology/Principal Findings Changes in gut mucosa were assessed in the intestinal loops of inbred Wistar-AVN rats that were reared under germ-free conditions in the presence of various intestinal bacteria (enterobacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from CD patients and healthy children, respectively) and CD-triggering agents (gliadin and IFN-?) by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and a rat cytokine antibody array. Adhesion of the bacterial strains to the IEC-6 rat cell line was evaluated in vitro. Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-? significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the small intestine; this effect was more pronounced in the presence of Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8. Shigella CBD8 and IFN-? induced the highest mucin secretion and greatest impairment in tight junctions and, consequently, translocation of gliadin fragments into the lamina propria. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 strongly adhered to IEC-6 epithelial cells. The number of goblet cells in small intestine increased by the simultaneous incubation of Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 with gliadin, IFN-? and enterobacteria. B. bifidum IATA-ES2 also enhanced the production of chemotactic factors and inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which can contribute to gut mucosal protection. Conclusions Our results suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota affects the permeability of the intestinal mucosa and, consequently, could be involved in the early stages of CD pathogenesis. PMID:21249146

Cinova, Jana; De Palma, Giada; Stepankova, Renata; Kofronova, Olga; Kverka, Miloslav; Sanz, Yolanda; Tuckova, Ludmila

2011-01-01

204

[Bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Bacterial infections are well described complications of cirrhosis that greatly increase mortality rates. Two factors play important roles in the development of bacterial infections in these patients: the severity of liver disease and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The most common infections are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infections, pneumonia and sepsis. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are equal causative organisms. For primary prophylaxis, short-term antibiotic treatment (oral norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin) is indicated in cirrhotic patients (with or without ascites) admitted with gastrointestinal haemorrhage (variceal or non-variceal). Administration of norfloxacin is advisable for hospitalized patients with low ascitic protein even without gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The first choice in empirical treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the iv. III. generation cephalosporin; which can be switched for a targeted antibiotic regime based on the result of the culture. The duration of therapy is 5-8 days. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluoroquinolones--patients not on prior quinolone prophylaxis--were shown to be as effective and safe as cefotaxime. In patients with evidence of improvement, iv. antibiotics can be switched safely to oral antibiotics after 2 days. In case of renal dysfunction, iv albumin should also be administered. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended in patients who have recovered from an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (secondary prevention). For "selective intestinal decontamination", poorly absorbed oral norfloxacin is the preferred schedule. Oral ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin (added gram positive spectrum) all the more are reasonable alternatives. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is only for patients who are intolerant to quinolones. Prophylaxis is indefinite until disappearance of ascites, transplant or death. Long-term prophylaxis is currently not recommended for patients without previous spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode, not even when refractory ascites or low ascites protein content is present. PMID:17344166

Papp, Mária; Farkas, Anikó; Udvardy, Miklós; Tornai, István

2007-03-01

205

Rifaximin improves systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and ascites.  

PubMed

Circulating levels of endotoxin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? increase with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and translocation, and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and functional renal failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of the antibiotic rifaximin on systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and ascites. We measured mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO) by Doppler ultrasound, systemic vascular resistance (as the ratio of mean arterial pressure:CO), plasma renin activity, levels of plasma aldosterone, the glomerular filtration rate by plasma clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA, natriuresis, levels of plasma endotoxin, and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? in 13 patients at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with rifaximin. Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced CO and significantly increased systemic vascular resistance, in association with a significant decrease in plasma rennin activity. The therapy also significantly increased the glomerular filtration rate and natriuresis while reducing levels of endotoxin, IL-6, and TNF-?. Intestinal decontamination with rifaximin improved systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:22391344

Kalambokis, Georgios N; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Rodi, Maria; Pappas, Konstantinos; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Xourgia, Xanthi; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

2012-07-01

206

Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation.  

PubMed

Intestinal transplantation has been gradually instituted in the management of intestinal failure. More than 200 cases including isolated intestinal transplant, liver/intestinal transplant, and multivisceral transplant have been performed worldwide,with 1-year graft and patient survival rates of 66% and 54%,respectively. Indications for the procedure include short bowel syndrome and functional abnormalities secondary to a variety of diseases or conditions. Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression regimens have been used universally with improved outcomes. The major contributors to the morbidity and mortality include rejection,infection, and technical complications. Of those, control of rejection remains the most difficult dilemma and it will be the key to improved patient and graft survival. PMID:11865353

Kato, Tomoaki; Ruiz, Phillip; Thompson, John F; Eskind, Lon B; Weppler, Deborah; Khan, Farrukh A; Pinna, Antonio D; Nery, Jose R; Tzakis, Andreas G

2002-02-01

207

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... involving a nasogastric (NG) tube placed through the nose into the stomach can be used to remove air from (decompress) the bowel. Neostigmine may be used to treat intestinal pseudo-obstruction that is only in the large bowel (Ogilvie's ...

208

The role of diet on intestinal microbiota metabolism: downstream impacts on host immune function and health, and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Dietary impacts on health may be one of the oldest concepts in medicine; however, only in recent years have technical advances in mass spectroscopy, gnotobiology, and bacterial sequencing enabled our understanding of human physiology to progress to the point where we can begin to understand how individual dietary components can affect specific illnesses. This review explores the current understanding of the complex interplay between dietary factors and the host microbiome, concentrating on the downstream implications on host immune function and the pathogenesis of disease. We discuss the influence of the gut microbiome on body habitus and explore the primary and secondary effects of diet on enteric microbial community structure. We address the impact of consumption of non-digestible polysaccharides (prebiotics and fiber), choline, carnitine, iron, and fats on host health as mediated by the enteric microbiome. Disease processes emphasized include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, IBD, and cardiovascular disease/atherosclerosis. The concepts presented in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to develop fully and validate potential therapeutic approaches. Specific dietary interventions offer exciting potential for nontoxic, physiologic ways to alter enteric microbial structure and metabolism to benefit the natural history of many intestinal and systemic disorders. PMID:24652102

Goldsmith, Jason R; Sartor, R Balfour

2014-05-01

209

Alcohol and Migraine  

MedlinePLUS

... disabling headaches . Home > Alcohol and Migraine Print Email Alcohol and Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Alcohol and Migraine Alessandro Panconesi, MD Key Points Alcohol ...

210

Alcohol and pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

211

Alcohol and Hepatitis C  

MedlinePLUS

... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

212

Naltrexone for Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... it causes problems again and again. The main treatment for alcoholism is to stop drinking alcohol. This can be ... talk to your doctor. Will I need other treatments for alcoholism? Like many other diseases, alcoholism affects you physically ...

213

Fetal alcohol syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Dependency -- www.ncadd.org National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Referral Routing Service -- 1-800-662-4357 The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous - www.alcoholics-anonymous.org Al-Anon/ ...

214

Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

Gonzalez-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernandez, Francisco; Martin-Gonzalez, Maria Candelaria; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Camino Maria; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

2014-01-01

215

Bacterial Community Mapping of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Keeping mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities in balance is crucial for host health maintenance. However, our understanding of microbial communities in the GI tract is still very limited. In this study, samples taken from the GI tracts of C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis to examine the characteristic bacterial communities along the mouse GI tract, including those present in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and feces. Further analyses of the 283,234 valid sequences obtained from pyrosequencing revealed that the gastric, duodenal, large intestinal and fecal samples had higher phylogenetic diversity than the jejunum and ileum samples did. The microbial communities found in the small intestine and stomach were different from those seen in the large intestine and fecal samples. A greater proportion of Lactobacillaceae were found in the stomach and small intestine, while a larger proportion of anaerobes such as Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae were found in the large intestine and feces. In addition, inter-mouse variations of microbiota were observed between the large intestinal and fecal samples, which were much smaller than those between the gastric and small intestinal samples. As far as we can ascertain, ours is the first study to systematically characterize bacterial communities from the GI tracts of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:24116019

Gu, Shenghua; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Jin-Na; Lv, Xiaoman; Wang, Kun; Duan, Li-Ping; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

2013-01-01

216

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults  

PubMed Central

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

2011-01-01

217

Alcohol project  

SciTech Connect

The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

Not Available

1980-12-01

218

Alcohol Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

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Torello Lotti; Angelo Massimiliano D’Erme

219

Effects of dietary antibiotics on intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Changes were examined in the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens fed a diet containing antibiotics to obtain fundamental information on the mechanisms of beneficial effect of the antibiotics upon livestock production. Three antibiotics (colistin, bacitracin, and enramycin) were employed as feed additives. Experiments were conducted with broiler chickens in two ways. In one way dietary antibiotics were fed continually at levels approved for use as feed additives for a long term. In the other they were fed the same antibiotics for a short term. Significant changes in microflora were observed mainly in such bacterial groups as aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus. In the long term administration, three possible modes of variance in the bacterial flora were postulated: Changes directly related to the antibacterial spectrum of antibiotics. Antagonistic changes related to an ecological balance in the bacterial flora. Changes in quantitative balance of bacteria constituting each bacterial group. The change in the intestinal microflora during administration of the antibiotic diet was expressed as a complex form of these transition modes. In the short term administration, it was demonstrated that the effect of the antibiotic diet lingered even 7 days after administration. This suggests that antibiotics used as feed additives may possibly affect the stability of the intestinal microflora. PMID:6680771

Ohya, T; Sato, S

1983-01-01

220

NLRC4 expression in intestinal epithelial cells mediates protection against an enteric pathogen.  

PubMed

The inflammasomes have an important role in connecting the detection of endogenous and microbial danger signals to caspase-1 activation and induction of protective immune responses. NLRC4 is a cytosolic NOD (nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain)-like receptor (NLR) that can trigger inflammasome formation in response to bacterial flagellin, an immunodominant antigen in the intestine. To characterize the role of NLRC4 in bacterially triggered intestinal inflammation, we used the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular, attaching/effacing bacterium similar to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. Following infection with C. rodentium, we found that Nlrc4(-/-) mice developed more severe weight loss, increased bacterial colonization levels, and exacerbated intestinal inflammation compared with wild-type counterparts. Nlrc4(-/-) mice mounted robust adaptive immune responses but were unable to control early colonization by C. rodentium, suggesting that a defect in innate immunity was responsible. Experiments using bone marrow (BM) chimeras revealed that the protective effects of NLRC4 were dependent on its expression in non-hematopoietic cells, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analyses revealed that NLRC4 was highly expressed in epithelial crypts but not in intestinal stroma. Thus, early NLRC4 sensing in intestinal epithelial cells regulates colonization by an extracellular bacterial pathogen and limits subsequent intestinal damage. PMID:24280936

Nordlander, S; Pott, J; Maloy, K J

2014-07-01

221

Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700 G and those not administered AGPs after a 28 day withdrawal period. PMID:23578222

2013-01-01

222

Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis.  

PubMed

Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine's beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

223

New Concepts of Microbial Translocation in the Neonatal Intestine: Mechanisms and Prevention  

PubMed Central

In very-low-birth weight (VLBW, <1500 gram) infants, late-onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis prolong the hospital stay, increase the cost of care, and place the infant at greater risk for morbidity and mortality (1). Long-term follow-up studies have demonstrated that these infections significantly increase the risk of neurological disabilities (2). With incidences of ~20% and 5–10% respectively, late-onset sepsis [LOS] and necrotizing enterocolitis [NEC] in VLBW infants need new preventive approaches. A long-held belief is that LOS and NEC result from bacterial translocation [BT]. Bacterial translocation is defined as invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the mucosa into normally sterile tissue (3). This definition has been extended to include bacterial toxins or antigens, which damage intestinal epithelia and enter the circulation resulting in a systemic inflammatory response (4). Local BT through the intestinal mucosa, or toxin-related injury of intestinal epithelia, is associated with NEC (5), while BT beyond the intestine causes sepsis and multi-organ failure (6,7). This chapter describes: 1) development of the intestinal microbiota, 2) how immaturity of the nascent epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal [GI] tract and its sub-mucosal tissues mediate BT, 3) strategies to accelerate barrier functions in the immature GI tract and 4) the effects of nutrition and colonization by commensal bacteria on the susceptibility of the immature intestine to BT. PMID:20813271

Sherman, Michael P.

2010-01-01

224

Small intestinal tumours.  

PubMed

Objective. Balloon enteroscopy (BE) and capsule enteroscopy (CE) are enteroscopy methods that allow examination and treatment of the small bowel. Before the CE and BE era, the small intestine was difficult to access for investigation. Small intestinal tumours are infrequent conditions, but about half of them are malignant. Materials and Methods. A total of 303 BEs were performed in 179 patients. Oral insertion was performed in 240 and anal in 63 BEs. Indications for the procedure in our patients with small bowel tumours were anaemia and/or bleeding, obstruction, suspicion of carcinoid tumour, or suspicion of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Results. In 50 of our 179 patients (28%), we diagnosed some small intestinal tumours: hamartomas in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in 16 patients, adenocarcinoma in 7, lymphoma in 6, carcinoid tumour in 4, melanoma and stromal tumour in 3, adenoma, lipoma, and inflammatory polyps in 2, and granular cell tumour, cavernous lymphangioma, fibrolipoma, Cronkhite-Canada polyps, and metastatic involvement in individual cases. Conclusion. BE facilitates exploration and treatment of the small intestine. The procedure is generally safe and useful. BE and CE are essential modalities for the management of small intestinal diseases. PMID:24348540

Kopá?ová, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja

2013-01-01

225

Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT116). Different strains of LAB isolated from new born infants and fermented milk, together with the strains obtained from culture collections were tested. METHODS: LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines. ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-? protein secretion. Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs) gene expression were assessed using RT-PCR. Conditional medium, sonicated bacteria and UV killed bacteria were used to find the effecter molecules on the bacteria. Carbohydrate oxidation and protein digestion were applied to figure out the molecules’ residues. Adhesion assays were further carried out. RESULTS: It was found that Enterococcus faecalis is the main immune modulator among the LABs by downregulation of IL-8 secretion and upregulation of TGF-?. Strikingly, the effect was only observed in four strains of E. faecalis out of the 27 isolated and tested. This implies strain dependent immunomodulation in the host. In addition, E. faecalis may regulate inflammatory responses through TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and TRAF6. Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface are involved in both its adhesion to intestinal cells and regulation of inflammatory responses in the host. CONCLUSION: These data provide a case for the modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity in which specific strains of E. faecalis have uniquely evolved to maintain colonic homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:18286689

Wang, Shugui; Ng, Lydia Hui Mei; Chow, Wai Ling; Lee, Yuan Kun

2008-01-01

226

Intestinal Malrotation: A Rare Cause of Small Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation is established by the age of 1 year in most cases, and the condition is seldom seen in adults. In this paper, a patient with small intestinal malrotation-type intraperitoneal hernia who underwent surgery at an older age because of intestinal obstruction is presented. Case. A 73-year-old patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction underwent surgery as treatment. Distended jejunum and ileum loops surrounded by a peritoneal sac and located between the stomach and transverse colon were determined. The terminal ileum had entered into the transverse mesocolon from the right lower part, resulting in kinking and subsequent segmentary obstruction. The obstruction was relieved, and the small intestines were placed into their normal position in the abdominal cavity. Conclusion. Small intestinal malrotations are rare causes of intestinal obstructions in adults. The appropriate treatment in these patients is placement of the intestines in their normal positions. PMID:25371842

Sipahi, Mesut; Caglayan, Kasim; Arslan, Ergin; Erkoc, Mustafa Fatih; Aytekin, Faruk Onder

2014-01-01

227

Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

2014-07-21

228

Selective proliferation of intestinal Barnesiella under fucosyllactose supplementation in mice.  

PubMed

The oligosaccharides 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose are major constituents of human breast milk but are not found in mouse milk. Milk oligosaccharides have a prebiotic action, thus affecting the colonisation of the infant intestine by microbiota. To determine the specific effect of fucosyllactose exposure on intestinal microbiota in mice, in the present study, we orally supplemented newborn mice with pure 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose. Exposure to 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose increased the levels of bacteria of the Porphyromonadaceae family in the intestinal gut, more precisely members of the genus Barnesiella as analysed by 16S pyrosequencing. The ability of Barnesiella to utilise fucosyllactose as energy source was confirmed in bacterial cultures. Whereas B. intestinihominis and B. viscericola did not grow on fucose alone, they proliferated in the presence of 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose following the secretion of linkage-specific fucosidase enzymes that liberated lactose. The change in the composition of intestinal microbiota mediated by fucosyllactose supplementation affected the susceptibility of mice to dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis, as indicated by increased resistance of mice subjected to 2-fucosyllactose supplementation for 6 weeks. The present study underlines the ability of specific milk oligosaccharides to change the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby to shape an intestinal milieu resilient to inflammatory diseases. PMID:24411010

Weiss, Gisela A; Chassard, Christophe; Hennet, Thierry

2014-05-01

229

Probiotic Bacteria Induce Maturation of Intestinal Claudin 3 Expression and Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

An immature intestinal epithelial barrier may predispose infants and children to many intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield insight into strategies to prevent these intestinal diseases. The claudin family of tight junction proteins plays an important role in regulating epithelial paracellular permeability. Previous reports demonstrate that rodent intestinal barrier function matures during the first 3 weeks of life. We show that murine paracellular permeability markedly decreases during postnatal maturation, with the most significant change occurring between 2 and 3 weeks. Here we report for the first time that commensal bacterial colonization induces intestinal barrier function maturation by promoting claudin 3 expression. Neonatal mice raised on antibiotics or lacking the toll-like receptor adaptor protein MyD88 exhibit impaired barrier function and decreased claudin 3 expression. Furthermore, enteral administration of either live or heat-killed preparations of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG accelerates intestinal barrier maturation and induces claudin 3 expression. However, live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increases mortality. Taken together, these results support a vital role for intestinal flora in the maturation of intestinal barrier function. Probiotics may prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases by regulating intestinal tight junction protein expression and barrier function. The use of heat-killed probiotics may provide therapeutic benefit while minimizing adverse effects. PMID:22155109

Patel, Ravi M.; Myers, Loren S.; Kurundkar, Ashish R.; Maheshwari, Akhil; Nusrat, Asma; Lin, Patricia W.

2012-01-01

230

Interstellar Alcohols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

1995-01-01

231

Classification of intestine polyps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method to classify hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps of large intestine semiautomatically. First, doctors locate the contour of the original polyp images by using other software package. We determine if there are gores on the polyp by using modified Sobel operator on eliminating specular reflection pixels of original color images. We then get the polyp's texture by summing the gradient magnitude of pixels within the polyps. After detecting the actual contour of the polyps, we can determined if the polyp's contour is obvious or not (i.e. if the polyp bulges smoothly or not). We then observe whether the polyp's color is redder than or whiter than its neighbors. Finally, we classify the polyp of the intestine by applying the above steps. The flow chart of classification is as shown. We apply our method on 77 color images with polyps of the intestine and compare the results with a doctor's diagnosis.

Chou, Shih-Chen; Fuh, Chiou-Shann; Shieh, Ming J.

1998-06-01

232

Motility Disorders of the Small Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal ... the contents of the intestine slowly towards the large intestine. It normally takes about 90-120 minutes for ...

233

Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. (Laboratoire de Gastroenterologie et de Nutrition, U.E.R. de Medecine, Nice (France))

1990-02-01

234

Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics.  

PubMed

In the 21(st) century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion) or obesity (US$133 billion). Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol. PMID:24791039

Adewale, Adebayo; Ifudu, Onyekachi

2014-03-01

235

The allometry of rodent intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon\\u000a and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects\\u000a associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents.

Barry G. Lovegrove

2010-01-01

236

Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

1981-01-01

237

Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

1981-12-01

238

Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

1982-02-01

239

Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical in- testinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure

M. T. Muñoz; J. A. Solís Herruzo

2007-01-01

240

The physiological role of liver alcohol dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

1. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was used to determine ethanol in the portal and hepatic veins and in the contents of the alimentary canal of rats given a diet free from ethanol. Measurable amounts of a substance behaving like ethanol were found. Its rate of interaction with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and its volatility indicate that the substance measured was in fact ethanol. 2. The mean alcohol concentration in the portal blood of normal rats was 0.045mm. In the hepatic vein, inferior vena cava and aorta it was about 15 times lower. 3. The contents of all sections of the alimentary canal contained measurable amounts of ethanol. The highest values (average 3.7mm) were found in the stomach. 4. Infusion of pyrazole (an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) raised the alcohol concentration in the portal vein 10-fold and almost removed the difference between portal and hepatic venous blood. 5. Addition of antibiotics to the food diminished the ethanol concentration of the portal blood to less than one-quarter and that of the stomach contents to less than one-fortieth. 6. The concentration of alcohol in the alimentary canal and in the portal blood of germ-free rats was much decreased, to less than one-tenth in the alimentary canal and to one-third in the portal blood, but detectable quantities remained. These are likely to arise from acetaldehyde formed by the normal pathways of degradation of threonine, deoxyribose phosphate and ?-alanine. 7. The results indicate that significant amounts of alcohol are normally formed in the gastro-intestinal tract. The alcohol is absorbed into the circulation and almost quantitatively removed by the liver. Thus the function, or a major function, of liver alcohol dehydrogenase is the detoxication of ethanol normally present. 8. The alcohol concentration in the stomach of alloxan-diabetic rats was increased about 8-fold. 9. The activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase is generally lower in carnivores than in herbivores and omnivores, but there is no strict parallelism between the capacity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and dietary habit. 10. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase of gastric mucosa was much decreased in two out of the three germ-free rats tested. This is taken to indicate that the enzyme, like gastric urease, may be of microbial origin. 11. When the body was flooded with ethanol by the addition of 10% ethanol to the drinking water the alcohol concentration in the portal vein rose to 15mm and only a few percent of the incoming ethanol was cleared by the liver. PMID:5481498

Krebs, H. A.; Perkins, J. R.

1970-01-01

241

Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin.  

PubMed

The mammalian intestine harbors complex societies of beneficial bacteria that are maintained in the lumen with minimal penetration of mucosal surfaces. Microbial colonization of germ-free mice triggers epithelial expression of RegIIIgamma, a secreted C-type lectin. RegIIIgamma binds intestinal bacteria but lacks the complement recruitment domains present in other microbe-binding mammalian C-type lectins. We show that RegIIIgamma and its human counterpart, HIP/PAP, are directly antimicrobial proteins that bind their bacterial targets via interactions with peptidoglycan carbohydrate. We propose that these proteins represent an evolutionarily primitive form of lectin-mediated innate immunity, and that they reveal intestinal strategies for maintaining symbiotic host-microbial relationships. PMID:16931762

Cash, Heather L; Whitham, Cecilia V; Behrendt, Cassie L; Hooper, Lora V

2006-08-25

242

Teleost intestinal immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teleosts clearly have a more diffuse gut associated lymphoid system, which is morphological and functional clearly different from the mammalian GALT. All immune cells necessary for a local immune response are abundantly present in the gut mucosa of the species studied and local immune responses can be monitored after intestinal immunization. Fish do not produce IgA, but a special mucosal

Jan H. W. M. Rombout; Luigi Abelli; Simona Picchietti; Giuseppe Scapigliati; Viswanath Kiron

2011-01-01

243

The establishment of an intestinal microflora in developing goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) of culture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial flora in the intestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) was investigated at different stages of fish development. The floras of the diets and the water and sediment of a culture pond were also analyzed. The total counts in the intestine ranged from 2.2 × 106?2.1 × 108 cells g?1 wet weight.Aeromonas hydrophila, A. punctata, Pseudomonas, Bacteroidaceae andClostridium species

H. Sugita; M. Tsunohara; T. Ohkoshi; Y. Deguchi

1988-01-01

244

Bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

Spiegel, C A

1991-01-01

245

Ethanol-induced alterations of matrix network in the duodenal mucosa of chronic alcohol abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, including dyspepsia and diarrhoea.\\u000a It is not clear whether or not chronic alcohol ingestion damages the mucosa of the small intestine. We investigated the effect\\u000a of chronic alcohol abuse on the duodenal mucosa, and particularly on its extracellular matrix (ECM) network. Duoenal biopsy\\u000a specimens were obtained during upper gastrointestinal

A. Casini; Andrea Galli; Antonio Calabro’; S. Di Lollo; Barbara Orsini; L. Arganini; Anne M. Jezequel; Calogero Surrenti

1999-01-01

246

Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

247

[Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].  

PubMed

Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus. PMID:19697818

Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

2009-07-01

248

Intestinal epithelial autophagy is essential for host defense against invasive bacteria  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The mammalian intestine is colonized with a diverse community of bacteria that perform many beneficial functions but can threaten host health upon tissue invasion. Epithelial cell-intrinsic innate immune responses are essential to limit the invasion of both commensal and pathogenic bacteria and maintain beneficial host-bacterial relationships; however, little is known about the role of various cellular processes, notably autophagy, in controlling bacterial interactions with the intestinal epithelium in vivo. We demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cell autophagy protects against tissue invasion by both opportunistically invasive commensals and the invasive intestinal pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. Autophagy is activated following bacterial invasion of epithelial cells through a process requiring epithelial cell-intrinsic signaling via the innate immune adaptor protein MyD88. Additionally, mice deficient in intestinal epithelial cell autophagy exhibit increased dissemination of invasive bacteria to extraintestinal sites. Thus, autophagy is an important epithelial cell-autonomous mechanism of antibacterial defense that protects against dissemination of intestinal bacteria. PMID:23768496

Benjamin, Jamaal L.; Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth; Hooper, Lora V.

2013-01-01

249

Coinfection with an intestinal helminth impairs host innate immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and exacerbates intestinal inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative food-borne pathogen that is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. The ability of the host to control such bacterial pathogens may be influenced by host immune status and by concurrent infections. Helminth parasites are of particular interest in this context because of their ability to modulate host immune responses and because their geographic distribution coincides with those parts of the world where infectious gastroenteritis is most problematic. To test the hypothesis that helminth infection may negatively regulate host mucosal innate immunity against bacterial enteropathogens, a murine coinfection model was established by using the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and S. Typhimurium. We found that mice coinfected with S. Typhimurium and H. polygyrus developed more severe intestinal inflammation than animals infected with S. Typhimurium alone. The enhanced susceptibility to Salmonella-induced intestinal injury in coinfected mice was found to be associated with diminished neutrophil recruitment to the site of bacterial infection that correlated with decreased expression of the chemoattractants CXCL2/macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and CXCL1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), poor control of bacterial replication, and exacerbated intestinal inflammation. The mechanism of helminth-induced inhibition of MIP-2 and KC expression involved interleukin-10 (IL-10) and, to a lesser extent, IL-4 and IL-13. Ly6G antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils reproduced the adverse effects of H. polygyrus on Salmonella infection. Our results suggest that impaired neutrophil recruitment is an important contributor to the enhanced severity of Salmonella enterocolitis associated with helminth coinfection. PMID:24980971

Su, Libo; Su, Chien-wen; Qi, Yujuan; Yang, Guilian; Zhang, Mei; Cherayil, Bobby J; Zhang, Xichen; Shi, Hai Ning

2014-09-01

250

Breath alcohol test  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

251

Alcohol Calorie Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply enter the number ... click ‘Compute’ and see the number of calories alcohol adds up for you in a month and ...

252

Alcohol and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol and Cancer Basic description Research shows that alcohol consumption is linked to an increased chance of ... risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Alcohol and Cancer ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. No. ...

253

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Problems Science Database (ETOH) is "the most comprehensive online bibliographic database containing over 100,000 records on alcohol abuse and alcoholism." This database (updated monthly) contains scientific literature from the late 1960s to the present, as well as a recently added thesaurus of alcohol and other drug terms. The Web site offers four search options and a useful Quick Search Guide for help with each one.

254

Gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth: pathogenesis and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as the presence of an abnormally high number of coliform bacteria in the small bowel. It is associated with a broad range of predisposing small intestinal motility disorders and with surgical procedures that result in bowel stasis. The most common symptoms associated with SIBO include diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and bloating. Quantitative culture of small bowel contents and a variety of indirect tests have been used over the years in an attempt to facilitate the diagnosis of SIBO. The indirect tests include breath tests and biochemical tests based on bacterial metabolism of a variety of substrates. Unfortunately, there is no single valid test for SIBO, and the accuracy of all current tests remains limited due to the failure of culture to be a gold standard and the lack of standardization of the normal bowel flora in the small intestine. Currently, the ideal approach to treat SIBO is to treat the underlying disease, eradicate overgrowth, and address nutritional deficiencies that may be associated with the development of SIBO. PMID:23997926

Sachdev, Amit H.

2013-01-01

255

Assistant Director -Drugs, Alcohol, &  

E-print Network

Assistant Director - Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs iTEAM Director of Specialty Counseling Services Learning Assistance Services Assistant Director - Graduate Training Assistant Director of Alcohol

Rutledge, Steven

256

Inhibitory Effect of Enterohepatic Helicobacter hepaticus on Innate Immune Responses of Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells?  

PubMed Central

Enterohepatic Helicobacter species infect the intestinal tracts and biliary trees of various mammals, including mice and humans, and are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine, gallstone formation, and malignant transformation. The recent analysis of the whole genome sequence of the mouse enterohepatic species Helicobacter hepaticus allowed us to perform a functional analysis of bacterial factors that may play a role in these diseases. We tested the hypothesis that H. hepaticus suppresses or evades innate immune responses of mouse intestinal epithelial cells, which allows this pathogen to induce or contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. We demonstrated in the present study that the innate immune responses of intestinal epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and to flagellin-mediated activation via TLR5 are reduced by H. hepaticus infection through soluble bacterial factors. In particular, H. hepaticus lysate and the soluble component LPS antagonized TLR4- and TLR5-mediated immune responses of intestinal epithelial cells. H. hepaticus lysate and LPS inhibited development of endotoxin tolerance to Escherichia coli LPS. Suppression of innate immune responses by H. hepaticus LPS thus may affect intestinal responses to the resident microbial flora, epithelial homeostasis, and intestinal inflammatory conditions. PMID:17371851

Sterzenbach, Torsten; Lee, Sae Kyung; Brenneke, Birgit; von Goetz, Franz; Schauer, David B.; Fox, James G.; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Josenhans, Christine

2007-01-01

257

Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced damage on lower gastro-intestinal tract: is there an involvement of microbiota?  

PubMed

Intestinal microbiota is composed by a community of microorganisms, which regulate intestinal functions and affect the global health. It is presumable that the well-known intestinal damages induced by Non Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) mirror on the homeostasis of microbiota, as confirmed by studies investigating this aspect. This review reports the evolving knowledge in this field taking into account both intestinal damage and microbiota involvement. In addition, we analyze a recent study reporting how NSAIDs change intestinal bacterial composition and, on this basis, hypothesize further possible interactions. Indeed, NSAIDs are responsible for a marked reduction of Lactobacilli, which act in the maintenance of luminal pH, mucosal permeability, enterocyte adhesion, mucus production, and immune system modulation. Moreover, Bifidobacteria are involved in the modulation of intestinal motility and local immunity and the demonstrated dangerous effect of NSAIDs could operate through an interference with these functions. A participation of microbiota in mesalazine and salycilate prevention of intestinal cancer may be supposed through their ability to stimulate bacterial production of molecules interfering with cell cycle on the basis of scanty available data. Finally, a supplementation with probiotics in chronic users of NSAIDs may help microbiota remodeling in a damaged intestine, but the poor current knowledge does not allow setting a clear indication for their use despite few evidences of a beneficial effect. In conclusion, it is presumable that the multiple effects of NSAIDs on the lower gastro-intestinal tract may involve microbiota alterations and this consideration suggests further investigations. PMID:24809527

Montenegro, Lucia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Licinio, Raffaele; Zamparella, Maria; Giorgio, Floriana; Ierardi, Enzo; Leo, Alfredo Di; Principi, Mariabeatrice

2014-01-01

258

Adaptation of Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatic Pump Function Following Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Objective Acute alcohol intoxication increases intestinal lymph flow by unknown mechanisms, potentially impacting mucosal immunity. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced intrinsic pump function of mesenteric lymphatics contributes to increased intestinal lymph flow during alcohol intoxication. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to concious, unrestrained rats through surgically-implanted catheters. Time-matched controls received either no bolus, vehicle, or isocaloric dextrose. Thirty minutes after alcohol administration, rats were anesthetized and mesenteric collecting lymphatics were isolated and cannulated to study intrinsic pumping parameters. In separate experiments, mesenteric lymphatics were isolated to examine direct effects of alcohol on intrinsic pump activity. Results Lymphatics isolated from alcohol-intoxicated animals displayed slgnificantly decreased contraction frequency (CF) than the dextrose group, elevated stroke volume index (SVI) versus all other groups, and decreased myogenic responsiveness compared to sham. Elevating pressure from 2 to 4 cm H2O increased the volume flow index 2.4-fold in the alcohol group versus 1.4-fold for shams. Isolated lymphatics exposed to 20 mM alcohol had reduced myogenic tone, without changes in CF or SVI. Conclusions Alcohol intoxication enhances intrinsic pumping by mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Alcohol directly decreases lymphatic myogenic tone, but effects on phasic contractions occur by an unidentified mechanism. PMID:21040117

Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Kurtz, Kristine M.; Molina, Patricia E.; Breslin, Jerome W.

2010-01-01

259

The migrating myoelectric complex of the small intestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastric and small intestinal myoelectric and motor activity is divided into two main patterns, fed and fasted. During fasting, the predominant pattern of activity is the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), a cyclically occurring pattern of electric and mechanical activity that is initiated in the stomach and duodenum almost simultaneously and, from there, propagates the length of the small intestine. Cyclic motor activity also occurs in the lower esophageal sphincter, the gallbladder, and the sphincter of Oddi with a duration that is related to the MMC in the small intestine. Of the possible mechanisms for initiation of the MMC in the small intestine (extrinsic neural control, intrinsic neural control, and hormonal control), intrinsic neural control via a series of coupled is the most likely. The keep this sentence in! hormone motilin also plays a role in the initiation of MMCs. After a meal, in man the MMC is disrupted and replaced by irregular contractions. The physiologic role of the MMC is to clear the stomach and small intestine of residual food, secretions, and desquamated cells and propel them to the colon. Disruption of the MMC cycle is associated with bacterial overgrowth in some patients, an observation that supports the proposed cleansing function of the MMC cycle.

Telford, Gordon L.; Sarna, Sushil K.

1991-10-01

260

Bloating and intestinal gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The most common symptoms associated with intestinal gas are eructation, flatulence, abdominal bloating, and distention. Aerophagia\\u000a is an uncommon cause of eructation in which repetitive air swallowing results in belching, abdominal distention, and increased\\u000a flatus. Few therapies have been shown to be effective in treating these symptoms. Eructation can be treated by decreasing\\u000a excessive air swallowing. Occasionally, behavioral therapy

Michael P. Jones

2005-01-01

261

Current Concepts of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Infection  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a vast and diverse community of microbes. This gut microbiota participates in host metabolism, protects from invading microbes, and facilitates immune system development and function. In this review, we consider the contributions of intestinal microbes to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Key concepts of colonization resistance, host-commensal microbe interaction in immunity, antibiotics and gut bacterial communities, viral-gut bacterial interactions, and evolving methods for studying commensal microbes are explored. PMID:21308452

Wardwell, Leslie H.; Huttenhower, Curtis

2011-01-01

262

Alcohol's Effects on Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring adolescence, many people begin to experi­ ment with alcohol, yet relatively little is known about alcohol's effects on this critical stage of development. We do know that early initiation of alcohol use remains one of the most powerful predictors of later alcohol abuse (Grant 1998). We also know that during adolescence changes occur in the regions of the brain

Linda Patia Spear

2002-01-01

263

Overview of Alcohol Consumption  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Overview of Alcohol Consumption People drink to socialize, celebrate, and relax. Alcohol often has a strong effect on people – and throughout history, we’ve struggled to understand and manage alcohol’s ...

264

BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY  

E-print Network

BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY Passed unanimously at the Committee on Alcohol Concerns November at Executive Committee April 23. 2010 Preamble: 1. The use of alcohol is a widely accepted accompaniment a common component of campus life for many years. However, alcohol-related incidents remain a significant

265

Alcoholism and Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes patterns of problem drinking in rural areas, suggests factors which may influence the comparatively lower rates of alcoholism among rural residents, discusses the types of alcohol treatment available in rural communities, and offers preliminary ideas for applying the alcoholism-reducing factors of rural life to preventing alcoholism in…

DiNitto, Diana

1982-01-01

266

[Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

2012-09-01

267

Women, Alcohol, and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also

Linda J. Beckman; Kimberly T. Ackerman

268

Alcohol Advertising and Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: The question addressed ,in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among,college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses,and the level of alcohol,advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded ,that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings,for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however,

Henry Saffer

269

The impact of farnesoid X receptor activation on intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

The most important function of the intestinal mucosa is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the intestine. Defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier have been observed in several intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have identified a number of factors that contribute to development of IBD including environmental triggers, genetic factors, immunoregulatory defects and microbial exposure. The current review focuses on the influence of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on the inhibition of intestinal inflammation in patients with IBD. The development and investigation of FXR agonists provide strong support for the regulatory role of FXR in mucosal innate immunity. Activation of FXR in the intestinal tract decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, thus contributing to a reduction in inflammation and epithelial permeability. In addition, intestinal FXR activation induces the transcription of multiple genes involved in enteroprotection and the prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. These data suggest that FXR agonists are potential candidates for exploration as a novel therapeutic strategy for IBD in humans. PMID:22993736

Stojancevic, Maja; Stankov, Karmen; Mikov, Momir

2012-01-01

270

Intestinal pathophysiology in autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a life-long developmental disorder affecting as many as 1 in 500 children. The causes for this profound disorder are largely unknown. Recent research has uncovered pathology in the gastrointestinal tract of autistic children. The pathology, reported to extend from the esophagus to the colon, is described here along with other studies pointing to a connection between diet and the severity of symptoms expressed in autism. The evidence that there is impaired intestinal permeability in autism is reviewed, and various theories are discussed by which a leaky gut could develop. Lastly, some possible ways in which impaired gastrointestinal function might influence brain function are discussed. PMID:12773694

White, John F

2003-06-01

271

Common flora and intestine  

PubMed Central

Commensal microflora engages in a symbiotic relationship with their host, and plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pathogenic bacteria promote chronic intestinal inflammation and accelerate tumorigenesis. In sporadic CRC, loss of an effective epithelial barrier occurs at early stage of CRC development. As a result, non-pathogenic bacteria and/or their products infiltrate tumor stroma, drive “tumor-elicited inflammation” and promote CRC progression by activating tumor-associated myeloid and immune cells that produce IL-23 and IL-17. In this article we will summarize the recent advances in understanding the relationship between gut flora and CRC. PMID:24516778

Wang, Kepeng; Karin, Michael

2013-01-01

272

Prom1 Function in Development, Intestinal Inflammation, and Intestinal Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. Its potential molecular function as well as its role as a marker of intestinal regeneration is still not fully known. We evaluated the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), determined the function of Prom1, and characterized the effect of a lack of Prom1 on intestinal tumor formation in animal models. Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. Also, Prom1 knockout mice are more susceptible to intestinal tumor formation. We conclude that Prom1 likely plays a role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and that these results clearly illustrate the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration. We further conclude that Prom1 may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal conditions such as IBD, short bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer.

Karim, Baktiar O.; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Liu, Guosheng; Yun, Kyuson; Brant, Steven R.

2014-01-01

273

Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration  

E-print Network

Alcohol / drug-impaired driving Studying blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting and alcohol abuse prevention. Distracted driving Examining the effect of various distractions on the driving

274

Evolution of bacterial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines evolution of bacterial genomes with an emphasis on RNA based life, the transition to functional DNA and small evolving genomes (possibly plasmids) that led to larger, functional bacterial genomes.

J. T. Trevors

1997-01-01

275

Innate immune gene expression differentiates the early avian intestinal response between Salmonella and Campylobacter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni are major human pathogens, yet colonise chickens without causing pathology. The aim of this study was to compare intestinal innate immune responses to both bacterial species, in a 4-week-old broiler chicken model. Challenged and control birds were sacrificed and tissue samples taken for histopathology and RNA extraction. No significant clinical or pathological changes

Ronan G. Shaughnessy; Kieran G. Meade; Sarah Cahalane; Brenda Allan; Carla Reiman; John J. Callanan; Cliona O’Farrelly

2009-01-01

276

Alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (? 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and those who did not develop cirrhosis mainly died from causes related to alcohol abuse. In conclusion, the present thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used prognostic models may be helpful adjuvants in the routine management of patients with AH, provided that clinicians are aware of the models' limitations. The causes of death in AH are primarily due to liver-related complications, suggesting that patients with AH could benefit from continued follow-up by a hepatologist after the acute episode. PMID:25283626

Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard

2014-10-01

277

Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.  

PubMed Central

Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

Holt, S

1981-01-01

278

Toxicological effects of dietary nickel chloride on intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the toxicological effect of dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) on the counts of intestinal bacteria and diversity of microorganisms in broilers. Plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) assays were used. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers chicks were divided into four equal groups and kept on corn-soybean basal diet along with supplementation of 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Samples were taken at 21 and 42 days of age during the experiment. The bacterial count results showed that dietary NiCl2 in the range of 300 to 900 mg/kg decreased the counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus, increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus spp. in the ileum and cecum. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that bacterial band numbers, profile similarity, and the Shannon index of the ileum and cecum were all decreased in the 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg groups at 21 and 42 days of age. In conclusion, dietary NiCl2 affected the amount and diversity of intestinal microbiota in the ileum and cecum of broilers. This finding implies that NiCl2 has toxicological effect on the intestinal ecosystem and, possibly functions. PMID:25164205

Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Pan, Kangcheng; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

2014-11-01

279

The study on the impact of glycated pea proteins on human intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

The traditionally perceived function of nutrition includes supplying the consumer with the appropriate quantity and quality of substrates. As nutritional substrates, proteins are prone to spontaneously occurring non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) which can alter their molecular structure, making them highly bioactive. Glycated food proteins are able to modify the bacterial intestinal ecosystem, which is of great importance for the optimal usage of nutrients and maintenance of both intestinal homeostasis and balanced health status of the consumer. This study aimed to determine the impact of glycated pea proteins on the intestinal bacteria from a healthy human. The analyses were conducted with the use of experimental batch-type simulator models imitating human intestinal conditions. The glycated pea proteins affected the growth of gut commensal bacteria, particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, whose levels increased significantly. There was a corresponding shift in the bacterial metabolites with increased levels of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs); acetate, propionate lactate and butyrate. Intestinal bacteria were able to utilize these pea proteins thus indicating that the energy encrypted in glycated pea proteins, partially inaccessible for gastric enzymes, may be salvaged by gut microbiota. Such changes in microbial composition may beneficially impact the intestinal environment and exert a health-promoting effect in humans. PMID:21276631

?wi?tecka, Dominika; Dominika, ?wi?tecka; Narbad, Arjan; Arjan, Narbad; Ridgway, Karyn P; Karyn, Ridgway P; Kostyra, Henryk; Henryk, Kostyra

2011-01-31

280

Intestinal immune responses to coccidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal parasitism is a major stress factor leading to malnutrition and lowered performance and production efficiency of livestock and poultry. Coccidiosis is an intestinal infection caused by intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to several different species of Eimeria. Infection with coccidia parasites seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of chickens and costs the US poultry industry more than $1.5 billion

C. H Yun; H. S Lillehoj; E. P Lillehoj

2000-01-01

281

The genetics of alcoholism and alcohol abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twin studies have established that there are substantial genetic influences on alcoholism (0.5-0.6) in both men and women.\\u000a Our knowledge of behaviors predisposing to alcoholism, including anxiety and impulsivity, is advancing rapidly through animal\\u000a and human studies. Although alcoholism is often comorbid with other substance abuse and psychiatric disorders, recent studies\\u000a have shown that, with the exception of nicotine, the

Mary-Anne Enoch; David Goldman

2001-01-01

282

Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora.  

PubMed

The population of microbes (microbiome) in the intestine is a symbiotic ecosystem conferring trophic and protective functions. Since the biochemical environment shapes the structure and function of the microbiome, we tested whether uremia and/or dietary and pharmacologic interventions in chronic kidney disease alters the microbiome. To identify different microbial populations, microbial DNA was isolated from the stools of 24 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 12 healthy persons, and analyzed by phylogenetic microarray. There were marked differences in the abundance of 190 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the ESRD and control groups. OTUs from Brachybacterium, Catenibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nesterenkonia, Polyangiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Thiothrix families were markedly increased in patients with ESRD. To isolate the effect of uremia from inter-individual variations, comorbid conditions, and dietary and medicinal interventions, rats were studied 8 weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. This showed a significant difference in the abundance of 175 bacterial OTUs between the uremic and control animals, most notably as decreases in the Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Thus, uremia profoundly alters the composition of the gut microbiome. The biological impact of this phenomenon is unknown and awaits further investigation. PMID:22992469

Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wong, Jakk; Pahl, Madeleine; Piceno, Yvette M; Yuan, Jun; DeSantis, Todd Z; Ni, Zhenmin; Nguyen, Tien-Hung; Andersen, Gary L

2013-02-01

283

Neural networks in intestinal immunoregulation  

PubMed Central

Key physiological functions of the intestine are governed by nerves and neurotransmitters. This complex control relies on two neuronal systems: an extrinsic innervation supplied by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and an intrinsic innervation provided by the enteric nervous system. As a result of constant exposure to commensal and pathogenic microflora, the intestine developed a tightly regulated immune system. In this review, we cover the current knowledge on the interactions between the gut innervation and the intestinal immune system. The relations between extrinsic and intrinsic neuronal inputs are highlighted with regards to the intestinal immune response. Moreover, we discuss the latest findings on mechanisms underlying inflammatory neural reflexes and examine their relevance in the context of the intestinal inflammation. Finally, we discuss some of the recent data on the identification of the gut microbiota as an emerging player influencing the brain function. PMID:23867810

Costes, Lea MM; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; de Jonge, Wouter J; Cailotto, Cathy

2013-01-01

284

Intestinal drug transporters: an overview.  

PubMed

The importance of drug transporters as one of the determinants of pharmacokinetics has become increasingly evident. While much research has been conducted focusing the role of drug transporters in the liver and kidney less is known about the importance of uptake and efflux transporters identified in the intestine. Over the past years the effects of intestinal transporters have been studied using in vivo models, in situ organ perfusions, in vitro tissue preparations and cell lines. This review aims to describe up to date findings regarding the importance of intestinal transporters on drug absorption and bioavailability, highlighting areas in need of further research. Wu and Benet proposed a Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) that allows the prediction of transporter effects on the drug disposition of orally administered drugs. This review also discusses BDDCS predictions with respect to the role of intestinal transporters and intestinal transporter-metabolizing enzyme interplay on oral drug pharmacokinetics. PMID:23041352

Estudante, Margarida; Morais, José G; Soveral, Graça; Benet, Leslie Z

2013-10-01

285

Modulation of Post-Antibiotic Bacterial Community Reassembly and Host Response by Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The introduction of Candida albicans into cefoperazone-treated mice results in changes in bacterial community reassembly. Our objective was to use high-throughput sequencing to characterize at much greater depth the specific changes in the bacterial microbiome. The colonization of C. albicans significantly altered bacterial community reassembly that was evident at multiple taxonomic levels of resolution. There were marked changes in the levels of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillaceae. Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, the two most abundant bacterial families, did not change in relative proportions after antibiotics, but there were marked genera-level shifts within these two bacterial families. The microbiome shifts occurred in the absence of overt intestinal inflammation. Overall, these experiments demonstrate that the introduction of a single new microbe in numerically inferior numbers into the bacterial microbiome during a broad community disturbance has the potential to significantly alter the subsequent reassembly of the bacterial community as it recovers from that disturbance. PMID:23846617

Erb Downward, John R.; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Mason, Katie L.; Muraglia, Ryan; Huffnagle, Gary B.

2013-01-01

286

Ethanol production by bacterial fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to develop and optimize the process technology for the production of ethanol using the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis. Specifically, the process and operating conditions will be studied to maximize the yield of ethanol. The experimental design is described using both batch and continuous cultures with glucose as the substrate. Separation methods, therefore, will be developed to remove the alcohol from the fermentation media to prevent the inhibitory effects of ethanol on Z. mobilis. Vacuum fermentation and solvent extraction can be used to separate the alcohol from the media. Kinetic data will be obtained from both the batch and continuous fermentors. The kinetic data can be correlated using mathematical models. Mathematical models for Z. mobilis will be developed for the effect of pH, temperature and nutrient composition on the specific growth rate. A model will also be developed to account for the possible product inhibition by ethanol. Dynamic tests will also be conducted on the continuous system to determine how fast the fermentation will respond to environmental changes. The simultaneous hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and fermentation of glucose to ethanol is one of the most exciting possibilities. A literature survey will be made to determine the compatibility of conducting the hydrolysis reaction along with the bacterial fermentation. The final objective will be to make an economic assessment of the process of producing ethanol using Z. mobilis.

King, F.G.

1985-01-01

287

Neurologic effects of alcoholism.  

PubMed Central

Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

Diamond, I; Messing, R O

1994-01-01

288

Bacterial replacement therapy: adapting 'germ warfare' to infection prevention.  

PubMed

The individual bacterial members of our indigeneous microbiota are actively engaged in an on-going battle to prevent colonisation and overgrowth of their terrain by competing microbes, some of which might have pathogenic potential for the host. Humans have long attempted to intervene in these bacterial interactions. Ingestion of probiotic bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, is commonly practiced to promote well-balanced intestinal microflora. As bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has increased, so too has research into colonisation of human tissues with specific effector strains capable of out-competing known bacterial pathogens. Recent progress is particularly evident in the application of avirulent Streptococcus mutans to the control of dental caries, alpha hemolytic streptococci to reduction of otitis media recurrences and Streptococcus salivarius to streptococcal pharyngitis prevention. PMID:12727383

Tagg, John R; Dierksen, Karen P

2003-05-01

289

Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function  

PubMed Central

Background When diseased intestine (i.e., from colon cancer, diverticulitis) requires resection, its reconnection (termed anastomosis) can be complicated by non-healing of the newly joined intestine resulting in spillage of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity (termed anastomotic leakage). While it is suspected that the intestinal microbiota have the capacity to both accelerate and complicate anastomotic healing, the associated genotypes and functions have not been characterized. Results Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD0)) and the 6th day following surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD6)), we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats. Results indicated that anastomotic injury induced significant changes in the anastomotic tissue-associated microbiota with minimal differences in the luminal microbiota. The most striking difference was a 500-fold and 200-fold increase in the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Escherichia/Shigella, respectively. Functional profiling predicted the predominance of bacterial virulence-associated pathways in post-anastomotic tissues, including production of hemolysin, cytolethal toxins, fimbriae, invasins, cytotoxic necrotizing factors, and coccolysin. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that compositional and functional changes accompany anastomotic tissues and may potentially accelerate or complicate anastomotic healing.

2014-01-01

290

The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis binds intestinal mucin  

PubMed Central

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a vast microbial ecosystem, known as the microbiota, which benefits host biology. Bacteroides fragilis is an important anaerobic gut commensal of humans that prevents and cures intestinal inflammation. We wished to elucidate aspects of gut colonization employed by B. fragilis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on colonic tissue sections from B. fragilis and Escherichia coli dual-colonized gnotobiotic mice. Epifluorescence imaging reveals that both E. coli and B. fragilis are found in the lumen of the colon, but only B. fragilis is found in the mucosal layer. This observation suggests that physical association with intestinal mucus could be a possible mechanism of gut colonization by B. fragilis. We investigated this potential interaction using an in vitro mucus binding assay and show here that B. fragilis binds to murine colonic mucus. We further demonstrate that B. fragilis specifically and quantitatively binds to highly purified mucins (the major constituent in intestinal mucus) using flow cytometry analysis of fluorescently labeled purified murine and porcine mucins. These results suggest that interactions between B. fragilis and intestinal mucin may play a critical role during host-bacterial symbiosis. PMID:21664470

Huang, Julie Y.; Lee, S. Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

2011-01-01

291

The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis binds intestinal mucin.  

PubMed

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a vast microbial ecosystem, known as the microbiota, which benefits host biology. Bacteroides fragilis is an important anaerobic gut commensal of humans that prevents and cures intestinal inflammation. We wished to elucidate aspects of gut colonization employed by B. fragilis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on colonic tissue sections from B. fragilis and Escherichia coli dual-colonized gnotobiotic mice. Epifluorescence imaging reveals that both E. coli and B. fragilis are found in the lumen of the colon, but only B. fragilis is found in the mucosal layer. This observation suggests that physical association with intestinal mucus could be a possible mechanism of gut colonization by B. fragilis. We investigated this potential interaction using an in vitro mucus binding assay and show here that B. fragilis binds to murine colonic mucus. We further demonstrate that B. fragilis specifically and quantitatively binds to highly purified mucins (the major constituent in intestinal mucus) using flow cytometry analysis of fluorescently labeled purified murine and porcine mucins. These results suggest that interactions between B. fragilis and intestinal mucin may play a critical role during host-bacterial symbiosis. PMID:21664470

Huang, Julie Y; Lee, S Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

2011-08-01

292

Could moderate alcohol intake be recommended to improve vaccine responses?  

PubMed Central

Summary The impacts of alcohol consumption on human health are complex and modulated by several factors such as patterns and amounts of drinking, genetics, the organ system studied, as well as the sex and the age of the user. There is strong evidence that chronic ethanol abuse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, immunosuppression, and increased susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, moderate alcohol consumption exerts positive effects including decreased mortality, and improved cardiovascular disease and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, accumulating evidence also supports an immune boosting effect of moderate alcohol. In this editorial, we summarize the findings that support a positive effect of moderate alcohol on host immunity. We also discuss the limitations of the previous data and emphasize the importance of additional studies to uncover mechanisms for these immune-stimulating effects in order to extend these benefits to vulnerable segments of the population who cannot consume alcohol. PMID:24872009

Messaoudi, Ilhem; Pasala, Sumana; Grant, Kathleen

2014-01-01

293

Leaky gut and the liver: a role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections, major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders. Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease. Impaired gut epithelial integrity due to alterations in tight junction proteins may be the pathological mechanism underlying bacterial translocation. Preclinical and clinical studies over the last decade have suggested a role for BT in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and its complications. A better understanding of the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events involved in sensing gut-derived microbes will help in the development of means to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases. These may suggest new targets for potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of NASH. Here, we review some of the mechanisms connecting BT and NASH and potential therapeutic developments. PMID:22690069

Ilan, Yaron

2012-06-01

294

Host and Microbial Factors in Regulation of T Cells in the Intestine  

PubMed Central

The intestine is divided into specialized tissue areas that provide distinct microenvironments for T cells. Regulation of T-cell responses in the gut has been a major focus of recent research activities in the field. T cells in the intestine are regulated by the interplay between host and microbial factors. In the small intestine, retinoic acid (RA) is a major tissue factor that plays important roles in regulation of immune responses. In the large intestine, the influence of RA diminishes, but that of commensal bacterial products increases. RA, gut microbiota, and inflammatory mediators co-regulate differentiation, distribution, and/or effector functions of T cells. Coordinated regulation of immune responses by these factors promotes well-balanced immunity and immune tolerance. Dysregulation of this process can increase infection and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23772228

Kim, Chang H.

2013-01-01

295

Molecular Basis of the Interaction of Salmonella with the Intestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is one of the most extensively characterized bacterial pathogens and is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Despite this, we are only just beginning to understand at a molecular level how Salmonella interacts with its mammalian hosts to cause disease. Studies during the past decade on the genetic basis of virulence of Salmonella have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular basis of the host-pathogen interaction, yet many questions remain. In this review, we focus on the interaction of enterocolitis-causing salmonellae with the intestinal mucosa, since this is the initiating step for most infections caused by Salmonella. Animal and in vitro cell culture models for the interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium are reviewed, along with the bacterial genes that are thought to affect this interaction. Lastly, recent studies on the response of epithelial cells to Salmonella infection and how this might promote diarrhea are discussed. PMID:10398673

Darwin, K. Heran; Miller, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

296

THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

297

Alcohol-Related Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ... removes harmful substances from your blood. How does alcohol affect the liver? Alcohol can damage or destroy ...

298

Alcohol Use and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... sec Click to watch this video What is Alcohol? Alcohol is a chemical found in beverages like ...

299

LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

2011-03-01

300

Microbiota-mediated colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens  

PubMed Central

Commensal bacteria inhabit mucosal and epidermal surfaces in mice and humans, and have effects on metabolic and immune pathways in their hosts. Recent studies indicate that the commensal microbiota can be manipulated to prevent and even to cure infections that are caused by pathogenic bacteria, particularly pathogens that are broadly resistant to antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile. In this Review, we discuss how immune- mediated colonization resistance against antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens is influenced by the composition of the commensal microbiota. We also review recent advances characterizing the ability of different commensal bacterial families, genera and species to restore colonization resistance to intestinal pathogens in antibiotic-treated hosts. PMID:24096337

Buffie, Charlie G.; Pamer, Eric G.

2014-01-01

301

Functional intestinal microbiome, new frontiers in prebiotic design.  

PubMed

In this review we focus on the revision of the prebiotic concept in the context of the new metagenomic era. Functional metagenomic data provided by the Human Microbiome Project are revolutionizing the view of the symbiotic relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the human host. A deeper knowledge of the mechanisms that govern the dynamic interplay between diet, intestinal microbiota and host nutrition opens the way to better information on the prebiotic structure-function relationships, tailoring prebiotic formula into specific health attributes. On the other hand, functional genomic studies of the sourdough microbial communities allow to scan the environmental variability to identify novel metabolic traits for the biosynthesis of new potential prebiotic molecules. The integration of the functional analyses provided by the massive sequencing of bacterial genomes and metagenomes will allow the rational production of a desired prebiotic molecule with specific functional properties. PMID:20471127

Candela, Marco; Maccaferri, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Carnevali, Paola; Brigidi, Patrizia

2010-06-15

302

Alcohol Facts and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol Use in the United States: Prevalence of Drinking: In 2012, 87.6 percent of people ages ... in heavy drinking in the past month. 2 Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) in the United States: Adults ( ...

303

Benzyl Alcohol Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

304

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn about the effects of alcohol on health and get needed support. Read this ...

305

Alcohol and Cancer Risk  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that summarizes the evidence linking alcohol consumption to the risk of various cancers. Includes information about factors that affect the risk of alcohol-associated cancers, such as a person’s genes and tobacco use.

306

Children of Alcoholics  

MedlinePLUS

... that whether or not the parents are receiving treatment for alcoholism, these children and adolescents can benefit from educational ... for the child, including reducing risk for future alcoholism. Child and adolescent ... treatment program may include group therapy with other youngsters, ...

307

Alcohol problems and the availability of alcohol.  

PubMed

This study assesses the statistical effects of the physical availability of alcohol as measured by the number of liquor store employees per 100,000 persons. Controlling for the effects of per capita income and urbanism, it is found that there are effects of physical availability on current tangible consequences but not on alcoholism rates or frequent heavy drinking. PMID:391083

Parker, D A; Wolz, M W

1979-10-01

308

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... George Koob Now on Youtube: "The Impact of Alcoholism on Family Members... News Release September 09, 2014 NIAAA to conduct clinical trial of new medication for alcohol use disorder NIH researchers seek to expand treatment options... New & Noteworthy September 04, 2014 Twitter Chat: ...

309

Toll-Like Receptors in Alcoholic Liver Disease, Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Activation of innate immune systems including Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is a key in chronic liver disease. Recent studies suggest that gut microflora-derived bacterial products (i.e. LPS, bacterial DNA) and endogenous substances (i.e. HMGB1, free fatty acids) released from damaged cells activate hepatic TLRs that contribute to the development of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis. The crucial role of TLR4, a receptor for LPS, has been implicated in the development of ASH, NASH, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of other TLRs, such as TLR2 and TLR9 in chronic liver disease remains less clear. In this review, we will discuss the role of TLR2, 4 and 9 in Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells in the development of ASH, NASH and hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:23855294

Roh, Yoon-Seok; Seki, Ekihiro

2012-01-01

310

Synergistic Protection of Combined Probiotic Conditioned Media against Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis-Like Intestinal Injury  

PubMed Central

Balance among the complex interactions of the gut microbial community is important for intestinal health. Probiotic bacteria can improve bacterial balance and have been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening inflammatory bowel disorder primarily affecting premature infants. NEC is associated with extensive inflammatory NF-?B signaling activation as well as intestinal barrier disruption. Clinical studies have shown that probiotic administration may protect against NEC, however there are safety concerns associated with the ingestion of large bacterial loads in preterm infants. Bacteria-free conditioned media (CM) from certain probiotic organisms have been shown to retain bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties without the risks of live organisms. We hypothesized that the CM from Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), Bifidobacterium infantis (Bi), and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp), used separately or together would protect against NEC. A rodent model with intestinal injury similar to NEC was used to study the effect of CM from Lp, La/Bi, and La/Bi/Lp on the pathophysiology of NEC. All the CM suppressed NF-?B activation via preserved I?B? expression and this protected I?B? was associated with decreased liver activity of the proteasome, which is the degrading machinery for I?B?. These CM effects also caused decreases in intestinal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-?, a downstream target of the NF-?B pathway. Combined La/Bi and La/Bi/Lp CM in addition protected intestinal barrier function by maintaining tight junction protein ZO-1 levels and localization at the tight junction. Double combined La/Bi CM significantly reduced intestinal injury incidence from 43% to 28% and triple combined La/Bi/Lp CM further reduced intestinal injury incidence to 20%. Thus, this study demonstrates different protective mechanisms and synergistic bioactivity of the CM from different organisms in ameliorating NEC-like intestinal injury in an animal model. PMID:23717690

Shiou, Sheng-Ru; Yu, Yueyue; Guo, Yuee; He, Shu-Mei; Mziray-Andrew, C. Haikaeli; Hoenig, Jeanette; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O.; Claud, Erika C.

2013-01-01

311

Ontogeny of the small intestine.  

PubMed

During development the gastrointestinal tract undergoes marked changes in many physiological and anatomic properties. The remarkable degree of coordination between the development of the gastrointestinal function suggests that the processes may be signalled by some factors, such as weaning, nutrient intake, growth and hormones. The interactions between nutrition and intestinal development begin when fetuses start swallowing amniotic fluid and extend past weaning. Hormonal control plays a major role in the ontogeny of the small intestine. There are late effects of early nutrition, and the normal progress of ontogeny may be important to ensure that the intestine is capable of adaptation in later life. PMID:10029865

Perin, N M; Thomson, A B

1998-01-01

312

Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.  

PubMed

A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

Epe, Christian

2009-11-01

313

[Health and social harm related alcohol].  

PubMed

Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

2014-08-01

314

Alcohol and Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and

Antonia Abbey; Tina Zawacki; Philip O. Buck; A. Monique Clinton; Pam McAuslan

2001-01-01

315

Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

2002

316

Alcohol and the law.  

PubMed

Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

2014-01-01

317

Alcohol and Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

Covington, Stephanie S.

318

Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

Schuckit, Marc A.

1987-01-01

319

Ethnicity, alcohol, and acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the social and behavioral sciences there is a strong correlation alleged between alcohol abuse and ethnonational origins. Changes in drinking patterns and problem drinking among immigrants to the United States are often mistakenly attributed to acculturation, just as the etiology of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is often erroneously traced to the ‘ethnic origins’ of these men and women. In

M. C. Gutmann

1999-01-01

320

Interactions mixing alcohol  

E-print Network

might can result. The list gives the brand never have suspected can react with name by which each you put yourself at even greater risk. Combining alcohol with some medicines can lead to falls alcohol and medicines puts you at risk for dangerous reactions. Protect yourself by avoiding alcohol

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

321

ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL  

PubMed Central

The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth.

Spear, Linda Patia

2014-01-01

322

Alcohol Tips for youngadults  

E-print Network

Alcohol Tips for youngadults Presented By The University of Texas at Arlington Police Department 817-272-3381 Tips for Young Adults: The Truth about Alcohol If you are the victim of a crime on the U. One 12-ounce bottle of beer or a 5-ounce glass of wine (about a half-cup) has as much alcohol as a 1

Texas at Arlington, University of

323

ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Effective November, 2010 to the possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages. These standards conform to state and federal laws. The policy described in this brochure pertains to alcohol and other drug use behaviors in residence halls

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

324

Gut Microbial Colonization Orchestrates TLR2 Expression, Signaling and Epithelial Proliferation in the Small Intestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The gut microbiota is an environmental factor that determines renewal of the intestinal epithelium and remodeling of the intestinal mucosa. At present, it is not resolved if components of the gut microbiota can augment innate immune sensing in the intestinal epithelium via the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we report that colonization of germ-free (GF) Swiss Webster mice with a complex gut microbiota augments expression of TLR2. The microbiota-dependent up-regulation of components of the TLR2 signaling complex could be reversed by a 7 day broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. TLR2 downstream signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and protein-kinase B (AKT) induced by bacterial TLR2 agonists resulted in increased proliferation of the small intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K. Mice that were colonized from birth with a normal gut microbiota (conventionally-raised; CONV-R) showed signs of increased small intestinal renewal and apoptosis compared with GF controls as indicated by elevated mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1, elevated transcripts of the apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells per intestinal villus structure. In accordance, TLR2-deficient mice showed reduced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that a tuned proliferation response of epithelial cells following microbial colonization could aid to protect the host from its microbial colonizers and increase intestinal surface area. PMID:25396415

Hörmann, Nives; Brandão, Inês; Jäckel, Sven; Ens, Nelli; Lillich, Maren; Walter, Ulrich; Reinhardt, Christoph

2014-01-01

325

Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics  

PubMed Central

The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLRs play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation. PMID:24600450

de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L.

2014-01-01

326

Different strategies for reducing intestinal background radioactivity associated with imaging HSV1-tk expression using established radionucleoside probes.  

PubMed

One limitation of HSV1-tk reporter positron emission tomography (PET) with nucleoside analogues is the high background radioactivity in the intestine. We hypothesized that endogenous expression of thymidine kinase in bacterial flora could phosphorylate and trap such radiotracers, contributing to the high radioactivity levels in the bowel, and therefore explored different strategies to increase fecal elimination of radiotracer. Intestinal radioactivity was assessed by in vivo microPET imaging and ex vivo tissue sampling following intravenous injection of 18F-FEAU, 124I-FIAU, or 18F-FHBG in a germ-free mouse strain. We also explored the use of an osmotic laxative agent and/or a 100% enzymatically hydrolyzed liquid diet. No significant differences in intestinal radioactivity were observed between germ-free and normal mice. 18F-FHBG-derived intestinal radioactivity levels were higher than those of 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU; the intestine to blood ratio was more than 20-fold higher for 18F-FHBG than for 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely lowered intestinal radioactivity levels and increased (2.2-fold) the HSV1-tk transduced xenograft to intestine ratio for 18F-FEAU. Intestinal bacteria in germ-free mice do not contribute to the high intestinal levels of radioactivity following injection of radionucleoside analogues. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely increased radiotracer elimination by increasing bowel motility without inducing dehydration. PMID:20128998

Ruggiero, Alessandro; Brader, Peter; Serganova, Inna; Zanzonico, Pat; Cai, Shangde; Lipman, Neil S; Hricak, Hedvig; Blasberg, Ronald G

2010-02-01

327

[Alcohol and liver].  

PubMed

The first part of this article is devoted to the metabolism of alcohol and the mechanisms underlying its hepatotoxicity. The second part describes the clinical features of the various patterns of alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD). The third part focuses on the characteristics, semiological value, and limitations of serum markers used in ARLD. Tests used to screen for alcohol abuse (blood alcohol, MCV, GGT, CDT, and FAEE) differ from those used to monitor alcohol withdrawal and to detect early-stage liver disease (ALT, AST, ASTm, alphaGST, and redox status). PMID:10609275

Fontaine, H; Vassault, A; Nalpas, B

1999-11-01

328

Alcohol, Chemistry and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.

2001-01-01

329

Congenital Enteropathy and Intestinal Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal failure (IF) requires the use of parenteral nutrition (PN). Causes of severe protracted IF include short bowel syndrome, severe motility disorders (total or subtotal aganglionosis or chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome) and congenital diseases of enterocyte development. Severe liver disease may develop in patients with IF as a consequence of both underlying digestive disease and unadapted PN. Catheter-related sepsis and\\/or

Olivier Goulet

2006-01-01

330

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

331

[Alcohol induced cognitive deficits].  

PubMed

Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history. PMID:23868552

Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef

2014-01-01

332

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview  

PubMed Central

Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R

2014-01-01

333

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview.  

PubMed

Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge Ingle, Chitra R

2014-10-16

334

Catheterization of intestinal loops in ruminants does not adversely affect loop function.  

PubMed

Catheterized intestinal loops may be a valuable model to elucidate key components of the host response to various treatments within the small intestine of ruminants. We examined whether catheterizing ileal loops in sheep affected the overall health of animals and intestinal function, whether a bacterial treatment could be introduced into the loops through the catheters, and whether broad-spectrum antibiotics could sterilize the loops. Escherichia coli cells transformed to express the GFP gene were introduced readily into the loops through the catheters, and GFP E. coli cells were localized within the injected loops. Catheterized loops, interspaces, and intact ileum exhibited no abnormalities in tissue appearance or electrical resistance. Expression of the IFN?, IL1?, IL4, IL6, IL12p40, IL18, TGF?1, and TNF? cytokine genes did not differ significantly among the intact ileum, catheterized loops, and interspaces, nor did the expression of the gene for inducible nitric oxide synthase. Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered during surgery did not sterilize the loops or interspaces and did not substantively change the composition of the microbiota. However, antibiotics reduced the overall number of bacterial cells within the loop and the relative abundance of community constituents. We concluded that catheterization of intestinal loops did not adversely affect health or loop function in sheep. Furthermore, allowing animals to recover fully from surgery and to clear pharmaceuticals will remove any confounding effects due to these factors, making catheterized intestinal loops a feasible model for studying host responses in ruminants. PMID:21262134

Inglis, G Douglas; Kastelic, John P; Uwiera, Richard R E

2010-12-01

335

Microbial fingerprinting detects intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in Zebrafish models with chemically-induced enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in interactions between the host immune response and the resident commensal microbiota. Recent studies have suggested gut physiology and pathology relevant to human IBD can be rapidly modeled in zebrafish larvae. The aim of this study was to investigate the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in zebrafish models with IBD-like enterocolitis using culture-independent techniques. Results IBD-like enterocolitis was induced by exposing larval zebrafish to trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Pathology was assessed by histology and immunofluorescence. Changes in intestinal microbiota were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the predominant bacterial composition was determined with DNA sequencing and BLAST and confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Larval zebrafish exposed to TNBS displayed intestinal-fold architecture disruption and inflammation reminiscent of human IBD. In this study, we defined a reduced biodiversity of gut bacterial community in TNBS-induced coliitis. The intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish larvae with IBD-like colitis was characterized by an increased proportion of Proteobacteria (especially Burkholderia) and a decreased of Firmicutes(Lactobacillus group), which were significantly correlated with enterocolitis severity(Pearson correlation p < 0.01). Conclusions This is the first description of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish IBD-like models, and these changes correlate with TNBS-induced enterocolitis. Prevention or reversal of this dysbiosis may be a viable option for reducing the incidence and severity of human IBD. PMID:24325678

2013-01-01

336

Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine how an E. coli challenge and dietary clays affect the intestinal barrier of pigs. Two groups of 32 pigs (initial BW: 6.9?±?1.0 kg) were distributed in a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design (2 challenge treatments: sham or E. coli, and 4 dietary treatments: control, 0.3% smectite A, 0.3% smectite B and 0.3% zeolite), with 8 replicates total. Diarrhea score, growth performance, goblet cell size and number, bacterial translocation from intestinal lumen to lymph nodes, intestinal morphology, and relative amounts of sulfo and sialo mucins were measured. The E. coli challenge reduced performance, increased goblet cell size and number in the ileum, increased bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the lymph nodes, and increased ileal crypt depth. One of the clays (smectite A) tended to increase goblet cell size in ileum, which may indicate enhanced protection. In conclusion, E. coli infection degrades intestinal barrier integrity but smectite A may enhance it. PMID:24359581

Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Liu, Yanhong; Song, Minho; Lee, Jeong Jae; Gaskins, H Rex; Maddox, Carol Wolfgang; Osuna, Orlando; Pettigrew, James Eugene

2013-01-01

337

Burkholderia pseudomallei kills Caenorhabditis elegans through virulence mechanisms distinct from intestinal lumen colonization  

PubMed Central

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is hypersusceptible to Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. However, the virulence mechanisms underlying rapid lethality of C. elegans upon B. pseudomallei infection remain poorly defined. To probe the host-pathogen interaction, we constructed GFP-tagged B. pseudomallei and followed bacterial accumulation within the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Contrary to slow-killing by most bacterial pathogens, B. pseudomallei caused fairly limited intestinal lumen colonization throughout the period of observation. Using grinder-defective mutant worms that allow the entry of intact bacteria also did not result in full intestinal lumen colonization. In addition, we observed a significant decline in C. elegans defecation and pharyngeal pumping rates upon B. pseudomallei infection. The decline in defecation rates ruled out the contribution of defecation to the limited B. pseudomallei colonization. We also demonstrated that the limited intestinal lumen colonization was not attributed to slowed host feeding as bacterial loads did not change significantly when feeding was stimulated by exogenous serotonin. Both these observations confirm that B. pseudomallei is a poor colonizer of the C. elegans intestine. To explore the possibility of toxin-mediated killing, we examined the transcription of the C. elegans ABC transporter gene, pgp-5, upon B. pseudomallei infection of the ppgp-5::gfp reporter strain. Expression of pgp-5 was highly induced, notably in the pharynx and intestine, compared with Escherichia coli-fed worms, suggesting that the host actively thwarted the pathogenic assaults during infection. Collectively, our findings propose that B. pseudomallei specifically and continuously secretes toxins to overcome C. elegans immune responses. PMID:23076282

Ooi, Soon-Keat; Lim, Tian-Yeh; Lee, Song-Hua; Nathan, Sheila

2012-01-01

338

Effects of continuous renal replacement therapy on intestinal mucosal barrier function during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a porcine model  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been recommended for treatment of acute, potentially reversible, life-threatening respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional therapy. Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction is one of the most critical pathophysiological disorders during ECMO. This study aimed to determine whether combination with CRRT could alleviate damage of intestinal mucosal barrier function during VV ECMO in a porcine model. Methods Twenty-four piglets were randomly divided into control(C), sham(S), ECMO(E) and ECMO?+?CRRT(EC) group. The animals were treated with ECMO or ECMO?+?CRRT for 24 hours. After the experiments, piglets were sacrificed. Jejunum, ileum and colon were harvested for morphologic examination of mucosal injury and ultrastructural distortion. Histological scoring was assessed according to Chiu’s scoring standard. Blood samples were taken from the animals at -1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h during experiment. Blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymphnode were collected for bacterial culture. Serum concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were tested as markers to assess intestinal epithelial function and permeability. DAO levels were determined by spectrophotometry and I-FABP levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results Microscopy findings showed that ECMO-induced intestinal microvillus shedding and edema, morphological distortion of tight junction between intestinal mucous epithelium and loose cell-cell junctions were significantly improved with combination of CRRT. No significance was detected on positive rate of serum bacterial culture. The elevated colonies of bacterial culture in liver and mesenteric lymphnode in E group reduced significantly in EC group (p?intestinal mucosal dysfunction and bacterial translocation during VV ECMO, which may extenuate the ECMO-associated SIRS and raise the clinical effect and safety. PMID:24758270

2014-01-01

339

Campylobacter-Induced Interleukin8 Secretion in Polarized Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Requires Campylobacter-Secreted Cytolethal Distending Toxin and Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Activation of NF B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli colonize and infect the intestinal epithelium and cause acute inflammatory diarrhea. The intestinal epithelium serves as a physical barrier to, and a sensor of, bacterial infection by secreting proinflammatory cytokines. This study examined the mechanisms for Campylobacter- induced secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by using polarized T84 human colonic epithelial cells as a

Jie Zheng; Jianghong Meng; Shaohua Zhao; Ruby Singh; Wenxia Song

2008-01-01

340

Pharmacotherapy in alcoholism.  

PubMed

This review categorizes five main uses of pharmacologic agents in the treatment of alcoholism: reversing the active pharmacologic effects of alcohol; controlling withdrawal symptoms; blocking the desire for alcohol use; treating psychiatric symptoms induced by alcohol and other drugs; and treating independent, but concurrent, psychopathologic conditions. No medication, including stimulants such as caffeine, has been found to actually reverse the action of alcohol. Because of their cross-tolerance and dependence with alcohol, benzodiazepines--especially intermediate acting preparations such as chlordiazepoxide and diazepam--are the mainstay in treating alcohol withdrawal, including convulsions and delirium tremens. Studies suggest that serotonin uptake inhibitors such as zimelidine, citalopram, viqualine, and fluoxetine may reduce alcohol consumption and that is not an antidepressant effect. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, also may be effective in reducing the urge to drink. The major aversive agent to alcohol in clinical use is disulfiram. When an independent psychiatric disorder accompanies alcoholism or drug addiction, it may require treatment, including pharmacotherapy, as the addiction is also being treated with nonpharmacologic methods such as abstinence-based treatment programs. PMID:7632745

Miller, N S

1995-01-01

341

The Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter concisus Strains Associated with Chronic Intestinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, “membrane ruffling”, cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-?B activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-? production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the outcome of C. concisus infection. Moreover, response to infection with invasive strains has substantial similarities to that observed in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22194985

Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Deshpande, Nandan P.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Hazel

2011-01-01

342

Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research  

PubMed Central

Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled “Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders” in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation of biomarkers for alcohol use and alcohol-related disorders with a goal to formulate a set of recommendations to use to stimulate and advance research progress in this critical area of alcoholism research. Presentations at this workshop reviewed the current status of alcohol biomarkers, providing a summary of the history of biomarkers and the major goals of alcohol biomarker research. Moreover, presentations provided a comprehensive overview of the current status of several well-recognized biomarkers of alcohol use, a summary of recent studies to characterize novel biomarkers and their validation, along with perspectives and experiences from other NIH institutes and from other federal agencies and industry, related to regulatory issues. Following these presentations, a panel discussion focused on a set of issues presented by the organizers of this workshop. These discussion points addressed: (i) issues related to strategies to be adopted to stimulate biomarker discovery and application, (ii) the relevance of animal studies in biomarker development and the status of biomarkers in basic science studies, and (iii) issues related to the opportunities for clinical and commercial applications. This article summarizes these perspectives and highlights topics that constituted the basis for recommendations to enhance alcohol biomarker research. PMID:20374221

Bearer, Cynthia F.; Bailey, Shannon M.; Hoek, Jan B.

2014-01-01

343

Advancing alcohol biomarkers research.  

PubMed

Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled "Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders" in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation of biomarkers for alcohol use and alcohol-related disorders with a goal to formulate a set of recommendations to use to stimulate and advance research progress in this critical area of alcoholism research. Presentations at this workshop reviewed the current status of alcohol biomarkers, providing a summary of the history of biomarkers and the major goals of alcohol biomarker research. Moreover, presentations provided a comprehensive overview of the current status of several well-recognized biomarkers of alcohol use, a summary of recent studies to characterize novel biomarkers and their validation, along with perspectives and experiences from other NIH institutes and from other federal agencies and industry, related to regulatory issues. Following these presentations, a panel discussion focused on a set of issues presented by the organizers of this workshop. These discussion points addressed: (i) issues related to strategies to be adopted to stimulate biomarker discovery and application, (ii) the relevance of animal studies in biomarker development and the status of biomarkers in basic science studies, and (iii) issues related to the opportunities for clinical and commercial applications. This article summarizes these perspectives and highlights topics that constituted the basis for recommendations to enhance alcohol biomarker research. PMID:20374221

Bearer, Cynthia F; Bailey, Shannon M; Hoek, Jan B

2010-06-01

344

Bacterial cell shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain largely unresolved. The field has recently taken an important step forward with the discovery that eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologues in bacteria that affect cell shape. Here, we discuss how

Matthew T. Cabeen; Christine Jacobs-Wagner

2005-01-01

345

Intestinal IgA production and its role in host-microbe interaction.  

PubMed

Complex and diverse communities of bacteria establish mutualistic and symbiotic relationships with the gut after birth. The intestinal immune system responds to bacterial colonization by acquiring a state of hypo-responsiveness against commensals and active readiness against pathogens. The resulting homeostatic balance involves a continuous dialog between the microbiota and lymphocytes with the intermediation of epithelial and dendritic cells. This dialog causes massive production of immunoglobulin A (IgA), a non-inflammatory antibody specialized in mucosal protection. Here, we discuss recent advances on the regulation of intestinal IgA responses and their role in host-microbe interaction. PMID:24942683

Gutzeit, Cindy; Magri, Giuliana; Cerutti, Andrea

2014-07-01

346

Intestinal IgA production and its role in host-microbe interaction  

PubMed Central

Summary Complex and diverse communities of bacteria establish mutualistic and symbiotic relationships with the gut after birth. The intestinal immune system responds to bacterial colonization by acquiring a state of hypo-responsiveness against commensals and active readiness against pathogens. The resulting homeostatic balance involves a continuous dialog between the microbiota and lymphocytes with the intermediation of epithelial and dendritic cells. This dialog causes massive production of immunoglobulin A (IgA), a non-inflammatory antibody specialized in mucosal protection. Here, we discuss recent advances on the regulation of intestinal IgA responses and their role in host-microbe interaction. PMID:24942683

Gutzeit, Cindy; Magri, Giuliana; Cerutti, Andrea

2014-01-01

347

Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

2004-01-01

348

Candidate genes for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury identified by gene expression profiling  

PubMed Central

The lack of bile flow from the liver into the intestine can have devastating complications including hepatic failure, sepsis, and even death. This pathologic condition known as cholestasis can result from etiologies as diverse as total parenteral nutrition (TPN), hepatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The intestinal injury associated with cholestasis has been shown to result in decreased intestinal resistance, increased bacterial translocation, and increased endotoxemia. Anecdotal clinical evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury. Recent animal research on two different strains of inbred mice demonstrating different rates of bacterial translocation with different mortality rates supports this premise. In this study, a microarray analysis of intestinal tissue following common bile duct ligation (CBDL) performed under general anesthesia on these same two strains of inbred mice was done with the goal of identifying the potential molecular mechanistic pathways responsible. Over 500 genes were increased more than 2.0-fold following CBDL. The most promising candidate genes included major urinary proteins (MUPs), serine protease-1-inhibitor (Serpina1a), and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the microarray results for these candidate genes. In an in vitro experiment using differentiated intestinal epithelial cells, inhibition of MUP-1 by siRNA resulted in increased intestinal epithelial cell permeability. Diverse novel mechanisms involving the growth hormone pathway, the acute phase response, and the innate immune response are thus potential avenues for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury. Changes in gene expression were at times found to be not only due to the CBDL but also due to the murine strain. Should further studies in cholestatic patients demonstrate interindividual variability similar to what we have shown in mice, then a “personalized medicine” approach to cholestatic patients may become possible. PMID:24179676

Alaish, Samuel M; Timmons, Jennifer; Smith, Alexis; Buzza, Marguerite S; Murphy, Ebony; Zhao, Aiping; Sun, Yezhou; Turner, Douglas J; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Antalis, Toni M; Cross, Alan; Dorsey, Susan G

2013-01-01

349

Zinc Competition among the Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Bioavailable levels of trace metals, such as iron and zinc, for bacterial growth in nature are sufficiently low that most microbes have evolved high-affinity binding and transport systems. The microbe Campylobacter jejuni lives in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, the principal source of human infection. A high-affinity ABC transporter for zinc uptake is required for Campylobacter survival in chicken intestines in the presence of a normal microbiota but not when chickens are raised with a limited microbiota. Mass spectrometric analysis of cecal contents revealed the presence of numerous zinc-binding proteins in conventional chicks compared to the number in limited-microbiota chicks. The presence of a microbiota results in the production of host zinc-binding enzymes, causing a growth restriction for bacteria that lack the high-affinity zinc transporter. Such transporters in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria make them good targets for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Importance Zinc is an essential trace element for the growth of most organisms. Quantities of zinc inside cells are highly regulated, as too little zinc does not support growth, while too much zinc is toxic. Numerous bacterial cells require zinc uptake systems for growth and virulence. The work presented here demonstrates that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract reduces the quantity of zinc. Without a high-affinity zinc transporter, Campylobacter jejuni, a commensal organism of chickens, is unable to replicate or colonize the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first demonstration of zinc competition between microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of a host. These results could have profound implications in the field of microbial pathogenesis and in our understanding of host metabolism and the microbiota. PMID:22851657

Gielda, Lindsay M.; DiRita, Victor J.

2012-01-01

350

Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment  

PubMed Central

The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

2014-01-01

351

[Upgrade on alcohol abuse].  

PubMed

Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

2010-01-01

352

?Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.  

PubMed

The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ?Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy. PMID:24809337

2014-05-01

353

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)  

PubMed Central

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool ?1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective treatments have been proposed for PIL patients, such as antiplasmin, octreotide or corticosteroids. Surgical small-bowel resection is useful in the rare cases with segmental and localized intestinal lymphangiectasia. The need for dietary control appears to be permanent, because clinical and biochemical findings reappear after low-fat diet withdrawal. PIL outcome may be severe even life-threatening when malignant complications or serous effusion(s) occur. PMID:18294365

Vignes, Stephane; Bellanger, Jerome

2008-01-01

354

[Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical intestinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure of the intestinal motility is a consequence of muscular disorder, neurological disorder or both. Usually, CIPO is secondary to other systemic disease; however, in the last years, many cases of primary CIPO have been described. The use of new manometric tecniques and specific histological procedures have allowed to clarify the pathogenesis of some of these entities including mitochondrial diseases and paraneoplasic syndromes. Clinical manifestations of CIPO are diverse, depending on the location and extension of the motility disorder. As the diagnosis of this disease is usually not an easy task, patients frecuently undergo unnecesary surgical interventions, are diagnosed of psyquiatric disorders, or the correct diagnosis is delayed several years after the first symptoms arise. The aims of the treatment are to maintain the nutritional condition and to improve symptoms using nutritional measures, drugs or, eventually, endoscopical or surgical procedures. PMID:17417923

Muñoz, M T; Solís Herruzo, J A

2007-02-01

355

Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

1985-04-01

356

Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

2008-01-01

357

Alcoholism, Work, and Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on an empirical analysis of the relationship between alcoholism and income and working. The authors show that the relationships between alcoholism and labor-market success have important age or life-cycle dimensions. They present evidence that alcoholism may affect income more by restricting labor-market participation than by affecting the wages of workers. Finally, the authors demonstrate that the effects

John Mullahy; Jody L. Sindelar

1993-01-01

358

Alcoholism and women's health.  

PubMed Central

There are a variety of reasons why women are believed to be more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Physical factors, such as body water content and hereditary predisposition to alcoholism, differentiate women from men. Social factors include secretive drinking, role model in the family, and a perceived increase in promiscuity. Societal stigmas make it difficult for alcoholic women to seek help, yet the mortality rates are high for those women who continue to drink. PMID:3120219

Blume, S B

1987-01-01

359

Alcohol consumption and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In alcohol-consuming populations, the amount of\\u000a alcohol consumption has significant impact on blood pressure values, the prevalence of hypertension, and cardiovascular as\\u000a well as all-cause mortality. In this review, we focus on the connection between alcohol consumption and hypertension, and\\u000a discuss the consequences on cardiovascular risk.

Michael Huntgeburth; Henrik ten Freyhaus; Stephan Rosenkranz

2005-01-01

360

Alcoholism and homelessness.  

PubMed

A prospective study was carried out over a three-year period to assess the incidence of alcoholism and its effect on the homeless. Of 423 homeless people interviewed, 48.7 per cent were found to be alcoholics. Alcoholism was common in Celts and Roman Catholics but showed no correlation with educational achievement or school-leaving age. It was strongly associated with the use of casualty departments and criminal activity. PMID:2616506

Shanks, N

1989-10-22

361

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

Asetoyer, Charon

362

Treatment Factors in Alcoholic Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an attempt to ascertain differences between an alcoholic and a non-alcoholic group of males. The author feels that as long as the characteristics and needs of alcoholics are not understood treatment programs will continue simplistic ineffective and even harmful. The study compares the profiles of alcoholics and non-alcoholics

Selzer, Melvin L.

363

Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

Razvodovsky, Yury E

2013-01-01

364

Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

2013-04-01

365

Effect of Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria on Drosophila Intestinal Pathology  

PubMed Central

Efforts to understand the microbial contribution to chronic conditions such as obesity, irritable bowel disease, and colon cancer have led to increased study of the human gut microbiome. With current interest in manipulating microbiome composition to treat disease, Drosophila has emerged as a model system for studying the principles that govern host-microbe interactions. We recently reported that both Drosophila-associated and human-administered probiotic strains protect Drosophila from infection. Based on these findings, we sought to use the Drosophila system to understand the effect of interactions between probiotic strains and infectious microbes on host intestinal pathology. For this work, we used entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens and the Drosophila symbiont and human probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum. To observe if L. plantarum could lessen gut damage associated with S. marcescens infection, we imaged the ultrastructure of the Drosophila gut and changes in the localization of bacterial populations during S. marcescens infection in the presence and absence of L. plantarum. We also monitored the pH of the Drosophila intestine in response to colonization with L. plantarum, challenge with S. marcescens, or both conditions. This work provides a foundation for further study of the effects of probiotic consumption on human intestinal pathology.

Hegan, P.; Mooseker, M.; Handelsman, J.; Miles, J.

2014-01-01

366

Transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin modulates the intestinal flora in piglets.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is a beneficial multifunctional protein in milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether bovine transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) can modulate intestinal flora in the neonatal pig as an animal model for the human infant. We fed 7-day-old piglets (i) ordinary whole milk (OM), (ii) a 1:1 mixture of OM and rhLF milk (MM), or (iii) rhLF milk (LFM). LFM provided better average daily mass gain than OM (P = 0.007). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the LFM piglets exhibited more diversity of the intestinal flora than the OM group. Except for the colon in the LFM group, an increasing trend in microbial diversity occurred from the duodenum to the colon. Fecal flora was not different across different ages or different treatment groups, but a cluster analysis showed that the fecal flora of OM- and MM-fed piglets had a higher degree of similarity than that of LFM-fed piglets. Based on culture-based bacterial counts of intestinal content samples, concentrations of Salmonella spp. in the colon and of Escherichia coli throughout the intestine were reduced with LFM (P < 0.01). Concentrations of Bifidobacterium spp. in the ileum and of Lactobacillus spp. throughout the intestine were also increased with LFM (P ? 0.01). We suggest that rhLF can modulate the intestinal flora in piglets. PMID:22400985

Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Yu, Tian; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning

2012-06-01

367

Dietary L-glutamine supplementation modulates microbial community and activates innate immunity in the mouse intestine.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with 1 % L-glutamine for 14 days on the abundance of intestinal bacteria and the activation of intestinal innate immunity in mice. The measured variables included (1) the abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium in the lumen of the small intestine; (2) the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial substances secreted by Paneth cells and goblet cells in the jejunum, ileum and colon; and (3) the activation of TLR4-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways in the jejunum and ileum. In the jejunum, glutamine supplementation decreased the abundance of Firmicutes, while increased mRNA levels for antibacterial substances in association with the activation of NF-?B and PI3K-Akt pathways. In the ileum, glutamine supplementation induced a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio in favor of Bacteroidetes, and enhanced mRNA levels for Tlr4, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial substances participating in NF-?B and JNK signaling pathways. These results indicate that the effects of glutamine on the intestine vary with its segments and compartments. Collectively, dietary glutamine supplementation of mice beneficially alters intestinal bacterial community and activates the innate immunity in the small intestine through NF-?B, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:25023447

Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Jie; Liu, Gang; Cao, Zhong; Xiong, Xia; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

2014-10-01

368

Murine norovirus infection does not cause major disruptions in the murine intestinal microbiota  

PubMed Central

Background Murine norovirus (MNV) is the most common gastrointestinal pathogen of research mice and can alter research outcomes in biomedical mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite indications that an altered microbiota is a risk factor for IBD, the response of the murine intestinal microbiota to MNV infection has not been examined. Microbiota disruption caused by MNV infection could introduce the confounding effects observed in research experiments. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of MNV infection on the intestinal microbiota of wild-type mice. Results The composition of the intestinal microbiota was assessed over time in both outbred Swiss Webster and inbred C57BL/6 mice following MNV infection. Mice were infected with both persistent and non-persistent MNV strains and tissue-associated or fecal-associated microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-encoding gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in infected mice at the phylum and family level showed no major differences to uninfected controls, both in tissue-associated samples and feces, and also over time following infection, demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota of wild-type mice is highly resistant to disruption following MNV infection. Conclusions This is the first study to describe the intestinal microbiota following MNV infection and demonstrates that acute or persistent MNV infection is not associated with major disruptions of microbial communities in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice. PMID:24451302

2013-01-01

369

A gene-expression program reflecting the innate immune response of cultured intestinal epithelial cells to infection by Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative, intracellular bacterial pathogen found in soil, which occasionally causes serious food-borne disease in humans. The outcome of an infection is dependent on the state of the infected individual's immune system, neutrophils being key players in clearing the microorganism from the body. The first line of host defense, however, is the intestinal epithelium. RESULTS:

David N Baldwin; Veena Vanchinathan; Patrick O Brown; Julie A Theriot

2002-01-01

370

Evidence for intestinal chloride secretion.  

PubMed

Intestinal fluid secretion is pivotal in the creation of an ideal environment for effective enzymatic digestion, nutrient absorption and stool movement. Since fluid cannot be actively secreted into the gut, this process is dependent on an osmotic gradient, which is mainly created by chloride transport by the enterocyte. A pathological dysbalance between fluid secretion and absorption leads to obstruction or potentially fatal diarrhoea. This article reviews the widely accepted model of intestinal chloride secretion with an emphasis on the molecular players involved in this tightly regulated process. PMID:20233891

Murek, Michael; Kopic, Sascha; Geibel, John

2010-04-01

371

Significantly increased recovery of intestinal parasites on routine stool specimen evaluation.  

PubMed

Three hundred thirty-six stool samples from October 2001 through October 2002 were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites. Fifty-six of these (16.7%) were positive for a total of 66 parasites; 65/66 (98.5%) were detected by iodine and dimethyl sulfoxide-modified acid-fast (DMSO-mAFB) stained smears of fresh and formalin-ethylacetate sedimentation concentrated samples. Saline, iodine, and DMSO-mAFB stained smears of fresh stool samples alone detected significantly fewer parasites, finding only 50/66 (75.8%) (p < 0.05). Stool samples analyzed by trichrome stained specimens preserved in Zinc sulfate polyvinyl alcohol (Zinc PVA) detected only 41/ 66 (62.2%) of the parasites. In our study population, it was necessary to perform the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard (NCCLS) recommended to accurately detect intestinal parasites. The concentration technique is simple and significantly increased the detection of intestinal parasites. PMID:16124430

Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Srijan, Apichai; Piyaphong, Songmuang; Khungvalert, Vitaya; Chivaratanond, Orapan; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Smith, B L; Mason, C J

2005-05-01

372

ATTENTIONAL BIAS AND ALCOHOL ABUSE.  

E-print Network

??Selective attention towards alcohol-related cues (i.e., “attentional bias”) is thought to reflect increased incentive motivational value of alcohol and alcohol cues acquired through a history… (more)

Weafer, Jessica Jane

2012-01-01

373

Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... it as they grow up. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of ... topics or problems. Continue Talking to Kids About Alcohol Preschoolers Although 3- and 4-year-olds aren' ...

374

Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy • Why is smoking dangerous during ... pregnancy dangerous for my baby? • What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What ...

375

The intestine and anus of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The intestine and anus are part of the digestive system. In animals, the complete digestive system is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, and the anus. The digestive system functions to process food and eliminate wastes.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

376

How Is Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... This is a way to look at the large intestine. Before this test, the bowel needs to be ... test, the barium solution is given into the large intestine through the anus (like an enema). For better ...

377

Microbiota, Intestinal Immunity, and Mouse Bustle  

PubMed Central

The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA. PMID:24772322

Kruglov, A. A.; Nedospasov, S. A.

2014-01-01

378

Probiotics Can Generate FoxP3 T-Cell Responses in the Small Intestine and Simultaneously Inducing CD4 and CD8 T Cell Activation in the Large Intestine  

PubMed Central

Most studies on probiotics aim to restore intestinal homeostasis to reduce immune-pathology in disease. Of equal importance are studies on how probiotics might prevent or delay disease in healthy individuals. However, knowledge on mechanisms of probiotic actions in healthy individuals is scarce. To gain more insight in how different bacterial strains may modulate the healthy intestinal immune system, we investigated the effect of the food derived bacterial strains L. plantarum WCFS1, L. salivarius UCC118, and L. lactis MG1363, on the intestinal regulatory immune phenotype in healthy mice. All three bacterial strains induced an upregulation of activity and numbers of CD11c+ MHCII+ DCs in the immune-sampling Peyer’s Patches. Only L. salivarius UCC118 skewed towards an immune regulatory phenotype in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP). The effects were different in the large intestine lamina propria. L. salivarius UCC118 induced activation in both CD4 and CD8 positive T-cells while L. plantarum WCFS1 induced a more regulatory phenotype. Moreover, L. plantarum WCFS1 decreased the Th1/Th2 ratio in the SILP. Also L. lactis MG1363 had immunomodulatory effects. L. lactis MG1363 decreased the expression of the GATA-3 and T-bet in the SILP. As our data show that contradictory effects may occur in different parts of the gut, it is recommended to study effects of probiotic in different sites in the intestine. Our strain-specific results suggest that unspecified application of probiotics may not be very effective. Our data also indicate that selection of specific probiotic strain activities on the basis of responses in healthy mice may be a promising strategy to specifically stimulate or suppress immunity in specific parts of the intestine. PMID:23861953

Smelt, Maaike J.; de Haan, Bart J.; Bron, Peter A.; van Swam, Iris; Meijerink, Marjolein; Wells, Jerry M.; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul

2013-01-01

379

Microfluidics for bacterial chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease ...

Ahmed, Tanvir, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

380

Intestine-Specific Mttp Deletion Decreases Mortality and Prevents Sepsis-Induced Intestinal Injury in a Murine Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO), which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Methodology/Principal Findings Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0%) dying compared to 5/17 (29%) control mice (p<0.05). This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice. Conclusions/Significance These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by metabolic and physiological adaptations in both intestinal and hepatic lipid flux. PMID:23145105

Dominguez, Jessica A.; Xie, Yan; Dunne, W. Michael; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

2012-01-01

381

Brain alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Significant alcohol dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in the soluble fraction of rat brain and is very similar to the liver enzyme in kinetic properties and responses to inhibitors. A cerebral mechanism that oxidizes ethanol may play a significant role in local adjustments during exposure to ethanol and in the pathogenesis of the neural disorders associated with chronic alcohol ingestion or withdrawal. PMID:4300045

Raskin, N H; Sokoloff, L

1968-10-01

382

Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.  

PubMed Central

The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

Davidson, D M

1989-01-01

383

Alcohol Use and Misuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of 75 male and female adolescent athletes only 14 % of the total sample reported to be non-drinkers. Twenty-one percent of the sample reported alcohol use within the week that the Adolesent Alcohol Involvement Scale was administered. The subjects of this descriptive study spent at least 20 hours a week participating in organized sports. Although more males

Jean Jerry-Szpak; HOWARD P. BROWN JR

1994-01-01

384

Alcohol and Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

Kraushaar, Kevin W.

385

Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

1994-01-01

386

Alcohol and Disinhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review investigates research evaluating the disinhibition hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that in a sober state behavior is inhibited. When people are influenced by alcohol the inhibitions are supposed to be weakened and the motivating drives are postulated to become disinhibited and potent to influence behavior. This report reviews the effect of alcohol on nerve functions, on human sexuality, aggression,

Håkan Källmén; Roland Gustafson

1998-01-01

387

Bistability and Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

388

Bistability and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

389

Enterohepatic bacterial infections dysregulate the FGF15-FGFR4 endocrine axis  

PubMed Central

Background Enterohepatic bacterial infections have the potential to affect multiple physiological processes of the body. Fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15 in mice, FGF19 in humans) is a hormone that functions as a central regulator of glucose, lipid and bile acid metabolism. FGF15/19 is produced in the intestine and exert its actions on the liver by signaling through the FGFR4-?Klotho receptor complex. Here, we examined the in vivo effects of enterohepatic bacterial infection over the FGF15 endocrine axis. Results Infection triggered significant reductions in the intestinal expression of Fgf15 and its hepatic receptor components (Fgfr4 and Klb (?Klotho)). Infection also resulted in alterations of the expression pattern of genes involved in hepatobiliary function, marked reduction in gallbladder bile volumes and accumulation of hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides. The decrease in ileal Fgf15 expression was associated with liver bacterial colonization and hepatobiliary pathophysiology rather than with direct intestinal bacterial pathogenesis. Conclusions Bacterial pathogens of the enterohepatic system can disturb the homeostasis of the FGF15/19-FGFR4 endocrine axis. These results open up a possible link between FGF15/19-FGFR4 disruptions and the metabolic and nutritional disorders observed in infectious diseases. PMID:24165751

2013-01-01

390

Insights into Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization from Monitoring Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a motile non-invasive pathogen that colonizes the small intestine (SI). Most of our knowledge of the processes required for V. cholerae intestinal colonization is derived from enumeration of wt and mutant V. cholerae recovered from orogastrically infected infant mice. There is limited knowledge of the distribution of V. cholerae within the SI, particularly its localization along the villous axis, or of the bacterial and host factors that account for this distribution. Here, using confocal and intravital two-photon microscopy to monitor the localization of fluorescently tagged V. cholerae strains, we uncovered unexpected and previously unrecognized features of V. cholerae intestinal colonization. Direct visualization of the pathogen within the intestine revealed that the majority of V. cholerae microcolonies attached to the intestinal epithelium arise from single cells, and that there are notable regiospecific aspects to V. cholerae localization and factors required for colonization. In the proximal SI, V. cholerae reside exclusively within the developing intestinal crypts, but they are not restricted to the crypts in the more distal SI. Unexpectedly, V. cholerae motility proved to be a regiospecific colonization factor that is critical for colonization of the proximal, but not the distal, SI. Furthermore, neither motility nor chemotaxis were required for proper V. cholerae distribution along the villous axis or in crypts, suggesting that yet undefined processes enable the pathogen to find its niches outside the intestinal lumen. Finally, our observations suggest that host mucins are a key factor limiting V. cholerae intestinal colonization, particularly in the proximal SI where there appears to be a more abundant mucus layer. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the potent capacity of direct pathogen visualization during infection to deepen our understanding of host pathogen interactions. PMID:25275396

Millet, Yves A.; Alvarez, David; Ringgaard, Simon; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

2014-01-01

391

Expression of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal epithelium of dogs with lymphoplasmacytic enteritis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease of the stomach, the small intestine and/or the large intestine. Loss of integrity of the intestinal barrier may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of IBD. In dogs, lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE) is one of the recognized forms of IBD. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump constituting an important component of the intestinal barrier. Changes in P-gp expression at the level of the intestinal barrier may be important in the pathogenesis of canine LPE, as this may lead to variable protection against xenobiotics and bacterial products in the intestine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of epithelial P-gp in the intestine in dogs with LPE compared with disease-free animals. Formalin-fixed intestinal biopsy samples from 57 dogs with histopathological evidence of LPE were immunolabelled with anti-P-gp antibodies (C494 and C219). Endoscopic biopsy samples of the duodenum and colon from 16 healthy beagles were used as controls. None of the control dogs had P-gp expression in the apical membrane of duodenal enterocytes, but all had P-gp labelling at the colonic epithelial surface. Twenty out of 57 dogs with LPE had P-gp expression at the apical surface membrane of villus epithelial cells in the duodenum, jejunum and/or ileum. Six out of 16 colonic samples from dogs with LPE had decreased P-gp expression at the epithelial surface compared with controls. It is unclear whether these changes in P-gp expression in dogs with LPE are a cause or a consequence of the inflammation. The observed changes could affect bioavailability of therapeutic drugs used in LPE. PMID:21334003

Van der Heyden, S; Vercauteren, G; Daminet, S; Paepe, D; Chiers, K; Polis, I; Waelbers, T; Hesta, M; Schauvliege, S; Wegge, B; Ducatelle, R

2011-01-01

392

Effect of Fructooligosaccharide Metabolism on Chicken Colonization by an Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain  

PubMed Central

Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains cause many diseases in humans and animals. While remaining asymptomatic, they can colonize the intestine for subsequent extra-intestinal infection and dissemination in the environment. We have previously identified the fos locus, a gene cluster within a pathogenicity island of the avian ExPEC strain BEN2908, involved in the metabolism of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS). It is assumed that these sugars are metabolized by the probiotic bacteria of the microbiota present in the intestine, leading to a decrease in the pathogenic bacterial population. However, we have previously shown that scFOS metabolism helps BEN2908 to colonize the intestine, its reservoir. As the fos locus is located on a pathogenicity island, one aim of this study was to investigate a possible role of this locus in the virulence of the strain for chicken. We thus analysed fos gene expression in extracts of target organs of avian colibacillosis and performed a virulence assay in chickens. Moreover, in order to understand the involvement of the fos locus in intestinal colonization, we monitored the expression of fos genes and their implication in the growth ability of the strain in intestinal extracts of chicken. We also performed intestinal colonization assays in axenic and Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) chickens. We demonstrated that the fos locus is not involved in the virulence of BEN2908 for chickens and is strongly involved in axenic chicken cecal colonization both in vitro and in vivo. However, even if the presence of a microbiota does not inhibit the growth advantage of BEN2908 in ceca in vitro, overall, growth of the strain is not favoured in the ceca of SPF chickens. These findings indicate that scFOS metabolism by an ExPEC strain can contribute to its fitness in ceca but this benefit is fully dependent on the bacteria present in the microbiota. PMID:22514747

Porcheron, Gaelle; Chanteloup, Nathalie Katy; Trotereau, Angelina; Bree, Annie; Schouler, Catherine

2012-01-01

393

Phytotherapy of alcoholism.  

PubMed

Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

Tomczyk, Micha?; Zovko-Konci?, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

2012-02-01

394

Alcohol Industry & Policy Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

Problems., Marin I.

395

In vivo growth of transplanted genetically altered intestinal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Intestinal stem cell transplantation is a potential method of delivering genes to the small intestine. The authors have previously demonstrated the survival of transfected intestinal stem cells implanted into the rat small intestine. This study examines the growth of genetically altered intestinal stem cells that were grown on a polycarbonate membrane and implanted into the rat small intestine.Methods: The

Akemi L Kawaguchi; James C. Y Dunn; Eric W Fonkalsrud

1998-01-01

396

Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs  

E-print Network

Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs iTEAM Director of Specialty Counseling Services Vice President Learning Assistance Services Graduate Training Behavioral Health Director of Counseling Services Alcohol

397

Fetal alcohol syndrome  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a physical and behavioural teratogen. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common yet under-recognized condition resulting from maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. While preventable, FAS is also disabling. Although FAS is found in all socioeconomic groups in Canada, it has been observed at high prevalence in select First Nations and Inuit communities in Canada. This statement addresses FAS prevention, diagnosis, early identification and management for health care professionals. Prevention of FAS must occur at two levels. Primary prevention involves eliminating FAS through classroom or community education, and encouraging women to avoid consuming alcohol before conception and throughout pregnancy. Secondary prevention involves identifying women who are drinking while pregnant and reducing their consumption. This statement describes a variety of screening strategies including Tolerance-Annoyance, Cut Down, Eye Opener (T-ACE). Medical practitioners should recommend abstinence starting with the first prenatal visit. Prompt referral for alcohol treatment is recommended for pregnant individuals who are unable to stop drinking alcohol. This statement describes the diagnosis of FAS, partial or atypical FAS, alcohol-related birth defects and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. With a history of in-utero alcohol exposure, a diagnosis of FAS should be considered with current or previous growth deficiency, select facial abnormalities involving the upper lip and eyes, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. These features are best quantified with the use of a four-digit diagnostic method. Strategies for early identification of possible alcohol-related abnormalities are outlined. Intervention focuses on optimizing development, managing behavioural difficulties and providing appropriate school programming. Of prime importance is earliest possible childhood intervention to prevent secondary disabilities that may result from delay while awaiting a definitive diagnosis of FAS. PMID:20046289

2002-01-01

398

Expression of bacterial mercuric ion reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The gene merA coding for bacterial mercuric ion reductase was cloned under the control of the yeast promoter for alcohol dehydrogenase I in the yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid pADH040-2 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22. The resulting transformant harbored stable copies of the merA-containing hybrid plasmid, displayed a fivefold increase in the MIC of mercuric chloride, and synthesized mercuric ion reductase activity. Images PMID:1735719

Rensing, C; Kües, U; Stahl, U; Nies, D H; Friedrich, B

1992-01-01

399

Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Cote, Gerard L.

2013-01-01

400

Emerging and reemerging intestinal protozoa.  

PubMed

The intestinal protozoa have gained importance to physicians practicing medicine in the United States, Canada, and Europe during recent years as a result of increasing world travel, the globalization of the world's economy, and the growing number of chronically immunosuppressed people. During the spring of 1996, Cyclospora cayetanensis caused diarrhea in approximately 1500 people exposed to Guatemalan raspberries. This epidemic recurred in 1997, emphasizing the risks of the global economy and food supply on which we depend. In addition to importation of intestinal protozoa from the tropics, AIDS and the increasing use of organ transplants have created a new population of people at risk for chronic infection by ubiquitous protozoa previously not known to cause serious human disease. These infections include cryptosporidiosis, isosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. Finally, Entamoeba histolytica, the etiologic agent of invasive amebiasis, has only recently been recognized to be a distinct species from a nonpathogenic but indistinguishable (by light microscopy) intestinal commensal, Entamoeba dispar. The rapidly changing epidemiology of these intestinal protozoa, as well as new approaches to diagnosis and treatment of these protozoa, are discussed. PMID:17031144

Huston, C D; Petri, W A

2001-01-01

401

Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

2014-01-01

402

Intestinal Permeation and Gastrointestinal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal tract constitutes one of the largest sites of exposure to the outside environment. The function of the gastro- intestinal tract in monitoring and sealing the host interior from intruders is called the gut barrier. A variety of specific and non- specific mechanisms are in operation to establish the host barrier; these include luminal mechanisms and digestive enzymes, the

Mark T. DeMeo; Ece A. Mutlu; Ali Keshavarzian; Mary C. Tobin

2002-01-01

403

Sonography of the small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial

Kim Nylund; Svein Ødegaard; Trygve Hausken; Geir Folvik; Gülen Arslan Lied; Ivan Viola; Helwig Hauser; Odd-Helge Gilja

2009-01-01

404

Volvulus of the small intestine.  

PubMed Central

At the Mayo Clinic, six patients with primary volvulus and 51 with secondary volvulus were treated during a 10-year period. Volvulus of the small intestine must be considered when a patient presents with small-bowel obstruction, and early operative intervention should be undertaken to prevent vascular compromise. PMID:3190283

Frazee, R C; Mucha, P; Farnell, M B; van Heerden, J A

1988-01-01

405

Indomethacin-induced intestinal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indomethacin induces inflammation of the small-intestinal mucosa leading to ulceration in patients. In rats we examined this untoward drug effect by measuring changes inde novo macromolecular synthesis and morphology during exposure to indomethacin given as a single oral dose of 15 mg\\/kg. Indomethacin alone induced diffuse jejunoileal mucosal inflammation accompanied by spotty ulceration. These lesions were not observed at 2

Wan-Fen Fang; Alan Broughton; Eugene D. Jacobson

1977-01-01

406

Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2014-01-01

407

The Induction of Colitis and Ileitis in Mice Is Associated with Marked Increases in Intestinal Concentrations of Stimulants of TLRs 2, 4, and 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) appear to be modulated by the interaction of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) derived from intestinal bacteria with their respective innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We aimed to establish if intestinal concentrations of proinflammatory bacterial ligands of TLR2, TLR4, or TLR5 may be altered in murine IBD models, and to characterize which of the major

Clett Erridge; Sylvia H. Duncan; Stefan Bereswill; Markus M. Heimesaat; Adam J. Ratner

2010-01-01

408

Office Space Bacterial Abundance and Diversity in Three Metropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded “universal” bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. “[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay.” – Feazel et al. (2009). PMID:22666400

Hewitt, Krissi M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Kelley, Scott T.

2012-01-01

409

77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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410

75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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413

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415

78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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416

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2011-08-16

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78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2013-10-31

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76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

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2011-07-26

420

77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

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2012-04-25