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1

Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences  

PubMed Central

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, L-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J. Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y. James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R. Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R.

2008-01-01

2

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, endotoxaemia, and tumour necrosis factor ? in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, perhaps by increasing intestinal permeability and promoting the absorption of endotoxin or other enteric bacterial products.?AIMS—To investigate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, elevated endotoxin, and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and in control subjects.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Twenty two patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 23 control subjects were studied. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by a combined 14C-D-xylose and lactulose breath test. Intestinal permeability was assessed by a dual lactulose-rhamnose sugar test. Serum endotoxin levels were determined using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and TNF-? levels using an ELISA.?RESULTS—Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in 50% of patients with non-alcoholic steatosis and 22% of control subjects (p=0.048). Mean TNF-? levels in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients and control subjects were 14.2 and 7.5 pg/ml, respectively (p=0.001). Intestinal permeability and serum endotoxin levels were similar in the two groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis have a higher prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, as assessed by the 14C-D-xylose-lactulose breath test, and higher TNF-? levels in comparison with control subjects. This is not accompanied by increased intestinal permeability or elevated endotoxin levels.???Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; intestinal permeability; endotoxin; tumour necrosis factor ? PMID:11156641

Wigg, A; Roberts-Thomson, I; Dymock, R; McCarthy, P; Grose, R; Cummins, A

2001-01-01

3

Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity  

PubMed Central

Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

2014-01-01

4

Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M

2014-10-21

5

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

2010-01-01

6

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia  

E-print Network

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

Perrimon, Norbert

7

Mucin Dynamics in Intestinal Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17) in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05). Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon. Conclusion Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection. PMID:19088856

Lindén, Sara K.; Florin, Timothy H. J.; McGuckin, Michael A.

2008-01-01

8

The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

2012-01-01

9

The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome. PMID:23087650

Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

2012-01-01

10

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol acts as a teratogen in the fetus,resulting in prenatal or postnatal growth failure,characteristic facial dysmorphic features, and centralnervous system dysfunction. The toxic effects of alcohol on the developing brain are well recognized,but gastrointestinal neuropathy has not been describedin fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Five children with FASpresented in infancy with signs and symptoms suggestive of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Theywere not

E. Vasiliauskas; D. A. Piccoli; A. F. Flores; C. Di Lorenzo; P. E. Hyman

1997-01-01

11

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

2013-08-01

12

Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics  

PubMed Central

Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n?=?15), non-alcoholic controls (n?=?14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p?=?0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p?=?0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results suggest that translocation of intestinal bacteria into liver may be involved as a one factor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:24564202

2014-01-01

13

Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Metabolic Bone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth is a malabsorption syndrome and, therefore, it may contribute to the occurrence of metabolic bone disease. However, studies that evaluate the magnitude of this problem and the potential underlying mechanisms are still needed. Fourteen patients with bacterial overgrowth and 22 comparable healthy volunteers took part in this study. All patients were affected by conditions known to

Michele Di Stefano; Graziamaria Veneto; Simona Malservisi; Gino Roberto Corazza

2001-01-01

14

Chronic alcohol consumption and intestinal thiamin absorption: effects on physiological and molecular parameters of the uptake process.  

PubMed

Thiamin is essential for normal cellular functions, and its deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities. Humans and other mammals obtain the vitamin via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of thiamin, a dietary and a bacterial (i.e., normal microflora of the large intestine) source. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with thiamin deficiency, which is caused (in part) by inhibition in intestinal thiamin absorption. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular aspects of the intestinal thiamin uptake process that are affected by chronic alcohol use. To address these issues, we used rats fed an alcohol-liquid diet and human intestinal epithelial HuTu-80 cells chronically exposed to ethanol as model systems. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding to rats led to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin transport across both the jejunal brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane domains. This was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of thiamin transporter-1 (THTR-1), but not THTR-2, at the protein and mRNA levels. Level of expression of the heterogenous nuclear RNA of THTR-1 in the intestine of alcohol-fed rats was also decreased compared with their pair-fed controls. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake in rat colon. Studies with HuTu-80 cells chronically exposed to ethanol also showed a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake. This inhibition was associated with a reduction in level of expression of human THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA, and transcriptional (promoter activity) levels. These studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol feeding inhibits intestinal thiamin absorption via inhibition of the individual membrane transport event across the polarized absorptive epithelial cells. Furthermore, the inhibition is, at least in part, mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s). PMID:20448146

Subramanya, Sandeep B; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Said, Hamid M

2010-07-01

15

Enteric infection meets intestinal function: how bacterial pathogens cause diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diarrhoea is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. In bacterium-induced diarrhoea, rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes results from inhibition of the normal absorptive function of the intestine as well as the activation of secretory processes. Advances in the past 10 years in the fields of gastrointestinal physiology, innate immunity and enteric bacterial virulence mechanisms highlight the

V. K. Viswanathan; Kim Hodges; Gail Hecht

2008-01-01

16

Bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBOS) is characterized by an abnormally high bacterial population level in the upper gut, exceeding 105 organisms\\/ml (5 log colony-forming unit (CFU)\\/ml). To understand its origin and select an appropriate antibiotic treatment, we have analyzed the bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in SIBOS patients.METHODS:Jejunal samples of 63 consecutive patients with diarrhea or malabsorption and

Yoram Bouhnik; Sophie Alain; Alain Attar; Bernard Flourié; Laurent Raskine; Marie José Sanson-Le Pors; Jean-Claude Rambaud

1999-01-01

17

Bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBOS) is characterized by an abnormally high bacterial population level in the upper gut, exceeding 105 organisms\\/ml (5 log colony-forming unit (CFU)\\/ml). To understand its origin and select an appropriate antibiotic treatment, we have analyzed the bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in SIBOS patients.Methods:Jejunal samples of 63 consecutive patients with diarrhea or malabsorption and

Yoram Bouhnik; Sophie Alain; Alain Attar; Bernard Flourié; Laurent Raskine; Marie José Sanson-Le Pors; Jean-Claude Rambaud

1999-01-01

18

Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Because only 30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a factor other than heavy alcohol consumption must be involved in the development of alcohol-induced liver injury. Animal and human studies suggest that bacterial products, such as endotoxins, are the second key co-factors, and oxidant-mediated gut leakiness is one of the sources of endotoxemia. Probiotics have been used to prevent and treat diseases associated with gut-derived bacterial products and disorders associated with gut leakiness. Indeed, "probiotic"Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been successfully used to treat alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. However, the mechanism of action involved in the potential beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus in alcohol liver injury is not known. We hypothesized that probiotics could preserve normal barrier function in an animal model of ALD by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative stress and thus prevent the development of hyperpermeability and subsequent alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with alcohol twice daily (8 gm/kg) for 10 weeks. In addition, alcoholic rats were also treated with once daily gavage of either 2.5 x 10(7) live L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin (LGG) or vehicle (V). Intestinal permeability (baseline and at 10 weeks) was determined using a sugar bolus and GC analysis of urinary sugars. Intestinal and liver tissues were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, livers were assessed histologically for severity of ASH and total fat (steatosis). Alcohol+LGG (ALC+LGG)-fed rats had significantly (P< or =.05) less severe ASH than ALC+V-fed rats. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin also reduced alcohol-induced gut leakiness and significantly blunted alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in both intestine and the liver. L. rhamnosus Gorbach-Goldin probiotic gavage significantly ameliorated ASH in rats. This improvement was associated with reduced markers of intestinal and liver oxidative stress and inflammation and preserved gut barrier function. Our study provides a scientific rationale to test probiotics for treatment and/or prevention of alcoholic liver disease in man. PMID:19251117

Forsyth, Christopher B; Farhadi, Ashkan; Jakate, Shriram M; Tang, Yueming; Shaikh, Maliha; Keshavarzian, Ali

2009-03-01

19

Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability.  

PubMed

We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated with alcohol or H?O? with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC) anti-oxidant, and CLOCK and PER2 proteins were measured at 4 or 2 h. In vivo Cyp2e1 protein and mRNA were also measured in colon tissue from alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol increased CYP2E1 protein by 93% and enzyme activity by 69% in intestinal cells in vitro. Alcohol feeding also increased mouse colonic Cyp2e1 protein by 73%. mRNA levels of Cyp2e1 were not changed by alcohol in vitro or in mouse intestine. siRNA knockdown of CYP2E1 in Caco-2 cells prevented alcohol-induced hyperpermeability and induction of CLOCK and PER2 proteins. Alcohol-induced and H?O?-induced increases in intestinal cell CLOCK and PER2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with NAC. We concluded that our data support a novel role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability via a mechanism involving CYP2E1-dependent induction of oxidative stress and upregulation of circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2. PMID:23660503

Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

2013-07-15

20

The protective effect of VSL#3 on intestinal permeability in a rat model of alcoholic intestinal injury  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the probiotic VSL#3 in acute alcoholic intestinal injury, and evaluate the effect of VSL#3, glutamine,VSL#3+glutamine and heat-killed VSL#3 therapy in a rat model. Methods Six- to eight-week-old male wild-type rats were divided into seven groups. To establish the acute alcohol liver disease model, rats received three doses of corn starch dissolved in PBS/40% alcohol administered intra-gastrically every 12 hours. Treatment groups received an intra-gastric dose of VSL#3, Glutamine, heat-killed VSL#3, or VSL#3+Glutamine 30 minutes prior to alcohol administration. The placebo group was treated with PBS prior to alcohol administration. TNF? and endotoxin in plasma was measured by ELISA and Tachypleus Ameboctye Lysate assays, and electron microscopy, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the mechanisms of VSL#3 in the regulation of epithelial permeability. Results First, compared with control group, endotoxin and TNF? in alcohol group was obviously high. At the same time, in VSL#3 group,the expression of endotoxin and TNF? obviously lower than the alcohol group. And the trends of the expression of tight junction proteins in these groups were reversed with the change of endotoxin and TNF?. Second, compared the groups of VSL#3 with glutamine,VSL#3+glutamine and heat-killed VSL#3,we found that both VSL#3 and heat-killed VSL#3, glutamine were as effective as VSL#3+glutamine in the treatment of acute alcohol liver disease, the expression of endotoxin and TNF? were lower than the alcohol group, and tight junction proteins were higher than the alcohol group whereas the expression of tight junction proteins were higher in VSL#3 + glutamine group than either agent alone, but have no significant difference. Conclusion We conclude that VSL#3 treatment can regulate the ecological balance of the gut microflora, preventing passage of endotoxin and other bacterial products from the gut lumen into the portal circulation and down-regulating the expression of TNF?, which could otherwise down-regulate the expression of tight junction proteins and increase epithelial permeability. PMID:24138544

2013-01-01

21

Emerging insights on intestinal dysbiosis during bacterial infections?  

PubMed Central

Infection of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly linked to pathological imbalances of the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. In recent years, advanced high-throughput genomic approaches have allowed us to examine the microbiota in an unprecedented manner, revealing novel biological insights about infection-associated dysbiosis at the community and individual species levels. A dysbiotic microbiota is typically reduced in taxonomic diversity and metabolic function, and can harbour pathobionts that exacerbate intestinal inflammation or manifest systemic disease. Dysbiosis can also promote pathogen genome evolution, while allowing the pathogens to persist at high density and transmit to new hosts. A deeper understanding of bacterial pathogenicity in the context of the intestinal microbiota should unveil new approaches for developing diagnostics and therapies for enteropathogens. PMID:24581695

Pham, Tu Anh N; Lawley, Trevor D

2014-01-01

22

Vasoactive intestinal peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity are decreased in fetal alcohol syndrome model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates growth in the early post-implantation embryo. Previous work has demonstrated that peptide agonists (SALLRSIPA and NAPVSIPQ) from downstream mediators that are regulated by VIP were able to prevent the alcohol-induced fetal death, growth restriction and microcephaly associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. Here we evaluated the role of VIP in this mouse model of fetal alcohol

Catherine Y Spong; Jonathan Auth; Joy Vink; Katie Goodwin; Daniel T Abebe; Joanna M Hill; Douglas E Brenneman

2002-01-01

23

Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

Patil, Anant D.

2014-01-01

24

Intestinal CYP2E1: A mediator of alcohol-induced gut leakiness  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol use can result in many pathological effects including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While alcohol is necessary for the development of ALD, only 20–30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) with progressive liver disease leading to cirrhosis and liver failure (ALD). This suggests that while chronic alcohol consumption is necessary it is not sufficient to induce clinically relevant liver damage in the absence of a secondary risk factor. Studies in rodent models and alcoholic patients show that increased intestinal permeability to microbial products like endotoxin play a critical role in promoting liver inflammation in ALD pathogenesis. Therefore identifying mechanisms of alcohol-induced intestinal permeability is important in identifying mechanisms of ALD and for designing new avenues for therapy. Cyp2e1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes alcohol has been shown to be upregulated by chronic alcohol use and to be a major source of oxidative stress and liver injury in alcoholics and in animal and in vitro models of chronic alcohol use. Because Cyp2e1 is also expressed in the intestine and is upregulated by chronic alcohol use, we hypothesized it could play a role in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability. Our in vitro studies with intestinal Caco-2 cells and in mice fed alcohol showed that circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 are required for alcohol-induced permeability. We also showed that alcohol increases Cyp2e1 protein and activity but not mRNA in Caco-2 cells and that an inhibitor of oxidative stress or siRNA knockdown of Cyp2e1 prevents the increase in CLOCK or PER2 proteins and prevents alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. With our collaborators we have also shown that Cyp2e1 knockout mice are resistant to alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver inflammation. Taken together our data support a novel Cyp2e1-circadian clock protein mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness that could provide new avenues for therapy of ALD. PMID:25462064

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali.

2014-01-01

25

Nitric oxide mediated intestinal injury is required for alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver damage  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) requires endotoxemia and is commonly associated with intestinal barrier leakiness. Using monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells as an in vitro barrier model, we showed that ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption is mediated by iNOS (inducible nitric-oxide synthase) upregulation, NO (nitric oxide) overproduction, and oxidation/nitration of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibitors (L-NAME, L-NIL) in vivo will inhibit the above cascade and liver injury in an animal model of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged daily with alcohol (6 g/kg/day) or dextrose for 10 weeks ± L-NAME, L-NIL or vehicle. Systemic and intestinal NO levels were measured by nitrites and nitrates in urine and tissue samples, oxidative damage to the intestinal mucosa by protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine, intestinal permeability by urinary sugar tests, and liver injury by histological inflammation scores, liver fat, and myeloperoxidase activity. Results Alcohol caused tissue oxidation, gut leakiness, endotoxemia and ASH. L-NIL and L-NAME, but not the D-enantiomers, attenuated all steps in the alcohol-induced cascade including NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, gut leakiness, endotoxemia, hepatic inflammation and liver injury. Conclusions The mechanism we reported for alcohol-induced intestinal barrier disruption in vitro – NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, leaky gut, endotoxemia and liver injury – appears to be relevant in vivo in an animal model of alcohol-induced liver injury. That iNOS inhibitors attenuated all steps of this cascade suggests that prevention of this cascade in alcoholics will protect the liver against the injurious effects of chronic alcohol and that iNOS may be a useful target for prevention of ALD. PMID:19389191

Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Farhadi, Ashkan; Rangan, Jayanthi; Jakate, Shriram; Shaikh, Maliha; Banan, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2010-01-01

26

Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

2012-09-01

27

Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

2012-01-01

28

Mechanistic insights of intestinal absorption and renal conservation of folate in chronic alcoholism.  

PubMed

Folate mediated one-carbon metabolism is of fundamental importance for various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and methylation of biological molecules. Due to the exogenous requirement of folate in mammals, there exists a well developed epithelial folate transport system for regulation of normal folate homeostasis. The intestinal and renal folate uptake is tightly and diversely regulated and disturbances in folate homeostasis like in alcoholism have pathological consequences. The study was sought to delineate the regulatory mechanism of folate uptake in intestine and reabsorption in renal tubular cells that could evaluate insights of malabsorption during alcoholism. The folate transporters PCFT and RFC were found to be associated with lipid rafts of membrane surfaces in intestine and kidney. Importantly, the observed lower intestinal and renal folate uptake was associated with decreased levels of folate transporter viz. PCFT and RFC in lipid rafts of intestinal and renal membrane surfaces. The decreased association of folate transporters in lipid rafts was associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels. In addition, immunohistochemical studies showed that alcoholic conditions deranged that localization of PCFT and RFC. These findings could explain the possible mechanistic insights that may result in folate malabsorption during alcoholism. PMID:23267781

Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Thakur, Shilpa; Najar, Rauf Ahmad; Nada, Ritambhara; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

2013-03-01

29

Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2013-01-01

30

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

PubMed

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25373234

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

31

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

PubMed

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

32

Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

33

Intestinal absorption of cholecalciferol in alcoholic liver disease and primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal absorption of (3H)cholecalciferol was studied in five patients with alcoholic liver disease, six patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, and 15 healthy subjects. The rate of appearance in plasma of (3H)cholecalciferol after oral ingestion and the subsequent appearance of (3H) polar metabolites in the alcoholic subjects were similar to those in the healthy subjects. In subjects with primary biliary

J M Barragry; R G Long; M W France; M R Wills; B J Boucher; S Sherlock

1979-01-01

34

Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis. The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are similar to those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to test whether overgrowth is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and whether treatment of overgrowth reduces their intestinal complaints.METHODS:Two hundred two subjects in a prospective database of subjects referred from

Mark Pimentel; Evelyn J. Chow; Henry C. Lin

2000-01-01

35

Interaction of bacteria and bacterial toxins with intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelium of the intestinal tract is a key barrier between the external environment and the internal body environment.\\u000a Intestinal epithelial cells are targets for luminal bacteria and viruses and must discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic\\u000a commensal organisms. Pathogenic bacteria and their secreted products influence epithelial cell function and induce diarrhea\\u000a by numerous mechanisms that range from an effect on

Asma Nusrat; Shanthi V. Sitaraman; Andrew Neish

2001-01-01

36

Identification of a Core Bacterial Community within the Large Intestine of the Horse  

PubMed Central

The horse has a rich and complex microbial community within its gastrointestinal tract that plays a central role in both health and disease. The horse receives much of its dietary energy through microbial hydrolysis and fermentation of fiber predominantly in the large intestine/hindgut. The presence of a possible core bacterial community in the equine large intestine was investigated in this study. Samples were taken from the terminal ileum and 7 regions of the large intestine from ten animals, DNA extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA 454-pyrosequenced. A specific group of OTUs clustered in all ileal samples and a distinct and different signature existed for the proximal regions of the large intestine and the distal regions. A core group of bacterial families were identified in all gut regions with clear differences shown between the ileum and the various large intestine regions. The core in the ileum accounted for 32% of all sequences and comprised of only seven OTUs of varying abundance; the core in the large intestine was much smaller (5-15% of all sequences) with a much larger number of OTUs present but in low abundance. The most abundant member of the core community in the ileum was Lactobacillaceae, in the proximal large intestine the Lachnospiraceae and in the distal large intestine the Prevotellaceae. In conclusion, the presence of a core bacterial community in the large intestine of the horse that is made up of many low abundance OTUs may explain in part the susceptibility of horses to digestive upset. PMID:24204908

Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, C. Jamie

2013-01-01

37

Bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal diversity in the intestines of Korean people  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal diversity in fecal samples from ten Koreans were analyzed and compared by using the\\u000a PCR-fingerprinting method, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The bacteria all belonged to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, which were known to be the dominant bacterial species in the human intestine. Most of the archaeal sequences belonged\\u000a to the methane-producing archaea but

Young-Do Nam; Ho-Won Chang; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Seong Woon Roh; Min-Soo Kim; Mi-Ja Jung; Si-Woo Lee; Jong-Yeol Kim; Jung-Hoon Yoon; Jin-Woo Bae

2008-01-01

38

The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.  

PubMed

As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

2011-05-01

39

The Role of Milk Sialyllactose in Intestinal Bacterial Colonization123  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides influence the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby mucosal inflammation. Some of the major milk oligosaccharides are ?2,3-sialyllactose (3SL) and ?2,6-sialyllactose, which are mainly produced by the sialyltransferases ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1, respectively. Recently, we showed that mice fed milk deficient in 3SL were more resistant to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. By contrast, the exposure to milk containing or deficient in 3SL had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. Milk 3SL mainly affected the colonization of the intestine by clostridial cluster IV bacteria. PMID:22585928

Weiss, G. Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry

2012-01-01

40

Salmonella?infected crypt?derived intestinal organoid culture system for host–bacterial interactions  

PubMed Central

Abstract The in vitro analysis of bacterial–epithelial interactions in the intestine has been hampered by a lack of suitable intestinal epithelium culture systems. Here, we report a new experimental model using an organoid culture system to study pathophysiology of bacterial–epithelial interactions post Salmonella infection. Using crypt?derived mouse intestinal organoids, we were able to visualize the invasiveness of Salmonella and the morphologic changes of the organoids. Importantly, we reported bacteria?induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions in the infected organoids. In addition, we showed the inflammatory responses through activation of the NF??B pathway in the organoids. Moreover, our western blot, PCR, and immunofluorescence data demonstrated that stem cell markers (Lgr5 and Bmi1) were significantly decreased by Salmonella infection (determined using GFP?labeled Lgr5 organoids). For the first time, we created a model system that recapitulated a number of observations from in vivo studies of the Salmonella?infected intestine, including bacterial invasion, altered tight junctions, inflammatory responses, and decreased stem cells. We have demonstrated that the Salmonella?infected organoid culture system is a new experimental model suitable for studying host–bacterial interactions. PMID:25214524

Zhang, Yong?Guo; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Sun, Jun

2014-01-01

41

Salmonella-infected crypt-derived intestinal organoid culture system for host-bacterial interactions.  

PubMed

The in vitro analysis of bacterial-epithelial interactions in the intestine has been hampered by a lack of suitable intestinal epithelium culture systems. Here, we report a new experimental model using an organoid culture system to study pathophysiology of bacterial-epithelial interactions post Salmonella infection. Using crypt-derived mouse intestinal organoids, we were able to visualize the invasiveness of Salmonella and the morphologic changes of the organoids. Importantly, we reported bacteria-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions in the infected organoids. In addition, we showed the inflammatory responses through activation of the NF-?B pathway in the organoids. Moreover, our western blot, PCR, and immunofluorescence data demonstrated that stem cell markers (Lgr5 and Bmi1) were significantly decreased by Salmonella infection (determined using GFP-labeled Lgr5 organoids). For the first time, we created a model system that recapitulated a number of observations from in vivo studies of the Salmonella-infected intestine, including bacterial invasion, altered tight junctions, inflammatory responses, and decreased stem cells. We have demonstrated that the Salmonella-infected organoid culture system is a new experimental model suitable for studying host-bacterial interactions. PMID:25214524

Zhang, Yong-Guo; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Sun, Jun

2014-09-01

42

Structural insights into bacterial recognition of intestinal mucins.  

PubMed

The mucosal layer covering our gut epithelium represents the first line of host defenses against the luminal content, while enabling contacts between the resident microbiota and the host. Mucus is mainly composed of mucins, large glycoproteins containing a protein core and a high number of O-linked oligosaccharides. Mucin glycans act as binding sites or carbon sources for the intestinal microbes, thereby functioning as a host-specific determinant affecting the microbiota composition and human health. Reflecting the structural diversity of mucin glycans and their prime location, commensal and pathogenic microbes have evolved a range of adhesins allowing their interaction with the host. However, despite the recognised importance of mucin glycans in modulating intestinal homeostasis, information on carbohydrate-binding proteins from gut bacteria is disparate. This review is focussed on recent structural insights into host-microbe interactions mediated by mucins. PMID:25106027

Etzold, Sabrina; Juge, Nathalie

2014-10-01

43

Surface Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Is Upregulated on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Response to Pathogenic Bacterial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonic epithelial cells are constantly exposed to high levels of bacterial DNA in the intestinal lumen and must recognize and respond appropriately to pathogens, while they maintain a tolerance to non- pathogenic commensal bacterial strains. Bacterial DNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). The aim of this study was to investigate TLR9 expression and localization in colonic epithelial cells

Julia B. Ewaschuk; Jody L. Backer; Thomas A. Churchill; Florian Obermeier; Denis O. Krause; Karen L. Madsen

2007-01-01

44

The effect of bacterial enterotoxins implicated in SIDS on the rabbit intestine.  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to characterise the type of damage caused to the intestine of the infant rabbit by bacterial enterotoxins implicated in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and large intestine exposed to the toxins for up to 6 hours were examined by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The damage was quantitatively assessed (% villi damaged) by SEM and qualitatively by SEM and TEM. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Clostridium difficile toxin A + toxin B combined all caused severe damage to the villi in the small intestine (80-90% damage). Clostridium difficile toxin B caused only slight damage (17% to the jejunum, 26% to the caecum). Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin caused moderate damage to the small intestine (duodenum 34%, caecum 35%), and Escherichia coli STa caused significant damage to the small (53-70%) and large intestine (51%). The level of toxin damage increased with time, the small intestine being more susceptible generally to damage than the large intestine. Each toxin differed in its ability to damage the villi, microvilli, enterocytes and lamina propria. PMID:11358052

Kamaras, J; Murrell, W G

2001-05-01

45

The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT. PMID:24939656

Jenq, Robert R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Littmann, Eric R.; Morjaria, Sejal; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Viale, Agnes; Dahi, Parastoo B.; Ponce, Doris M.; Barker, Juliet N.; Giralt, Sergio; van den Brink, Marcel; Pamer, Eric G.

2014-01-01

46

Probiotics in the intestinal tract of juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: modulation of the bacterial community.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA of the intestinal microbiota of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was examined to investigate the effect of a Bacillus mix (Bacillus endophyticus YC3-b, Bacillus endophyticus C2-2, Bacillus tequilensisYC5-2) and the commercial probiotic (Alibio(®)) on intestinal bacterial communities and resistance to Vibrio infection. PCR and single strain conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were then performed on DNA extracted directly from guts. Injection of shrimp with V. parahaemolyticus at 2.5 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) per shrimp followed 168 h after inoculation with Bacillus mix or the Alibio probiotic or the positive control. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community resulting from the Bacillus mix had the highest diversity and evenness and the bacterial community of the control had the lowest diversity. The bacterial community treated with probiotics mainly consisted of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, fusobacteria, sphingobacteria, and flavobacteria, while the control mainly consisted of ?-proteobacteria and flavobacteria. Differences were grouped using principal component analyses of PCR-SSCP of the microbiota, according to the time of inoculation. In Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected shrimp, the Bacillus mix (~33 %) induced a significant increase in survival compared to Alibio (~21 %) and the control (~9 %). We conclude that administration of the Bacillus mix induced modulation of the intestinal microbiota of L. vannamei and increased its resistance to V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23161451

Luis-Villaseñor, Irasema E; Castellanos-Cervantes, Thelma; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Carrillo-García, Angel E; Campa-Córdova, Angel I; Ascencio, Felipe

2013-02-01

47

Reduction of endotoxin attenuates liver fibrosis through suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation and remission of intestinal permeability in a rat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model.  

PubMed

Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that endotoxin/toll?like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is critical in the inflammatory pathways associated with non?alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In human and animal studies, NASH was associated with portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the plasma LPS level was hypothesized to be associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, change in composition of the microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of endogenous endotoxin and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of NASH. The effects of antibiotics were assessed in vivo using a choline deficiency amino acid (CDAA)?induced experimental liver fibrosis model. Antibiotics, including polymyxins and neomycins, were orally administered in drinking water. Antibiotics attenuated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis via TGF?? and collagen in an experimental hepatic fibrosis model. The mechanism by which antibiotics attenuated LPS?TLR4 signaling and liver fibrosis was assessed. Notably, TLR4 mRNA level in the liver was elevated in the CDAA group and the CDAA?induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. However, no significant differences were observed in the intestine among all groups. Elevated mRNA levels of LPS binding protein, which was correlated with serum endotoxin levels, were recognized in the CDAA group and the CDAA?induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. The intestinal permeability of the CDAA group was increased compared with the choline?supplemented amino acid group. The tight junction protein (TJP) in the intestine, determined by immunohistochemical analysis was inversely associated with intestinal permeability. Antibiotics improved the intestinal permeability and enhanced TJP expression. Inhibition of LPS?TLR4 signaling with antibiotics attenuated liver fibrosis development associated with NASH via the inhibition of HSC activation. These results indicated that reduction of LPS and restoration of intestinal TJP may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis development in NASH. PMID:25421042

Douhara, Akitoshi; Moriya, Kei; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Namisaki, Tadashi; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Kaji, Kosuke; Aihara, Yosuke; Nishimura, Norihisa; Takeda, Kosuke; Okura, Yasushi; Kawaratani, Hideto; Fukui, Hiroshi

2015-03-01

48

Reduction of endotoxin attenuates liver fibrosis through suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation and remission of intestinal permeability in a rat non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model  

PubMed Central

Previous clinical studies have demonstrated that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is critical in the inflammatory pathways associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In human and animal studies, NASH was associated with portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the plasma LPS level was hypothesized to be associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, change in composition of the microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of endogenous endotoxin and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of NASH. The effects of antibiotics were assessed in vivo using a choline deficiency amino acid (CDAA)-induced experimental liver fibrosis model. Antibiotics, including polymyxins and neomycins, were orally administered in drinking water. Antibiotics attenuated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis via TGF-? and collagen in an experimental hepatic fibrosis model. The mechanism by which antibiotics attenuated LPS-TLR4 signaling and liver fibrosis was assessed. Notably, TLR4 mRNA level in the liver was elevated in the CDAA group and the CDAA-induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. However, no significant differences were observed in the intestine among all groups. Elevated mRNA levels of LPS binding protein, which was correlated with serum endotoxin levels, were recognized in the CDAA group and the CDAA-induced increase was significantly reduced by antibiotics. The intestinal permeability of the CDAA group was increased compared with the choline-supplemented amino acid group. The tight junction protein (TJP) in the intestine, determined by immunohistochemical analysis was inversely associated with intestinal permeability. Antibiotics improved the intestinal permeability and enhanced TJP expression. Inhibition of LPS-TLR4 signaling with antibiotics attenuated liver fibrosis development associated with NASH via the inhibition of HSC activation. These results indicated that reduction of LPS and restoration of intestinal TJP may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis development in NASH. PMID:25421042

DOUHARA, AKITOSHI; MORIYA, KEI; YOSHIJI, HITOSHI; NOGUCHI, RYUICHI; NAMISAKI, TADASHI; KITADE, MITSUTERU; KAJI, KOSUKE; AIHARA, YOSUKE; NISHIMURA, NORIHISA; TAKEDA, KOSUKE; OKURA, YASUSHI; KAWARATANI, HIDETO; FUKUI, HIROSHI

2015-01-01

49

[Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].  

PubMed

The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species. PMID:17944366

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

2007-08-01

50

The Intestinal Bacterial Community in the Food Waste-Reducing Larvae of Hermetia illucens  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that\\u000a the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial\\u000a communities in the gut of BSF larvae

Hyunbum Jeon; Soyoung Park; Jiyoung Choi; Gilsang Jeong; Sang-Beom Lee; Youngcheol Choi; Sung-Jae Lee

2011-01-01

51

[The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of various wintering geese species].  

PubMed

The aerobic fecal flora of wintering Brent Goos (Branta bernicla), Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), Greylag Goose (Anser anser), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) was studied. There were no specific differences between the various geese. Bacterial counts were in the range of 10(5)-10(7) CPU per gram of feces. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor rotavirus could be detected in the fecal samples of the wintering geese, so that a contamination of the environment with those pathogenic organisms could be excluded. The majority of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas; enterobacteria and streptococci were less common. The observations are discussed regarding their epidemiological and ecological significance. PMID:7136353

Holländer, R

1982-07-01

52

Development of Fatal Intestinal Inflammation in MyD88 Deficient Mice Co-infected with Helminth and Bacterial Enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection. PMID:25010669

Su, Libo; Qi, Yujuan; Zhang, Mei; Weng, Meiqian; Zhang, Xichen; Su, Chienwen; Shi, Hai Ning

2014-01-01

53

Wnt2 inhibits enteric bacterial-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt signaling plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation. Most investigations have focused on developmental and immune responses. Bacterial infection can be chronic and increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. However, we lack studies on how bacteria regulate Wnt proteins and how Wnts modulate the host responses to enteric bacteria. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella and E. coli on Wnt2, one of the Wnt family members, in intestinal epithelia cells. Methodology/Findings Using cultured epithelial cells, a Salmonella-colitis mouse model, and a gnotobiotic mouse model, we found that Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated after bacterial infection. Enteric bacteria regulate Wnt2 location in the intestine. Furthermore, we found that elevation of Wnt2 was a strategy for host defense by inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses to infection. Using Wnt2 siRNA analysis, we show enhanced inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in epithelial cells. Cells over-expressed Wnt2 had less bacterial-induced IL-8 secretion. AvrA is a bacterial protein that inhibits inflammation by stabilizing beta-catenin, the down-stream target of Wnt. We found that the stabilization of Wnt2 was regulated through ubiquitination. Moreover, the bacterial protein AvrA from Salmonella and E. coli stabilized Wnt2 protein expression in vivo. In an ex-germ-free system, E. coli F18 expressing AvrA increased Wnt2 expression and changed Wnt2 distribution in intestine. Conclusion Wnt2 contributes to host protection in response to enteric bacteria. Our findings thus reveal a previously undefined role of Wnt for host-pathogen interaction and inflammation. PMID:21674728

Liu, Xingyin; Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Zhang, Yong-guo; Xia, Yinglin; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

2012-01-01

54

In vitro evaluation of effects of gut region and fiber structure on the intestinal dominant bacterial diversity and functional bacterial species.  

PubMed

Understanding the intestinal bacteria in ruminants and their population kinetics is essential for their ecological function, as well as their interaction with the host. In this in vitro study, we aimed to determine whether gut region and fiber structure can influence bacterial diversity and functional bacterial population, together with the kinetics of functional bacterial species in the cecal inocula using PCR-DGGE and qPCR. A split plot design was conducted with gut regions (jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) as main plot, and substrates (neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and cellulose (CEL)) as subplot. Incubation time and gut region affected dominant bacterial diversity. The numbers of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, genus Prevotella and amylolytic bacteria in the hindgut inocula were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the small intestinal inocula. Fiber structure did not significantly influence the dominant bacterial diversity and the numbers of most examined functional bacterial species. The greatest increase rate of cellulolytic bacteria occurred earlier than amylolytic bacteria except for R. albus incubated with NDF. Changes in cellulolytic bacterial populations were not coordinative with alteration of fiber disappearance as well as CMCase and xylanase activities. All these suggest that the hindgut contents have greater potential to digest fiber than small intestinal contents, and cellulolytic bacteria are of significant value at the initial stage of fiber digestion among the fiber digestive microbes in the intestine. PMID:24972096

Jiao, Jinzhen; Lu, Qi; Tan, Zhiliang; Guan, Leluo; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng

2014-08-01

55

Effects of compound Ginkgo biloba on intestinal permeability in rats with alcohol-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Compound Ginkgo biloba (CGB) on alterations in intestinal permeability and inflammation caused by endotoxin in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. CGB was prepared by Ginkgo biloba extract and Rosa roxburghii in a 1?:?1 proportion. Rats were divided into four groups: control, ethanol, high-dosage CGB (0.6 g kg(-1) d(-1)) and low-dosage CGB (0.2 g kg(-1) d(-1)) group. Rats in the control group ingested a Lieber-DeCarli control liquid diet, while rats in the ethanol and CGB-treated groups ingested a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol liquid diet for eight weeks. CGB was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. CGB was observed to significantly reduce the activities of serum ALT, AST, diamine oxidase (DAO) as well as levels of serum TG, d-lactic acid and plasma endotoxin in rats fed with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid. Further, the hepatic steatosis was improved and the damage to intestinal tight junctions was also relieved effectively after CGB administration. Moreover, CGB significantly downregulated the expressions of TNF-?, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14 and TLR4 in the liver and upregulated the expressions of tight junction proteins including ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. In summary, this study demonstrated that CGB alleviated alcohol-induced liver injury and hepatic lipopolysaccharide signaling as well as gut barrier dysfunction through restoring tight junctions. PMID:25473797

Li, Huanzhou; Qiu, Ping; Wang, Juanhong; Niu, Congcong; Pan, Suhua

2015-02-11

56

Diversity and Contribution of the Intestinal Bacterial Community to the Development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae  

E-print Network

of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae L. ZUREK, C. SCHAL, AND D. W. WATSON Department of Entomology The bacterial diversity in the intestinal tract of Musca domestica L. was examined in larvae collected from turkey bedding and corn silage. Aerobic culturing yielded 25 bacterial species, including 11 from larvae

57

Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis by Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to resistance. In this review, we dissect the biological role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are fermentation end products of the intestinal microbiota, in host–pathogen interactions. SCFA exert an extensive influence on host physiology through nutritional, regulatory, and immunomodulatory functions and can also affect bacterial fitness as a form of acid stress. Moreover, SCFA act as a signal for virulence gene regulation in common enteric pathogens. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of the chemical environment where the biology of the host, the microbiota, and the pathogen intersects, which provides a basis for designing effective infection prevention and control. PMID:23942149

Sun, Yvonne; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

2013-01-01

58

Effects of Intrapartum Penicillin Prophylaxis on Intestinal Bacterial Colonization in Infants  

PubMed Central

Early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. To prevent the vertical transmission of GBS and neonatal GBS infection, guidelines recommend intrapartum penicillin or amoxicillin prophylaxis. This intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is suspected to favor colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, the effects of this prophylaxis on the patterns of acquisition of gastrointestinal bacterial flora in infants have never been studied. We collected stool samples from 3-day-old infants born to mothers who received intrapartum amoxicillin (antibiotic-exposed group; n = 25) and to untreated mothers (non-antibiotic-exposed group; n = 25). The groups were matched for factors known to affect intestinal microbial colonization: gestational age, type of delivery, and type of feeding. Qualitative and quantitative differential analyses of the bacterial flora in stool samples were performed. Similar numbers of infants in the non-antibiotic-exposed and antibiotic-exposed groups were colonized by aerobic bacteria and amoxicillin-resistant enterobacteria (75 and 77%, respectively) (P = 0.79). In contrast, significantly fewer infants in the antibiotic-exposed group than in the non-antibiotic-exposed group were colonized by anaerobic bacteria, especially Clostridium (12 and 40%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Regarding intestinal bacterial colonization, the differences between antibiotic-exposed and non-antibiotic-exposed infants were remarkably few. The only statistically significant effect was the reduced initial bacterial colonization by Clostridium in the antibiotic-exposed group. In our study, the use of IAP did not favor colonization by ?-lactam-resistant bacteria. However, further evaluations are required to highlight the potential risks of the widespread use of antibiotics to prevent early-onset GBS infection. PMID:15528713

Jauréguy, Françoise; Carton, Mathieu; Panel, Pierre; Foucaud, Pierre; Butel, Marie-José; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

2004-01-01

59

Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ? 20 ppm or CH4 ? 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. RESULTS: Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon. PMID:23139610

Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina FL; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

2012-01-01

60

Metronidazole improves intestinal microcirculation in septic rats independently of bacterial burden.  

PubMed

To explore the effects of metronidazole (Me) on intestinal microcirculation in septic rats, intravital microscopy (IVM) following 16 hours of colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP model) was used. Four groups of animals were studied: control group (sham operation) and CASP group, each with and without Me treatment (10 mg/kg i.v.). In order to investigate the substance-specific effects of Me independently of the antibacterial effects within a pathologically altered microcirculation, a second experimental series with lipopolysaccharide challenge (LPS model) was carried out. The LPS model consisted of the four groups (control animals and LPS animals (15 mg/kg i.v. LPS from E. coli) with and without Me). IVM in the LPS experiments was performed following a two hour observation period. Me treated CASP or LPS animals, as compared with untreated, demonstrated significant improvement of functional capillary density (FCD) of the intestinal wall. The increase in the number of leukocytes firmly adhered to the endothelium (leukocyte sticking) in the untreated CASP or LPS animals within the V1 venules of the intestinal submucosal layer, was significantly reduced in the Me treated animals. In conclusion, Me exerts beneficial anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects within the septic microcirculation. PMID:16614467

Lehmann, Ch; Bac, V H; Pavlovic, D; Lustig, M; Maier, S; Feyerherd, F; Usichenko, T-I; Meissner, K; Haase, H; Jünger, M; Wendt, M; Heidecke, C-D; Gründling, M

2006-01-01

61

Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial Community Structure along the Intestinal Tract of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The bacterial composition along the intestinal tract of Danio rerio was investigated by cultivation-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Clone libraries were constructed for three compartments of the intestinal tract of individual fish. 566 individual clones were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA), and clone representatives from each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) were sequenced. As reported in other studies, we found that Proteobacteria was the most prominent phylum among clone libraries from different fish. Data generated from this pilot study indicated some compositional differences in bacterial communities. Two dominant classes, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli, displayed different levels of abundance in different compartments; Gammaproteobacteria increased along the intestinal tract, while Bacilli decreased its abundance along the proximal-distal axis. Less obvious spatial patterns were observed for other classes. In general, bacterial diversity in the intestinal bulb was greater than that in the posterior intestine. Interindividual differences in bacterial diversity and composition were also noted in this study. PMID:23724326

Lan, Chuan-Ching; Love, Donald R.

2012-01-01

62

Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteria-free. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species. CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a segregation device. The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control. PMID:15754393

Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Lochs, Herbert; Hale, Laura P.

2005-01-01

63

Effect of ? irradiation on poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose composites used as packaging materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present the influence of bacterial cellulose microfibrils and ?-radiation dose on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-bacterial cellulose (BC) composites. Two composite materials were obtained: the first one from PVA aqueous solution 4% and 5% wet bacterial cellulose and the second from the same PVA solution and 10% wet bacterial cellulose. In terms of PVA/dry BC ratios (w/w) for these films the ratios are 1/0.025 and 1/0.050. The obtained composite materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FT-IR) and UV-vis spectroscopy in order to evaluate the irradiation effect on their stability. The swelling behavior of the polymeric composites was also studied. The composite materials were compared with a film of pure PVA and a dry BC membrane.

Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jipa, Iuliana; Dobre, Loredana; Zaharescu, Traian

2013-03-01

64

Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29?±?0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune and metabolic characteristics. PMID:25145494

Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

2015-01-01

65

The influence of fruit ingestion before meals upon the bacterial flora of stomach and large intestine and on food allergins  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE influence of various fruits upon gastro-intestinal function has been studied in this laboratory for the past few years. The intra-alimentary contents, from the oral cavity to the anal opening, depend upon the materials ingested, the fluids secreted, and the bacterial flora in the lumen of this tract. We have been particularly interested in the bacterial flora and the acid-base

Olaf Bergeim; Arthur Hanszen; Lloyd Arnold

1936-01-01

66

Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

?en, Velat; Uluca, Ünal; Ece, Ayd?n; Güne?, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, ?brahim; Türkçü, Gül; Tekin, Recep

2014-01-01

67

Selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin reduces bacterial translocation in ascitic cirrhotic rats exposed to hemorrhagic shock.  

PubMed

Bacterial translocation (BT) can be involved in the pathogenesis of severe infections due to bacteria of enteric origin that complicates bleeding cirrhotic patients. To assess the effect of hemorrhagic shock (HS) on the incidence of BT and if selective intestinal decontamination (SID) reduces this incidence, we studied six groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: ascitic rats, ascitic rats exposed to HS with and without previous norfloxacin prophylaxis, healthy rats, and healthy shocked rats with and without previous norfloxacin prophylaxis. BT tended to be higher in ascitic rats with shock than without shock (69% vs. 41%, P = .15) and was significantly higher in healthy rats with than without shock (50 percent vs. 0 percent, P = .01). Norfloxacin significantly reduced translocation in ascitic shocked rats in comparison with nondecontaminated ascitic shocked rats (31 percent vs. 69 percent, P = .038). This effect was due mainly to a reduction of gram-negative BT (O percent vs. 37 percent, P = .008). In addition, norfloxacin prevented translocation in healthy shocked rats. Accordingly, aerobic gram-negative bacteria disappeared from fecal flora in all rats administered norfloxacin, except for Klebsiella species in one control rat. Cecal severe submucosal edema, chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and intestinal lymphangiectasia were significantly more frequent in ascitic rats than in control rats. Intestinal mucosal injury related with HS, particularly subepithelial cecal edema, was observed only in ascitic shocked rats. In conclusion, HS increases the incidence of BT both in ascitic cirrhotic and healthy rats. Norfloxacin reduces significantly the incidence of translocation after shock, especially in those cases caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. PMID:8666332

Llovet, J M; Bartolí, R; Planas, R; Viñado, B; Pérez, J; Cabré, E; Arnal, J; Ojanguren, I; Ausina, V; Gassull, M A

1996-04-01

68

Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.  

PubMed

The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, ?- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-?) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

2014-05-01

69

Intestinal Epithelial Serum Amyloid A Modulates Bacterial Growth In Vitro and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Experimental Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein of unknown function. SAA is mostly expressed in the liver, but also in other tissues including the intestinal epithelium. SAA reportedly has anti-bacterial effects, and because inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) result from a breakdown in homeostatic interactions between intestinal epithelia and bacteria, we hypothesized that SAA is protective during experimental colitis. Methods Intestinal SAA expression was measured in mouse and human samples. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis was induced in SAA 1/2 double knockout (DKO) mice and in wildtype controls. Anti-bacterial effects of SAA1/2 were tested in intestinal epithelial cell lines transduced with adenoviral vectors encoding the CE/J SAA isoform or control vectors prior to exposure to live Escherichia coli. Results Significant levels of SAA1/SAA2 RNA and SAA protein were detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in mouse colonic epithelium. SAA3 expression was weaker, but similarly distributed. SAA1/2 RNA was present in the ileum and colon of conventional mice and in the colon of germfree mice. Expression of SAA3 was strongly regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in cultured epithelial cell lines, whereas SAA1/2 expression was constitutive and not LPS inducible. Overexpression of SAA1/2 in cultured epithelial cell lines reduced the viability of co-cultured E. coli. This might partially explain the observed increase in susceptibility of DKO mice to DSS colitis. SAA1/2 expression was increased in colon samples obtained from Crohn's Disease patients compared to controls. Conclusions Intestinal epithelial SAA displays bactericidal properties in vitro and could play a protective role in experimental mouse colitis. Altered expression of SAA in intestinal biopsies from Crohn's Disease patients suggests that SAA is involved in the disease process.. PMID:21067563

2010-01-01

70

In vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.  

PubMed

Rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with the pathogenesis of IBS. This study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against SIBO micro-organisms from humans. Fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed SIBO in 117 patients (20.6%). A total of 170 aerobic micro-organisms were isolated and the in vitro efficacy of rifaximin was studied by (i) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing by a microdilution technique and (ii) time-kill assays using bile to simulate the small intestinal environment. At a breakpoint of 32 ?g/mL, rifaximin inhibited in vitro 85.4% of Escherichia coli, 43.6% of Klebsiella spp., 34.8% of Enterobacter spp., 54.5% of other Enterobacteriaceae spp., 82.6% of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative spp., 100% of Enterococcus faecalis, 100% of Enterococcus faecium and 100% of Staphylococcus aureus. For the time-kill assays, 11 E. coli, 15 non-E. coli Gram-negative enterobacteria and three E. faecalis isolates were studied. Rifaximin produced a >3 log10 decrease in the starting inoculum against most of the tested isolates at 500 ?g/mL after 24h of growth. The results indicate that rifaximin has a potent effect on specific small bowel flora associated with SIBO. This conclusion should be regarded in light of the considerable time-kill effect at concentrations lower than those achieved in the bowel lumen after administration of conventional doses in humans. PMID:24461710

Pistiki, Aikaterini; Galani, Irene; Pyleris, Emmanouel; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

2014-03-01

71

Protective effects of terminal ileostomy against bacterial translocation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of terminal ileostomy on bacterial translocation (BT) and systemic inflammation after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were assigned to either the sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R + resection and anastomosis group, or the I/R + ileostomy group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. After 4 h, tissue samples were collected for analysis. BT was assessed by bacteriologic cultures, intestinal permeability and serum levels of endotoxin; systemic inflammation was assessed by serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, as well as by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and by intestinal histopathology. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R injury not only caused morphologic damage to ileal mucosa, but also induced BT, increased MPO activity and promoted the release of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum. BT and ileal mucosa injuries were significantly improved and levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in serum were decreased in the I/R + ileostomy group compared with the I/R + resection and anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Terminal ileostomy can prevent the detrimental effects of intestinal I/R injury on BT, intestinal tissue, and inflammation.

Lin, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Wen-Kui; Tan, Shan-Jun; Duan, Kai-Peng; Dong, Yi; Bai, Xiao-Wu; Xu, Lin; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

72

Nod1 and Nod2 signaling does not alter the composition of intestinal bacterial communities at homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) harbour intestinal bacterial communities with altered composition compared with healthy counterparts; however, it is unknown whether changes in the microbiota are associated with genetic susceptibility of individuals for developing disease or instead reflect other changes in the intestinal environment related to the disease itself. Since deficiencies in the innate immune receptors Nod1 and Nod2 are linked to IBD, we tested the hypothesis that Nod-signaling alters intestinal immune profiles and subsequently alters bacterial community structure. We used qPCR to analyze expression patterns of selected immune mediators in the ileum and cecum of Nod-deficient mice compared with their Nod-sufficient littermates and assessed the relative abundance of major bacterial groups sampled from the ileum, cecum and colon. The Nod1-deficient ileum exhibited significantly lower expression of Nod2, Muc2, ?- and ?-defensins and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), suggesting a weakened epithelial barrier compared with WT littermates; however, there were no significant differences in the relative abundance of targeted bacterial groups, indicating that Nod1-associated immune differences alone do not promote dysbiosis. Furthermore, Nod2-deficient mice did not display any changes in the expression of immune markers or bacterial communities. Shifts in bacterial communities that were observed in this study correlated with housing conditions and were independent of genotype. These findings emphasize the importance of using F2 littermate controls to minimize environmental sources of variation in microbial analyses, to establish baseline conditions for host-microbe homeostasis in Nod-deficient mice and to strengthen models for testing factors contributing to microbial dysbiosis associated with IBD. PMID:23549220

Robertson, Susan J.; Zhou, Jun Yu; Geddes, Kaoru; Rubino, Stephen J.; Cho, Joon Ho; Girardin, Stephen E.; Philpott, Dana J.

2013-01-01

73

Identification of bacterial isolates obtained from intestinal contents associated with 12,000-year-old mastodon remains.  

PubMed

Mastodon (Mammut americanum) remains unearthed during excavation of ancient sediments usually consist only of skeletal material, due to postmortem decomposition of soft tissues by microorganisms. Two recent excavations of skeletal remains in anoxic sediments in Ohio and Michigan, however, have uncovered organic masses which appear to be remnants of the small and large intestines, respectively. Macrobotanical examinations of the composition of these masses revealed assemblages of plant material radiocarbon dated to approximately 11,500 years before the present and thought to be incompletely digested food remains from this extinct mammal. We attempted to cultivate and identify bacteria from the intestinal contents, bone-associated sediments, and sediments not in proximity to the remains using a variety of general and selective media. In all, 295 isolates were cultivated, and 38 individual taxa were identified by fatty acid-methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biochemical characteristics (API-20E). The taxonomic positions of selected enteric and obligately anaerobic bacteria were confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. Results indicate that the intestinal and bone-associated samples contained the greatest diversity of bacterial taxa and that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae represented 41% of all isolates and were predominant in the intestinal masses and sediments in proximity to the skeleton but were uncommon in the background sediments. Enterobacter cloacae was the most commonly identified isolate, and partial rDNA sequencing revealed that Rahnella aquatilis was the correct identity of strains suggested by FAME profiles to be Yersinia enterocolitica. No Bacteroides spp. or expected intestinal anaerobes were recovered. The only obligate anaerobes recovered were clostridia, and these were not recovered from the small intestinal masses. Microbiological evidence from this study supports other, macrobotanical data indicating the intestinal origin of these masses. Whether these organisms are direct descendants of the original intestinal microbiota, however, cannot be established. PMID:9464403

Rhodes, A N; Urbance, J W; Youga, H; Corlew-Newman, H; Reddy, C A; Klug, M J; Tiedje, J M; Fisher, D C

1998-02-01

74

Identification of Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Intestinal Contents Associated with 12,000-Year-Old Mastodon Remains  

PubMed Central

Mastodon (Mammut americanum) remains unearthed during excavation of ancient sediments usually consist only of skeletal material, due to postmortem decomposition of soft tissues by microorganisms. Two recent excavations of skeletal remains in anoxic sediments in Ohio and Michigan, however, have uncovered organic masses which appear to be remnants of the small and large intestines, respectively. Macrobotanical examinations of the composition of these masses revealed assemblages of plant material radiocarbon dated to approximately 11,500 years before the present and thought to be incompletely digested food remains from this extinct mammal. We attempted to cultivate and identify bacteria from the intestinal contents, bone-associated sediments, and sediments not in proximity to the remains using a variety of general and selective media. In all, 295 isolates were cultivated, and 38 individual taxa were identified by fatty acid-methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biochemical characteristics (API-20E). The taxonomic positions of selected enteric and obligately anaerobic bacteria were confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. Results indicate that the intestinal and bone-associated samples contained the greatest diversity of bacterial taxa and that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae represented 41% of all isolates and were predominant in the intestinal masses and sediments in proximity to the skeleton but were uncommon in the background sediments. Enterobacter cloacae was the most commonly identified isolate, and partial rDNA sequencing revealed that Rahnella aquatilis was the correct identity of strains suggested by FAME profiles to be Yersinia enterocolitica. No Bacteroides spp. or expected intestinal anaerobes were recovered. The only obligate anaerobes recovered were clostridia, and these were not recovered from the small intestinal masses. Microbiological evidence from this study supports other, macrobotanical data indicating the intestinal origin of these masses. Whether these organisms are direct descendants of the original intestinal microbiota, however, cannot be established. PMID:9464403

Rhodes, A. N.; Urbance, J. W.; Youga, H.; Corlew-Newman, H.; Reddy, C. A.; Klug, M. J.; Tiedje, J. M.; Fisher, D. C.

1998-01-01

75

Loss of Sirt1 Function Improves Intestinal Anti-Bacterial Defense and Protects from Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int?/?) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC. PMID:25013930

Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Fernando, Samodha C.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Katsyuba, Elena; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

2014-01-01

76

Alcohol dehydrogenase: A potential new marker for diagnosis of intestinal ischemia using rat as a model  

PubMed Central

AIM: Intestinal ischemia (Ii) is an abdominal emergency due to blockade of the superior mesenteric artery resulting in 60-100% mortality if diagnosed late. Changes in several biochemical parameters such as D (-)-lactate, Creatinine kinase isoenzymes and lactate dehydrogenase suggested for early diagnosis, lack specificity and sensitivity. Therefore a biochemical parameter with greater sensitivity needs to be identified. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into two groups; control sham operated (n = 24) and ischemic test (n = 24) group. Superior mesenteric arterial occlusion was performed in the ischemic test group for 1 h. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was estimated in blood from portal vein, right ventricle of heart, dorsal aorta (DA) and inferior vena cava (IVC). The Serum glutamic acid pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) was also estimated in blood from portal vein and right ventricle of heart. RESULTS: A significant increase (P<0.001) in the levels of ADH in both portal blood as well as heart blood of the test group (232.72±99.45 EU and 250.85±95.14 EU, respectively) as compared to the control group (46.39±21.69 EU and 65.38±30.55 EU, respectively) were observed. Similarly, increased levels of ADH were observed in blood samples withdrawn from DA and IVC in test animals (319.52±80.14 EU and 363.90±120.68 EU, respectively) as compared to the control group (67.68±63.22 EU and 72.50±58.45 EU, respectively). However, in test animals there was significant increase in SGPT in portal blood (P = 0.054) without much increase in heart blood. CONCLUSION: Significant increase in the levels of ADH in portal and heart blood within 1 h of SMA occlusion without increase in SGPT in heart blood, suggests that the origin of ADH is from ischemic intestine and not from liver. Similarly, raised ADH levels were found in DA and IVC as well. IVC blood does represent peripheral blood sample. A raised level of ADH in test animals confirms it to be a potential marker in the early diagnosis of Ii. PMID:15682493

Gumaste, Upendra R; Joshi, Mukund M; Mourya, Devendra T; Barde, Pradip V; Shrivastav, Ghanshyam K; Ghole, Vikram S

2005-01-01

77

Alcohol and tobacco consumption affects bacterial richness in oral cavity mucosa biofilms.  

PubMed

BackgroundToday there are more than 2 billion alcohol users and about 1.3 billion tobacco users worldwide. The chronic and heavy use of these two substances is at the heart of numerous diseases and may wreak havoc on the human oral microbiome. This study delves into the changes that alcohol and tobacco may cause on biofilms of the human oral microbiome. To do so, we used swabs to sample the oral biofilm of 22 subjects; including 9 control-individuals with no or very low consumption of alcohol and no consumption of tobacco, 7 who were chronic and heavy users of both substances and 6 active smokers that reported no significant alcohol consumption. DNA was extracted from swabs and the V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, generating 3.7 million high quality reads. DNA sequences were clustered and OTUs were assigned using the ARB SILVA database and Qiime.ResultsWe found no differences in species diversity and evenness among the groups. However, we found a significant decrease in species richness in only smokers and in smokers/drinkers when compared to controls. We found that Neisseria abundance was significantly decreased in both groups when compared to controls. Smokers had significant increases in Prevotella and Capnocytophaga and reductions in Granulicatella, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Gemella when compared to the two other groups. Controls showed higher abundance of Aggregibacter, whilst smokers/drinkers had lower abundances of Fusobacteria. Samples from only smokers clustered closer together than to controls and smokers/drinkers, and also had a significant reduction in inter-group dissimilarity distances, indicating a more homogenous group than controls.ConclusionsOur results indicate that the continued use of tobacco or alcohol plus tobacco significantly reduces bacterial richness, which apparently leads to a reduction in inter-group variability, turning the respective biofilms into a more homogenous microenvironment in terms of bacterial community composition, with possible consequences for human oral diseases. PMID:25278091

Thomas, Andrew; Gleber-Netto, Frederico; Fernandes, Gustavo; Amorim, Maria; Barbosa, Luisa; Francisco, Ana; Guerra de Andrade, Arthur; Setubal, João; Kowalski, Luiz; Nunes, Diana; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

78

Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.  

PubMed

The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine. PMID:17615175

De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

2007-09-01

79

Understanding alcoholism.  

PubMed

Ethanol is an ingredient that is intoxicating in nature. Abuse of alcohol affects nearly every bodily system. Alcohol is rapidly absorbed from the stomach, small intestine, and colon. This article provides an introduction to the health effects of alcoholism. Discussed are ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol. PMID:23998765

Rundio, Albert

2013-09-01

80

Inhibition of Intestinal Bacterial Translocation with Rifaximin Modulates Lamina propria Monocytic Cells Reactivity and Protects against Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A modification of the intestinal flora and an increased bacterial translocation is a common finding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in animal model of colitis. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable derivative of rifamycin, is an effective antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial ribonucleic acid synthesis. Aims: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the administration

Stefano Fiorucci; Eleonora Distrutti; Andrea Mencarelli; Miriam Barbanti; Ernesto Palazzini; Antonio Morelli

2002-01-01

81

Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Kogut, Michael H; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Bottje, Walter G; Bielke, Lisa R; Faulkner, Olivia B

2014-01-01

82

Mechanisms that control bacterial populations in continuous-flow culture models of mouse large intestinal flora.  

PubMed

A previous study had established that anaerobic continuous-flow (CF) cultures of conventional mouse cecal flora were able to maintain the in vivo ecological balance among the indigenous bacterial species tested. This paper describes experiments designed to determine the mechanisms which control the population sizes of these species in such CF cultures. One strain each of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium sp., and Eubacterium sp. were studied. Growth of these strains in filtrates of CF cultures was considerably more rapid than in the CF cultures themselves, indicating that the inhibitory activity had been lost in the process of filtration. Growth rates to match those in CF cultures could be obtained, however, by restoring the original levels of H(2)S in the culture filtrates. The inhibitory effect of H(2)S in filtrates and in dialysates of CF cultures could be abolished by adding glucose or pyruvate, but not formate or lactate. The fatty acids present in CF cultures matched those in the cecum of conventional mice in both quality and concentration. These acids could not account for the slow rates of growth of the tested strains in CF cultures, but they did cause a marked increase in the initial lag phase of E. coli growth. The results obtained are compatible with the hypothesis that the populations of most indigenous intestinal bacteria are controlled by one or a few nutritional substrates which a given strain can utilize most efficiently in the presence of H(2)S and at the prevailing conditions of pH and anaerobiosis. This hypothesis consequently implies that the populations of enterobacteria, such as the E. coli strain tested, and those of the predominant anaerobes are controlled by analogous mechanisms. PMID:6339388

Freter, R; Brickner, H; Botney, M; Cleven, D; Aranki, A

1983-02-01

83

Regulatory T cells promote a protective Th17-associated immune response to intestinal bacterial infection with C. rodentium.  

PubMed

Intestinal infection with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induces a strong local Th17 response in the colon. Although this inflammatory immune response helps to clear the pathogen, it also induces inflammation-associated pathology in the gut and thus, has to be tightly controlled. In this project, we therefore studied the impact of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on the infectious and inflammatory processes elicited by the bacterial pathogen C. rodentium. Surprisingly, we found that depletion of Treg by diphtheria toxin in the Foxp3(DTR) (DEREG) mouse model resulted in impaired bacterial clearance in the colon, exacerbated body weight loss, and increased systemic dissemination of bacteria. Consistent with the enhanced susceptibility to infection, we found that the colonic Th17-associated T-cell response was impaired in Treg-depleted mice, suggesting that the presence of Treg is crucial for the establishment of a functional Th17 response after the infection in the gut. As a consequence of the impaired Th17 response, we also observed less inflammation-associated pathology in the colons of Treg-depleted mice. Interestingly, anti-interleukin (IL)-2 treatment of infected Treg-depleted mice restored Th17 induction, indicating that Treg support the induction of a protective Th17 response during intestinal bacterial infection by consumption of local IL-2. PMID:24646939

Wang, Z; Friedrich, C; Hagemann, S C; Korte, W H; Goharani, N; Cording, S; Eberl, G; Sparwasser, T; Lochner, M

2014-11-01

84

Analysis of the intestinal bacterial microbiota in maize- or sorghum-fed broiler chickens using real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of two different diets on zootechnical performance and the major bacterial groups in association with the host mucosa and dispersed in the lumen contents of the small intestine of broiler chickens. 2. The two experimental diets were maize or sorghum-based. In addition to the total bacteria, bacterial groups belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae (Enterococcus and Lactobacillus) were quantified by real-time PCR. 3. There were no differences in body weight gain and feed intake, but feed conversion ratio increased for sorghum-fed broilers at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. The Enterococcus group decreased in all gut segments from 7 to 42 d, while the Lactobacillus group increased in both ecosystems. In the ileal mucosa, the enterobacterial counts decreased from 7 to 42 d in the maize-based diet, but remained stable in the sorghum-based diet. 5. The results shed light on the spatial and temporal distribution of bacterial groups that play important physiological roles in the small intestine of chickens. Specifically, the increased Enterobacteria population in the ileum is consistent with the relatively poor feed conversion in sorghum-fed broilers. PMID:25358544

Lunedo, R; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Carvalho, F M S; Furlan, L R; Macari, M

2014-12-01

85

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth  

MedlinePLUS

Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine ... Unlike the large intestine, the small intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. When there are too many bacteria in the ...

86

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

87

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

88

Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p?=?0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p?=?0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p?

Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

2015-01-01

89

Alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alcohol is woven into our culture in a most complex fashion. The majority of adults in the United States consume\\u000a alcohol, yet alcohol also causes nearly 75,000 deaths per year and costs our society on the order of 150 billion per year.\\u000a Harm from alcohol can occur in a number of ways. First, if alcohol is consumed

James C. Garbutt

90

Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation by preventing damage to the intestinal mucosa in an experimental severe acute pancreatitis rat model  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased all studied acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory parameters, in addition to reducing apoptosis and necrosis associated with pancreatic injury. However, the effect of melatonin on gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on intestinal integrity in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) to evaluate whether melatonin prevented intestine barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 8 rats in the sham operation (SO) group, 18 rats in the SAP group and 14 SAP rats in the melatonin treatment (MT) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 4% taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Melatonin was administered 30 min prior to taurocholate injection in the melatonin-treated rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h subsequent to pancreatitis induction. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and quantify Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 in postcava blood. The microvilli structure was also analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. The level of E. coli DNA in the MT group was significantly lower than in rats in the SAP group. No E. coli DNA was detected in the control group. Villus height and crypt depth in the ileum were significantly higher in the MT and control groups compared to the SAP group, and were significantly higher in the MT group than in the SAP group. These results suggested that melatonin prevented gut barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation, resulting in reduced pancreatic-associated infections and decreased early mortality rates. PMID:24255660

SUN, XUECHENG; SHAO, YINGYING; JIN, YIN; HUAI, JIAPING; ZHOU, QIONG; HUANG, ZHIMING; WU, JIANSHENG

2013-01-01

91

Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. METHODS: Using a colonoscope, under conscious sedation, the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI). A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels, spaced 1 cm apart, was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI. The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced. The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI, ICV and the cecum respectively. Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum, under direct endoscopic visualization, in 19 volunteers. Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma. All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy. The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope. Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV, between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests. The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg, P = 0.0011). The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%, P = 0.0006). The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during air insufflation 21.23 ± 3.52 mmHg vs 16.10 ± 3.39 mmHg. The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflation was not significantly different 101.08% ± 7.96% vs 100% ± 0%. The total symptom score for subjects with normal lactulose breath tests and subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not statistically different (13.30 ± 4.09 vs 24.14 ± 6.58). The ICV peak pressures during air insufflations were significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.005). The average percent difference of the area under the pressure curve in the ICV from cecum was significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.0012). Individuals with positive lactulose breath tests demonstrated symptom scores which were significantly higher for the following symptoms: not able to finish normal sized meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite and bloating. CONCLUSION: Compared to normal, subjects with a positive lactulose breath test have a defective ICV cecal distension reflex. These subjects also more commonly have higher symptom scores. PMID:23239918

Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Sampath, Aiswerya Madanam; Prabhu, Shital; Kotapati, Sesha Krishna; Makipour, Kian

2012-01-01

92

Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries

Adelfo Escalante; Martha Giles-Gómez; Georgina Hernández; María Soledad Córdova-Aguilar; Agustín López-Munguía; Guillermo Gosset; Francisco Bolívar

2008-01-01

93

The polyvinyl alcohol-bacterial cellulose system as a new nanocomposite for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Finding materials suitable for soft tissue replacement is an important aspect for medical devices design and fabrication. There is a need to develop a material that will not only display similar mechanical properties as the tissue it is replacing, but also shows improved life span, biocompatibility, nonthrombogenic, and low degree of calcification. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a hydrophilic biocompatible polymer with various characteristics desired for biomedical applications. PVA can be transformed into a solid hydrogel with good mechanical properties by physical crosslinking, using freeze-thaw cycles. Hydrophilic bacterial cellulose (BC) fibers of an average diameter of 50 nm are produced by the bacterium Acetobacter xylinum, using a fermentation process. They are used in combination with PVA to form biocompatible nanocomposites. The resulting nanocomposites possess a broad range of mechanical properties and can be made with mechanical properties similar to that of cardiovascular tissues, such as aorta and heart valve leaflets. The stress-strain properties for porcine aorta are matched by at least one type of PVA-BC nanocomposite in both the circumferential and the axial tissue directions. A PVA-BC nanocomposite with similar properties as heart valve tissue is also developed. Relaxation properties of all samples, which are important for cardiovascular applications, were also studied and found to relax at a faster rate and to a lower residual stress than the tissues they might replace. The new PVA-BC composite is a promising material for cardiovascular soft tissue replacement applications. PMID:16680717

Millon, L E; Wan, W K

2006-11-01

94

Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different ? radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with 137Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during ? irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for ? irradiated products.

Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin; Zaharescu, Traian

2012-05-01

95

Composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose for drug controlled release.  

PubMed

Mono and multilayer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose (PVA/chitosan/BC) have been prepared to achieve controlled release of ibuprofen sodium salt (IbuNa) as model drug. The composite films have been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Equilibrium swelling was measured in water at two different pH values and in vitro release of IbuNa in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 media was studied. The release experiments revealed that drug release is pH sensitive. The release kinetics of IbuNa could be described by the Fickian model of diffusion with a good agreement. The IbuNa release rate was decreasing for all the films as the BC concentration was increased in the films composition, the decrease being higher for the multilayer films. PMID:24769089

Pavaloiu, Ramona-Daniela; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Dobre, Tanase

2014-07-01

96

Poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate/layered silicate based nanofibrous mats for bacterial inhibition.  

PubMed

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG)/organic rectorite (OREC) composite nanofibrous mats are fabricated by electrospinning aqueous solutions with different mixing ratios. Both good fiber shape and three-dimensional structure of nanofibrous mats can be observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows the existence of OREC in the as-spun composite mats. In addition, small-angle X-ray diffraction confirms that the interlayer of OREC is intercalated by ALG/PVA chains, and the distance between OREC interlayers is increased from 4.50 to 4.74 nm. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra further verify the intercalation is between polymers and layered silicate. Moreover, the thermal gravimetric analysis shows that the addition of OREC has only a small effect on the thermal stability of composites. Furthermore, the antibacterial experiments illustrate that OREC can enhance the bacterial inhibition ability of nanofibrous mats against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23399282

Li, Wei; Li, Xueyong; Chen, Yang; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Ting; Huang, Rong; Fan, Gang

2013-02-15

97

Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-? (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-? (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-?B p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal bacterial community. CONCLUSION: Gln treatment protects from intestinal injury and regulates the gut flora imbalance in hypoxia environment. These effects may be related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24782618

Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

2014-01-01

98

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ...

99

Intestinal immune gene response to bacterial challenge in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mucosal immune system of fish is poorly understood and defined models for studying this system are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate different challenge paradigms and pathogens to examine the magnitude of change in intestinal immune gene expression. Rainbow trout were expos...

100

Focused Specificity of Intestinal Th17 Cells towards Commensal Bacterial Antigens  

PubMed Central

T-helper-17 (Th17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defense and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis 1-3. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria (SILP), where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota 4-7. Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce Th17 cells and to promote Th17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models 8-14. However, the specificity of Th17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal Th17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4+ T cells and that most Th17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing Th17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harbored a strong Th1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B.; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L.; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Lafaille, Juan J.; Littman, Dan R.

2014-01-01

101

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Alcohol KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to My Body > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... fun." "It's cool. Everybody drinks, right?" Wrong. Drinking alcohol is dangerous for kids and teens and sometimes ...

102

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestinal and lymph node tissues of water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) by PCR and bacterial culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of bacterial culture and IS900-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from the intestinal and mesenteric lymph node tissues of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) showing lesions of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Out of 20 (4.9%) animals showing histological lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis, 14 (70%) and 6 (30%) were positive in

P. Sivakumar; B. N. Tripathi; Nem Singh

2005-01-01

103

Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a major public health problem in the United States as well as around the world. The significant role that alcohol plays in suicidality is well known and accepted in the scientific community. The use of alcohol does not necessarily lead to suicide, but through its action and effects, alcohol is an important proximal risk factor for suicidal behavior. There is very little data showing how and why alcohol exerts such tremendous influence and “lubricates the gears” to propel the act of committing suicide. This article will elucidate the complex relationship between alcohol and suicide and how alcohol use can lead to suicide. The article also describes how alcohol affects brain neurophysiology in regards to suicidal behavior. PMID:23440995

Nathani, Milankumar; Jabeen, Shahgufta; Yazdani, Ijlal; Mouton, Charles D.; Bailey, Rahn K.; Mahr, Mona; Pate, Rebecca J.; Riley, Wayne J.

2013-01-01

104

Comparative Analysis of the Intestinal Bacterial and RNA Viral Communities from Sentinel Birds Placed on Selected Broiler Chicken Farms  

PubMed Central

There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds (“sentinels”) placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

Day, J. Michael; Oakley, Brian B.; Seal, Bruce S.; Zsak, Laszlo

2015-01-01

105

Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial and RNA viral communities from sentinel birds placed on selected broiler chicken farms.  

PubMed

There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds ("sentinels") placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

Day, J Michael; Oakley, Brian B; Seal, Bruce S; Zsak, Laszlo

2015-01-01

106

Evaluating the efficacy of probiotic on treatment in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) - A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) leads to several gastrointestinal (GI) problems and complications leading to malabsorption. The effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of SIBO syndrome has not been well studied. This pilot study was aimed to assess the efficacy of a probiotic consisting of lactobacilli in the treatment of SIBO. Methods: In this study, 30 cases suffering from chronic abdominal pain or diarrhoea and with a positive hydrogen breath test were randomized in a double-blind manner into two groups: probiotic drug user and control group. After an initial 3-week aggressive therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, a 15-day maintenance antibiotic therapy with lactol was administered for the study group and the same regimen without lactol for the control group. After six months the HBT result and the GI symptoms were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The result of hydrogen breath test and the clinical symptoms in patients receiving the maintenance regimen with lactol probiotic showed a better response. The hydrogen breath test turned negative in 93.3 per cent of those receiving lactol compared to 66.7 per cent of the controls. In all the cases receiving lactol, the abdominal pain disappeared completely (P=0.002). In addition, other GI problems including flatulence, belching and diarrhoea significantly improved in the study group (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the preliminary data it seems that adding lactol probiotic to the maintenance therapy of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth patients on routine antibiotic therapy will be beneficial in preventing the complications of this syndrome. PMID:25579140

Khalighi, A.R.; Khalighi, M.R.; Behdani, R.; Jamali, J.; Khosravi, A.; Kouhestani, Sh.; Radmanesh, H.; Esmaeelzadeh, S.; Khalighi, N.

2014-01-01

107

Safety and risk assessment of the genetically modified Lactococci on rats intestinal bacterial flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Lactococcus lactis NZ9000\\/pNZPNK and intestinal microflora was evaluated as a method to assess safety of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). L. lactis NZ9000\\/pNZPNK is one kind of GMM and able to produce the intracellular subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) under induction with nisin. The host strain L. lactis NZ9000 was a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganism. Six groups of

Kai-Chien Lee; Chin-Feng Liu; Tzu-Hsing Lin; Tzu-Ming Pan

2010-01-01

108

Efficacy of Soaking in 70% Isopropyl Alcohol on Aerobic Bacterial Decontamination of Surgical Instruments and Gloves for Serial Mouse Laparotomies  

PubMed Central

Rodent surgeries in biomedical research facilities are often performed in series. This practice presents many challenges to maintaining aseptic technique between animals. Here, we examined using soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol for aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves used in a series of as many as 10 mouse laparotomy surgeries. These surgeries were performed on mice that were euthanized immediately prior to the procedure. Instruments and gloves were cultured before and after each procedure to determine the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. To assess the efficacy of the decontamination protocol, culture results were grouped by procedure and then paired (before soak and after soak) for analysis using McNemar test at an ? level of 0.05. In addition, by using the Fisher exact test, this modified aseptic method was compared with strict aseptic technique, for which autoclaved instruments and sterile surgical gloves were used for each procedure. In this study, we observed that the modified aseptic technique using 70% isopropyl alcohol soaks prevented aerobic bacterial contamination of instruments and gloves for as many as 5 mice. PMID:21205449

Keen, Jessica N; Austin, MaryKay; Huang, Li-Shan; Messing, Susan; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

2010-01-01

109

Intestinal epithelial CD98 directly modulates the innate host response to enteric bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

CD98 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein whose expression increases in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) during intestinal inflammation. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne human pathogen that attaches to IECs and injects effector proteins directly into the host cells, thus provoking an inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated CD98 and EPEC interactions in vitro and ex vivo and examined FVB wild-type (WT) and villin-CD98 transgenic mice overexpressing human CD98 in IECs (hCD98 Tg mice) and infected with Citrobacter rodentium as an in vivo model. In vivo studies indicated that CD98 overexpression, localized to the apical domain of colonic cells, increased the attachment of C. rodentium in mouse colons and resulted in increased expression of proinflammatory markers and decreased expression of anti-inflammatory markers. The proliferative markers Ki-67 and cyclin D1 were significantly increased in the colonic tissue of C. rodentium-infected hCD98 Tg mice compared to that of WT mice. Ex vivo studies correlate with the in vivo data. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies with Caco2-BBE cells showed a decrease in adherence of EPEC to Caco2 cells in which CD98 expression was knocked down. In vitro surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments showed direct binding between recombinant hCD98 and EPEC/C. rodentium proteins. We also demonstrated that the partial extracellular loop of hCD98 was sufficient for direct binding to EPEC/C. rodentium. These findings demonstrate the importance of the extracellular loop of CD98 in the innate host defense response to intestinal infection by attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. PMID:23297381

Charania, Moiz A; Laroui, Hamed; Liu, Hongchun; Viennois, Emilie; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Xiao, Bo; Ingersoll, Sarah A; Kalman, Daniel; Merlin, Didier

2013-03-01

110

Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Ethanol feeding increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration and perturbed hepatic and serum metabolite profiles. Ethanol feeding with CB or MCT alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and attenuated ethanol-induced metabolic perturbation. Both CB and MCT also normalized ethanol-induced hepatic macrophage activation, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration. Ethanol feeding elevated serum endotoxin level, which was normalized by MCT but not CB. In accordance, ethanol-induced downregulations of intestinal occludin and zonula occludens-1 were normalized by MCT but not CB. However, CB normalized ethanol-increased hepatic endotoxin level in association with upregulation of an endotoxin detoxifying enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). Knockdown ASS1 in H4IIEC3 cells resulted in impaired endotoxin clearance and upregulated cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the protection of saturated fats against alcohol-induced liver injury occur via different actions at the gut-liver axis and are chain length dependent. PMID:24113767

Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei

2013-01-01

111

Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Key Points\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to 4 of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Alcohol consumption is split, with 33% of the population consuming 95% of the alcoholic beverages and 33% abstaining. The\\u000a US population median intake is much less than the average (mean) intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a An increase in average alcohol intake could

William E. M. Lands

112

Campylobacter jejuni Outer Membrane Vesicles Play an Important Role in Bacterial Interactions with Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W.; Smith, David G. E.

2012-01-01

113

Culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community structure from the intestinal tracts of earthworms(Eisenia fetida).  

PubMed

The bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of earthworm were investigated by culture-dependent and - independent approaches. In total, 72 and 55 pure cultures were isolated from the intestinal tracts of earthworms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Aerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (40%), Bacillus (37%), Photobacterium (10%), Pseudomonas (7%), and Shewanella (6%). Anaerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (52%), Bacillus (27%), Shewanella (12%), Paenibacillus (5%), Clostridium (2%), and Cellulosimicrobium (2%). The dominant microorganisms were Aeromonas and Bacillus species under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In all, 39 DNA fragments were identified by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Aeromonas sp. was the dominant microorganism in feeds, intestinal tracts, and casts of earthworms. The DGGE band intensity of Aeromonas from feeds, intestinal tracts, and casts of earthworms was 12.8%, 14.7%, and 15.1%, respectively. The other strains identified were Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Photobacterium, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Streptomyces, uncultured Chloroflexi bacterium, and uncultured bacterium. These results suggest that PCR-DGGE analysis was more efficient than the culture-dependent approach for the investigation of bacterial diversity and the identification of unculturable microorganisms. PMID:21952364

Hong, Sung Wook; Kim, In Su; Lee, Ju Sam; Chung, Kun Sub

2011-09-01

114

Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center  

PubMed Central

Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000?cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder. PMID:25694782

Franco, Diana L.; Disbrow, Molly B.; Kahn, Allon; Koepke, Laura M.; Harris, Lucinda A.; Ramirez, Francisco C.

2015-01-01

115

Frequency of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Non-Specific Diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Introduction Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs in varying frequency in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the frequency of SIBO in IBS and chronic non-specific diarrhea (CNSD). Methods 129 patients with IBS (Manning's criteria), 73 with CNSD (? 4 weeks diarrhea with two of these tests normal [urine D-xylose, fecal fat and duodenal biopsy]) and 51 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for SIBO using glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). Diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) was grouped into CNSD. Rise in breath hydrogen 12 ppm above basal following 100 g glucose was diagnostic of SIBO. Results Of 129 patients with IBS, 7 were constipation (C-IBS), and 122 were of indeterminate type (I-IBS). Patients with IBS were younger than HC and CNSD (IBS vs. HC: 36.6 yr ± 11.4 vs. 44.1 yr ± 13.6, p = 0.001; IBS vs. CNSD: 36.6 yr ± 11.4 vs. 42 yr ± 14.5, p = 0.003). Patients with CNSD were comparable to HC in age (42 yr ± 14.5 vs. 44.1 yr ± 13.6, p = ns). Patients with IBS were more often male than HC [108/129 (83.7%) vs. 34/51 (66.7%) p = 0.02]; gender of CNSD and HC was comparable [male 39/73 (53.4%) vs. 34/51 (66.7%) p = ns]. SIBO was commoner in CNSD than HC [16 (21.9%) vs. 1 (2%), p = 0.003], but was comparable in IBS and HC [11 (8.5%) vs. 1 (2%), p = 0.18]. Patients with CNSD more often had SIBO than IBS [16 (21.9%) vs. 11 (8.5%), p = 0.007]. Conclusions SIBO was more common in CNSD including D-IBS than other types of IBS and HC. PMID:20535325

Kumar, Sunil; Mehrotra, Mansi; Lakshmi, CP; Misra, Asha

2010-01-01

116

Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.  

PubMed

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

Cotton, James A; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L Patrick; Hirota, Simon A; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

2014-01-01

117

Bacterial translocation secondary to small intestinal mucosal ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurement by diamine oxidase and peptidoglycanq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that small intestinal mucosal ischemia occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass by measuring serum diamine oxidase activity, an index of small intestinal mucosal ischemia, in perioerative patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: Twelve successive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass (Group I) were compared to 10 patients who underwent off-pump coronary

Nobuo Tsunooka; Kazutaka Maeyama; Yoshihiro Hamada; Hiroshi Imagawa; Shinji Takano; Yuji Watanabe; Kanji Kawachi

2010-01-01

118

Bacterial diversity within the equine large intestine as revealed by molecular analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of the microflora present within the equine large intestine was investigated through the analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Total genomic DNA, recovered from samples of large intestinal wall tissue and lumen contents, was used to generate 272 random clones that were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analysis. The 272 sequences were classified into 168 operational

Kristian Daly; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint; Soraya P. Shirazi-Beechey

2001-01-01

119

Bacterial translocation secondary to small intestinal mucosal ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurement by diamine oxidase and peptidoglycan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that small intestinal mucosal ischemia occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass by measuring serum diamine oxidase activity, an index of small intestinal mucosal ischemia, in perioerative patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: Twelve successive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass (Group I) were compared to 10 patients who underwent off-pump coronary

Nobuo Tsunooka; Kazutaka Maeyama; Yoshihiro Hamada; Hiroshi Imagawa; Shinji Takano; Yuji Watanabe; Kanji Kawachi

2004-01-01

120

Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense.  

PubMed

Microbial penetration of the intestinal epithelial barrier triggers inflammatory responses that include induction of the bactericidal C-type lectin RegIII?. Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and protects mice from intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Flagellin-induced RegIII? expression is IL-22 dependent, but how TLR signaling leads to IL-22 expression is incompletely defined. By using conditional depletion of lamina propria dendritic cell (LPDC) subsets, we demonstrated that CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, but not monocyte-derived CD103(-)CD11b(+) LPDCs, expressed high amounts of IL-23 after bacterial flagellin administration and drove IL-22-dependent RegIII? production. Maximal expression of IL-23 subunits IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 occurred within 60 min of exposure to flagellin. IL-23 subsequently induced a burst of IL-22 followed by sustained RegIII? expression. Thus, CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria. PMID:22306017

Kinnebrew, Melissa A; Buffie, Charlie G; Diehl, Gretchen E; Zenewicz, Lauren A; Leiner, Ingrid; Hohl, Tobias M; Flavell, Richard A; Littman, Dan R; Pamer, Eric G

2012-02-24

121

Acetate kinase Activity and Kinetic Properties of the Enzyme in Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 Intestinal Bacterial Strains  

PubMed Central

Activity of acetate kinase in cell-free extracts and individual fractions and the kinetic properties of the enzyme obtained from the Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were presented at the first time. The highest activity of the enzyme was measured in the cell-free extracts (1.52 ± 0.163 and 0.46 ± 0.044 U × mg-1 protein for D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) compared to other fractions. The specific activity of acetate kinase in the extracts of both bacterial strains was determined at different temperature and pH. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the purified acetate kinase was carried out. The acetate kinase activity, initial (instantaneous) reaction rate (V0) and maximum rate of the acetate kinase reaction (Vmax) in D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were defined. Michaelis constants (KmAcetyl phosphate and KmADP) of the enzyme reaction (2.54 ± 0.26 and 2.39 ± 0.24 mM for D. piger Vib-7 as well as 2.68 ± 0.25 and 2.47 ± 0.27 mM for Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) were calculated. The described results of acetate kinase, an important enzyme in the process of organic compounds oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction would be perspective and useful for clarification of the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and animals. PMID:25598851

Kushkevych, Ivan V

2014-01-01

122

Adherence and Cytokine Induction in Caco-2 Cells by Bacterial Populations from a Three-Stage Continuous-Culture Model of the Large Intestine?  

PubMed Central

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W.; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.

2011-01-01

123

Influence of dietary modifications on uptake of cholesterol, glucose, fatty acids, and alcohols into rabbit intestine13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of dietary modifications upon the rate of intestinal uptake oflipids and D-glucose was examined using a previously validated in vitro technique. Rabbits were fed for 6 wk on a control diet, or one containing 2% fat ( F), 0.2% cholesterol ( C), or 0.2% cholesterol plus 2% fat (CF). The rate of uptake, Jd, of glucose into the

A. B. R. Thomson

124

Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

2015-01-01

125

Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

2015-01-01

126

Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

2014-01-15

127

Gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance, bacterial translocation and mortality following cholestasis depend on the genetic background of the host.  

PubMed

Failure of the intestinal barrier is a characteristic feature of cholestasis. We have previously observed higher mortality in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We hypothesized the alteration in gut barrier function following cholestasis would vary by genetic background. Following one week of CBDL, jejunal TEER was significantly reduced in each ligated mouse compared with their sham counterparts; moreover, jejunal TEER was significantly lower in both sham and ligated C57BL/6J compared with sham and ligated A/J mice, respectively. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly increased in C57BL/6J mice vs. A/J mice. Four of 15 C57BL/6J mice were bacteremic; whereas, none of the 17 A/J mice were. Jejunal IFN-? mRNA expression was significantly elevated in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in occludin protein expression in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following both sham operation and CBDL. Only C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a marked decrease in ZO-1 protein expression following CBDL compared with shams. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples showed a dysbiosis only in C57BL/6J mice following CBDL when compared with shams. This study provides evidence of strain differences in gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance and bacterial translocation which supports the notion of a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury following cholestasis. PMID:23652772

Alaish, Samuel M; Smith, Alexis D; Timmons, Jennifer; Greenspon, Jose; Eyvazzadeh, Daniel; Murphy, Ebony; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Cirimotich, Shana; Mongodin, Emmanuel; Zhao, Aiping; Fasano, Alessio; Nataro, James P; Cross, Alan

2013-01-01

128

Gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance, bacterial translocation and mortality following cholestasis depend on the genetic background of the host  

PubMed Central

Failure of the intestinal barrier is a characteristic feature of cholestasis. We have previously observed higher mortality in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We hypothesized the alteration in gut barrier function following cholestasis would vary by genetic background. Following one week of CBDL, jejunal TEER was significantly reduced in each ligated mouse compared with their sham counterparts; moreover, jejunal TEER was significantly lower in both sham and ligated C57BL/6J compared with sham and ligated A/J mice, respectively. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly increased in C57BL/6J mice vs. A/J mice. Four of 15 C57BL/6J mice were bacteremic; whereas, none of the 17 A/J mice were. Jejunal IFN-? mRNA expression was significantly elevated in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in occludin protein expression in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following both sham operation and CBDL. Only C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a marked decrease in ZO-1 protein expression following CBDL compared with shams. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples showed a dysbiosis only in C57BL/6J mice following CBDL when compared with shams. This study provides evidence of strain differences in gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance and bacterial translocation which supports the notion of a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury following cholestasis. PMID:23652772

Alaish, Samuel M.; Smith, Alexis D.; Timmons, Jennifer; Greenspon, Jose; Eyvazzadeh, Daniel; Murphy, Ebony; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Cirimotich, Shana; Mongodin, Emmanuel; Zhao, Aiping; Fasano, Alessio; Nataro, James P.; Cross, Alan S

2013-01-01

129

Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.  

PubMed Central

Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains. PMID:1401067

Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

1992-01-01

130

Morphine induces bacterial translocation in mice by compromising intestinal barrier function in a TLR-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Opiates are among the most prescribed drugs for pain management. However, morphine use or abuse results in significant gut bacterial translocation and predisposes patients to serious infections with gut origin. The mechanism underlying this defect is still unknown. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms underlying compromised gut immune function and bacterial translocation following morphine treatment. We demonstrate significant bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and liver following morphine treatment in wild-type (WT) animals that was dramatically and significantly attenuated in Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and 4) knockout mice. We further observed significant disruption of tight junction protein organization only in the ileum but not in the colon of morphine treated WT animals. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) blocked the effects of both morphine and TLR ligands, suggesting the role of MLCK in tight junction modulation by TLR. This study conclusively demonstrates that morphine induced gut epithelial barrier dysfunction and subsequent bacteria translocation are mediated by TLR signaling and thus TLRs can be exploited as potential therapeutic targets for alleviating infections and even sepsis in morphine-using or abusing populations. PMID:23349783

Meng, Jingjing; Yu, Haidong; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jinghua; Banerjee, Santanu; Charboneau, Rick; Barke, Roderick A; Roy, Sabita

2013-01-01

131

Effects of dietary antibiotic growth promoter and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on production, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus female x Oreochromis aureus male).  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of a dietary antibiotic growth promoter (florfenicol) and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (DVAQUA) on growth, G:F, daily feed intake, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ? × Oreochromis aureus ?), a 16-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating aquaculture system. Four feeding regimens were evaluated: control, dietary florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 16 wk), dietary DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 16 wk), and sequential use of florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 8 wk), and DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 8 wk). Each regimen had 4 replicate tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) and each tank contained 12 fish (initial BW: 46.88 ± 0.38 g). Dietary florfenicol improved growth (P = 0.089), G:F (P = 0.036), and serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) of hybrid tilapia. However, the compound decreased the estimated intestinal bacterial count estimated by rpoB quantitative PCR (P < 0.001) and bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index based on 16S rDNA V3 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints) compared with the control. Although sequential use of florfenicol and DVAQUA improved growth and G:F numerically to a similar extent as dietary florfenicol, and increased intestinal bacterial count to normal quantities, the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA decreased intestinal bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index) as well as serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) compared with their respective use and the control. These findings might be negatively related to disease control and host defense, and the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA should be practiced with caution. Feeding DAVQUA to the fish improved nonspecific immunity and increased intestinal bacterial count and bacterial diversity, but further research, including challenge studies, should be conducted before recommendation of DVAQUA supplementation to hybrid tilapia diets. PMID:20852079

He, S; Zhou, Z; Meng, K; Zhao, H; Yao, B; Ringø, E; Yoon, I

2011-01-01

132

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

133

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

134

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

135

Interferon Gamma-Dependent Intestinal Pathology Contributes to the Lethality in Bacterial Superantigen-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by the superantigen exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes is characterized by robust T cell activation, profound elevation in systemic levels of multiple cytokines, including interferon-? (IFN-?), followed by multiple organ dysfunction and often death. As IFN-? possesses pro- as well as anti-inflammatory properties, we delineated its role in the pathogenesis of TSS. Antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of IFN-? or targeted disruption of IFN-? gene conferred significant protection from lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Following systemic high dose SEB challenge, whereas the HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ mice became sick and succumbed to TSS, HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? mice appeared healthy and were significantly protected from SEB-induced lethality. SEB-induced systemic cytokine storm was significantly blunted in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice. Serum concentrations of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40 and IL-17) and chemokines (KC, rantes, eotaxin and MCP-1) were significantly lower in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice. However, SEB-induced T cell expansion in the spleens was unaffected and expansion of SEB-reactive TCR V?8+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was even more pronounced in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice when compared to HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ mice. A systematic histopathological examination of several vital organs revealed that both HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ and HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice displayed comparable severe inflammatory changes in lungs, and liver during TSS. Remarkably, whereas the small intestines from HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ transgenic mice displayed significant pathological changes during TSS, the architecture of small intestines in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice was preserved. In concordance with these histopathological changes, the gut permeability to macromolecules was dramatically increased in HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ but not HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? mice during TSS. Overall, IFN-? seemed to play a lethal role in the immunopathogenesis of TSS by inflicting fatal small bowel pathology. Our study thus identifies the important role for IFN-? in TSS. PMID:21304813

Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; Holz, Marah; Wu, Tsung-Teh; David, Chella S.; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

2011-01-01

136

Development of a 13C-glycocholic acid blood test to assess bacterial metabolic activity of the small intestine in canines  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to establish optimal doses of 13C-glycocolic acid (GCA) for use in a GCA blood test as a marker for canine small intestinal bacterial metabolic activity. Four doses of GCA were administered orally to 8 healthy dogs. Blood samples were collected at various time points up to 480 min. The percent dose/min of 13C administered as GCA (PCD) and cumulative PCD (CUMPCD) were determined by fractional mass spectrometry. No dog showed any clinically obvious side effects. Doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg of bodyweight (BW) led to a significant increase in PCD and CUMPCD (P < 0.001). The mean CUMPCD was significantly higher for the 1 mg/kg BW dose compared with the 2 and 4 mg/kg BW doses (P < 0.05). Administration of 1 mg/kg BW of 13C-glycocholic acid led to an increase in CUMPCD over baseline in gas extracted from blood samples and appears to be the best parameter to evaluate for future clinical studies. PMID:16479732

2005-01-01

137

Dietary glycosaminoglycans interfere in bacterial adhesion and gliadin-induced pro-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.  

PubMed

Dietary components may have an important role in maintaining a balanced gut microbiota composition. Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by gliadins, and has been associated with a reduced proportion of Bifidobacterium in gut microbiota. This study evaluates the influence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on bacterial adhesion and their contribution in the gliadins-induced inflammatory response. The adhesion of potential probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7365), commensal (Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis) and pathogenic (Salmonella enterica CECT 443 and Listeria monocytogenes CECT 935) bacteria to mucin and Caco-2 cell cultures was determined. Gliadins were subjected to in vitro digestion (pepsin/pancreatin-bile), with/out GAGs, and the presence or not of cell suspensions of B. longum (10(8) CFU/ml). B. longum, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes, markedly interact with the high-sulphur-containing fraction of GAGs. The GAGs reduced the gliadins-mediated production of interleukin-1?, but not tumour necrosis factor-?. The results suggest that GAGs may ameliorate gliadin-induced inflammatory response, though they also slightly interfere with the action of B. longum. PMID:20637226

Laparra, J M; López-Rubio, A; Lagaron, J M; Sanz, Y

2010-11-01

138

Novel interpenetrating network microspheres of xanthan gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) for the delivery of diclofenac sodium to the intestine--in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Xanthan gum (XG), a trisaccharide branched polymer and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), was used to develop pH-sensitive interpenetrating network (IPN) microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method in the presence of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker to deliver model anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DS) to the intestine. Various formulations were prepared by changing the ratio of XG:PVA, extent of cross-linking in order to optimize the formulation variables on drug encapsulation efficiency, and release rate. Formation of interpenetrating network and the chemical stability of DS after penetration of microspheres was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were done on the drug loaded microspheres which confirmed molecular dispersion of DS in the IPN. Microspheres formed were spherical with smooth surfaces, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mean particle size, as measured by laser light scattering technique ranged between 310.25-477.10 microm. Drug encapsulation of up to 82.94% was achieved as measured by UV method. Both equilibrium and dynamic swelling studies and in vitro release studies were performed in pH 1.2 and 6.8. Release data indicated a Fickian trend of drug release which depends on the extent of cross-linking and the ratio of XG:PVA present in the microsphere. When subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in rabbits, microparticles show slow and prolonged drug release when compared with DS solution. Based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies it was concluded that these IPN microspheres provided oral controlled release of water-soluble DS. PMID:20482471

Ray, Somasree; Banerjee, Subham; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Laha, Bibek; Barik, Saikat; Sa, Biswanath; Bhattacharyya, Uttam Kumar

2010-01-01

139

Intestine Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ from a deceased donor. ...

140

Bile acid metabolism, bacterial bowel flora and intestinal function following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in dogs, with reference to the influence of administration of ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology following a total colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has not been sufficiently clarified yet. We investigated bile acid metabolism, bacterial bowel flora and transit of the alimentary tract after IPAA, with reference to administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in dogs undergoing IPAA. Ten adult beagle dogs underwent IPAA at one stage, and were observed for 12 months. UDCA (100 mg/day) was administered orally to five dogs, and the other five did not. In the UDCA(+) group, UDCA replaced other bile acids, especially cholic acid, accounting for 16.5% of gallbladder bile at 12 months after surgery. Both plasma levels and postprandial increase of total bile acids remained unchanged in the UDCA(+) group, but decreased in the UDCA(-) group at 12 months. Fecal excretion of bile acids tended to be smaller in the UDCA(+) group, and the ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was larger in the UDCA(-) group. Almost all the bile acids were in free form in stool, and UDCA constituted 19% in the UDCA(+) group. The transit time of the whole alimentary tract was elongated by administering UDCA, especially at an early period after IPAA. Although both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria decreased after IPAA, the latter decreased more in stool, resulting in an increase in the ratio of total anaerobes/total aerobes, especially in the UDCA(-) group. The decrease in Bacteroidaceae and Lactobacillus after IPAA was slightly smaller in the UDCA(+) group. Administration of UDCA following IPAA was efficient to induce rapid intestinal adaptation and also to keep the bile acid fraction in the ileal pouch less harmful. PMID:10770619

Imamura, M; Nakajima, H; Takahashi, H; Yamauchi, H; Seo, G

2000-02-01

141

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

142

IL-22 modulates gut epithelial and immune barrier functions following acute alcohol exposure and burn injury  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL)–22 maintains gut epithelial integrity and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3? and Reg3?. Our laboratory has shown that acute alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) exposure prior to burn injury results in increased gut permeability, intestinal T cell suppression and enhanced bacterial translocation. Herein, we determined the effect of combined EtOH intoxication and burn injury on intestinal levels of IL-22 as well as Reg3? and Reg3? expression. We further examined whether in vivo restitution of IL-22 restores gut permeability, Reg3? and Reg3? levels, and bacterial load (e.g. gut bacterial growth) within the intestine following EtOH and burn injury. Male mice, ~25g, were gavaged with EtOH (2.9 mg/kg) prior to receiving a ~12.5% total body surface area full thickness burn. Mice were immediately treated with saline control or IL-22 (1 mg/kg) by i.p. injection. One day post injury, there was a significant decrease in intestinal IL-22, Reg3? and Reg3? expression along with an increase in intestinal permeability and gut bacterial load following EtOH combined with burn injury, as compared to sham injury. Treatment with IL-22 normalized Reg3? and Reg3? expression, and attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability following EtOH and burn injury. Qualitatively, IL-22 treatment reduced the bacterial load in nearly half of mice receiving EtOH combined with burn injury. Our data indicate that IL-22 maintains gut epithelial and immune barrier integrity following EtOH and burn injury; thus, the IL-22/AMP pathway may provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients who sustain burn injury under the influence of EtOH. PMID:23143063

Rendon, Juan L.; Li, Xiaoling; Akhtar, Suhail; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

2012-01-01

143

Intestinal transplantation: living related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent

Stephen G Pollard

144

Intestinal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

145

Commensal Bacterial Communities Regulate Antiviral Immunity.  

E-print Network

??Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial communities in the human intestine are associated with enhanced susceptibility to multiple inflammatory diseases. Further, studies in murine… (more)

Abt, Michael Christopher

2012-01-01

146

Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

PubMed Central

Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay. PMID:23083400

2012-01-01

147

Identification of an intestine-specific promoter and inducible expression of bacterial ?-galactosidase in mammalian cells by a lac operon system  

PubMed Central

Background ?-galactosidase has been widely used in animal husbandry to reduce anti-nutritional factors (such as ?-galactoside) in feed. Intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of ?-galactosidase would be highly beneficial for transgenic animal production. Methods To achieve the intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of ?-galactosidase, we first identified intestine-specific promoters by comparing the transcriptional activity and tissue specificity of four intestine-specific promoters from human intestinal fatty acid binding protein, rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein, human mucin-2 and human lysozyme. We made two chimeric constructs combining the promoter and enhancer of human mucin-2, rat intestinal trefoil factor and human sucrase-isomaltase. Then a modified lac operon system was constructed to investigate the induction of ?-galactosidase expression and enzyme activity by isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and an ?-galactosidase substrate, ?-lactose. We declared that the research carried out on human (Zhai Yafeng) was in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and experimental research on animals also followed internationally recognized guidelines. Results The activity of the human mucin-2 promoter was about 2 to 3 times higher than that of other intestine-specific promoters. In the lac operon system, the repressor significantly decreased (P < 0.05) luciferase activity by approximately 6.5-fold and reduced the percentage of cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by approximately 2-fold. In addition, the expression level of ?-galactosidase mRNA was decreased by 6-fold and ?-galactosidase activity was reduced by 8-fold. In line with our expectations, IPTG and ?-lactose supplementation reversed (P < 0.05) the inhibition and produced a 5-fold increase of luciferase activity, an 11-fold enhancement in the percentage of cells with GFP expression and an increase in ?-galactosidase mRNA abundance (by about 5-fold) and ?-galactosidase activity (by about 7-fold). Conclusions We have successfully constructed a high specificity inducible lac operon system in an intestine-derived cell line, which could be of great value for gene therapy applications and transgenic animal production. PMID:23111091

2012-01-01

148

Hepatic and Fecal Metabolomic Analysis of the Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.  

PubMed

The interactions among the gut, liver, and immune system play an important role in liver disease. Probiotics have been used for the treatment and prevention of many pathological conditions, including liver diseases. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) was used herein, in conjunction with chemometric data analysis, to identify metabolites significantly affected by probiotics in mice fed with or without alcohol. The metabolomics analysis indicates that the levels of fatty acids increased in mouse liver and decreased in mouse feces when mice were chronically exposed to alcohol. Supplementing the alcohol-fed mice with culture supernatant from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGGs) normalized these alcohol-induced abnormalities and prevented alcoholic liver disease (ALD). These results agree well with previous studies. In addition to diet-derived long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), LGGs may positively modify the gut's bacterial population to stimulate LCFA synthesis, which has been shown to enhance intestinal barrier function, reduce endotoxemia, and prevent ALD. We also found that several amino acids, including l-isoleucine, a branched chain amino acid, were downregulated in the liver and fecal samples from animals exposed to alcohol and that the levels of these amino acids were corrected by LGGs. These results demonstrate that LGGs alleviates alcohol-induced fatty liver by mechanisms involving increasing intestinal and decreasing hepatic fatty acids and increasing amino acid concentration. PMID:25592873

Shi, Xue; Wei, Xiaoli; Yin, Xinmin; Wang, Yuhua; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Cuiqing; Zhao, Haiyang; McClain, Craig J; Feng, Wenke; Zhang, Xiang

2015-02-01

149

Small intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Smaller food particles move from the stomach to the small intestine. The small intestine is a long tube (like a garden hose), located just below the stomach. Most absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine (see absorption illustration). Keep in mind that the intestines are coiled like a snake inside of our bodies and are many feet long.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2006-08-18

150

Intestinal absorption of vitamins.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption processes of vitamins. The vitamins covered are the water-soluble vitamins folic acid, cobalamin (vitamin B12), biotin, pantothenic acid, and thiamine (vitamin B1) and the lipid-soluble vitamin A. For folate, significant advances have been made in regard to i) digestion of dietary folate polyglutamates to folate monoglutamates by the cloning of the responsible enzyme; ii) identification of the cDNA responsible for the intestinal folate transporter; iii) delineation of intracellular mechanisms that regulate small intestinal folate uptake; and iv) identification and characterization of a specific, pH-dependent, carrier-mediated system for folate uptake at the luminal (apical) membrane of human colonocytes. Studies on cobalamine have focused on cellular and molecular characterization of the intrinsic factor and its receptor. Studies on biotin transport in the small intestine have shown that the uptake process is shared by another water-soluble vitamin, pantothenic acid. Furthermore, a Na-dependent, carrier-mediated biotin uptake system that is also shared with pantothenic acid has been identified at the apical membrane of human colonocytes. This carrier is believed to be responsible for the absorption of the bacterially synthesized biotin and pantothenic acid in the large intestine. Also, preliminary studies have reported the cloning of a biotin transporter from the small intestine. As for thiamine intestinal transport, a study has shown thiamine uptake by small intestinal biopsy specimens to be via a carrier-mediated, Na-independent mechanism, which appears to be up-regulated in thiamine deficiency. Studies on vitamin A intestinal absorption have shown the existence of a receptor-mediated mechanism for the uptake of retinol bound to retinol-binding protein in the small intestine of suckling rats. Another study has shown that retinoic acid increases the mRNA level of the cellular retinol binding protein II and the rate of retinol uptake by Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. The study suggested that retinoids may play a role in the regulation of vitamin A intestinal absorption. PMID:17023940

Said, H M; Kumar, C

1999-03-01

151

Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: a mechanistic approach.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4g/kg b.wt for 90days. After 90days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?1 and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?1 (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. PMID:24239723

Abhilash, P A; Harikrishnan, R; Indira, M

2014-01-15

152

Alterations of the gut microbiome and metabolome in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of liver diseases and liver-related death worldwide. The gut is a habitat for billions of microorganisms which promotes metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations of gut microbiome by alcohol consumption are referred to bacterial overgrowth, release of bacteria-derived products, and/or changed microbiota equilibrium. Alcohol consumption also perturbs the function of gastrointestinal mucosa and elicits a pathophysiological condition. These adverse effects caused by alcohol may ultimately result in a broad change of gastrointestinal luminal metabolites such as bile acids, short chain fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Gut microbiota alterations, metabolic changes produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment, and the host factors are all critical contributors to the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of how alcohol-induced alterations of gut microbiota and metabolome, and discusses the mechanistic link between gastrointestinal dyshomeostasis and alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400995

Zhong, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2014-01-01

153

Alcohol-histamine interactions.  

PubMed

Alcohol and histamine metabolic pathways in the body have the common enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The metabolite of ethanol, acetaldehyde, can effectively compete with the metabolites of histamine, methylimidazole acetaldehyde, and imidazole acetaldehyde. At the periphery, alcohol and acetaldehyde liberate histamine from its store in mast cells and depress histamine elimination by inhibiting diamine oxidase, resulting in elevated histamine levels in tissues. Histamine mediates alcohol-induced gastric and intestinal damage and bronchial asthma as well as flushing in Orientals. On the other hand, alcohol provokes food-induced histaminosis and histamine intolerance, which is an epidemiological problem. There are many controversial reports concerning the effect of H2 receptor antagonists on ethanol metabolism and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach. In addition, alcohol affects histamine levels in the brain by modulating histamine synthesis, release, and turnover. Histamine receptor antagonists can affect ethanol metabolism and change the sensitivity of animals to the hypnotic effects of alcohol. In contrast to other neurotransmitters, the involvement of the brain histamine system in the mechanisms of the central actions of alcohol and in the pathogenesis of alcoholism is poorly studied and understood. PMID:10344773

Zimatkin, S M; Anichtchik, O V

1999-01-01

154

Gut-liver axis and probiotics: their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a "low bacterial richness" may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier ("leaky gut"), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

2014-11-14

155

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

156

Intestinal Malabsorption in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal malabsorption in the elderly is infrequent, and clinical features are muted so that the diagnosis is often missed. Physiologic changes with aging are restricted to altered absorption of calcium and perhaps zinc and magnesium; however, achlorhydria can lead to impaired absorption of vitamin B12, folic acid, and calcium. Methods and Results: Small bowel bacterial overgrowth occurs more commonly

Peter R. Holt

2007-01-01

157

The blessings and curses of intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

The intestinal immune system has to strike a delicate balance between initiating inflammatory responses against invading bacterial pathogens and avoiding their induction against microbiota colonizing the lumen. Adequate inflammatory responses against bacterial invasion result in the lumenal secretion of antimicrobial peptides, as well as the release of cytokines in tissue that recruit and activate phagocytes. However, pathogens have evolved to utilize these environmental changes in the inflamed intestine to promote colonization. This review focuses on the costs and benefits of intestinal inflammation and the fine interplay between the host, its microbiota, and enteric pathogens. PMID:20638640

Winter, Sebastian E; Keestra, A Marijke; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

2010-07-22

158

Bacterial flora of fishes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial floras isolated from eggs, skin, gills, and intestines have been described for a limited number of fish species. Generally, the range of bacterial genera isolated is related to the aquatic habitat of the fish and varies with factors such as the salinity of the habitat and the bacterial load in the water. In many investigations, identification of isolates to

Marian M. Cahill

1990-01-01

159

INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

160

Gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. PMID:25469033

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bertino, Gaetano; Malaguarnera, Michele

2014-01-01

161

Gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. PMID:25469033

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bertino, Gaetano; Malaguarnera, Michele

2014-11-28

162

Alcohol withdrawal  

MedlinePLUS

... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous - www.alcoholics-anonymous.org Al-Anon/ ...

163

Alcohol Alert  

MedlinePLUS

... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ... 1.13 MB ] No. 84: The Genetics of Alcoholism [ PDF - 174 KB] No. 83: Preventing Alcohol Abuse ...

164

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) experience a constellation of symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea, fullness, and malaise which fluctuates in severity and invariably result in a diminished quality of life. Though surgical resection or transplantation may be an option for some, there currently is no cure for CIP. Thus, management strategies utilize pharmacologic, intravenous, endoscopic, and surgical techniques to promote transit, minimize painful bloating, reduce complications of stasis, and improve quality of life. Prokinetic agents such as erythromycin, metoclopramide, cisapride, neostigmine, and tegaserod may be effective for acute exacerbations. Octreotide may reduce symptoms of bacterial overgrowth and bloating by stimulating migrating motor complexes. Enteral tubes for venting and nutritional support may reduce hospitalizations. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), fraught with well-known complications, may be the only tolerated source for nutrients and fluid. Advanced disease may magnify nutritional problems, difficulties of long term intravenous and intestinal access, and poor symptom control. Because the initial process may manifest in other intestinal regions following surgery, resection of involved segments should be performed with caution. Small intestinal transplantation is a high-risk surgery performed in persons unable to tolerate intravenous (IV) nutrition. Optimal management for persons with CIP should not only provide nutritional and symptom focused care but should be part of a supportive network which links patients to their appropriate healthcare needs. PMID:15238207

Lyford, Greg; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy

2004-08-01

165

Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ  

PubMed Central

Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

2012-01-01

166

Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

2012-01-01

167

Intestinal Malrotation  

MedlinePLUS

... other associated conditions, including: other defects of the digestive system heart defects abnormalities of other organs, including the ... large intestines are the longest part of the digestive system. If stretched out to their full length, they ...

168

Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n?=?7; NC, n?=?4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n?=?6; NC, n?=?6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n?=?9; NC, n?=?4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

2010-01-01

169

Alcoholic disease: Liver and beyond  

PubMed Central

The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

2014-01-01

170

Immune response and the intestinal microbiota in control of susceptibility to Heligmosomoides polygyrus   

E-print Network

The mammalian intestinal tract is highly colonised with a diverse bacterial microbiota. The importance of this bacterial presence is now recognised; these bacteria contribute both to the nutritional status of their hosts ...

Reynolds, Lisa Anne

2013-06-29

171

Intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction is an uncommon clinical condition of varied etiologies. Confusion in its characterization and diagnosis often results in delay in diagnosis as well as inappropriate treatment involving repeated surgery. The various aspects and characteristics of intestinal pseudoobstruction are described by representative case reports of three patients treated in our department with a review of the literature. Heightened awareness, understanding of the physiological dynamics and recognition of the spectrum of its clinical presentation and diagnostic modalities should result in more efficacious treatment. PMID:19069701

Rabau, O; Tulchinsky, H; Rabau, M

2008-01-01

172

Therapy for alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ? 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation. PMID:24605013

Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

2014-01-01

173

Therapy for alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ? 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation. PMID:24605013

Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

2014-03-01

174

Intestinal microflora in rats with ischemia/reperfusion liver injury*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the intestinal microflora status related to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) liver injury and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Specific pathogen free grade Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: Control group (n=8), sham group (n=6) and I/R group (n=10). Rats in the control group did not receive any treatment, rats in the I/R group were subjected to 20 min of liver ischemia, and rats in the sham group were only subjected to sham operation. Twenty-two hours later, the rats were sacrificed and liver enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum endotoxin, intestinal bacterial counts, intestinal mucosal histology, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and kidney were studied. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion increased liver enzymes, MDA, decreased SOD, and was associated with plasma endotoxin elevation in the I/R group campared to those in the sham group. Intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli decreased and intestinal Enterobacterium and Enterococcus, bacterial translocation to kidney increased in the I/R group compared to the sham group. Intestinal microvilli were lost, disrupted and the interspace between cells became wider in the I/R group. Conclusion: I/R liver injury may lead to disturbance of intestinal microflora and impairment of intestinal mucosal barrier function, which contributes to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation to kidney. PMID:15593386

Xing, Hui-chun; Li, Lan-juan; Xu, Kai-jin; Shen, Tian; Chen, Yun-bo; Sheng, Ji-fang; Yu, Yun-song; Chen, Ya-gang

2005-01-01

175

The intestinal microbiota and chronic disorders of the gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces of the gut are colonized by large numbers of heterogeneous bacteria that contribute to intestinal health and disease. In genetically susceptible individuals, a 'pathogenic community' may arise, whereby abnormal gut flora contributes to alterations in the mucosa and local immune system leading to gastrointestinal disease. These diseases include enteric infections, such as Clostridium difficile infection, small intestinal bacterial

Herbert L. DuPont; Andrew W. DuPont

2011-01-01

176

Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith  

E-print Network

. There are 105 cells in a milliliter of seawater, or on a square centimeter of our skin. There are ten times as many bacterial cells on our skin and in our large intestine as cells in our own body. We are nothing case, the shape of the graph of N(t) versus t has the classic "S" shape. However, the logistic equation

Smith, Hal

177

Changes, with age, in the phospholipid content of the intestinal mucus layer of the newborn rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: The high incidence of bacterial translocation in newborns is thought to be caused, in part, by the immaturity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Recently, intestinal mucus phospholipids (PL) have been reported to be important factors in the function of this mucosal barrier. The aim of this study was to quantify changes, with age, in the intestinal mucus PL of

Hiroomi Okuyama; Masahiko Urao; David Lee; Akira Abe; Robert A Drongowski; Carroll M Harmon; Arnold G Coran

1998-01-01

178

Intestinal Stomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intestinal stomas have long been used by surgeons for fecal diversion and remain an important tool for both the general and\\u000a colon and rectal surgeon. They are considered a vital ­element as either a permanent means for stool evacuation or as a temporary\\u000a bridge in order to treat complicated abdominal problems or to heal more distal anastomoses. The surgeon must

Laurence R. Sands; Floriano Marchetti

179

Characteristics and Efficiency of Glutamine Production by Coupling of a Bacterial Glutamine Synthetase Reaction with the Alcoholic Fermentation System of Baker’s Yeast  

PubMed Central

Glutamine production with bacterial glutamine synthetase (GS) and the sugar-fermenting system of baker’s yeast for ATP regeneration was investigated by determining the product yield obtained with the energy source for ATP regeneration (i.e., glucose) for yeast fermentation. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was accumulated temporarily prior to the formation of glutamine in mixtures which consisted of dried yeast cells, GS, their substrate (glucose and glutamate and ammonia), inorganic phosphate, and cofactors. By an increase in the amounts of GS and inorganic phosphate, the amounts of glutamine formed increased to 19 to 54 g/liter, with a yield increase of 69 to 72% based on the energy source (glucose) for ATP regeneration. The analyses of sugar fermentation of the yeast in the glutamine-producing mixtures suggested that the apparent hydrolysis of ATP by a futile cycle(s) at the early stage of glycolysis in the yeast cells reduces the efficiency of ATP utilization. Inorganic phosphate inhibits phosphatase(s) and thus improves glutamine yield. However, the analyses of GS activity in the glutamine-producing mixtures suggested that the higher concentration of inorganic phosphate as well as the limited amount of ATP-ADP caused the low reactivity of GS in the glutamine-producing mixtures. A result suggestive of improved glutamine yield under the conditions with lower concentrations of inorganic phosphate was obtained by using a yeast mutant strain that had low assimilating ability for glycerol and ethanol. In the mutant, the activity of the enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, especially fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, was lower than that in the wild-type strain. PMID:9687456

Wakisaka, Shinji; Ohshima, Yoshifumi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Tochikura, Tatsurokuro; Tachiki, Takashi

1998-01-01

180

Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

2005-01-01

181

Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.  

PubMed

Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.160. PMID:25310762

Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

2014-10-13

182

Alcoholic hallucinosis  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

Bhat, Pookala S.; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R.; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

2012-01-01

183

Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... J.C. Alcohol withdrawal severity in inbred mouse (Mus musculus) strains. Behavioral Neuroscience 119(4):911–925, 2005. ... ?1 GABAA receptor subunits: Insights from humans and mice. Alcohol Research & Health 34:345–354, 2012. 17 ...

184

Arguments for alcoholic hand disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-aqueous use of ethanol or propanols offers various advantages over washing hands with either unmedicated or medicated soap in both hygienic and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohols exert the strongest and fastest activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi (but not bacterial spores) as well as enveloped (but less so against non-enveloped) viruses, being little influenced by interfering

M. L. Rotter

2001-01-01

185

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

2014-01-01

186

Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)  

MedlinePLUS

... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ...

187

Alcohol during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Smoking, alcohol and drugs > Alcohol during pregnancy Smoking, alcohol and drugs Don’t smoke, drink alcohol or ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol during pregnancy Drinking alcohol when you're pregnant ...

188

Development of an online-SPE-LC-MS method for the investigation of the intestinal absorption of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PHIP) and its bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 in a Caco-2 Transwell system.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic aromatic amines such as PHIP are formed during the heat processing of food. PHIP undergoes bacterial metabolism leading to 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PHIP-M1) as main metabolite. We developed an LC-MS method with automated sample preparation by online-solid-phase-extraction for the simultaneous quantification of PHIP and its mammalian and bacterial metabolites N-hydroxy-PHIP, 4-OH-PHIP and PHIP-M1 in biological samples. The method was used to investigate the transport of PHIP-M1 through a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The experiments show that PHIP-M1 rapidly crosses the cell monolayer and that PHIP-M1 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein and the multiple drug resistance 2 transporter. The intestinal absorption of PHIP-M1 is comparable with that of PHIP and a moderate to high bioavailability has to be expected. Thus, not only the human metabolites of PHIP but also the bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 formed in the gut could contribute to the toxic effects of PhIP. PMID:25053091

Willenberg, Ina; von Elsner, Leonie; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

2015-01-01

189

Prostatitis - bacterial  

MedlinePLUS

Prostatitis is most often caused by a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) ...

190

Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects against Neutrophil-Mediated Intestinal Damage by Down-Regulation of Neutrophil p47phox and p67phox Activity and O2? Production in a Two-Hit Model of Alcohol Intoxication and Burn Injury1  

PubMed Central

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to protect against tissue injury. Furthermore, HO-1 is also shown to be antioxidant. Our recent findings indicate that acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication exacerbates postburn intestinal and lung tissue damage, and this was found to be neutrophil dependent. Because neutrophil-mediated tissue injury involves the release of superoxide anions (O2?), the present study examined the role of HO-1 in neutrophil O2? production following EtOH and burn injury. Furthermore, we investigated whether HO-1 antioxidant properties are mediated via modulation of p47phox and/or p67phox proteins. Male rats (~250 g) were gavaged with EtOH to achieve a blood EtOH level of ~100 mg/dL before burn or sham injury (~12.5% total body surface area). Some rats were treated with HO-1 activator cobalt protoporphyrin IX chloride (Copp; 25 mg/kg body weight) at the time of injury. On day 1 after injury, we found that EtOH combined with burn injury significantly increased neutrophil O2? production and p47phox and p67phox activation and decreased caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. This was accompanied with a decrease in neutrophil HO-1 levels. The treatment of animals with HO-1 activator Copp normalized neutrophil HO-1, O2?, p47phox, and p67phox following EtOH and burn injury. The expression of caspase-3, however, was further decreased in Copp-treated sham and EtOH plus burn groups. Moreover, Copp treatment also prevented the increase in intestinal edema and permeability following EtOH and burn injury. Altogether, these findings provide a new insight into the mechanism by which HO-1 regulates neutrophil O2? production and protect the intestine from damage following EtOH and burn injury. PMID:18453614

Li, Xiaoling; Schwacha, Martin G.; Chaudry, Irshad H.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

2011-01-01

191

Agent-based model of Fecal Microbial Transplant effect on Bile Acid Metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the Clostridium difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, Fecal Microbial Transplant (FMT). The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of personalized medicine. PMID:25168489

Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

2014-01-01

192

Innate immune signaling and gut-liver interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and covers a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The innate immune response in the liver plays an important role during NAFLD progression. In addition, changes in the intestinal microbial balance and bacterial translocation can further affect disease progression. Immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage or pathogen invasion with intracellular or surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), subsequently initiating signaling cascades that trigger the release of factors promoting the inflammatory response during NAFLD progression. Therefore, mechanisms by which cells of the immune system are activated and recruited into the liver and how these cells cause injury and stress are important for understanding the inflammatory response during NAFLD. PMID:25568861

Trautwein, Christian

2014-01-01

193

Bacterial Sialidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

2004-01-01

194

Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility.

Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

1987-08-01

195

Alcoholism & depression.  

PubMed

One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment. PMID:23026991

Hall, Mellisa

2012-10-01

196

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Policy in the United States, visit NIAAA's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow Us Share Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA Contact Us Material en Español USA.gov—Government Made Easy U.S. Department of Health ...

197

Bacterial degradation of bile salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile salts are surface-active steroid compounds. Their main physiological function is aiding the digestion of lipophilic nutrients\\u000a in intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Many bacteria are capable of transforming and degrading bile salts in the digestive tract\\u000a and in the environment. Bacterial bile salt transformation and degradation is of high ecological relevance and also essential\\u000a for the biotechnological production of steroid

Bodo Philipp

2011-01-01

198

Bacterial contamination of hospital physicians' stethoscopes.  

PubMed

Because stethoscopes might be potential vectors of nosocomial infections, this study, conducted in a 450-bed general hospital, was devised to evaluate the bacterial contamination of stethoscopes; bacterial survival on stethoscope membranes; the kinetics of the bacterial load on stethoscope membranes during clinical use; and the efficacy of 70% alcohol or liquid soap for membrane disinfection. Among the 355 stethoscopes tested, 234 carried > or =2 different bacterial species; 31 carried potentially pathogenic bacteria. Although some bacteria deposited onto membranes could survive 6 to 18 hours, none survived after disinfection. PMID:10501265

Bernard, L; Kereveur, A; Durand, D; Gonot, J; Goldstein, F; Mainardi, J L; Acar, J; Carlet, J

1999-09-01

199

Fish Oil Enhances Recovery of Intestinal Microbiota and Epithelial Integrity in Chronic Rejection of Intestinal Transplant  

PubMed Central

Background The intestinal chronic rejection (CR) is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. Methods/Principal Findings The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. Conclusions/Significance Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation. PMID:21698145

Li, Qiurong; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Chenyang; Tang, Chun; Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

2011-01-01

200

Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions  

PubMed Central

Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

2014-01-01

201

Alcohol conversion  

DOEpatents

Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

2002-01-01

202

Steatorrhoea in rats with an intestinal cul-de-sac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steatorrhoea in rats with an intestinal cul-de-sac is mainly due to malabsorption of alimentary fats but faecal lipids of endogenous origin are also increased. Steatorrhoea depends on the site of the blind loop in the small intestine and is mainly caused by bacterial proliferation in the lumen of the gut. The aetiological role of Gram-positive anaerobic microbes, especially Clostridium welchii,

P. P. Hoet; H. Eyssen

1964-01-01

203

Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style.  

PubMed

The lower gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with resident microbial communities (microbiota), which do not elicit overt host responses but rather provide benefit to the host, including niche protection from pathogens. However, introduction of bacteria into the underlying tissue evokes acute inflammation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) elicit this stereotypic host response by actively penetrating the intestinal epithelium and surviving in tissue macrophages. Initial responses generated by bacterial host cell interaction are amplified in tissue through the interleukin (IL)-18/interferon-gamma and IL-23/IL-17 axes, resulting in the activation of mucosal barrier functions against NTS dissemination. However, the pathogen is adapted to survive antimicrobial defenses encountered in the lumen of the inflamed intestine. This strategy enables NTS to exploit inflammation to outcompete the intestinal microbiota, and promotes the Salmonella transmission by the fecal/oral route. PMID:19819699

Santos, Renato L; Raffatellu, Manuela; Bevins, Charles L; Adams, L Garry; Tükel, Cagla; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

2009-11-01

204

Alcohol Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... many years. ( Photo information ) Read Peter's story Back: Effects of Meth on Bodies and Brains Next: Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | ...

205

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

206

Bacterial translocation in dianhydrodulcitol-treated mice.  

PubMed

Escherichia, Proteus, Klebsiella and Streptococcus strains were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens and livers of conventional mice treated with dianhydrodulcitol (DAD), indicating that intestinal bacteria had appeared in organs usually containing no bacteria. The frequency of bacterial translocation showed direct relation to the dose of the drug and appeared simultaneously with the spleen atrophy caused by DAD. PMID:3293340

Anderlik, P; Szeri, I; Bános, Z

1988-01-01

207

Chemically induced intestinal damage models in zebrafish larvae.  

PubMed

Several intestinal damage models have been developed using zebrafish, with the aim of recapitulating aspects of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These experimentally induced inflammation models have utilized immersion exposure to an array of colitogenic agents (including live bacteria, bacterial products, and chemicals) to induce varying severity of inflammation. This technical report describes methods used to generate two chemically induced intestinal damage models using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Methods to monitor intestinal damage and inflammatory processes, and chemical-genetic methods to manipulate the host response to injury are also described. PMID:23448252

Oehlers, Stefan H; Flores, Maria Vega; Hall, Christopher J; Okuda, Kazuhide S; Sison, John Oliver; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

2013-06-01

208

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

209

Alcohol use and safe drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism or alcohol dependence Falls, drownings, and other accidents ... you have a history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism. If alcoholism runs in your family, you may ...

210

Alcohol to Ester 21 ALCOHOL TO ESTER  

E-print Network

Alcohol to Ester 21 ALCOHOL TO ESTER Acid-Catalyzed Esterification of an Unknown Alcohol Summary: You will be given an unknown alcohol, you will convert it to an ester, and you will identify both the original alcohol and the derived ester using boiling point and H-NMR. Some Learning Goals: 1. Observe

Jasperse, Craig P.

211

Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology  

PubMed Central

Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

212

Host Responses to Intestinal Microbial Antigens in Gluten-Sensitive Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimsExcessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in gluten-sensitized HLA-DQ8\\/HCD4 mice.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHLA-DQ8\\/HCD4 mice were sensitized with gluten, and gavaged

Jane M. Natividad; Xianxi Huang; Emma Slack; Jennifer Jury; Yolanda Sanz; Chella David; Emmanuel Denou; Pinchang Yang; Joseph Murray; Kathy D. McCoy; Elena F. Verdú; Wen-Liang Zhou

2009-01-01

213

Naltrexone for Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

214

Women and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 NIH . . . ... Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 Selected ...

215

Alcohol and Migraine  

MedlinePLUS

... disabling headaches . Home > Alcohol and Migraine Print Email Alcohol and Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Alcohol and Migraine Alessandro Panconesi, MD Key Points Alcohol ...

216

Alcohol and pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

217

Alcoholic liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause inflammation in the liver . Over time, scarring ...

218

Differential Alteration in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory intestinal responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may result from an exaggerated host defense reaction of the intestinal epithelium to endogenous lumenal bacterial flora. Intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express several functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which appear to be key regulators of the innate response system. The aim of this study was to characterize

ELKE CARIO; DANIEL K. PODOLSKY

2000-01-01

219

Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36–72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep.

Kirk J Brower

2003-01-01

220

Melatonin protects liver from intestine ischemia reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of melatonin on liver after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: One hundred and fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 190-210 g, aged 7 wk, were randomly divided into melatonin exposure group, alcohol solvent control group and normal saline control group. Rats in the melatonin exposure group received intraperitoneal (IP) melatonin (20 mg/kg) 30 min before intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR), rats in the alcohol solvent control group received the same concentration and volume of alcohol, and rats in the normal saline control group received the same volume of normal saline. Serum samples were collected from each group 0.5, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after intestinal IR. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with an auto-biochemical analyzer. Serum TNF-? was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was detected by colorimetric assay. Pathological changes in liver and immunohistochemical straining of ICAM-1 were observed under an optical microscope. RESULTS: The levels of ALT measured at various time points after intestinal IR in the melatonin exposure group were significantly lower than those in the other two control groups (P < 0.05). The serum AST levels 12 and 24 h after intestinal IR and the ICAM-1 levels (%) 6, 12 and 24 h after intestinal IR in the melatonin exposure group were also significantly lower than those in the other two control groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exotic melatonin can inhibit the activity of ALT, AST and TNF-?, decrease the accumulation of MDA, and depress the expression of ICAM-1 in liver after intestinal IR injury, thus improving the liver function. PMID:19109875

Li, Jian-Yi; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Gu, Xi; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Hai; Qin, Yi-Min

2008-01-01

221

Alcohol project  

SciTech Connect

The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

Not Available

1980-12-01

222

Alcoholism Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing for more than a half century in the United States, the medical model labels alcoholism as a disease and offers abstinence as the sole predominant cure. In 1990, a panel representing the American National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine concluded that most drinking problems were not serious enough to justify America's intensive one-size-fits-all hospital treatment programs. Great Britain,

James T. Decker; Kyra McCormill; Charles Lowe; Willie Elliott

2004-01-01

223

Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

2014-01-01

224

Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.  

PubMed

Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

2014-10-28

225

The vagus nerve as a modulator of intestinal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic nervous system attenuates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibits inflammatory processes. Hence, in animal models of intestinal inflammation, such as postoperative ileus and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, vagus nerve stimulation ameliorates disease activity. On the other hand, in infectious models of microbial peritonitis, vagus nerve activation seemingly acts counteractive; it impairs bacterial clearance and increases mortality. It

Zanden van der E. P; G. E. Boeckxstaens; Jonge de W. J

2009-01-01

226

Intestinal Bacteria And The Hydrolysis Of Glycosidic Bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH the development of effective anaerobic techniques, the composition of the human intestinal bacterial flora is now more clearly understood. Although the detailed composition is dependent on the nature of the diet (see, for example, Hill et al., 1971), in all cases studied the predominant faecal bacteria are those of the non-sporing strictly anaerobic groups. The metabolic significance of the

GABRIELLE HAWKSWORTH; B. S. Drasar; M. J. Hili

1971-01-01

227

Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

228

Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... underlying illness, stop the medication, or do both. Nutritional Support People with intestinal pseudo-obstruction often need nutritional support to prevent malnutrition and weight loss. Enteral nutrition ...

229

Degradation of DNA by nucleases in intestinal tract of rats.  

PubMed

Strains of Escherichia coli K12 have been constructed as safer hosts for use in recombinant DNA research, These strains are unable to survive passage through the intestinal tracts of rats because of a constellation of mutations conferring bile sensitivity and requirements for diaminopimelic acid and thymine. Since death caused by diaminopimelic acid deprivation could release recombinant DNA before DNA is degraded because of thymine starvation, it is important to determine the "survival potential" of the released DNA's. Bacterial and plasmid DNA's extracted from bacterial cells are rapidly degraded when added to low dilutions of rat intestinal contents. This observation, coupled with the stringent requirements necessary for in vitro transformation or transfection, make in vivo transmission of naked recombinant DNA in the rat intestinal tract highly improbable. PMID:322286

Maturin, L; Curtiss, R

1977-04-01

230

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants; oral antibiotics; parenteral antibiotics; saline; topical antibiotics; and warm compresses. PMID:21718563

2010-01-01

231

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses. PMID:22348418

2012-01-01

232

Intestinal permeability to small- and large-molecular-weight substances in the newborn rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: The authors have previously reported the occurrence of spontaneous bacterial translocation (BT) and its resolution with age in the newborn rabbit. They have also reported a close correlation between small bowel bacterial colonization (BC-SB) and BT at 1 week of age, suggesting that the presence of luminal bacteria and their production of endotoxins may increase the intestinal permeability. The

Masahiko Urao; Hiroomi Okuyama; Robert A Drongowski; Daniel H Teitelbaum; Arnold G Coran

1997-01-01

233

Health risks of alcohol use  

MedlinePLUS

Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Publishing. 2013. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder: a comparison between DSM-IV ...

234

Interstellar Alcohols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

1995-01-01

235

Alcoholic hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice and liver failure that generally occurs after decades of harmful alcohol consumption. Less severe forms of acute AH (AAH) frequently respond to alcoholic abstinence; whereas severe AAHs are characterized by a poor prognosis: up to 40-60% of these patients die within six months. Glucocorticoids currently remain the mainstay for treating severe AAH in patients with Maddrey’s Discriminant Function score > 32. Standard contraindications include recent upper gastrointestinal bleeding, renal insufficiency and uncontrolled infections. The evaluation of concomitant viral infections (hepatitis C and B viruses) is mandatory. Liver transplantation (LT), in non-responders patients, is a possible therapeutic option for severe AAH, but it is rarely used because a 6-month abstinence period is required before listing for LT. Unfortunately, most of these patients die before the end of this sober period. In our opinion, in case of severe AAH and in case of patients with a good social support and without severe psychotic or personality disorders, the lack of pre-LT abstinence period alone should not be considered a hindrance to LT. PMID:23904876

Testino, G

2013-01-01

236

Alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice and liver failure that generally occurs after decades of harmful alcohol consumption. Less severe forms of acute AH (AAH) frequently respond to alcoholic abstinence; whereas severe AAHs are characterized by a poor prognosis: up to 40-60% of these patients die within six months. Glucocorticoids currently remain the mainstay for treating severe AAH in patients with Maddrey's Discriminant Function score > 32. Standard contraindications include recent upper gastrointestinal bleeding, renal insufficiency and uncontrolled infections. The evaluation of concomitant viral infections (hepatitis C and B viruses) is mandatory. Liver transplantation (LT), in non-responders patients, is a possible therapeutic option for severe AAH, but it is rarely used because a 6-month abstinence period is required before listing for LT. Unfortunately, most of these patients die before the end of this sober period. In our opinion, in case of severe AAH and in case of patients with a good social support and without severe psychotic or personality disorders, the lack of pre-LT abstinence period alone should not be considered a hindrance to LT. PMID:23904876

Testino, G

2013-06-15

237

The role of diet on intestinal microbiota metabolism: downstream impacts on host immune function and health, and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Dietary impacts on health may be one of the oldest concepts in medicine; however, only in recent years have technical advances in mass spectroscopy, gnotobiology, and bacterial sequencing enabled our understanding of human physiology to progress to the point where we can begin to understand how individual dietary components can affect specific illnesses. This review explores the current understanding of the complex interplay between dietary factors and the host microbiome, concentrating on the downstream implications on host immune function and the pathogenesis of disease. We discuss the influence of the gut microbiome on body habitus and explore the primary and secondary effects of diet on enteric microbial community structure. We address the impact of consumption of non-digestible polysaccharides (prebiotics and fiber), choline, carnitine, iron, and fats on host health as mediated by the enteric microbiome. Disease processes emphasized include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, IBD, and cardiovascular disease/atherosclerosis. The concepts presented in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to develop fully and validate potential therapeutic approaches. Specific dietary interventions offer exciting potential for nontoxic, physiologic ways to alter enteric microbial structure and metabolism to benefit the natural history of many intestinal and systemic disorders. PMID:24652102

Goldsmith, Jason R; Sartor, R Balfour

2014-05-01

238

Laparoscopic intestinal stomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We report our early experiences with laparoscopic intestinal stomas, describing the indications, the surgical techniques, and the complications of this new procedure. METHODS: The medical records of the 17 patients who had successfully undergone laparoscopic intestinal diversion at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean follow-up of this group has been 24.3

George M. Fuhrman; David M. Ota

1994-01-01

239

Gallstones: an intestinal disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist

K J VAN ERPECUM; G P VAN BERGE-HENEGOUWEN

1999-01-01

240

Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics.  

PubMed

In the 21(st) century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion) or obesity (US$133 billion). Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol. PMID:24791039

Adewale, Adebayo; Ifudu, Onyekachi

2014-03-01

241

Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

Arslan, Nur

2014-01-01

242

Bacterial pathogenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes from all of the crucial bacterial pathogens of humans, plants and animals have now been sequenced, as have genomes from many of the important commensal, symbiotic and environmental microorganisms. Analysis of these sequences has revealed the forces that shape pathogen evolution and has brought to light unexpected aspects of pathogen biology. The finding that horizontal gene transfer and genome

Mark J. Pallen; Brendan W. Wren

2007-01-01

243

Bacterial Biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacteria and fungi can enhance plant growth. The present review is limited to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). However, it includes endophytic bacteria that show plant growth enhancing activity as well. Also the best studied bacterial mechanisms of plant growth promotion are discussed, with a special emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation and synthesis of phytohormones, including less understood mechanisms

LUIS E. FUENTES-RAMIREZ; Jesus Caballero-Mellado

244

Bacterial concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can

Venkataswamy Ramakrishnan; K. P. Ramesh; S. S. Bang

2001-01-01

245

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.  

PubMed

Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters. PMID:24133060

Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S; Chou, Tristan; Said, Hamid M

2013-12-01

246

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers  

PubMed Central

Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters. PMID:24133060

Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S.; Chou, Tristan

2013-01-01

247

[Bacterial translocation: gap in the shield].  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is not only regarded as a system where nutrient absorption takes place, but also as a vital barrier against intraluminal pathogens entering the circulation and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Bacterial translocation is defined as the penetration of viable bacteria or bacterial compounds from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites. This disorder has been described in several clinical conditions. The main promoting factors for bacterial translocation have been proposed to be changes in the intestinal microflora, mucosal barrier failure and defects in host immunity. The presence of bacterial translocation has been associated with higher complications and mortality rates; therefore it should be taken into account in the therapeutic strategies of patients with predisposing factors. PMID:24534878

Rosero, Olivér; Kovács, Tibor; Onody, Péter; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

2014-02-23

248

Bacterial adaptation to the gut environment favors successful colonization  

PubMed Central

Rodent models harboring a simple yet functional human intestinal microbiota provide a valuable tool to study the relationships between mammals and their bacterial inhabitants. In this study, we aimed to develop a simplified gnotobiotic mouse model containing 10 easy-to-grow bacteria, readily available from culture repositories, and of known genome sequence, that overall reflect the dominant commensal bacterial makeup found in adult human feces. We observed that merely inoculating a mix of fresh bacterial cultures into ex-germ free mice did not guarantee a successful intestinal colonization of the entire bacterial set, as mice inoculated simultaneously with all strains only harbored 3 after 21 d. Therefore, several inoculation procedures were tested and levels of individual strains were quantified using molecular tools. Best results were obtained by inoculating single bacterial strains into individual animals followed by an interval of two weeks before allowing the animals to socialize to exchange their commensal microbes. Through this procedure, animals were colonized with almost the complete bacterial set (9/10). Differences in the intestinal composition were also reflected in the urine and plasma metabolic profiles, where changes in lipids, SCFA, and amino acids were observed. We conclude that adaptation of bacterial strains to the host’s gut environment (mono-colonization) may predict a successful establishment of a more complex microbiota in rodents. PMID:22157236

Rezzonico, Enea; Mestdagh, Renaud; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

2011-01-01

249

Dietary squid ink polysaccharides ameliorated the intestinal microflora dysfunction in mice undergoing chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal mucositis and infection by chemotherapy treatment are associated with alteration of intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation due to the potential damage induced by anti-cancer drugs on the intestinal barrier and microbiota homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of dietary polysaccharides on chemotherapy induced intestinal microflora dysfunction. In the current contribution, with a mouse model intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) of cyclophosphamide (Cy) for 2 days, we revealed that polysaccharides from the ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) altered the intestinal microflora composition. OBP retarded the excessive growth of intestinal bacteria induced by cyclophosphamide, based on 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) quantification. The clone libraries of intestinal bacteria 16S rDNA were used to decipher the difference in bacterial community structures in different groups of mice. Followed by RFLP evaluation and OTU abundance analysis, they imply that OBP changed the intestinal microflora composition, in which the quantity of probiotic Bifidobacterium got up-regulated but Bacteroidetes decreased in mice undergoing chemotherapy. Our results may have important implications for OBP as a functional food component or nutrient against chemotherapy induced intestinal injury and potential pathogenic intestinal disorders involving inflammation and infection. PMID:25131333

Tang, Qingjuan; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Shangyun; Wu, Juan; Wang, Jianghua; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Shiguo; Xue, Changhu

2014-10-01

250

Intestinal adaptation after massive intestinal resection  

PubMed Central

Patients with short bowel syndrome require long term parenteral nutrition support. However, after massive intestinal resection the intestine undergoes adaptation and nutritional autonomy may be obtained. Given that the complications of parenteral nutrition may be life threatening or result in treatment failure and the need for intestinal transplantation, a more attractive option is to wean patients off nutrition support by optimising the adaptive process. The article examines the evidence that after extensive small bowel resection adaptation occurs in humans and focuses on the factors that influence adaptation and the strategies that have been used to optimise this process. The review is based on an English language Medline search with secondary references obtained from key articles. There is evidence that adaptation occurs in humans. Adaptation is a complex process that results in response to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli. Successful and reproducible strategies to improve adaptation remain elusive despite an abundance of experimental data. Nevertheless given the low patient survival and quality of life associated with other treatments for irreversible intestinal failure it is imperative that clinical research continues into the optimisation of the adaptation. PMID:15749794

Weale, A; Edwards, A; Bailey, M; Lear, P

2005-01-01

251

Lipocalin-2 resistance confers an advantage to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium for growth and survival in the inflamed intestine.  

PubMed

In response to enteric pathogens, the inflamed intestine produces antimicrobial proteins, a process mediated by the cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed intestinal environment, suggesting that the pathogen is resistant to antimicrobials it encounters in the intestinal lumen. However, the identity of these antimicrobials and corresponding bacterial resistance mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that enteric infection of rhesus macaques and mice with S. Typhimurium resulted in marked Il-17- and IL-22-dependent intestinal epithelial induction and luminal accumulation of lipocalin-2, an antimicrobial protein that prevents bacterial iron acquisition. Resistance to lipocalin-2, mediated by the iroBCDE iroN locus, conferred a competitive advantage to the bacterium in colonizing the inflamed intestine of wild-type but not of lipocalin-2-deficient mice. Thus, resistance to lipocalin-2 defines a specific adaptation of S. Typhimurium for growth in the inflamed intestine. PMID:19454351

Raffatellu, Manuela; George, Michael D; Akiyama, Yuko; Hornsby, Michael J; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Paixao, Tatiane A; Butler, Brian P; Chu, Hiutung; Santos, Renato L; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W; Tsolis, Renée M; Bevins, Charles L; Solnick, Jay V; Dandekar, Satya; Bäumler, Andreas J

2009-05-01

252

Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.  

PubMed

Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

2011-01-01

253

Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 Transiently Activates Intestinal Epithelial Cells of Mice That Have a Complex Microbiota during Early Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoassociations of germ-free animals with colitogenic and probiotic bacterial strains trigger intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) activation and host-derived feedback mechanisms. To characterize the impact of a single nonpathogenic bacterial strain on the intestinal epithelium in the presence of an established microbiota, we inoculated reconstituted Lacotobacillus-free (RLF) mice at 8 wk of age with Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23. Primary IEC from the

Micha Hoffmann; Eva Rath; Gabriele Holzlwimmer; Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez; Diane Loach; Gerald Tannock; Dirk Haller

254

Alcohol and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Alcohol and Your Health HealthDay February 11, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Alcohol Transcript Does alcohol consumption offer any health benefits? Researchers out of the United Kingdom and ...

255

Alcohol and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol and Cancer Basic description Research shows that alcohol consumption is linked to an increased chance of ... risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Alcohol and Cancer ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. No. ...

256

Alcohol Calorie Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply enter the number ... click ‘Compute’ and see the number of calories alcohol adds up for you in a month and ...

257

Fetal alcohol syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... is at risk for having a child with fetal alcohol syndrome. There is no "safe" level of alcohol use ...

258

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Problems Science Database (ETOH) is "the most comprehensive online bibliographic database containing over 100,000 records on alcohol abuse and alcoholism." This database (updated monthly) contains scientific literature from the late 1960s to the present, as well as a recently added thesaurus of alcohol and other drug terms. The Web site offers four search options and a useful Quick Search Guide for help with each one.

259

Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

2012-01-01

260

Assistant Director -Drugs, Alcohol, &  

E-print Network

Assistant Director - Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs iTEAM Director of Specialty Counseling Services Learning Assistance Services Assistant Director - Graduate Training Assistant Director of Alcohol

Rutledge, Steven

261

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... why Alcohol Overdose Find Out Collaborative Research on Addiction at NIH Learn more Treatment Publication Carousel Finding ... Drinking Made Personal Alcohol Overdose Collaborative Research on Addiction at NIH Latest News New & Noteworthy February 09, ...

262

Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine?s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

263

Small & Large Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System » Small & Large Intestine Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

264

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... the elderly. The cause of the problem is unknown. Therefore, it is also called idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Idiopathic means occurring without a known reason. Risk factors include: Cerebral palsy or other ...

265

Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

1987-04-01

266

Pathology of Intestinal Lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The advent of immunohistological and molecular techniques has enabled the comprehensive characterization of many lymphoma\\u000a entities. Furthermore, it has increased the consensus in lymphoma classification among pathologists. In this review we describe\\u000a the pathological features of primary intestinal lymphomas classified according to the revised European-American classification\\u000a of lymphoid neoplasms. The majority of primary intestinal lymphomas are of Bcell lineage and

H.-D. Foss; H. Stein

267

Alcoholics Anonymous and the Gay Alcoholic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the number of homosexual alcoholic men and women has been estimated to be proportionately three times greater than the number of alcoholics in the general population, their participation in Alcoholics Anonymous is not consistent with this proportional representation. It is proposed that there are a number of characteristics of AA, as it is represented in meetings, which discourage participation

William E. Bittle

1982-01-01

268

Diet, Microbiome, and the Intestinal Epithelium: An Essential Triumvirate?  

PubMed Central

The intestinal epithelium represents a critical barrier protecting the host against diverse luminal noxious agents, as well as preventing the uncontrolled uptake of bacteria that could activate an immune response in a susceptible host. The epithelial monolayer that constitutes this barrier is regulated by a meshwork of proteins that orchestrate complex biological function such as permeability, transepithelial electrical resistance, and movement of various macromolecules. Because of its key role in maintaining host homeostasis, factors regulating barrier function have attracted sustained attention from the research community. This paper will address the role of bacteria, bacterial-derived metabolism, and the interplay of dietary factors in controlling intestinal barrier function. PMID:23586037

Guzman, Javier Rivera; Conlin, Victoria Susan; Jobin, Christian

2013-01-01

269

Claudins in intestines  

PubMed Central

Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

2013-01-01

270

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults  

PubMed Central

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

2011-01-01

271

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

2011-02-15

272

[Intestinal obstruction during pregnancy].  

PubMed

This is a review of literature concerning intestinal obstruction in pregnant women. Approximately 50-90% and 30% of pregnant women, respectively suffer from nausea and vomiting, mostly during the first trimester. There is also increased risk of constipation. During the perioperative period, the administration of tocolytics should be considered only in women showing symptoms of a threatening premature delivery. Intensive hydration should be ordered to sustain uterine blood flow. The incidence of intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is estimated at 1:1500-1:66431 pregnancies and is diagnosed in II and III trimester in most cases. However, it can also occur in the I trimester (6%) or puerperium. Symptoms of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy include: abdominal pains (98%), vomiting (82%), constipation (30%). Abdominal tenderness on palpation is found in 71% and abnormal peristalsis in 55% of cases. The most common imaging examination in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction is the abdominal X-ray. However ionizing radiation may have a harmful effect on the fetus, especially during the first trimester. X-ray is positive for intestinal obstruction in 82% of pregnant women. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are considered safe and applicable during pregnancy. Intestinal obstruction in pregnant women is mostly caused by: adhesions (54.6%), intestinal torsion (25%), colorectal carcinoma (3.7%), hernia (1.4%), appendicitis (0.5%) and others (10%). Adhesive obstruction occurs more frequently in advanced pregnancy (6% - I trimester 28% - II trimester; 45% - III trimester 21% - puerperium). Treatment should begin with conservative procedures. Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases where the pain turns from recurrent into continuous, with tachycardia, pyrexia and a positive Blumberg sign. If symptoms of fetal anoxia are observed, a C-section should be carried out before surgical intervention. The extent of surgical intervention depends on the intraoperative evaluation. Intestinal torsion during pregnancy mostly occurs in the sigmoid colon and cecum. Small bowel torsion secondary to adhesions is diagnosed in 42% of pregnant women with intestinal obstruction. The risk of intestinal torsion is higher in the 16-20 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy and during puerperium. Intestinal torsion results in vessel occlusion which induces more severe symptoms and makes urgent surgical intervention necessary. The overall prognosis is poor--during II and III trimester the fetal mortality rate reaches 36% and 64%, respectively while the risk of maternal death is 6%. Acute intestinal pseudoobstruction can be diagnosed during puerperium, especially following a C-section. Diagnosis is made on the basis of radiological confirmation of colon distension at the cecum as > 9cm, lack of air in the sigmoid colon and rectum, exclusion of mechanical obstruction. In most cases, the treatment is based on easing intestine gas evacuation and administering neostigmine. The authors point out the need for multi-specialty cooperation in the diagnostic-therapeutic process of pregnant women suspected with intestinal obstruction, since any delay in making a correct diagnosis increases the risk of severe complications, both for the woman and the fetus. PMID:23668061

Stukan, Maciej; Kruszewski Wies?aw, Janusz; Dudziak, Miros?aw; Kopiej?, Arkadiusz; Preis, Krzysztof

2013-02-01

273

Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.  

PubMed

Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

2014-05-01

274

Alcoholic Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism awarded contracts to assemble information about practices which identify, refer, and treat employed women alcoholics. In Phase I data were collected on the frequency of use of employee assistance programs by women alcoholics. Findings indicated no great differences between men and women.…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

275

Pharmacotherapy in Alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review categorizes five main uses of pharmacologic agents in the treatment of alcoholism: reversing the active pharmacologic effects of alcohol; controlling withdrawal symptoms; blocking the desire for alcohol use; treating psychiatric symptoms induced by alcohol and other drugs; and treating indenpendent, but concurrent, psychopathologic conditions. No medication, including stimulants such as caffeine, has been found to acutally reverse the

Norman S. Miller

1995-01-01

276

BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY  

E-print Network

BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY Passed unanimously at the Committee on Alcohol Concerns November at Executive Committee April 23. 2010 Preamble: 1. The use of alcohol is a widely accepted accompaniment a common component of campus life for many years. However, alcohol-related incidents remain a significant

277

Alcohol's Effects on Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring adolescence, many people begin to experi­ ment with alcohol, yet relatively little is known about alcohol's effects on this critical stage of development. We do know that early initiation of alcohol use remains one of the most powerful predictors of later alcohol abuse (Grant 1998). We also know that during adolescence changes occur in the regions of the brain

Linda Patia Spear

2002-01-01

278

Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

Speer, Rita D.

279

Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

2014-07-21

280

Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

2014-01-01

281

Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

1981-01-01

282

Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) was determined. Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella, and Arizona hinshawii (Salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. Turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens. PMID:7032423

Winsor, D K; Bloebaum, A P; Mathewson, J J

1981-12-01

283

Increased Intestinal Permeability Correlates with Sigmoid Mucosa alpha-Synuclein Staining and Endotoxin Exposure Markers in Early Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. The pathological hallmark of PD is neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies whose main component is alpha-synuclein protein. The finding of these Lewy bodies in the intestinal enteric nerves led to the hypothesis that the intestine might be an early site of PD disease in response to an environmental toxin or pathogen. One potential mechanism for environmental toxin(s) and proinflammatory luminal products to gain access to mucosal neuronal tissue and promote oxidative stress is compromised intestinal barrier integrity. However, the role of intestinal permeability in PD has never been tested. We hypothesized that PD subjects might exhibit increased intestinal permeability to proinflammatory bacterial products in the intestine. To test our hypothesis we evaluated intestinal permeability in subjects newly diagnosed with PD and compared their values to healthy subjects. In addition, we obtained intestinal biopsies from both groups and used immunohistochemistry to assess bacterial translocation, nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress), and alpha-synuclein. We also evaluated serum markers of endotoxin exposure including LPS binding protein (LBP). Our data show that our PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness) than controls. In addition, this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects. These data represent not only the first demonstration of abnormal intestinal permeability in PD subjects but also the first correlation of increased intestinal permeability in PD with intestinal alpha–synuclein (the hallmark of PD), as well as staining for gram negative bacteria and tissue oxidative stress. Our study may thus shed new light on PD pathogenesis as well as provide a new method for earlier diagnosis of PD and suggests potential therapeutic targets in PD subjects. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01155492 PMID:22145021

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shannon, Kathleen M.; Kordower, Jeffrey H.; Voigt, Robin M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Jaglin, Jean A.; Estes, Jacob D.; Dodiya, Hemraj B.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2011-01-01

284

Bacterial adhesion and disease activity in Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural examination of biopsies showing Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis reveals close attachment between gastric surface epithelial cells and the organism. The finding of 'adhesion pedestals', which represents a cellular response to the presence of the organism, is analogous to the response of intestinal cells to enteropathogenic E coli. Thus the development of bacterial attachment sites in H pylori associated

S J Hessey; J Spencer; J I Wyatt; G Sobala; B J Rathbone; A T Axon; M F Dixon

1990-01-01

285

Dietary synbiotic application modulates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) intestinal microbial communities and intestinal immunity.  

PubMed

A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary administration of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestinal health. Salmon (initial average weight 250 g) were allocated into triplicate sea pens and were fed either a control diet (commercial diet: 45% protein, 20% lipid) or a synbiotic treatment diet (control diet + P. acidilactici at 3.5 g kg(-1) and 7 g kg(-1) scFOS) for 63 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology, intestinal histology and the expression of selected immune-related genes (IL1?, TNF?, IL8, TLR3 and MX-1) in the intestine. Compared to the control fish, the total bacterial levels were significantly lower in the anterior mucosa, posterior mucosa and posterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish. qPCR revealed good recovery (log 6 bacteria g(-1)) of the probiotic in the intestinal digesta of the synbiotic fed fish and PCR-DGGE revealed that the number of OTUs, as well as the microbial community diversity and richness were significantly higher in the anterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish than the control. Compared to the control fed fish, the mucosal fold (villi) length and the infiltration of epithelial leucocytes were significantly higher in the anterior and posterior intestine, respectively, in the synbiotic group. Real-time PCR demonstrated that all of the genes investigated were significantly up-regulated in the anterior and posterior intestine of the synbiotic fed salmon, compared to the control group. At the systemic level, serum lysozyme activity was significantly higher in the synbiotic fed fish and growth performance, feed utilisation and biometric measurements (condition factor, gutted weight and gut loss) were not affected. Together these results suggest that the synbiotic modulation of the gut microbiota has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, improving morphology and stimulating the innate immune response without negatively affecting growth performance or feed utilization of farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24161776

Abid, A; Davies, S J; Waines, P; Emery, M; Castex, M; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Bickerdike, R; Romero, J; Merrifield, D L

2013-12-01

286

The Mucin degrader Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant resident of the human intestinal tract.  

PubMed

A 16S rRNA-targeted probe, MUC-1437, was designed and validated in order to determine the presence and numbers of cells of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, in the human intestinal tract. As determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, A. muciniphila accounted more than 1% of the total fecal cells and was shown to be a common bacterial component of the human intestinal tract. PMID:18083887

Derrien, Muriel; Collado, M Carmen; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

2008-03-01

287

Effects of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde on Tight Junction Integrity: In Vitro Study in a Three Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIntestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of endotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde at relatively high concentrations have been shown to disrupt intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the conventional two dimensional cell culture models. The present study investigated quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of ethanol at concentrations detected in the

Elhaseen Elamin; Daisy Jonkers; Kati Juuti-Uusitalo; Sven van IJzendoorn; Freddy Troost; Hans Duimel; Jos Broers; Fons Verheyen; Jan Dekker; Ad Masclee

2012-01-01

288

Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

289

Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

290

Lipocalin-2 resistance of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium confers an advantage during life in the inflamed intestine  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium thrives in the lumen of the acutely inflamed intestine, which suggests that this pathogen is resistant to antimicrobials encountered in this environment. However, the identity of these antimicrobials and the corresponding bacterial resistance genes remains elusive. Here we show that enteric infection with S. Typhimurium evoked marked interleukin (IL)–22/IL-17 mediated induction in intestinal epithelial cells of lipocalin-2, an antimicrobial protein that prevents bacterial iron acquisition. Lipocalin-2 accumulated in the intestinal lumen of rhesus macaques during S. Typhimurium infection. Resistance to lipocalin-2, mediated by the iroBCDE iroN locus, conferred a competitive advantage upon the S. Typhimurium wild-type in colonizing the inflamed intestine of wild-type, but not of lipocalin-2 deficient mice. These data support that resistance to lipocalin-2 defines a specific adaptation to growth in the inflamed intestine. PMID:19454351

Raffatellu, Manuela; George, Michael D.; Akiyama, Yuko; Hornsby, Michael J.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Paixao, Tatiane A.; Butler, Brian P.; Chu, Hiutung; Santos, Renato L.; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bevins, Charles L.; Solnick, Jay V.; Dandekar, Satya; Bäumler, Andreas J.

2009-01-01

291

Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine NElectrolyte and mineral deficiencies due ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

292

Small intestine contrast injection (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

293

Fiber,intestinal sterols, and coloncancer1' 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that dietary fiber's protective effect against the development of colon cancer, diverticular disease, and atherosclerosis may be due to the adsorption and\\/or dilution of intestinal sterols such as bile acids and neutral sterols and their bacterial metabolites by component(s) of fiber. Dietary fiber is made up of four major components-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin. There is

Charles T. L. Huang; G. S. Gopalakrishna; L. Nichols

294

The allometry of rodent intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon\\u000a and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects\\u000a associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents.

Barry G. Lovegrove

2010-01-01

295

Small intestine aspirate and culture  

MedlinePLUS

Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine. ... A sample of fluid from the small intestine is needed. A procedure ... done to get the sample. The fluid is placed in a special dish in ...

296

Alcohol and fuel production  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

Roth, E.R.

1984-01-10

297

Intestinal microbiota containing Barnesiella species cures vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization.  

PubMed

Bacteria causing infections in hospitalized patients are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Classical infection control practices are only partially effective at preventing spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within hospitals. Because the density of intestinal colonization by the highly antibiotic-resistant bacterium vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) can exceed 10(9) organisms per gram of feces, even optimally implemented hygiene protocols often fail. Decreasing the density of intestinal colonization, therefore, represents an important approach to limit VRE transmission. We demonstrate that reintroduction of a diverse intestinal microbiota to densely VRE-colonized mice eliminates VRE from the intestinal tract. While oxygen-tolerant members of the microbiota are ineffective at eliminating VRE, administration of obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria to mice results in a billionfold reduction in the density of intestinal VRE colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of intestinal bacterial populations isolated from mice that cleared VRE following microbiota reconstitution revealed that recolonization with a microbiota that contains Barnesiella correlates with VRE elimination. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation demonstrated that intestinal colonization with Barnesiella confers resistance to intestinal domination and bloodstream infection with VRE. Our studies indicate that obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Barnesiella genus enable clearance of intestinal VRE colonization and may provide novel approaches to prevent the spread of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:23319552

Ubeda, Carles; Bucci, Vanni; Caballero, Silvia; Djukovic, Ana; Toussaint, Nora C; Equinda, Michele; Lipuma, Lauren; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Xavier, Joao B; Pamer, Eric G

2013-03-01

298

Changes in the intestinal microbiota from adulthood through to old age.  

PubMed

The human intestinal microbiota comprises a complex community whose composition has been resolved in fine detail by recent culture-independent methodologies. The adult intestinal microbiota is stable within individuals, and individual specific when examined at high resolution. Infants and older persons, however, represent stages of life in which the microbiota is in flux. Since changes in the intestinal microbiota are associated with certain diseases or health issues, we have examined the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota in 500 subjects over 65 years of age in Ireland. Medical, biochemical and immunological parameters were measured for all subjects. Faecal microbiota was measured by amplicon pyrosequencing. The data revealed significant inter-individual variation, especially in the proportions of some major bacterial phyla, and significant differences in the microbiota compared with younger adults. These data support the notion of modulating the intestinal microbiota of older people to promote enhanced nutrition utilization and to improve general health. PMID:22647048

O'Toole, P W

2012-07-01

299

Mechanisms of intestinal adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of intestinal adaptation is complex and involves different mechanisms at different sites. The principal basic stimuli to adaptive growth are the presence of food in the gut lumen, endogenous secretions, and circulating hormones and peptides. Lesser factors include neural and vascular influences. Much effort has been devoted to the search for a systemic tropic factor responsible for the

James B. Bristol; Robin C. N. Williamson

1988-01-01

300

Intestinal permeability: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans has a 20-year history. Because the tests are increasingly used in clinical practice and research and because there is much controversy, we reviewed the literature and outlined the potential and possible shortcomings of these procedures. Data was obtained from personal files and from a systemic search through MEDLINE and EMBASE. The principle

Ingvar Bjarnason; Andrew Macpherson; Daniel Hollander

1995-01-01

301

Stomach and Intestinal Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal ulcers can be a painful and dangerous situation. Ulcers are associated not only with pain and discomfort, but may also be a source of significant blood loss. Ulcers are treatable but may require several medications and sometimes multiple rounds of these medications. It is important to know that there are several nutrimental factors that may help improve the success

Steve Windley

302

Gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth: pathogenesis and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as the presence of an abnormally high number of coliform bacteria in the small bowel. It is associated with a broad range of predisposing small intestinal motility disorders and with surgical procedures that result in bowel stasis. The most common symptoms associated with SIBO include diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and bloating. Quantitative culture of small bowel contents and a variety of indirect tests have been used over the years in an attempt to facilitate the diagnosis of SIBO. The indirect tests include breath tests and biochemical tests based on bacterial metabolism of a variety of substrates. Unfortunately, there is no single valid test for SIBO, and the accuracy of all current tests remains limited due to the failure of culture to be a gold standard and the lack of standardization of the normal bowel flora in the small intestine. Currently, the ideal approach to treat SIBO is to treat the underlying disease, eradicate overgrowth, and address nutritional deficiencies that may be associated with the development of SIBO. PMID:23997926

Sachdev, Amit H.

2013-01-01

303

Deciding to quit drinking alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... or recovery program. These programs: Teach people about alcohol abuse and its effects Offer counseling and support about ...

304

Alcohol Energy Drinks  

MedlinePLUS

... Recovery Events For People In Recovery Recovery from alcoholism and drug addiction is happening every day for ... Recovery Stories For Family & Friends The disease of alcoholism and drug addiction affects the whole family . Has ...

305

Benzyl Alcohol Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

306

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn about the effects of alcohol on health and get needed support. Read this ...

307

Alcohol and Sperm Quality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... samples were also taken. According to the data analysis, the average number of units of alcohol consumed ... drunk more than twice the preceding month. Further analysis showed that drinking alcohol in the preceding week ...

308

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

309

Alcohol and fuel production  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

Roth, E.R.

1981-12-22

310

Alcohol and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol in moderation is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men and women. New evidence suggests\\u000a that this association, described in over 70 epidemiologic studies, is causal and can be explained, in part, by alcohol’s beneficial\\u000a effects on serum lipids and clotting factors. Recently, the inverse association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease\\u000a also has been reported

Eric Rimm

2000-01-01

311

The migrating myoelectric complex of the small intestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastric and small intestinal myoelectric and motor activity is divided into two main patterns, fed and fasted. During fasting, the predominant pattern of activity is the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), a cyclically occurring pattern of electric and mechanical activity that is initiated in the stomach and duodenum almost simultaneously and, from there, propagates the length of the small intestine. Cyclic motor activity also occurs in the lower esophageal sphincter, the gallbladder, and the sphincter of Oddi with a duration that is related to the MMC in the small intestine. Of the possible mechanisms for initiation of the MMC in the small intestine (extrinsic neural control, intrinsic neural control, and hormonal control), intrinsic neural control via a series of coupled is the most likely. The keep this sentence in! hormone motilin also plays a role in the initiation of MMCs. After a meal, in man the MMC is disrupted and replaced by irregular contractions. The physiologic role of the MMC is to clear the stomach and small intestine of residual food, secretions, and desquamated cells and propel them to the colon. Disruption of the MMC cycle is associated with bacterial overgrowth in some patients, an observation that supports the proposed cleansing function of the MMC cycle.

Telford, Gordon L.; Sarna, Sushil K.

1991-10-01

312

Bacterial concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

2001-04-01

313

Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

Gress, James R.

1988-01-01

314

Alcohol on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

1984-01-01

315

Alcoholism and Lesbians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

Gedro, Julie

2014-01-01

316

Alcohol use disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... offer support for people with alcohol use disorder. Women for Sobriety is a self-help group just for women. ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

317

Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

Schuckit, Marc A.

1987-01-01

318

[Health and social harm related alcohol].  

PubMed

Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

2014-08-01

319

Alcohol, Chemistry and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.

320

Alcoholism in Tuberculous Patients  

PubMed Central

The incidence of alcoholism among patients suffering from tuberculosis in the Tuberculosis Hospital in Winnipeg was determined, and attention is drawn to the need to treat tuberculosis and alcoholism concurrently. In all, 306 patients with tuberculosis were studied and 32 alcoholics were discovered among them. This frequency is five times that estimated in the adult population of Canada. Ninety-two per cent of these alcoholics were addicted before the tuberculous disease was discovered. No direct causative factor was discovered linking alcoholism and tuberculosis. Poor socioeconomic status appears to be a common etiological factor. PMID:14217248

Pincock, T. A.

1964-01-01

321

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) experience a constellation of symptoms including abdominal pain,\\u000a nausea, fullness, and malaise which fluctuates in severity and invariably result in a diminished quality of life. Though surgical\\u000a resection or transplantation may be an option for some, there currently is no cure for CIP. Thus, management strategies utilize\\u000a pharmacologic, intravenous, endoscopic, and surgical techniques

Greg Lyford; Amy Foxx-Orenstein

2004-01-01

322

Intestinal permeability in kwashiorkor  

PubMed Central

Accepted 16 September 1996? Intestinal permeability can be assessed non-invasively using the lactulose-rhamnose (L-R) test, which is a reliable measure of small intestinal integrity.?AIMS—To determine risk factors for abnormal intestinal permeability in kwashiorkor, and to measure changes in L-R ratios with inpatient rehabilitation.?DESIGN—A case-control study of 149 kwashiorkor cases and 45 hospital controls. The L-R test was adapted to study kwashiorkor in Malawi, with testing at weekly intervals during nutritional rehabilitation. Urine sugars were measured by thin layer chromatography in London.?RESULTS—The initial geometric mean L-R ratios (×100) (with 95% confidence interval) in kwashiorkor were 17.3 (15.0 to 19.8) compared with 7.0 (5.6 to 8.7) for controls. Normal ratios are <5, so the high ratios in controls indicate tropical enteropathy syndrome. Abnormal permeability in kwashiorkor was associated with death, oliguria, sepsis, diarrhoea, wasting and young age. Diarrhoea and death were associated with both decreased L-rhamnose absorption (diminished absorptive surface area) and increased lactulose permeation (impaired barrier function) whereas nutritional wasting affected only L-rhamnose absorption. Despite clinical recovery, mean L-R ratios improved little on treatment, with mean weekly ratios of 16.3 (14.0 to 19.0), 13.3 (11.1 to 15.9) and 14.4 (11.0 to 18.8).?CONCLUSION—Abnormal intestinal permeability in kwashiorkor correlates with disease severity, and improves only slowly with nutritional rehabilitation.?? PMID:9135265

Brewster, D; Manary, M; Menzies, I; O'Loughlin, E; Henry, R

1997-01-01

323

Intestinal Mesenchymal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non–white blood cell mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, pericytes,\\u000a stromal stem cells, muscularis mucosae, and the smooth muscle of the villus core associated with the lymphatic lacteal. We\\u000a review the functional anatomy of these mesenchymal cells, what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement\\u000a in adults, their putative role

I. V. Pinchuk; R. C. Mifflin; J. I. Saada; D. W. Powell

2010-01-01

324

Elenoside increases intestinal motility  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

2006-01-01

325

[Human intestinal spirochetosis].  

PubMed

A characteristic feature of human intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is the colonization of the mucosa of the large intestine with intestinal spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. The joining of the brachyspirae with the apical cellular membrane of enterocytes resembles in histological slides a false brush border of the intestinal mucosa. Various symptoms related to the involvement of the large gut were found with invasive IS. From the cultures of these cases were isolated Brachyspira aalborgii and B. pilosicoli. The frequency of the incidence of brachyspirae depended on the socio-economic living conditions of people. Colonization of the mucosa of the large gut was found more often in human populations in the developing countries; it was fairly rare in countries with high hygienic standards. An exception were men of homosexual orienation and patients presenting with a HIV infection. Isolation of brachyspirae from the faeces and biopsy of the mucosa of the large gut are fairly demanding jobs, especially with B. aalborgii. Most documented IS cases of this aetiology were diagnosed using immunohistochemical methods and amplification of the genus-specific region of the gene 16S rRNA. Isolation of B. pilosicoli tends to be simpler, it requires anaerobic incubation on selective blood agars for a period of 3-6 days at 37 degrees C. When manual haemoculture systems were used, patients in a critical state presented a translocation of brachyspirae into blood circulation, while automatic systems don't necessarily diagnose spirochetaemia. In the management of described cases of invasive IS particularly successful proved metronidazole and beta-lactam antibiotics. In isolated B. pilosicoli, in vitro tests confirmed sensitivity to metronidazole, ceftriaxone, meropenem, tetracycline, moxifloxacine and chloramphenicol. A varying frequency of resistance was found with clindamycin and amoxicillin, which how ever was efficacious in combination with clavulanic acid. PMID:15146383

Cízek, Alois; Lobová, Dana

2004-04-01

326

Intestinal Phosphate Transport  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter Npt2b is highly regulated by a diverse set of hormones and dietary conditions. Furthermore, conditional knockout of Npt2b suggests that it plays an important role in maintenance of phosphate homeostasis by coordinating intestinal phosphate absorption with renal phosphate reabsorption. The knockout mouse also suggests that Npt2b is responsible for the majority of sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, Pit1 and Pit2 contribute a minor role in total phosphate uptake. Despite co-expression along the apical membrane, differential responses of Pit1 and Npt2b regulation to chronic versus dietary changes illustrates another layer of phosphate transport control. Finally, a major problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is management of hyperphosphatemia. The present evidence suggests that targeting key regulatory transporters of intestinal phosphate transport may provide novel therapeutic approaches for CKD patients. PMID:21406292

Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

2011-01-01

327

Multiple pathogenic factor-induced complications of cirrhosis in rats: A new model of hepatopulmonary syndrome with intestinal endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop and characterize a practical model of Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in rats. METHODS: The experimental animals were randomized into five feeding groups: (1) control (fed standard diet), (2) control plus intraperitoneal injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (3) cirrhosis (fed a diet of maize flour, lard, cholesterol, and alcohol plus subcutaneously injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) oil solution), (4) cirrhosis plus LPS, and (5) cirrhosis plus glycine and LPS. The blood, liver and lung tissues of rats were sampled for analysis and characterization. Technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc99m-MAA) was used to test the dilatation of pulmonary microvasculature. RESULTS: Typical cirrhosis and subsequent hepato-pulmonary syndrome was observed in the cirrhosis groups after an 8 wk feeding period. In rats with cirrhosis, there were a decreased PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood, markedly decreased arterial O2 content, a significantly increased alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient, an increased number of bacterial translocated within mesenteric lymph node, a significant higher level of LPS and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in plasma, and a significant greater ratio of Tc99m-MAA brain-over-lung radioactivity. After LPS administration in rats with cirrhosis, various pathological parameters got worse and pulmonary edema formed. The predisposition of glycine antagonized the effects of LPS and significantly alleviated various pathological alterations. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that: (1) a characte-ristic rat model of HPS can be non-invasively induced by multiple pathogenic factors including high fat diet, alcohol, cholesterol and CCl4; (2) this model can be used for study of hepatopulmonary syndrome and is clinically relevant; and (3) intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) and its accompanying cytokines, such as TNF-?, exert a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HPS in this model. PMID:17659698

Zhang, Hui-Ying; Han, De-Wu; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Liu, Ming-She; Wu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Xian-Ming; Ji, Cheng

2007-01-01

328

Large intestine permeability is increased in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Increased intestinal permeability has been found in patients with liver cirrhosis, but data on small and large intestine permeability and tight junctions (TJs) in patients with compensated cirrhosis are scarce. We aimed to investigate both small and large intestine permeability in patients with stable compensated cirrhosis compared with healthy controls and evaluated the expression of TJ proteins in mucosal biopsies at duodenal and sigmoid level. Intestinal permeability was assessed in 26 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 27 matched controls using a multisugar test. Duodenal and sigmoid biopsies were available from a subgroup for analyses of gene transcription and expression of key TJ proteins by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Median 0-5-h urinary sucrose excretion and lactulose/rhamnose ratio were comparable between patients with compensated cirrhosis and controls, whereas 5-24-h urinary sucralose/erythritol ratio was increased in these patients. Downregulation of gene transcription was found for claudin-3 in duodenal biopsies and claudin-4 in sigmoid biopsies, and at the protein level occludin expression was significantly increased in both duodenal and sigmoid biopsies. This study shows that gastroduodenal and small intestine permeability are not altered, whereas large intestine permeability is increased in patients with stable compensated cirrhosis. Only limited alterations were found regarding the expression of TJ proteins in both the small and large intestine. PMID:24264047

Pijls, Kirsten E; Koek, Ger H; Elamin, Elhaseen E; de Vries, Hanne; Masclee, Ad A M; Jonkers, Daisy M A E

2014-01-01

329

The impact of farnesoid X receptor activation on intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

The most important function of the intestinal mucosa is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the intestine. Defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier have been observed in several intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have identified a number of factors that contribute to development of IBD including environmental triggers, genetic factors, immunoregulatory defects and microbial exposure. The current review focuses on the influence of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on the inhibition of intestinal inflammation in patients with IBD. The development and investigation of FXR agonists provide strong support for the regulatory role of FXR in mucosal innate immunity. Activation of FXR in the intestinal tract decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, thus contributing to a reduction in inflammation and epithelial permeability. In addition, intestinal FXR activation induces the transcription of multiple genes involved in enteroprotection and the prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. These data suggest that FXR agonists are potential candidates for exploration as a novel therapeutic strategy for IBD in humans. PMID:22993736

Stojancevic, Maja; Stankov, Karmen; Mikov, Momir

2012-01-01

330

L-Glutamine regulates amino acid utilization by intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

Catabolism of amino acids (AA) by intestinal bacteria greatly affects their bioavailability in the systemic circulation and the health of animals and humans. This study tests the novel hypothesis that L-glutamine regulates AA utilization by luminal bacteria of the small intestine. Pure bacterial strains (Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and mixed bacterial cultures derived from the jejunum or ileum of pigs were cultured in the presence of 0-5 mM L-glutamine under anaerobic conditions. After 3 h of incubation, samples were taken for the determination of AA utilization. Results showed concentration-dependent increases in the utilization of glutamine in parallel with the increased conversion of glutamine into glutamate in all the bacteria. Complete utilization of asparagine, aspartate and serine was observed in pure bacterial strains after the 3-h incubation. The addition of glutamine reduced the net utilization of asparagine by both jejunal and ileal mixed bacteria. Net utilization of lysine, leucine, valine, ornithine and serine by jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria decreased with the addition of glutamine in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, glutamine dynamically modulates the bacterial metabolism of the arginine family of AA as well as the serine and aspartate families of AA and reduced the catabolism of most AA (including nutritionally essential and nonessential AA) in jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria. The beneficial effects of glutamine on gut nutrition and health may involve initiation of the signaling pathways related to AA metabolism in the luminal bacteria of the small intestine. PMID:22451274

Dai, Zhao-Lai; Li, Xi-Long; Xi, Peng-Bin; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

2013-09-01

331

Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk. PMID:23509726

Downs, Charles A.; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M.; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N.

2013-01-01

332

Effect of Lactobacillus GG on intestinal integrity in Malawian children at risk of tropical enteropathy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. This study tested the...

333

EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS GG ON INTESTINAL INTEGRITY IN MALAWIAN CHILDREN AT RISK OF TROPICAL ENTEROPATHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. Objective:...

334

Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... 4912:1023–1039, 2001. PMID: 11430844 16 Thomas, S.; Bacon, A.K.; Sinha, R.; et al. Clinical laboratory ... 29, 2008. 19 Higley, A.E; Koob, G.F.; and Mason, B.J. Treatment of alcohol dependence ...

335

Alcohol’s Effects on Adolescents  

E-print Network

During adolescence, many people begin to experiment with alcohol, yet relatively little is known about alcohol’s effects on this critical stage of development. We do know that early initiation of alcohol use remains one of the most powerful predictors of later alcohol abuse (Grant 1998). We also know that during adolescence changes occur in the regions of the brain involved in modulating drug reinforcement, so it cannot be assumed that factors precipitating alcohol use or abuse are the same in adolescence as in adulthood. Rapidly changing body systems often are particularly vulnerable to disruption, and hence long-term consequences may result from alcohol exposure during this time of accelerated neural and endocrine system maturation (Spear 2000a). For all of these reasons, adolescence is a critical stage of development, and additional research is warranted into the effects of drinking during this important transition period. This sidebar briefly reviews findings on how alcohol affects adolescents, with a special emphasis on the impact of alcohol on neural and endocrine development. Though the research in this area is scarce, genderspecific effects are highlighted whenever possible. Epidemiology of Drinking Among Adolescents Results from national surveys of adolescents and young adults show that alcohol use is prevalent among both young men and women. The prevalence of drinking and binge drinking (consuming five or more drinks on a single occasion in the previous 2 weeks) is higher among male students relative to their female peers, but data from the Monitoring the Future Survey (MFS) (Johnston et al. 2002)—a nationally representative sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders—show that the gender gap is closing. For example, in 2001, 36 percent of 12th grade males reported binge drinking, compared with 24 percent of their female counterparts (a 12-percentage-point difference). However, in 1975 there was a 23-percentage-point difference between rates of male and female binge drinking (Johnston et al. 2002). Among females, 20.6 percent of 8th graders and 45.1 percent of 12th graders reported using alcohol in the 30 days prior to the survey (i.e., 30-day prevalence); of those 8th grade females, more than half reported binge drinking.

Linda Patia Spear

2002-01-01

336

Phasic study of intestinal homeostasis disruption in experimental intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis in an experimental model of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: A rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established by transforming parts of an infusion set into an in vivo pulled-type locking clamp and creating a uniform controllable loop obstruction in the mesenteric non-avascular zone 8 cm from the distal end of the ileum. The phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis was studied after intestinal obstruction. The changes in goblet cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal epithelium were quantified from periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and serum citrulline levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Claudin 1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Intestinal microorganisms, wet/dry weight ratios, pH values, and endotoxin levels were determined at multiple points after intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, the number and ratio of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry, and secretory IgA levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A suitable controllable rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established. Intestinal obstruction induced goblet cell damage and reduced cell number. Further indicators of epithelial cell damage were observed as reduced serum citrulline levels and claudin 1 gene expression, and a transient increase in ODC activity. In addition, the wet/dry weight ratio and pH of the intestinal lumen were also dramatically altered. The ratio of Bacillus bifidus and enterobacteria was reversed following intestinal obstruction. The number and area of Peyer’s patches first increased then sharply decreased after the intestinal obstruction, along with an alteration in the ratio of CD4/CD8+ T cells, driven by an increase in CD3+ and CD8+ T cells and a decrease in CD4+ T cells. The number of lamina propria lymphocytes also gradually decreased with prolonged obstruction. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction can induce disruption of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:25009385

Yu, Xiang-Yang; Zou, Chang-Lin; Zhou, Zhen-Li; Shan, Tao; Li, Dong-Hua; Cui, Nai-Qiang

2014-01-01

337

Host-compound foraging by intestinal microbiota revealed by single-cell stable isotope probing.  

PubMed

The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some pathogenic microorganisms as well as members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds. Our understanding of host-compound degradation by the commensal microbiota has been limited to knowledge about simplified model systems because of the difficulty in studying the complex intestinal ecosystem in vivo. In this study, we introduce an approach that overcomes previous technical limitations and allows us to observe which microbial cells in the intestine use host-derived compounds. We added stable isotope-labeled threonine i.v. to mice and combined fluorescence in situ hybridization with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging to characterize utilization of host proteins by individual bacterial cells. We show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers in vivo. Using gnotobiotic mice we show that microbiota composition determines the magnitude and pattern of foraging by these organisms, demonstrating that a complex microbiota is necessary in order for this niche to be fully exploited. These results underscore the importance of in vivo studies of intestinal microbiota, and the approach presented in this study will be a powerful tool to address many other key questions in animal and human microbiome research. PMID:23487774

Berry, David; Stecher, Bärbel; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reichert, Jochen; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael

2013-03-19

338

Modulation of post-antibiotic bacterial community reassembly and host response by Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The introduction of Candida albicans into cefoperazone-treated mice results in changes in bacterial community reassembly. Our objective was to use high-throughput sequencing to characterize at much greater depth the specific changes in the bacterial microbiome. The colonization of C. albicans significantly altered bacterial community reassembly that was evident at multiple taxonomic levels of resolution. There were marked changes in the levels of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillaceae. Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, the two most abundant bacterial families, did not change in relative proportions after antibiotics, but there were marked genera-level shifts within these two bacterial families. The microbiome shifts occurred in the absence of overt intestinal inflammation. Overall, these experiments demonstrate that the introduction of a single new microbe in numerically inferior numbers into the bacterial microbiome during a broad community disturbance has the potential to significantly alter the subsequent reassembly of the bacterial community as it recovers from that disturbance. PMID:23846617

Erb Downward, John R; Falkowski, Nicole R; Mason, Katie L; Muraglia, Ryan; Huffnagle, Gary B

2013-01-01

339

Toxicological effects of dietary nickel chloride on intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the toxicological effect of dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) on the counts of intestinal bacteria and diversity of microorganisms in broilers. Plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) assays were used. A total of 240 one-day-old avian broilers chicks were divided into four equal groups and kept on corn-soybean basal diet along with supplementation of 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Samples were taken at 21 and 42 days of age during the experiment. The bacterial count results showed that dietary NiCl2 in the range of 300 to 900 mg/kg decreased the counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus, increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus spp. in the ileum and cecum. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that bacterial band numbers, profile similarity, and the Shannon index of the ileum and cecum were all decreased in the 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg groups at 21 and 42 days of age. In conclusion, dietary NiCl2 affected the amount and diversity of intestinal microbiota in the ileum and cecum of broilers. This finding implies that NiCl2 has toxicological effect on the intestinal ecosystem and, possibly functions. PMID:25164205

Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Pan, Kangcheng; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Huang, Jianying

2014-11-01

340

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Pigment Disorders Blistering Diseases Parasitic Skin Infections Bacterial Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers Nail Disorders Topics in Bacterial Skin ...

341

Bacterial Gene Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed instructions for carrying out several laboratory exercises relating to bacterial transformation and conjugation. In this multi-session experiment, students are exposed to various techniques in microbiology, including bacterial transformation and assay and sterile techniques.

Roberta Ellington (Northwestern University; )

1991-01-01

342

Motility Disorders of the Small Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Disorders ...

343

Prom1 Function in Development, Intestinal Inflammation, and Intestinal Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. Its potential molecular function as well as its role as a marker of intestinal regeneration is still not fully known. We evaluated the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), determined the function of Prom1, and characterized the effect of a lack of Prom1 on intestinal tumor formation in animal models. Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. Also, Prom1 knockout mice are more susceptible to intestinal tumor formation. We conclude that Prom1 likely plays a role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and that these results clearly illustrate the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration. We further conclude that Prom1 may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal conditions such as IBD, short bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer. PMID:25452936

Karim, Baktiar O.; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Liu, Guosheng; Yun, Kyuson; Brant, Steven R.

2014-01-01

344

The effect of epidermal growth factor on bacterial translocation in newborn rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is present in breast milk, has both trophic and maturational effects on intestinal mucosa. The aim of this study is to deermine the effect of EGF on spontaneous intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) in formula-fed newborn rabbits, who have a high incidence of BT compared with breast-fed newborn rabbits.Methods: Sixty-one rabbit pups were divided into

H Okuyama; M Urao; D Lee; R. A Drongowski; A. G Coran

1998-01-01

345

?Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.  

PubMed

The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ?Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy. PMID:24809337

2014-05-01

346

Acute alcohol intoxication.  

PubMed

Acute alcohol intoxication is a clinically harmful condition that usually follows the ingestion of a large amount of alcohol. Clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and involve different organs and apparatuses, with behavioral, cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, neurological, and metabolic effects. The management of an intoxicated patient occurs mainly in the emergency department and is aimed at stabilizing the clinical condition of the patient, depending on his/her clinical presentation. One specific drug that is useful in the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication is metadoxine, which is able to accelerate ethanol excretion. In patients presenting an acute alcohol intoxication, alcohol-related disorders should be detected so that the patient can be directed to an alcohol treatment unit, where a personalized, specific treatment can be established. PMID:19046719

Vonghia, Luisa; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Bertini, Marco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Addolorato, Giovanni

2008-12-01

347

Alcoholic liver disease: treatment.  

PubMed

The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

2014-09-28

348

Intestinal parasitism in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two hundred cases have been studied from April, 1936 to November, 1937, to detect the infestation with intestinal parasites.\\u000a The age of the cases studied varies from 5 days to II years.\\u000a \\u000a The incidence of parasite was more common in the second half of the year. The youngest child harbouring the parasite was 7\\u000a months old.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The commonest parasite was

R. Dutta Chaudhuri; R. Chatterji

1938-01-01

349

Genetic studies in alcohol research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis

Robert W. Karp

1994-01-01

350

Fetal alcohol syndrome: Behavioral teratology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of physical malformations observed in the offspring of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. The most serious effect of in utero exposure to alcohol is mental retardation. Although the physical characteristics associated with the FAS have been attributed to the direct effects of alcohol, conditions secondary to alcohol intake (e.g., altered nutrition)

Ernest L. Abel

1980-01-01

351

Alcoholism and women's health.  

PubMed

There are a variety of reasons why women are believed to be more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Physical factors, such as body water content and hereditary predisposition to alcoholism, differentiate women from men. Social factors include secretive drinking, role model in the family, and a perceived increase in promiscuity. Societal stigmas make it difficult for alcoholic women to seek help, yet the mortality rates are high for those women who continue to drink. PMID:3120219

Blume, S B

1987-01-01

352

Matching alcoholics to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether sociopathic alcoholics respond differentially to different types of treatment. An earlier study found that alcoholics with antisocial personality disorder had somewhat better outcomes if treated in individually focused versus relationship-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment. The present study was designed to attempt to replicate these findings. One hundred and forty-nine alcoholics (42 of

David Kalman; Richard Longabaugh; Patrick R Clifford; Martha Beattie; Stephen A Maisto

2000-01-01

353

Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora.  

PubMed

The population of microbes (microbiome) in the intestine is a symbiotic ecosystem conferring trophic and protective functions. Since the biochemical environment shapes the structure and function of the microbiome, we tested whether uremia and/or dietary and pharmacologic interventions in chronic kidney disease alters the microbiome. To identify different microbial populations, microbial DNA was isolated from the stools of 24 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 12 healthy persons, and analyzed by phylogenetic microarray. There were marked differences in the abundance of 190 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the ESRD and control groups. OTUs from Brachybacterium, Catenibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nesterenkonia, Polyangiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Thiothrix families were markedly increased in patients with ESRD. To isolate the effect of uremia from inter-individual variations, comorbid conditions, and dietary and medicinal interventions, rats were studied 8 weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. This showed a significant difference in the abundance of 175 bacterial OTUs between the uremic and control animals, most notably as decreases in the Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Thus, uremia profoundly alters the composition of the gut microbiome. The biological impact of this phenomenon is unknown and awaits further investigation. PMID:22992469

Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wong, Jakk; Pahl, Madeleine; Piceno, Yvette M; Yuan, Jun; DeSantis, Todd Z; Ni, Zhenmin; Nguyen, Tien-Hung; Andersen, Gary L

2013-02-01

354

Beneficial effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the intestinal microflora and immunity of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

When Bacillus licheniformis was administered to the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, although the total bacterial counts in the intestinal tract of the shrimp remained constant, Vibrio numbers significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Haemocyte counts together with phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the shrimp were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in treatments than in the control. Thus, administration of B. licheniformis can improve the white shrimp's intestinal microflora and its immune ability. PMID:17333467

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tianling; Tian, Yun; Xi, Feng; Yuan, Jianjun; Zhang, Guozheng; Hong, Huasheng

2007-04-01

355

Leaky gut and the liver: a role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections, major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders. Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease. Impaired gut epithelial integrity due to alterations in tight junction proteins may be the pathological mechanism underlying bacterial translocation. Preclinical and clinical studies over the last decade have suggested a role for BT in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and its complications. A better understanding of the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events involved in sensing gut-derived microbes will help in the development of means to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases. These may suggest new targets for potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of NASH. Here, we review some of the mechanisms connecting BT and NASH and potential therapeutic developments. PMID:22690069

Ilan, Yaron

2012-06-01

356

Alcoholism and mortality kinetics.  

PubMed

Gompertz plots of age-specific mortality rates versus age were compared in alcoholics and the general population. Alcoholism had a dual effect, apparently increasing vulnerability to death while slowing the aging rate (longevity is a two-dimensional function). It was hypothesized that the apparent slowing of the aging rate was an artifact, resulting from population heterogeneity in vulnerability. It is recommended that in future studies, attempts be made to categorize alcoholic subjects with respect to alcoholic habit. Longitudinal studies would also be useful. PMID:6491935

Boxenbaum, H; Ciraulo, D

1984-09-01

357

Intestinal Stomas and their Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal stomas are openings of the small or large bowel onto the anterior abdominal wall. Stomas may comprise a single intestinal lumen (end), or give access to both an afferent and an efferent lumen (loop). Furthermore, some are temporary, being subsequently reversed, whilst others are permanent. Complications (e.g. parastomal herniation, prolapse, retraction, stenosis) may occur with any of the commonly

NP Lees; J Hill

2003-01-01

358

Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate.  

PubMed

Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epithelium, regulating both stem cell proliferation and differentiation along a specific secretory lineage. PMID:25534087

Le Bouteiller, Marie; Jensen, Kim B

2014-12-23

359

Probiotic administration modifies the milk fatty acid profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal fatty acid profile of goats.  

PubMed

The effect of a mixture of potentially probiotic bacteria (MPPB; Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum strains) on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the middle stage of goat lactation, was determined. In addition, the effects of MPPB feeding on the FA profile in intestinal content and intestinal morphology in weaned goats were analyzed. The probiotic supplement was able to modify FA composition of milk and intestinal content. The unsaturated FA concentrations in milk (g of FA/L of milk) increased from 4.49 to 7.86 for oleic (18:1), from 0.70 to 1.39 for linoleic (18:2), from 0.063 to 0.187 for linolenic (18:3) acid, and from 0.093 to 0.232 for CLA. The atherogenicity index diminished 2-fold after MPPB ingestion. In the intestinal content of the weaned goats, no significant difference in saturated FA concentration compared with the control was observed. However, oleic acid, linolenic acid, CLA, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased by 81, 23, 344, and 74%, respectively, after probiotic consumption. The ruminal production of CLA was increased by the MPPB. However, bacterial strains of MPPB were unable to produce CLA in culture media. By histological techniques, it was observed that the treated group had intestinally more conserved morphological structures than the control group. The results obtained in this study indicate that the MPPB administration in lactating and weaned goats allows for the production of milk with improved concentrations of beneficial compounds, and also produces a protective effect in the goat intestine. The results obtained in this study reinforce the strategy of probiotics application to enhance goat health with the production of milk with higher concentrations of polyunsaturated FA. PMID:25465559

Apás, A L; Arena, M E; Colombo, S; González, S N

2015-01-01

360

Bacterial moonlighting proteins and bacterial virulence.  

PubMed

Implicit in the central dogma is the hypothesis that each protein gene product has but one function. However, over the past decade, it has become clear that many proteins have one or more unique functions, over-and-above the principal biological action of the specific protein. This phenomenon is now known as protein moonlighting and many well-known proteins such as metabolic enzymes and molecular chaperones are now recognised as moonlighting proteins. A growing number of bacterial species are being found to have moonlighting proteins and the moonlighting activities of such proteins can contribute to bacterial virulence behaviour. The glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) and enolase, and the cell stress proteins: chaperonin 60, Hsp70 and peptidyl prolyl isomerase, are among the most common of the bacterial moonlighting proteins which play a role in bacterial virulence. Moonlighting activities include adhesion and modulation of cell signalling processes. It is likely that only the tip of the bacterial moonlighting iceberg has been sighted and the next decade will bring with it many new discoveries of bacterial moonlighting proteins with a role in bacterial virulence. PMID:22143554

Henderson, Brian; Martin, Andrew

2013-01-01

361

Estimating risk of alcohol dependence using alcohol screening scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and\\/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study

Anna D. Rubinsky; Daniel R. Kivlahan; Robert J. Volk; Charles Maynard; Katharine A. Bradley

2010-01-01

362

Commensal and probiotic bacteria may prevent NEC by maturing intestinal host defenses.  

PubMed

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of prematurity with significant morbidity and mortality. Immaturity of intestinal host defenses predisposes the premature infant gut to injury. An abnormal bacterial colonization pattern with a deficiency of commensal bacteria may lead to a further breakdown of these host defense mechanisms, predisposing the infant to NEC. The presence of probiotic and commensal bacteria within the gut has been shown to mature the intestinal defense system through a variety of mechanisms. We have shown that commensal and probiotic bacteria can promote intestinal host defenses by reducing apoptotic signaling, blocking inflammatory signaling, and maturing barrier function in immature intestinal epithelia. Future studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms by which probiotic and commensal bacteria exert their effects will be critical to developing effective preventive therapies for NEC. PMID:24440614

Jakaitis, Brett M; Denning, Patricia W

2014-02-01

363

Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP’s severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP’s process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP. PMID:18257123

Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Jie; Song, Qiao-ling; Chen, Han-qin

2007-01-01

364

Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function  

PubMed Central

Background When diseased intestine (i.e., from colon cancer, diverticulitis) requires resection, its reconnection (termed anastomosis) can be complicated by non-healing of the newly joined intestine resulting in spillage of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity (termed anastomotic leakage). While it is suspected that the intestinal microbiota have the capacity to both accelerate and complicate anastomotic healing, the associated genotypes and functions have not been characterized. Results Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD0)) and the 6th day following surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD6)), we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats. Results indicated that anastomotic injury induced significant changes in the anastomotic tissue-associated microbiota with minimal differences in the luminal microbiota. The most striking difference was a 500-fold and 200-fold increase in the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Escherichia/Shigella, respectively. Functional profiling predicted the predominance of bacterial virulence-associated pathways in post-anastomotic tissues, including production of hemolysin, cytolethal toxins, fimbriae, invasins, cytotoxic necrotizing factors, and coccolysin. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that compositional and functional changes accompany anastomotic tissues and may potentially accelerate or complicate anastomotic healing. PMID:25250176

2014-01-01

365

Wine in the prevention of chronic bacterial urinary infection.  

PubMed

The observation of statistical public health data, together with lifestyle in a still native population following a strict Mediterranean diet, where local wine consumption of approximately 350 ml daily still has a primary role, demonstrates that this area, Pantelleria, also called the Black Pearl, has better regulation of common intestinal motor disorders. The incidence of chronic bacterial urinary infection is 30% lower than the national average. Further open laboratory studies should be performed to confirm our data and to elucidate whether protection against chronic bacterial urinary infection is congenital or acquired. PMID:15134378

Trapani, G S

2003-01-01

366

Gastro-intestinal vascular emergencies.  

PubMed

Gastro-Intestinal Vascular Emergencies include all digestive ischaemic injuries related to acute or chronic vascular and/or haemodynamic diseases. Gastro-intestinal ischaemic injuries can be occlusive or non-occlusive, arterial or venous, localized or generalized, superficial or transmural and share the risks of infarction, organ failure and death. The diagnosis must be suspected, at the initial presentation of any sudden, continuous and unusual abdominal pain, contrasting with normal physical examination. Risk factors are often unknown at presentation and no biomarker is currently available. The diagnosis is confirmed by abdominal computed tomography angiography identifying intestinal ischaemic injury, either with vascular occlusion or in a context of low flow. Recent knowledge in the pathophysiology of acute mesenteric ischaemia, clinical experience and existing recommendations have generated a multimodal and multidisciplinary management strategy. Based on the gastro-intestinal viability around a simple algorithm, and coordinated by gastroenterologists, the dual aim is to avoid large intestinal resections and death. PMID:24160929

Corcos, Olivier; Nuzzo, Alexandre

2013-10-01

367

Distal and proximal cis-linked sequences are needed for the total expression phenotype of the mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) gene.  

PubMed

Mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) gene expression occurs at high levels in liver and adrenal, moderate levels in kidney and intestine, low levels in a number of other tissues, and is undetectable in thymus, spleen and brain by Northern analysis. In transgenic mice, a minigene construct containing 10 kb of upstream and 1.5 kb of downstream flanking sequence directs expression in kidney, adrenal, lung, epididymis, ovary and skin but promotes ectopic expression in thymus and spleen while failing to control expression in liver, eye, intestine and seminal vesicle. Cosmids containing either 7 kb of upstream and 21 kb of downstream or 12 kb of upstream and 23 kb of downstream sequence flanking genetically marked Adh1 additionally promotes seminal vesicle expression suggesting downstream or intragenic sequence controls expression in this tissue. However, expression in liver, adrenal, or intestine is not promoted. The Adh1(a) allele on the cosmid expresses an enzyme electrophoretically distinct from that of the endogenous Adh1(b) allele, and presence of the heterodimeric enzyme in expressing tissues confirms that transgene activity occurs in the same cell-type as the endogenous gene. Transgene expression levels promoted by cosmids were at physiologically relevant amounts and exhibited greater copy-number dependence than observed with minigenes. Transgene mRNA expression correlated with expression measured at the enzyme level. A bacterial artificial chromosome containing 110 kb of 5'- and 104 kb of 3'-flanking sequence surrounding the Adh1 gene promoted expression in tissues at levels comparable to the endogenous gene most importantly including liver, adrenal and intestinal tissue where high level Adh1 expression occurs. Transgene expression in liver was in the same cell types as promoted by the endogenous gene. Although proximal elements extending 12 kb upstream and 23 kb downstream of the Adh1 gene promote expression at physiologically relevant levels in most tissues, more distal elements are additionally required to promote normal expression levels in liver, adrenal and intestinal tissue where Adh1 is most highly expressed. PMID:12095699

Szalai, Gabor; Xie, Dong; Wassenich, Michele; Veres, Monika; Ceci, Jeffrey D; Dewey, Michael J; Molotkov, Andrei; Duester, Gregg; Felder, Michael R

2002-05-29

368

ATTENTIONAL BIAS AND ALCOHOL ABUSE.  

E-print Network

??Selective attention towards alcohol-related cues (i.e., “attentional bias”) is thought to reflect increased incentive motivational value of alcohol and alcohol cues acquired through a history… (more)

Weafer, Jessica Jane

2012-01-01

369

Microbiota-mediated colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens  

PubMed Central

Commensal bacteria inhabit mucosal and epidermal surfaces in mice and humans, and have effects on metabolic and immune pathways in their hosts. Recent studies indicate that the commensal microbiota can be manipulated to prevent and even to cure infections that are caused by pathogenic bacteria, particularly pathogens that are broadly resistant to antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile. In this Review, we discuss how immune- mediated colonization resistance against antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens is influenced by the composition of the commensal microbiota. We also review recent advances characterizing the ability of different commensal bacterial families, genera and species to restore colonization resistance to intestinal pathogens in antibiotic-treated hosts. PMID:24096337

Buffie, Charlie G.; Pamer, Eric G.

2014-01-01

370

LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

2011-03-01

371

Systemic bacterial invasion induced by sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Profound sleep disruption in humans is generally believed to cause health impairments. Through comparative research, specific physical effects and underlying mechanisms altered by sleep deprivation are being elucidated. Studies of sleep-deprived animals previously have shown a progressive, chronic negative energy balance and gradual deterioration of health, which culminate in fatal bloodstream infection without an infectious focus. The present study investigated the conditions antecedent to advanced morbidity in sleep-deprived rats by determining the time course and distribution of live microorganisms in body tissues that are normally sterile. The tissues cultured for microbial growth included the blood, four major organs, six regional lymph nodes, the intestine, and the skin. The principal finding was early infection of the mesenteric lymph nodes by bacteria presumably translocated from the intestine and bacterial migration to and transient infection of extraintestinal sites. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins in tissues constitutes a septic burden and chronic antigenic challenge for the host. Bacterial translocation and pathogenic sequelae provide mechanisms by which sleep deprivation appears to adversely affect health. PMID:10749778

Everson, C A; Toth, L A

2000-04-01

372

Different strategies for reducing intestinal background radioactivity associated with imaging HSV1-tk expression using established radionucleoside probes  

PubMed Central

One limitation of HSV1-tk reporter PET imaging with nucleoside analogues is the high background radioactivity in the intestine. We hypothesized that endogenous expression of thymidine kinase in bacterial flora could phosphorylate and trap such radiotracers, contributing to the high radioactivity levels in the bowel and therefore explored different strategies to increase fecal elimination of radiotracer. Methods Intestinal radioactivity was assessed by in vivo microPET imaging and ex vivo tissue sampling following intravenous injection of 18F-FEAU, 124I-FIAU or 18F-FHBG in a germ-free mouse strain. We also explored the use of an osmotic laxative agent and/or a 100% enzymatically hydrolyzed liquid diet. Results No significant differences in intestinal radioactivity were observed between germ-free and normal mice. 18F-FHBG-derived intestinal radioactivity levels were higher than those of 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU; the intestine-to-blood ratio was more than 20-fold higher for 18F-FHBG than for 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely lowered intestinal radioactivity levels and increased (2.2-fold) the HSV1-tk transduced xenograft-to-intestine ratio for 18F-FEAU. Conclusions Intestinal bacteria in germ-free mice do not contribute to the high intestinal levels of radioactivity following injection of radionucleoside analogs. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely increased radiotracer elimination by increasing bowel motility without inducing dehydration. PMID:20128998

Ruggiero, Alessandro; Brader, Peter; Serganova, Inna; Zanzonico, Pat; Cai, Shangde; Lipman, Neil S.; Hricak, Hedvig; Blasberg, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

373

Is the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin a risk factor for alcoholic liver disease?  

PubMed Central

Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time, only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors, besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver, which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes. It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-? signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:19291818

Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee

2009-01-01

374

ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Substance abuse and its related consequences undermine the University's goals of academicUNIVERSITY ALCOHOL AND DRUG POLICIES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Effective November, 2010 to the possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages. These standards conform to state and federal laws

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

375

Alcohol and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... been associated with some forms of cancer, moderate alcohol intake may decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. The cardiovascular benefits of moderate drinking may outweigh the ... should not start drinking alcohol in hopes of reducing their risk for heart ...

376

Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

1994-01-01

377

Alcohol and football  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alcohol is often intimately associated with sport, and the association is particularly strong in football. As well as providing a source of energy, alcohol (ethanol) has metabolic, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and neuromuscular actions that may affect exercise performance. Its actions on the central nervous system, however, result in decrements in skill and behavioural changes that may have adverse

R. J. Maughan

2006-01-01

378

Molecular basis of alcoholism.  

PubMed

Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

2014-01-01

379

Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:22540046

Kim, Soo-Jeong

2012-01-01

380

Smith Alcohol Knowledge Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school students' knowledge of alcohol and its use is measured by a test composed of 76 five option multiple choice items. Areas covered include definition of terms, physical effects, psychological effects, the disease concept of alcoholism, treatment and prevention, socio-economic factors, and safety factors. Mean scores by age and sex for a…

Smith, Berneda C.

381

[Alcohol, criminality, and personality].  

PubMed

It seems to be possible to affirm the existence of correlations between abuse of alcoholic drinks and the different forms of criminality. However other facts do exist in the determinism of the criminal acts. The psychological factors are important. The author wants to try to understand the role of alcohol in the passage of criminal acts of different types of personality. PMID:7944100

Monot, S; Cane, E; Burtin, J M; Larome, A

1994-06-01

382

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

383

Dissolution of lipids from mucus: A possible mechanism for prompt disruption of gut barrier function by alcohol.  

PubMed

Acute and/or chronic alcohol ingestion has been shown to exacerbate the morbidity and mortality rate associated with acute mechanical and/or thermal trauma. While alcohol ingestion can affect many organs and systems, clinical and preclinical studies indicate that alcohol ingestion can cause a 'leaky gut' syndrome which in turn contributes to infection and systemic organ dysfunction. This study investigated the acute effect of alcohol on gut barrier function. Using an in vivo isolated gut sac model of naïve male rats, each individual gut sac was injected with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40%, v/v) of alcohol. After different times of alcohol exposure, each isolated gut segment was harvested and intestinal permeability and mucosal surface hydrophobicity (a physiologic marker of mucus barrier function) were measured as well as luminal DNA, mucus, protein and free fatty acids. The results showed that alcohol caused dose-dependent and time-dependent increases in gut permeability and decreases in mucosal surface hydrophobicity, with significant changes to be observed 5min after treatment with 10% alcohol. In addition, it is further found that these changes in permeability and hydrophobicity are more closely associated with increased intestinal luminal free fatty acids levels but not protein or DNA levels. These results suggest that alcohol may cause loss of gut barrier function by extracting and dissolving lipids from the mucus with a resultant decrease in mucosal surface hydrophobicity, which is a critical component of gut barrier function. PMID:25445722

Qin, Xiaofa; Deitch, Edwin A

2015-01-22

384

Acidified Litter Benefits the Intestinal Flora Balance of Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

The alterations in the balance of the normal intestinal bacterial flora of chickens exposed to acidified wood-derived litter were analyzed and compared to those of a control group exposed to nonacidified litter. A total of 1,728 broilers were divided into two groups, with six replicates in each. One group was exposed to dry wood-derived litter, and the other was exposed to dry wood-derived litter sprayed with a mixture of sodium lignosulfonate, formic acid, and propionic acid. At five different times, five chickens from each pen were killed and the intestinal contents from ileum and caeca were collected. The samples were diluted and plated onto selective media to identify coliforms, Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Enterococcus spp. Covariance analysis of bacterial counts showed significantly lower counts for C. perfringens in the caeca and the ileum and for Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the ileum in chickens exposed to the acidified litter. Lactobacillus spp. showed significantly higher counts in the caeca in chickens exposed to acidified litter. There was no difference between the two litters with regard to coliforms in the ileum and the caeca or to Enterococcus spp. in the caeca. The study shows that exposing the chickens to acidified litter lowers the intestinal bacterial number, especially in the ileum, without negative consequences for the chicken's health or performance. Of special interest are the lower counts of C. perfringens and Enterococcus spp. that might reduce the risk of developing clinical or subclinical necrotic enteritis and growth depression. PMID:15345401

Garrido, Margarita Novoa; Skjervheim, Magne; Oppegaard, Hanne; Sørum, Henning

2004-01-01

385

Alcohol Industry & Policy Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems maintains the Alcohol Industry & Policy Database, which contains bibliographic citations and abstracts for more than 13,000 articles and news stories on the alcohol beverage industry, alcohol policy, and the prevention of alcohol-related problems. The citations in the database span from 1991 to the present and are updated monthly. Users may conduct cross-field queries of the database by keywords, subject headings, company name, and publication date. The search facility includes Word Wheels, which are interactive Java applets that help users to identify indexed terms quickly, thereby "eliminat[ing] trial-and-error searching [and] produc[ing] more accurate searches."

Problems., Marin I.

386

76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of NIAAA...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109,...

2011-06-14

387

76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Program...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109,...

2011-05-06

388

76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, RFA on AIDS...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2011-03-22

389

75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Collaborative...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085,...

2010-03-02

390

75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA--R34...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2010-11-24

391

76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology...National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2011-12-15

392

75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2010-10-20

393

77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA...

2012-07-05

394

78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061,...

2013-06-11

395

75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2010-10-15

396

75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NADIA Consortium...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085,...

2010-05-06

397

76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology...National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2011-07-26

398

78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member...National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane...

2013-10-31

399

78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology...National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

2013-07-16

400

77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public...Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. [[Page 68136

2012-11-15

401

76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM, including consideration of personnel...National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

2011-08-10

402

76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, RFA AA-12-001...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109,...

2011-07-26

403

76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology...National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of Health,...

2011-05-06

404

76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of NIAAA...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109,...

2011-06-14

405

77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant...National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Epidemiology...National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health,...

2012-04-17

406

78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed...Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial [[Page...Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

2013-04-11

407

Intestinal magnesium absorption.  

PubMed

Available data on the mechanism of Mg absorption is mainly descriptive in nature. There is data to support the existence of both gradient-driven and saturable Mg absorption. It is not clear, however, which process predominates under normal conditions. Evidence for a saturable process is based on a curvilinear relationship between dietary or luminal [Mg] and Mg uptake. Whether this is due to a carrier-mediated mechanism or due to alterations in absorption through the paracellular route remains to be determined. A careful review of the literature indicates that the predominate site of Mg absorption is the distal small intestine. Most of these studies, however, have been done in isolated segments which may not adequately reflect absorption in an undisturbed gastrointestinal tract. Future work will need to focus on identifying and characterizing Mg transport at the cellular and paracellular level as well as developing more sophisticated strategies for examining Mg absorption in the whole animal. PMID:8264506

Kayne, L H; Lee, D B

1993-01-01

408

Autophagy and Intestinal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host’s epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

Patel, Khushbu K.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

2013-01-01

409

Tissue engineering the small intestine.  

PubMed

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal tissue for direct translation to human therapy. PMID:23380001

Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

2013-04-01

410

Language of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... by clinicians. It refers to conditions such as: • Fetal alcohol syndrome, including partial FAS • Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) • Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder • Alcohol-related birth defects FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME FAS consists of a pattern of neurologic, behavioral, ...

411

Alcoholism and seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in mood and behavior (seasonality) may be closely related to alcoholism. Some patients with alcoholism have a seasonal pattern to their alcohol misuse. They may be self-medicating an underlying seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with alcohol or manifesting a seasonal pattern to alcohol-induced depression. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of alcoholism and SAD, operating, at least in part, through the brain serotonergic system. Family and molecular genetic studies suggest that there may be a genetic link between seasonality and alcoholism. Certain environmental and social factors may contribute to the development of seasonality in patients with alcoholism. The fact that SAD and alcoholism may be comorbid shows the importance of a thorough diagnostic interview. Both mental health and drug and alcohol professionals should be provided with education to assist with appropriate identification, management, and referral of patients presenting with comorbid alcoholism and SAD. PMID:14671737

Sher, Leo

2004-01-01

412

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.  

PubMed

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

2013-01-01

413

ALCOHOL REINFORCEMENT AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS  

E-print Network

Abstract — The pleasant subjective effects produced by alcohol undoubtedly reinforce drinking behaviour. Alcohol positively reinforces or rewards drinking by producing a mild euphoria. Alcohol also has anxiolytic effects that negatively reinforce drinking. The reinforcing effects of alcohol are mediated by several neurochemical systems, with dopamine and serotonin playing major roles in reward and the)"-aminobutync acid-benzodiazepine receptor system playing a major role in negative reinforcement. Research from our laboratory suggests that the behavioural effects of alcohol change when blood alcohol levels are changing and that these changes correspond to alterations of specific neurochemical systems. Behavioural activation and reward effects appear to occur as blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) increase. Depressive and aversive effects of alcohol occur during the period when BACs decrease. The observed correlation between behavioural and neuropharmacological changes and alcohol consumption suggest that alcohol produces a unique cascade over time that may provide clues to its long-sought specific mechanisms of action. In alcohol-dependent individuals, chronic exposure to alcohol may alter the function and communication between the liver, brain and other vital organ systems involved in hunger and the maintenance of nutrition. Under such conditions, the importance of alcohol in the diet may be enhanced such that hunger signals in the alcohol-dependent individual motivate the consumption of alcohol. Therefore, hunger for alcohol may provide an additional source of reinforcement. Endogenous opioid mechanisms may be important in this form of alcohol reinforcement

Michael J. Lewis

1995-01-01

414

The Economics Of Alcohol Abuse And Alcohol-Control Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consump- tion and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that

Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

2002-01-01

415

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21

416

The Cultural and Historical Roots of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article is a literature review of the history of alcohol and alcoholism. Alcohol has been produced and consumed by man for millenniums. The ancient beverages may have been far lower in alcohol than their current versions, but people were aware of the potentially deleterious effects of drinking. Comments and laws about drunkenness were made almost by all the

Sapountzi-Krepia D

417

A Network Model of Alcoholism and Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

A Network Model of Alcoholism and Alcohol Policy Dr. Robert Wilson School of Urban Affairs alcohol abuse. This infor- mation is relatively reliable compared to many types of hard drug abuse. Data with those statistics and study the epidemiology of alcoholism with some known population structures [2, 3, 4

Edwards, David A.

418

The Genetics of Alcohol Intake and of Alcohol Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because alcohol has multiple dose-dependent consequences, it is important to understand the causes of individual variation in the amount of alcohol used. The aims of this study were to assess the long-term repeatability and genetic or environmental causes of variation in alcohol intake and to estimate the degree of overlap with causes of susceptibility to alcohol dependence. Methods: Data

John B. Whitfield; Gu Zhu; Pamela A. Madden; Michael C. Neale; Andrew C. Heath; Nicholas G. Martin

2004-01-01

419

Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

Brown, Sandra A.

420

Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to determine how an E. coli challenge and dietary clays affect the intestinal barrier of pigs. Two groups of 32 pigs (initial BW: 6.9?±?1.0 kg) were distributed in a 2?×?4 factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design (2 challenge treatments: sham or E. coli, and 4 dietary treatments: control, 0.3% smectite A, 0.3% smectite B and 0.3% zeolite), with 8 replicates total. Diarrhea score, growth performance, goblet cell size and number, bacterial translocation from intestinal lumen to lymph nodes, intestinal morphology, and relative amounts of sulfo and sialo mucins were measured. The E. coli challenge reduced performance, increased goblet cell size and number in the ileum, increased bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the lymph nodes, and increased ileal crypt depth. One of the clays (smectite A) tended to increase goblet cell size in ileum, which may indicate enhanced protection. In conclusion, E. coli infection degrades intestinal barrier integrity but smectite A may enhance it. PMID:24359581

2013-01-01

421

Catheterization of Intestinal Loops in Ruminants Does Not Adversely Affect Loop Function  

PubMed Central

Catheterized intestinal loops may be a valuable model to elucidate key components of the host response to various treatments within the small intestine of ruminants. We examined whether catheterizing ileal loops in sheep affected the overall health of animals and intestinal function, whether a bacterial treatment could be introduced into the loops through the catheters, and whether broad-spectrum antibiotics could sterilize the loops. Escherichia coli cells transformed to express the GFP gene were introduced readily into the loops through the catheters, and GFP E. coli cells were localized within the injected loops. Catheterized loops, interspaces, and intact ileum exhibited no abnormalities in tissue appearance or electrical resistance. Expression of the IFN?, IL1?, IL4, IL6, IL12p40, IL18, TGF?1, and TNF? cytokine genes did not differ significantly among the intact ileum, catheterized loops, and interspaces, nor did the expression of the gene for inducible nitric oxide synthase. Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered during surgery did not sterilize the loops or interspaces and did not substantively change the composition of the microbiota. However, antibiotics reduced the overall number of bacterial cells within the loop and the relative abundance of community constituents. We concluded that catheterization of intestinal loops did not adversely affect health or loop function in sheep. Furthermore, allowing animals to recover fully from surgery and to clear pharmaceuticals will remove any confounding effects due to these factors, making catheterized intestinal loops a feasible model for studying host responses in ruminants. PMID:21262134

Inglis, G Douglas; Kastelic, John P; Uwiera, Richard R E

2010-01-01

422

Effects of continuous renal replacement therapy on intestinal mucosal barrier function during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a porcine model  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been recommended for treatment of acute, potentially reversible, life-threatening respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional therapy. Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction is one of the most critical pathophysiological disorders during ECMO. This study aimed to determine whether combination with CRRT could alleviate damage of intestinal mucosal barrier function during VV ECMO in a porcine model. Methods Twenty-four piglets were randomly divided into control(C), sham(S), ECMO(E) and ECMO?+?CRRT(EC) group. The animals were treated with ECMO or ECMO?+?CRRT for 24 hours. After the experiments, piglets were sacrificed. Jejunum, ileum and colon were harvested for morphologic examination of mucosal injury and ultrastructural distortion. Histological scoring was assessed according to Chiu’s scoring standard. Blood samples were taken from the animals at -1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h during experiment. Blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymphnode were collected for bacterial culture. Serum concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were tested as markers to assess intestinal epithelial function and permeability. DAO levels were determined by spectrophotometry and I-FABP levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results Microscopy findings showed that ECMO-induced intestinal microvillus shedding and edema, morphological distortion of tight junction between intestinal mucous epithelium and loose cell-cell junctions were significantly improved with combination of CRRT. No significance was detected on positive rate of serum bacterial culture. The elevated colonies of bacterial culture in liver and mesenteric lymphnode in E group reduced significantly in EC group (p?intestinal mucosal dysfunction and bacterial translocation during VV ECMO, which may extenuate the ECMO-associated SIRS and raise the clinical effect and safety. PMID:24758270

2014-01-01

423

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy ALCOHOL POLICY INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5 A. SECURITY SERVICES AT ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS ........................................... 5 B

Carleton University

424

Clinical pathology of alcohol.  

PubMed Central

There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

Marks, V

1983-01-01

425

[Alcohol use in France].  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption has regularly decreased in France since the 1950s, essentially in connection with the decrease of wine consumption, with disaffection for the "table wine", for the benefit of better quality wines that are drunk in lesser quantity. France is still part of the most alcohol drinking countries in the European Union but is no longer situated at the very top of the ranking. General population surveys results tend to confirm the evolution of sale of alcohol: since 1992, among 15-75 years old, alcohol daily users proportion was divided by two, from 24% in 1992 to 11% in 2010, currently replaced by a more occasional use. We indeed observe in the general population a profile of young adults having a strong and punctual consumption, and an older profile of less important but regular consumption. The proportion of problematic alcohol users remains stable, concerning approximately a person on 10 in the adult population. The part of persons who declared they have drunk six glasses or more during the same occasion at least once a month during the last twelve months increased from 15% in 2005 to 18% in 2010. Binge drinking and the frequency of drunkenness have increased among teenagers and young adults these last years. These behaviors can lead to short term risks, such as accidents, undergone violence, unwanted or unprotected sexual intercourse, even coma, whereas chronic alcohol use can lead to numerous hepatic, cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric complications, as well as cancers. With such sanitary consequences, alcohol is a major risk factor of avoidable morbidity and premature mortality. The beneficial effect that seems to have a moderate consumption of alcohol on the risk of death by cardiovascular diseases has brought about recurring scientific controversies. However, its major noxious effects in terms of non-transmitted diseases should remain the major point in public health decisions on alcoholization. PMID:24994508

Beck, François; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

2014-10-01

426

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

2008-01-01

427

Small intestinal ischemia and infarction  

MedlinePLUS

... tests include: Angiogram CT scan of the abdomen Doppler ultrasound of the abdomen These tests do not ... cases. People who have a large amount of tissue death in the intestine can have problems absorbing ...

428

Alcohol and the Hispanic Community  

MedlinePLUS

... liver and other organs. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443. ...

429

Intestinal pseudoobstruction in Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction is an uncommon but important manifestation of Kawasaki disease. Its occurrence at the onset or during the course of the disease may confuse the clinical picture and cause delay in diagnosis and treatment. This delay may be responsible for the high rate of coronary artery abnormalities that have been reported in patients with this complication. We suggest that Kawasaki disease be considered in the differential diagnosis of any child presenting with intestinal pseudoobstruction and fever without definable cause. PMID:15121996

Akikusa, Jonathan D; Laxer, Ronald M; Friedman, Jeremy N

2004-05-01

430

Translocation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the intestinal tract is mediated by the binding of ExoS to an Na,K-ATPase regulator, FXYD3.  

PubMed

The intestinal tract is considered the most important reservoir of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units (ICUs). Gut colonization by P. aeruginosa underlies the development of invasive infections such as gut-derived sepsis. Intestinal colonization by P. aeruginosa is associated with higher ICU mortality rates. The translocation of endogenous P. aeruginosa from the colonized intestinal tract is an important pathogenic phenomenon. Here we identify bacterial and host proteins associated with bacterial penetration through the intestinal epithelial barrier. We first show by comparative genomic hybridization analysis that the exoS gene, encoding the type III effector protein, ExoS, was specifically detected in a clinical isolate that showed higher virulence in silkworms following midgut injection. We further show using a silkworm oral infection model that exoS is required both for virulence and for bacterial translocation from the midgut to the hemolymph. Using a bacterial two-hybrid screen, we show that the mammalian factor FXYD3, which colocalizes with and regulates the function of Na,K-ATPase, directly binds ExoS. A pulldown assay revealed that ExoS binds to the transmembrane domain of FXYD3, which also interacts with Na,K-ATPase. Na,K-ATPase controls the structure and barrier function of tight junctions in epithelial cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ExoS facilitates P. aeruginosa penetration through the intestinal epithelial barrier by binding to FXYD3 and thereby impairing the defense function of tight junctions against bacterial penetration. PMID:20805335

Okuda, Jun; Hayashi, Naoki; Okamoto, Masashi; Sawada, Shinji; Minagawa, Shu; Yano, Yoshitaka; Gotoh, Naomasa

2010-11-01

431

Acute Alcohol Intoxication Impairs the Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Response to Pneumococcal Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased incidence and severity of pneumonia. In both the general population and in individuals consuming excess alcohol, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent lung infection pathogen. Alcoholic patients with pneumonia frequently present with granulocytopenia, which is predictive of increased mortality. The mechanisms underlying this impaired granulopoietic response to pneumococcal pneumonia have yet to be elucidated. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was induced in mice 30 minutes before intrapulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bone marrow and blood samples were collected. Bone marrow cells were also isolated from naïve mice and treated in vitro with plasma from mice infected with S.pneumoniae. Results Alcohol intoxication impaired the pneumococcal-induced increase in granulocyte recruitment into the alveolar space, decreased bacterial clearance from the lung, and increased mortality. Pneumococcal pneumonia significantly increased bone marrow lineage?c-Kit+Sca-1+ (LKS) cell number and colony forming unit – granulocytes and monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of these cells. Both enhanced proliferation of LKS cells and re-expression of Sca-1 surface protein on downstream progenitor cells bearing lineage?c-Kit+Sca-1? surface markers accounted for the expansion of marrow LSK cells during pneumonia. Alcohol intoxication impaired these two mechanisms of LKS cell population expansion and was associated with a relative granulocytopenia during pneumococcal lung infection. Conclusions Alcohol inhibits the hematopoietic precursor cell response to pneumonia which may serve as a mechanism underlying the granulocytopenia and impaired host defense in alcohol abusers with bacterial pneumonia. PMID:20659065

Raasch, Caroline E.; Zhang, Ping; Siggins, Robert W.; LaMotte, Lynn R.; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

432

[Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : Intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore b