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Sample records for alfred lothar wegener

  1. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  2. Tracing the origin of Geodynamics: The Alfred Wegener Memorial Expedition 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    2012 marked the 100st anniversary of the seminal publications on Continental Drift Theory by Alfred Wegener. These publications (and Wegener's book "On the origin of the continents", published three years later) are widely accepted to be the fundamental breakthrough that opened the path to the Theory of Plate Tectoncis and ultimately the path to modern Geodynamics some 50 years later. In the same historic year of the 1912 publications, Alfred Wegener set off for what was to become the most dramatic of his three Greenland expeditions. On this expedition Wegener and Koch crossed the entire northern icecap of Greenland. In honour of the hundreds anniversary of Wegener's publications, the Austrian Academy of Sciences funded an expedition to trace the footsteps of the 1912 expedition in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, while also conducting modern Earth Science. This expedition that was conducted in summer 2014. For the expedition, a 1952 Cessna180 was acquired in Alaska, adapted with bush wheels, wing extensions and extra tanks and was flown by the author and one of the worlds most renown bush pilots from Alaska in a 10 day effort to Greenland. There, the entire NE Greenland Caledonides were covered and photographed. Field work for a masters projects was conducted and samples were collected from a series of some of the most remote locations in the Caledonides ever visited. Most spectacularly, the original sled of Wegeners 1912 expedition was found some 30 kilometers from its expected location in the Dove Bugt Region of northeastern Greenland.

  3. Wetting Front Instability in Porous Media (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, Jean-Yves

    2010-05-01

    Normal porous media, like soils, exhibit liquid flow instabilities that are very different from what is observed in a Hele-Shaw cell. Unfortunately, the latter is often used as the basis of our understanding in the case of soils. In Hele-Shaw cells, the instability is less developed and shows as "fingers" merging into a hand. On the other hand, in a soil, the "fingers" are replaced by "columns" that remain distinct. With fingers, surface tension enters Laplace's equation through the radius of the saturated tip, whereas with columns, it is not the diameter of the column but the much smaller pore radii which are relevant. At present, the phenomenon is fairly well understood: With fingers, the liquid viscosity is often important and hysteresis is not; with columns the opposite usually holds. In nature, columns tend to remain at the same position in the soil. This persistence is responsible for rapid water and solute transport with potential pollution of ground water. As the column enters the soil, its tip consists of a narrow wetting zone followed by drainage. Both the drainage profile and the lateral diffusion of water are well described by Richards' equation. Lateral diffusion eventually stops because of hysteresis, maintaining columns of constant width which do not merge into a hand. The wet zone cannot be described by Richards' equation as the wetting requires understanding of the flow at the pore scale, i.e., solving the Navier-Stokes equations, leading to a Hoffman-Tanner type of flow behavior.

  4. Pregnancy complicating Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Soh, May Ching; Hart, Hamish H; Bass, Eileen; Wilkinson, Lucille

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy associated with Wegener's granulomatosis is rare. Therapeutic options are limited. There is a paucity of published literature to guide clinical decision-making in these complex patients. Two cases are presented. Firstly, a 33-year-old woman with generalized Wegener's in remission and off all medications presented with a flare in the third trimester with haemoptysis, raised C-reactive protein and c-anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) levels. Her care was complicated by florid steroid-induced psychosis. With deteriorating disease control, she was treated with pulsed-intravenous cyclophosphamide with a good response. She delivered a healthy baby at 38 weeks. She had a severe postpartum flare. Secondly, a 37-year-old woman with limited Wegener's in remission for the last two years and off all treatment became pregnant after pre-conception counselling. A normal baby was delivered at term. An exhaustive review of all published literature on Wegener's activity in pregnancy is presented along with therapeutic options and recommendations.

  5. The Wegener Memorial Expedition to the Greenland Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Piller, Werner

    2014-05-01

    2012 marked the 100 anniversary of the publication of Alfred Wegeners book: 'Die Entstehung der Kontinente' - which is often hailed as the discovery of continental drift theory in the advent of plate tectonics. Wegener was later appointed as professor for geophysics at the University of Graz in Austria - in part for this discovery. He held this position until his death in Greenland in 1930. In honor of the hundredth anniversary of the 1912 milestone publication, the University of Graz in Austria stages an expedition to Greenland in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The expedition aims predominantly to unravel secrets of the Caledonides of Northeastern Greenland using an extensive sampling program to some of the least explored corners of the orogenic belt. Particular emphasis will be placed on the Hager Bjerg allochthon and its relationship to the hanging wall and footwall units. The expedition will use the unparalleled flexibility of small aircraft that will be piloted by experienced Alaskan bush pilots and brought to Greenland from Alaska for this purpose.

  6. The Canonical Alfred Hitchcock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Hitchcock is a major figure of popular culture. He was one of the founding fathers of the cinematic art and, together with Eisenstein and Murnau, helped define its visual language. So fruitful was he that a single film could spawn an entire genre, as "Psycho" helped create the modern horror film and "North by Northwest" the style and tone…

  7. [Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis].

    PubMed

    Pagnoux, Christian

    2008-03-15

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are among the main systemic necrotizing vasculitides predominantly affecting small vessels. Their prevalences range from 24 to 157 cases per million inhabitants. Mean age at onset is usually 40 to 60 years old. Most common and suggestive features of Wegener's granulomatosis are upper (sinusitis, crusting rhinitis, saddle nose deformity, otitis media) and lower (excavated lung nodules, alveolar hemorrhage) respiratory tract, and kidney involvements. Alveolar hemorrhage and crescentic necrotizing glomerulonephritis are also characteristic manifestations of microscopic polyangiitis. Mononeuritis multiplex and necrotic purpura are frequent symptoms in both diseases. Antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 can be found in the serum of 90% of the patients with diffuse forms of Wegener's granulomatosis, whereas ANCA with anti-myeloperoxidase specificity, whose pathogenic role is now well documented, can be detected in more than 60% of those with microscopic polyangiitis. Histologically, Wegener's granulomatosis can be differentiated from its counterpart when the inflammatory infiltrates have a granulomatous pattern. Therapy relies on the combination of corticosteroids and pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide, which can be switched, as soon as remission is achieved, to azathioprine or methotrexate, for a total duration of treatment of at least 18 months. Ten-year survival rate now exceeds 80%, but relapses are frequent. The precise place of new biologics, such as rituximab, needs to be further defined. PMID:18524109

  8. Cardiac involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goodfield, N. E.; Bhandari, S.; Plant, W. D.; Morley-Davies, A.; Sutherland, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. The protean clinical presentations depend on the organ(s) involved and the degree of progression from a local to a systemic arteritis. The development of serological tests (antieutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) allows easier diagnosis of a disease whose incidence is increasing. This is particularly helpful where the presentation is not classic--for example "overlap syndromes"--or where the disease presents early in a more localised form. This is true of cardiac involvement, which is traditionally believed to be rare, but may not be as uncommon as has hitherto been thought (< or = 44%). This involvement may be subclinical or the principal source of symptoms either in the form of localised disease or as part of a systemic illness. Pericarditis, arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and arrhythmias are all recognised. Wegener's granulomatosis should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of any non-specific illness with cardiac involvement. This includes culture negative endocarditis, because Wegener's granulomatosis can produce systemic upset with mass lesions and vasculitis. Echocardiography and particularly transoesophageal echocardiography can easily identify and delineate cardiac and proximal aortic involvement and may also be used to assess response to treatment. Images PMID:7696016

  9. Bruce Medalist Profile - Fowler, Alfred

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    1995-09-01

    Alfred Fowler was to stars what Scotland Yard is to criminals. In his laboratory, spectra became a way to fingerprint stars and deduce their composition. Yet for years Fowler's efforts went unrecognized, because his boss took the credit.

  10. Wegener Granulomatosis: Otologic Manifestation as First Symptom

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carla Fabiane da; Polanski, Jose Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Wegener granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels of the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Objective To describe a case of Wegener disease with atypical manifestation. Resumed Report We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss as the primary symptoms, without other manifestations. Conclusion In cases of acute ear manifestations with or without hearing loss and with poor response to usual treatments, Wegener granulomatosis should be included among the possible etiologies. After adequate diagnoses and treatment of this rare disease, there was favorable evolution. PMID:26157503

  11. Modelling the wind damage probability in forests in Southwestern Germany for the 1999 winter storm 'Lothar'.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Dirk; Grebhan, Karin; Albrecht, Axel; Schönborn, Jochen

    2009-11-01

    The wind damage probability (P (DAM)) in the forests in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Southwestern Germany) was calculated using weights of evidence (WofE) methodology and a logistic regression model (LRM) after the winter storm 'Lothar' in December 1999. A geographic information system (GIS) was used for the area-wide spatial prediction and mapping of P (DAM). The combination of the six evidential themes forest type, soil type, geology, soil moisture, soil acidification, and the 'Lothar' maximum gust field predicted wind damage best and was used to map P (DAM) in a 50 x 50 m resolution grid. GIS software was utilised to produce probability maps, which allowed the identification of areas of low, moderate, and high P (DAM) across the study area. The highest P (DAM) values were calculated for coniferous forest growing on acidic, fresh to moist soils on bunter sandstone formations-provided that 'Lothar' maximum gust speed exceeded 35 m s(-1) in the areas in question. One of the most significant benefits associated with the results of this study is that, for the first time, there is a GIS-based area-wide quantification of P (DAM) in the forests in Southwestern Germany. In combination with the experience and expert knowledge of local foresters, the probability maps produced can be used as an important tool for decision support with respect to future silvicultural activities aimed at reducing wind damage. One limitation of the P (DAM)-predictions is that they are based on only one major storm event. At the moment it is not possible to relate storm event intensity to the amount of wind damage in forests due to the lack of comprehensive long-term tree and stand damage data across the study area. PMID:19562383

  12. Why turbulence dominates the atmosphere and hydrosphere? (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that in very stable stratifications, at Richardson numbers (Ri) exceeding the critical value Ric ~ 0.25, turbulence inevitably decays and the flow becomes laminar. This is so, indeed, in the low-Reynolds-number (Re) flows, e.g., in some laboratory experiments; but this is by no means always the case. Air flows in the free atmosphere and water currents in deep ocean are almost always turbulent in spite of the strongly supercritical stratifications, with typical values of Ri varying in the interval 10 < Ri < 102. Until recently, this paradox has remained unexplained. We demonstrate that the key mechanism of the seemingly paradoxical self-preservation of the very-high-Re geophysical turbulence as a loop including (i) conversion of the turbulent kinetic unto potential energy and (ii) self-control of the negative (down-gradient) turbulent heat flux through efficient generation of the positive (counter-gradient) heat transfer by the turbulent potential energy (Zilitinkevich et al., 2007, 2008, 2009, 2013). Thanks to this loop, turbulence is maintained in supercritical stratifications and, moreover, at Ri > Ric the familiar 'strong-mixing turbulence' regime, typical of boundary-layer flows and characterised by the practically invariable turbulent Prandtl number PrT ~ 1 (the so-called 'Reynolds analogy'), gives way to a previously unknown 'wave-like turbulence' regime, wherein PrT sharply increases with increasing Ri (rather than to the laminar regime as is often the case in lab experiments). It is precisely the wave-like turbulence that dominates the free flows in the atmosphere and ocean. Modellers have long been aware that the turbulent heat transfer in the free atmosphere/ocean is much weaker than the momentum transfer. Our theory gives authentic formulation for this heuristic rule and provides physically grounded method for modelling geophysical turbulence up to very stable startifications.

  13. The three lost millennia of the last deglaciation (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    Looking back more than thirty years, climate history over the last period of deglaciation was seen to portray a smooth transition between the last glacial maximum (LGM) centered around 18,000 years ago (based on radiocarbon), and the beginning of the Holocene at about 10,000 years before present. At that time, the renowned CLIMAP group used the stratigraphy available to reconstruct the glacial world by averaging paleothermometric data over a wide time window, ranging between at least 14,000 and 24,000 yr BP, over which period climate was assumed to be rather stable. Even if northern European pollen records showed several phases of vegetation shift, the exact duration and spatial coverage of these shifts was unknown and their climatic significance was not well-enough understood to be separated from other biological effects, such as plant migration following ice-sheet demise. Significant progress came from mass spectrometry developments applied to isotope geochronology in the mid- and late- 1980s. This allowed the precise analysis of radiocarbon on small samples such as foraminifera in marine sediments and enabled the measurement of U-Th ages for accurate dating of corals and speleothems. These technological improvements permitted meaningful comparisons between proxy records from the various archives originating from all latitudes and longitudes. Today, it is clear that the old LGM time window corresponds to a period of more than ten millennia during which there was significant climate variability, including a prominent cooling event at the beginning of the deglaciation. This cooling event is known as the 'Oldest Dryas' by palynologists, as 'Heinrich Event #1' (H1) by paleoceanographers, and has even been dubbed the 'Mystery Interval' by prominent authors as they puzzled while attempting to synthesize and interpret its records. The H1 drastic cooling, attributed to a pulse-like injection of ice and meltwater into the North Atlantic, was first evidenced in 1987 in sediments from the Iberian Margin. Three years later, significant improvements of the radiocarbon calibration demonstrated that about three millennia were missing from the deglaciation record. Accordingly, the LGM mean age was pushed from 18,000 to 21,000 yr BP, the midpoint of H1 was shifted from 13,500 to 16,000 yr BP, and the beginning of the Holocene was repositioned at about 11,500 yr BP. This new climate chronology was subsequently confirmed by counting 'cryovarves' within the GRIP and GISP2 Greenland ice cores. These studies have since been complemented by many other records from polar ice, marine and lacustrine sediments and cave speleothems. In addition to extending the chronology by three additional millennia, improvement also arose from the quality of the new geological archives. These archives have allowed studies at much higher resolution than was previously achieved in the framework of CLIMAP, which included many records based on deep-sea cores characterized by low sedimentation rate, and thus very susceptible to smoothing processes such as bioturbation. In addition, analytical geochemistry has only recently provided techniques adapted to the production of high-resolution time series of various proxies based on elemental ratios, on organic compounds or on stable and radiogenic isotopes. More than a dozen years after the H1 discovery, the same Iberian Margin sediments were used to show that H1 comprised at least two phases, H1a and H1b, based on ice rafted debris (IRD) and other proxies. It is now recognized that the entire H1 event (H1 sensu lato) is a three millennia-long period (ca. 17,500 to 14,500 yr BP). To illustrate the progress in this research field, I will review the key records that can be used to document the complex nature of this episode. The H1 (s.l.) included several phases of intense cooling, of precipitation changes - notably at low latitudes and in the Asian monsoon area, of retreat and decay of glacial ice-sheets - as evidenced in sediments collected in river mouths, and of sea-level rise as recorded in corals from Tahiti and Barb

  14. The three lost millennia of the last deglaciation (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    Looking back more than thirty years, climate history over the last period of deglaciation was seen to portray a smooth transition between the last glacial maximum (LGM) centered around 18,000 years ago (based on radiocarbon), and the beginning of the Holocene at about 10,000 years before present. At that time, the renowned CLIMAP group used the stratigraphy available to reconstruct the glacial world by averaging paleothermometric data over a wide time window, ranging between at least 14,000 and 24,000 yr BP, over which period climate was assumed to be rather stable. Even if northern European pollen records showed several phases of vegetation shift, the exact duration and spatial coverage of these shifts was unknown and their climatic significance was not well-enough understood to be separated from other biological effects, such as plant migration following ice-sheet demise. Significant progress came from mass spectrometry developments applied to isotope geochronology in the mid- and late- 1980s. This allowed the precise analysis of radiocarbon on small samples such as foraminifera in marine sediments and enabled the measurement of U-Th ages for accurate dating of corals and speleothems. These technological improvements permitted meaningful comparisons between proxy records from the various archives originating from all latitudes and longitudes. Today, it is clear that the old LGM time window corresponds to a period of more than ten millennia during which there was significant climate variability, including a prominent cooling event at the beginning of the deglaciation. This cooling event is known as the 'Oldest Dryas' by palynologists, as 'Heinrich Event #1' (H1) by paleoceanographers, and has even been dubbed the 'Mystery Interval' by prominent authors as they puzzled while attempting to synthesize and interpret its records. The H1 drastic cooling, attributed to a pulse-like injection of ice and meltwater into the North Atlantic, was first evidenced in 1987 in sediments from the Iberian Margin. Three years later, significant improvements of the radiocarbon calibration demonstrated that about three millennia were missing from the deglaciation record. Accordingly, the LGM mean age was pushed from 18,000 to 21,000 yr BP, the midpoint of H1 was shifted from 13,500 to 16,000 yr BP, and the beginning of the Holocene was repositioned at about 11,500 yr BP. This new climate chronology was subsequently confirmed by counting 'cryovarves' within the GRIP and GISP2 Greenland ice cores. These studies have since been complemented by many other records from polar ice, marine and lacustrine sediments and cave speleothems. In addition to extending the chronology by three additional millennia, improvement also arose from the quality of the new geological archives. These archives have allowed studies at much higher resolution than was previously achieved in the framework of CLIMAP, which included many records based on deep-sea cores characterized by low sedimentation rate, and thus very susceptible to smoothing processes such as bioturbation. In addition, analytical geochemistry has only recently provided techniques adapted to the production of high-resolution time series of various proxies based on elemental ratios, on organic compounds or on stable and radiogenic isotopes. More than a dozen years after the H1 discovery, the same Iberian Margin sediments were used to show that H1 comprised at least two phases, H1a and H1b, based on ice rafted debris (IRD) and other proxies. It is now recognized that the entire H1 event (H1 sensu lato) is a three millennia-long period (ca. 17,500 to 14,500 yr BP). To illustrate the progress in this research field, I will review the key records that can be used to document the complex nature of this episode. The H1 (s.l.) included several phases of intense cooling, of precipitation changes - notably at low latitudes and in the Asian monsoon area, of retreat and decay of glacial ice-sheets - as evidenced in sediments collected in river mouths, and of sea-level rise as recorded in corals from Tahiti and Barbados. Various isotopic proxies of deep-sea ventilation have been used to identify variations during the H1 sub-phases of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), indicating that ocean heat transport was involved in the observed climate fluctuations. The various records documenting different climate parameters at many locations over the Earth can also be used in meaningful comparison with numerical model simulations performed in a transient mode. Collectively, these works allow to estimate the phase relationships between the causes (insolation and the greenhouse effect) and the often abrupt responses of the various components of the climate system, such as the atmosphere, oceans and ice sheets. Although these studies concern a naturally-occurring global warming that took place over a long time period, useful parallels will be drawn with the evolution of modern climate. In fact, the phase relationships between forcings (such as greenhouse gases and solar input) and changes in regional and global temperatures are also at the heart of modern global climate change. As for early deglaciation, the ocean can modulate warming regionally, thereby delaying, or even temporarily masking, long-term changes. Climate changes over the last century have been smaller in magnitude than those of the last deglaciation. Fortunately for us, there has been no recent collapse of gigantic ice masses such as the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, most climate models show a 20 to 40% reduction of the MOC during the 21st century. Even if this change exerts only a minor influence on the projected magnitude of global warming, such a slowdown in ocean circulation change is generally sufficient to reduce the simulated warming over the North Atlantic with a resulting impact on adjacent continents, including Europe.

  15. The Complex Physics of Climate Change and Climate Sensitivity: A Grand Unification (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent estimates of climate evolution over the coming century still differ by several degrees. This uncertainty motivates in part the work presented in this lecture. The complex physics of climate change arises from the large number of components of the climate system, as well as from the wealth of processes occurring in each of the components and across them. This complexity has given rise to countless attempts to model each component and process, as well as to two overarching approaches to apprehend the complexity as a whole: deterministically nonlinear and stochastically linear. Call them the Ed Lorenz and the Klaus Hasselmann approach, respectively, for short. We propose a "grand unification" of these two approaches that relies on the theory of random dynamical systems (RDS). In particular, we apply this theory to the problem of climate sensitivity, and study the random attractors of nonlinear, stochastically perturbed systems, as well as the time-dependent probability densities associated with these attractors. The random attractors so obtained are visually spectacular objects that generalize the strange attractors of the Lorenz approach. Results are presented for several simple climate models, from the classical Lorenz convection model to El Nino-Southern Oscillation models. Their attractors carry probability densities with nice physical properties. Implications of these properties for climate predictability on interannual and decadal time scales are discussed. The RDS setting allows one to examine the interaction of internal climate variability with the forcing, whether natural or anthropogenic, and to provide a definition of climate sensitivity that takes into account the climate system's non-equilibrium behavior. Such a definition is of the essence in studying systematically the sensitivity of global climate models (GCMs) to the uncertainties in tens of semi-empirical parameters; it is given here in terms of the response of the appropriate probability densities to changes in the parameters and compared with numerical results for a somewhat simplified GCM. This lecture is the result of recent collaborations with M. D. Chekroun, D. Kondrashov, J. C. McWilliams, J. D. Neelin, E. Simonnet, S. Wang, and I. Zaliapin; more broadly, it represents the fruition of all I learned from tens of Ph. D. students, post-docs and other colleagues over the years.

  16. Papers in Warlpiri Grammar: In Memory of Lothar Jagst. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M., Ed.

    Five papers on the grammar of Warlpiri, an Australian Aboriginal language, include: "A Tentative Description of Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Verbs" (Lothar H. Jagst); "Syntactic Structure of Warlpiri Clauses" (Stephen M. Swartz); "A Preliminary Description of Propositional Particles in Warlpiri" (Mary Laughren); "Warlpiri Verb Roots and Preverbs" (David…

  17. Tracheal Stenosis Because of Wegener Granulomatosis Misdiagnosed as Asthma.

    PubMed

    O'Hear, Kelley E; Ingrande, Jerry; Brodsky, Jay B; Morton, John M; Sung, Chih-Kwang

    2016-05-15

    We describe a patient with Wegener granulomatosis whose complaint of wheezing was incorrectly attributed to asthma. Anesthesiologists must recognize that tracheal stenosis is extremely common in Wegener granulomatosis and can mimic other causes of wheezing. PMID:27075424

  18. Paranasal sinus obliteration in Wegener granulomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Roberts, R.L.; Fauci, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The authors report 14 cases of Wegener granulomatosis in which one or more paranasal sinuses were obliterated by bone. The maxillary antra were involved in all cases, with the other sinuses being affected less frequently. These changes are thought to result from chronic bacterial sinusitis superimposed on the granulomatous vasculitic process. Computed tomography dramatically demonstrated the bone changes, consisting of a combination of sinus wall thickening and trabeculated new bone formation within the sinuses.

  19. Wegener's Granulomatosis: Are We Still Missing It?

    PubMed

    Adiody, Supriya; Gopinathan, V P; George, Edwin J

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female who was mis-diagnosed as a smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and advised standard antituberculosis treatment. She later presented with clinio-radiological worsening and thrombosis of superficial veins of the lower extremity. Cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and computed tomography-guided lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. The rare association of superficial vein thrombosis with lung manifestation is highlighted here as also the need for a high index of clinical suspicion to avoid a missed or delayed diagnosis. PMID:26591976

  20. Diagnostic consideration for sinonasal Wegener's granulomatosis clinically mistaken for carcinoma.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Cristina; Emmanuele, Carmela; Tranchina, Maria Grazia; Ippolito, Massimo; Cosentino, Sebastiano; Saita, Vincenzo; Improta, Giuseppina; Fraggetta, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Wegener's granulomatosis clinically mistaken for carcinoma in a 21-year-old girl presenting with an ulcerated mass of the nasopharynx associated with enlarged laterocervical nodes. The lesion was clinically suspected as malignant on the basis of clinical and radiological findings (namely, computed tomography scan and positron emission tomography). However, multiple biopsies were not conclusive for malignancy showing histological change suggestive of Wegener's granulomatosis. A serum determination of cANCA supported the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. Clinical findings and image studies suggested an erroneous diagnosis of malignancy whereas a definitive diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis was achieved only after repeated biopsies thus leading to a correct therapeutic approach. The Wegener granulomatosis must be added to the list of the differential diagnoses of the masses of the nasopharynx associated with or without enlarged laterocervical nodes. PMID:24106630

  1. Alfred Russel Wallace deserves better.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David; Wimpenny, Julian; Venables, Alfred

    2010-09-01

    During 2009, while we were celebrating Charles Darwin and his The origin of species, sadly, little was said about the critical contribution of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the theory of evolution. Like Darwin, he was a truly remarkable nineteenth century intellect and polymath and, according to a recent book by Roy Davies (The Darwin conspiracy: origins of a scientific crime), he has a stronger claim to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection than has Darwin. Here we present a critical comparison between the contributions of the two scientists. Sometimes referred to as 'The other beetle-hunter' and largely neglected for many decades, Wallace had a far greater experience of collecting and investigating animals and plants from their native habitats than had Darwin. He was furthermore much more than a pioneer biogeographer and evolutionary theorist, and also made contributions to anthropology, ethnography, geology, land reform and social issues. However, being a more modest, self-deprecating man than Darwin, and lacking the latter's establishment connections, Wallace's contribution to the theory of evolution was not given the recognition it deserved and he was undoubtedly shabbily treated at the time. It is time that Wallace's relationship with Darwin is reconsidered in preparation for 2013, the centenary of Wallace's death, and he should be recognized as at least an equal in the Wallace-Darwin theory of evolution. PMID:20826943

  2. Alfred North Whitehead: Plato's Lost Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Joseph Gerard

    1978-01-01

    The author reminisces about a course, Philosophy 3b at Harvard, taught by Alfred North Whitehead in 1934, where Whitehead moved from meditations on Plato, Epicurus, and Descartes to his own metaphysical speculations. He also discusses other philosophers at Harvard, calling the 1930s the Silver Age of the Harvard Philosophy Department. (KC)

  3. 'A Berlin psychiatrist with an American passport': Lothar Kalinowsky, electroconvulsive therapy and international exchange in the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2015-12-01

    The emigration of Lothar Kalinowsky (1899-1992) might, at first glance, seem to be a history of coincidence and twists of fate, but it is shown to be a truly entangled and intertwined history and story. The international introduction of electroconvulsive therapy was not only closely involved with the political, scientific and economic conditions during World War II, but the story of Kalinowsky's relevance to it emerges from competing stories, told differently in Europe and the USA - and by Kalinowsky himself. Tracing these stories up to the end of the 1960s reveals Kalinowsky as an influential inheritor and patron of Berlin Biological Psychiatry, rather than telling the history of an émigré innovator of international neuropsychiatric research. PMID:26574059

  4. [GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS (WEGENER'S): CLINICAL CASE].

    PubMed

    Zimba, E; Olkhova, O

    2016-05-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's disease) - systemic vasculitis, initial manifestations, the clinical picture may be present in a wide variety. This leads to difficulties in establishing a timely diagnosis. The prognosis in untreated generalized granulomatosis with polyangiitis is extremely poor. The present case report illustrates a late diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. A 53-year-old woman was diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis only after ten months of onset of disease. Wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis of ear leads to a lot of delay in the treatment this type of vasculitis. At the time of diagnosis she had generalized form of disease presented with involvement of the eyes, upper and lower respiratory tracts, kidneys, and nervous system. Remission was achieved with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide but suffered a relapse shortly afterwards. Further treatment with rituximab achieved a second remission, but the patient continued to suffer from dry conjunctivitis. Symptomatic therapy in this case was ineffective. An effective pathogenic therapy for this condition was instillation of cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:27348166

  5. The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  6. Tracheobronchial Stenoses in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Charlotte; Charles, Pierre; Terrier, Benjamin; Bussonne, Guillaume; Cohen, Pascal; Pagnoux, Christian; Cottin, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-François; Guillevin, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tracheobronchial stenoses (TBSs) are potentially severe manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) that usually respond poorly to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. We describe 26 GPA patients with ≥1 tracheal (mainly subglottic, SGS) and/or bronchial stenosis(ses) (BS(s)). Sixteen patients had solitary SGS and 10 had ≥1 BS(s). The male/female sex ratio was 9:17, and the median age at GPA diagnosis was 32 years (3:13 and 28 years, respectively, for SGS patients). Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies were proteinase 3-positive in 65.5% of the patients (50% of those with SGS). Despite conventional GPA therapy, 62% patients experienced ≥1 stenosis relapse(s) (81% of SGS patients, for a total of 1–8 relapses per patient). None of the several systemic or endoscopic treatments prevented future relapses. Cyclophosphamide induction therapy was effective in 4/6 patients with BS(s) and in 1 patient with SGS among the 7 treated. After many relapses, rituximab achieved remission in 3/4 SGS patients. Endoscopic treatments (dilation, laser, corticosteroid injection, etc.) had only transient efficacy. Other GPA manifestations relapsed independently of TBSs. One SGS patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our findings confirmed that TBSs are severe GPA manifestations that evolve independently of other organ involvements and do not respond to conventional systemic regimens. As previously described, our population was younger and comprised more females than usual GPA patients, especially those with SGS. The small number of patients and the wide variety of local and systemic treatments prevent us from drawing definitive conclusions about the contribution of each procedure. However, cyclophosphamide seemed to effectively treat BSs, but not SGS, and rituximab may be of interest for SGS management. PMID:26266344

  7. Two cases of refractory Wegener's granulomatosis successfully treated with rituximab.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Naoto; Matsudaira, Ran; Hirashima, Mika; Ikeda, Makoto; Tajima, Michiko; Nawata, Masuyuki; Morimoto, Shinji; Kaneda, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Shigeto; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Yoshinari

    2007-01-01

    Conventional therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis, steroid and cyclophosphamide, fails to control disease activity in some refractory patients and has treatment-related toxicity. B cell depletion therapy using rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been shown to be effective for certain autoimmune diseases including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) -associated systemic vasculitis. We report two refractory cases of Wegener's granulomatosis: one with bronchial and pulmonary involvement and retroorbital granuloma, the other with retroorbital granuloma and hypertrophic pachymeningitis causing severe headache. Rituximab was effective in both cases, with diminished granuloma and reduced ANCA titers, allowing steroids to be tapered. No adverse effects were detected. PMID:17409608

  8. 32. 'WATCHMAN'S SHELTER,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 'WATCHMAN'S SHELTER,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, March 28, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. The evolutionary ethics of Alfred C. Kinsey.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Frederick B

    2002-01-01

    It is commonplace to point out that Alfred Kinsey's taxonomic work on gall wasps provided a methodology for his studies of human sexual behavior. It is equally commonplace to point out that, when researching and presenting his sexual studies, Kinsey's professedly neutral scientific data were constrained by a social agenda. What I have done in this paper is to join these two claims and demonstrate, with particular reference to Kinsey's Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, how his zoology helped guide Kinsey to a naturalistic ethics that, despite contrasts to, shared certain parallel logical failures with the traditional ethics of his critics. PMID:15045831

  10. Centennial Presidential Perspective: Dr. Alfred Blalock

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Claude A.; George, Timothy J.; Conte, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Great men are not a common occurrence. Indeed, they are a rare find. Though respected and lauded in their time, it is only in retrospect that their true contributions can be adequately measured as a surgeon, an educator and a scientist. Such is the case of Dr. Alfred Blalock. Many have considered him the father of modern cardiac surgery. All consider his “blue baby” operation to be one of the landmarks of cardiac surgery and, as the chief of surgery at Johns Hopkins, he trained many who would become the leaders of our discipline. His continual reach for excellence helped him to not only affect, but revolutionize the paradigm of surgical research, an understanding of the physiology of shock and the surgical management of pulmonic stenosis/atresia. Dr. Blalock was the 30th president of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and his presidential address was given in 1951. PMID:22248679

  11. Alfred Russel Wallace's world of final causes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles H

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) is an important figure in the history of science, but there remain many questions about the nature of his world view, and how it developed. Here, Wallace's appreciation of the role of final causes in evolution is linked to some of its probable origins, with an emphasis on the influence of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859). The question is then asked whether a final causes-based scientific agenda might be possible, and answered by drawing attention to two current efforts in that direction by Adrian Bejan, and by the author. A sketch of the latter approach, adapted from Spinozian thinking, is given, with an empirical example involving drainage basin morphology that suggests structural influences of a final causes sort. PMID:24019011

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  13. 38. 'DESIGN NO. 7,' Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 'DESIGN NO. 7,' Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, dated March 2, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Photocopy of circa 1870 watercolor by Alfred R. Waud. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of circa 1870 watercolor by Alfred R. Waud. Original owned by Mrs. Hoffman Clinton, 1160 Park Avenue, New York, New York. VIEW FROM THE WEST BEFORE ALTERATIONS - Chateau-sur-Mer, Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  15. Photocopy of circa 1870 watercolor by Alfred R. Waud. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of circa 1870 watercolor by Alfred R. Waud. Original owned by Mrs. Hoffman Clinton, 1160 Park Avenue, New York, New York. LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PALM HOUSE AND GRAPERY - Chateau-sur-Mer, Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 3. Photocopy of Photograph Alfred, Garrett, Photographer, worked in West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Photograph Alfred, Garrett, Photographer, worked in West Chester, Pennsylvania between 1864 and 1878 NORTHEAST CORNER - Hickman Fountain, 225 North Matlack Street (moved from Chester County Courthouse, High & Market Streets), West Chester, Chester County, PA

  17. Can sulfasalazine therapy induce or exacerbate Wegener's granulomatosis?

    PubMed

    Denissen, N H A M; Peters, J G P; Masereeuw, R; Barrera, P

    2008-01-01

    Sulfasalazine (SSZ) can induce serological and clinical autoimmune reactions but the occurrence of SSZ-related Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) has not been reported before. We describe two patients with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed biopsy-proven WG with serious organ involvement during SSZ therapy. The pathogenetic mechanism that explains the relationship between SSZ and the occurrence of a de novo anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis or a flare is discussed. We propose that WG can be a rare complication of SSZ therapy and that this, like other autoimmune adverse events of this drug, is mediated by SSZ-induced apoptosis. PMID:18189198

  18. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): evolution and medicine.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Henry P

    2009-11-01

    The theory we now know simply as 'evolution' was first presented to the scientific world one and a half centuries ago, on 1 July 1858, when the work of two men, Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82), was jointly read at the Linnean Society. While Charles Darwin has rightly taken his place in history as one of the greatest scientists of all time, Alfred Russel Wallace has been largely forgotten outside of the scientific community. However, Wallace was a prolific researcher and writer with interests in a wide range of topics, from medicine to economics. PMID:20029081

  19. Alfred of Wessex at a Cross-Roads in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first situates King Alfred in Winchester, in Wessex, in Anglo-Saxon England, and in the Christendom of the ninth century. Attention is drawn to Alfred's education, which included experience of court life in Wessex, Rome and Francia. The paper argues that Alfred prioritised vernacular literacy as a means of educating elites in a…

  20. "Strawberry like" gingivitis being the first sign of Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ruokonen, Hellevi; Helve, Tapani; Arola, Johanna; Hietanen, Jarkko; Lindqvist, Christian; Hagstrom, Jaana

    2009-10-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis of small vessels, affecting vascular structures having predilection for upper airways. If untreated WG can be lethal. WG is also known to cause oral mucosal lesions. We report a case of WG that was first diagnosed on oral gingival mucosa. A 51-year old woman was referred to a specialized dentist because of consistent irritative buccal gingival hyperplasia that did not react to conservative and microbial treatment. The lesion was biopsied and the diagnosis was suggestive for WG. Patient was further referred to the Department of Rheumatology and the diagnose of WG was confirmed and treated. The oral lesions cured totally. This case emphasizes the importance to recognize the oral manifestation of WG to get proper medication as soon as possible and avoid serious systemic tissue damage. PMID:19782931

  1. Wegener's thinking about the mechanism: Greenland and Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Wegener's early Arctic expeditions to Greenland (1906-08 and 1912-13 with a stop in Iceland) suggest a significant affect on his thinking about the mechanism of continental drift till his death in 1930. Beside his specialized work in meteorology and the Arctic, he had a broad general interest in science especially of the earth system as a whole. The drift idea occurred to him in 1910 on the basis of new data on geomorphology (Atlantic seafloor), supported by geophysics, geology and palaeontology. In his 1912 initial public talk and ensuing paper he mentioned something akin to seafloor spreading and refuted the continental relict hypothesis from break-up for the mid-Atlantic ridge. But 1912 he bypassed the tension fractures in Iceland and in Greenland (1912-13) he experienced the rheology of ice, brittle and viscous, when thinking about the drift of SIAL continents through the SIMA mantle (as documented in his diaries). When in 1915 rewriting his 1012 paper as the book "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" he had given up the early idea for that of floating continental rafts. It is tempting to speculate why. Rheology of rocks was clearly described. But some misconceptions distracted him from the correct relationships: (1) Data of the time suggested that sialic rock is more solid than mafic rock which would soften at lower temperature (contrary to present knowledge) and (2) convection in the atmosphere, well known to him, seemed to be no model for convection in the mantle, although rafting continents implied mantle flow. Did the rheologies appear too different to him? Not before the mid twenties (as documented in the 4th edition of his book, 1929) did Wegener admit that mantle convection might be the answer. A great spirit was misled but clearly saw that the phenomenon of drift, based on observations, is not refuted by the lack of an explanation.

  2. 9. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals of Good Banking, New York: The Bankers Publishing Co., 1929, plate 22) Photographer unknown INTERIOR, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL TELLER WINDOWS AND FURNISHINGS - City National Bank, 49 Court Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  3. 8. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals of Good Banking, New York: The Bankers Publishing Co., 1929, plate 4) Photographer unknown GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE - City National Bank, 49 Court Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  4. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  5. Apostle of Freedom: Alfred Adler and His British Disciples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The psychology of Alfred Adler is traditionally considered to be one of the three so-called in-depth or psychoanalytic therapies, the other two being the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. This article demonstrates that Adler's Individual Psychology was especially influential on teachers in Vienna between the two world wars. There…

  6. Prince Alfred College 1993 Study Tour to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marten; Lake, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a trip to China by students of Mandarin Chinese at Prince Alfred College, Australia, in order to learn about the language and culture of the host country. Some continuing features of the stay were shopping, food, and attitudes of the local populace toward the foreigners. (Author/CK)

  7. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness. PMID:21879529

  8. A Case of Wegener's Granulomatosis Presenting with Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ujjawal, Roy; Koushik, Pan; Ajay, Panwar; Subrata, Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis or granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a necrotizing vasculitis affecting both arterioles and venules. The disease is characterized by the classical triad involving acute inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tracts with renal involvement. However, the disease pathology can affect any organ system. This case presents Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with facial nerve palsy as the first manifestation of the disease, which is rarely reported in medical literature. PMID:27110249

  9. Alfred Russel Wallace's North American tour: transatlantic evolutionism.

    PubMed

    Fichman, M

    2001-06-01

    Evolutionary theory aroused vigorous debate in the late-19th century, regarding both its scientific status and its sociocultural implications. Alfred Russel Wallace's lecture tour of North America, during 1886-1887, affords a striking insight into his particular interpretation of evolution and reveals the depth of his conviction that science was inseparable from ethical and political realities. Wallace's views on matters scientific and cultural were as controversial and significant in North America as they were in Great Britain and Europe. PMID:11468798

  10. Pulmonary lymphoma of large B-cell type mimicking Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, N; Eda, R; Umemori, Y; Murakami, T; Kunichika, N; Makihata, K; Aoe, K; Murakami, K; Takeyama, H; Harada, M

    2001-08-01

    A 27-year-old man with a primary pulmonary lymphoma of large B-cell type is described. Symptoms involved both the upper and lower respiratory tract. A chest roentgenogram showed a dense mass with cavitation. Transbronchial biopsy specimens revealed no atypical cells, rather they demonstrated granulomatous infiltration and vasculitis consistent with but not conclusively diagnostic of Wegener's granulomatosis. The pulmonary mass became smaller after sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim therapy. These features suggested Wegener's granulomatosis. However, an open biopsy specimen was diagnostic for diffuse lymphoma of large B-cell type. High-grade pulmonary lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical and pathologic features suggesting Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:11518126

  11. [Coexistence of Crohn disease and Wegener granulomatosis in a 15-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowski, Piotr; Szumera, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease is being diagnosed more and more frequently in children and teenagers. Clinical symptoms are mainly related to the gastrointestinal tract, however there are many reports in the literature about the coexistence of Crohn disease with other autoimmunological disorders such as celiac disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener granulomatosis. We report a 15-year-old patient with Crohn disease who also developed Wegener granulomatosis. The presented case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the original disease are superimposed on symptoms of a different disorder. PMID:22516704

  12. Alfred Lee Loomis - last great amateur of science

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarex, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alfred Loomis may well be remembered as the last of the great amateurs of science. He had distinguished careers as a lawyer, as an Army officer and as an investment banker before he turned his full energies to the pursuit of scientific knowledge, first in the field of physics and later as a biologist. By any measure that can be employed, he was one of the most influential physical scientists of this century: he was elected to the National Academy when he was 53 years old; he received many honorary degrees from prestigious universities; and he played a crucial role as director of all NDRC-OSRD radar research in World War II.

  13. The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1985-02-01

    Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies. PMID:3882001

  14. Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace’s background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind. PMID:20350381

  15. Alfred Russel Wallace and the antivaccination movement in Victorian England.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas P

    2010-04-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace's background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind. PMID:20350381

  16. ALFRED: A Practical Method for Alignment-Free Distance Computation.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Sharma V; Chockalingam, Sriram P; Liu, Yongchao; Apostolico, Alberto; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-06-01

    Alignment-free approaches are gaining persistent interest in many sequence analysis applications such as phylogenetic inference and metagenomic classification/clustering, especially for large-scale sequence datasets. Besides the widely used k-mer methods, the average common substring (ACS) approach has emerged to be one of the well-known alignment-free approaches. Two recent works further generalize this ACS approach by allowing a bounded number k of mismatches in the common substrings, relying on approximation (linear time) and exact computation, respectively. Albeit having a good worst-case time complexity [Formula: see text], the exact approach is complex and unlikely to be efficient in practice. Herein, we present ALFRED, an alignment-free distance computation method, which solves the generalized common substring search problem via exact computation. Compared to the theoretical approach, our algorithm is easier to implement and more practical to use, while still providing highly competitive theoretical performances with an expected run-time of [Formula: see text]. By applying our program to phylogenetic inference as a case study, we find that our program facilitates to exactly reconstruct the topology of the reference phylogenetic tree for a set of 27 primate mitochondrial genomes, at reasonably acceptable speed. ALFRED is implemented in C++ programming language and the source code is freely available online. PMID:27138275

  17. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, a new nomenclature for Wegener's Granulomatosis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva; da Rocha, Sheila Pereira; Santiago, Carmelia Matos Reis; Ferraz, Fabio Humberto Ribeiro Paes

    2015-01-01

    The granulomatosis with polyangiitis, initially known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a small and medium vessels vasculitis. It's classic form presents a triad: necrotizing granuloma of respiratory tract, necrotizing cutaneous vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. This vasculitis has cytoplasmic antineutrophil antibodies as signal. This work illustrates a case, of multisystemic rare disease, in which the segment and treatment were considered satisfactory for symptoms remission. PMID:26312687

  18. The involvement of upper airway in Wegener's granulomatosis - about four cases.

    PubMed

    Sarău, Cristian Andrei; Lighezan, Daniel Florin; Doroş, Ion Caius; Ştefănescu, Eugen Horaţiu; Iovănescu, Gheorghe; Balica, Nicolae Constantin; Horhat, Ioana Delia; Poenaru, Marioara

    2015-01-01

    The authors present four cases of Wegener's granulomatosis patients with multiorganic manifestation forms, but with a prevalent involvement in upper-airway. Granulomatosis diseases of the nose include bacterial infections (rhinoscleroma, tuberculosis, syphilis, lupus, and leprosy), fungal infections (rhinosporidiosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis) and diseases with unspecified etiology (Wegener's granulomatosis, mediofacial malignant granuloma, and sarcoidosis). We consider an interesting experience regarding Wegener's granulomatosis due to its rarity, being an autoimmune systemic disease, with continuous evolution and multiorganic involvement. The beginning of the disease is like upper airway affection, a kind of "persistent cold", being difficult to differentiate it from a common cold in the head, with a prolonged evolution. It is important to mention that we establish the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis starting with Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) clinical exam, followed by other tests and investigations realized in our Clinic and completed with specialty tests (nephrology, internal medicine and dermatology), meaning that we need a close cooperation with these medical specialties. All the patients presented multiorganic involvement. Notably significant for our four cases is the prolonged evolution in a stable condition in one patient. PMID:26193239

  19. Role of WEGENER (World Earthquake GEodesy Network for Environmental Hazard Research) in monitoring natural hazards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Zerbini, S.; Bastos, M. L.; Becker, M. H.; Meghraoui, M.; Reilinger, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    WEGENER was originally the acronym for Working Group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research. It was founded in March 1981 in response to an appeal delivered at the Journées Luxembourgeoises de Geodynamique in December 1980 to respond with a coordinated European proposal to a NASA Announcement of Opportunity inviting participation in the Crustal Dynamics and Earthquake Research Program. WEGENER, during the past 33 years, has always kept a close contact with the Agencies and Institutions responsible for the development and maintenance of the global space geodetic networks with the aim to make them aware of the scientific needs and outcomes of the project which might have an influence on the general science policy trends. WEGENER served as Inter-commission Project 3.2, between Commission 1 and Commission 3, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) until 2012. Since then, WEGENER project has become the Sub-commission 3.5 of IAG commission 3, namely Tectonics and Earthquake Geodesy. In this presentation, we briefly review the accomplishments of WEGENER as originally conceived and outline and justify the new focus of the WEGENER consortium. The remarkable and rapid evolution of the present state of global geodetic monitoring in regard to the precision of positioning capabilities (and hence deformation) and global coverage, the development of InSAR for monitoring strain with unprecedented spatial resolution, and continuing and planned data from highly precise satellite gravity and altimetry missions, encourage us to shift principal attention from mainly monitoring capabilities by a combination of space and terrestrial geodetic techniques to applying existing observational methodologies to the critical geophysical phenomena that threaten our planet and society. Our new focus includes developing an improved physical basis to mitigate earthquake, tsunami, and volcanic risks, and the effects of natural and

  20. Nomenclature and classification of vasculitis: lessons learned from granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennette, J C

    2011-01-01

    Names influence how something is perceived. Diagnostic terms (diagnoses) are the names of diseases that are usually derived either from some distinctive characteristic of the disease or include an eponym recognizing someone who elucidated the disease. No matter how logical and appropriate a name may be, if it is not usable and used it is of no lasting value. This brief commentary focuses on the nomenclature of systemic vasculitides, and uses as a prime example Wegener's granulomatosis, which has been renamed recently ‘granulomatosis with polyangiitis’, in part because of concerns about the suitability of Friedrich Wegener as the source of an eponym. The most distinctive pathological feature of Wegener's granulomatosis is multi-focal necrotizing inflammation that has long been called granulomatosis. The systemic variant of Wegener's granulomatosis also is characterized by inflammation in many different vessels or different types, i.e. polyangiitis. Thus, granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a very appropriate alternative term for Wegener's granulomatosis. This term also is in accord with the name for a closely related vasculitis, i.e. microscopic polyangiitis. Terms that indicate aetiology and pathogenesis, when known, are useful to include in names for diseases (diagnoses). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) or proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) are implicated in the cause of granulomatosis with polyangiitis and thus also should be specified in the diagnosis (e.g. PR3-ANCA-positive granulomatosis with polyangiitis or MPO-ANCA-positive microscopic polyangiitis). As our understanding of the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and aetiology of vasculitides change over time, the names and approaches for diagnosing these diseases will change accordingly. PMID:21447122

  1. [Alfred Kirstein (1863-1922)--pioneer in direct laryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Reinhard, M; Eberhardt, E

    1995-06-01

    On April 23rd 1895, in Berlin, Alfred Kirstein performed the first direct examination of the interior of the larynx. 23 days after his first view of larynx, he gave a comprehensive demonstration of autoscopy to the Berlin Medical Association. Until then laryngologists had been content with the technique of indirect laryngoscopy using mirrors, a method popularised by Garcia, Türck and Czermak. Kirstein named the combination of the electroscope and the oesophagoscope "The autoscope" and direct examination of the larynx he termed "autoscopy". Despite the infancy of autoscopy and the autoscope, Kirstein already recognised the potential of his new discovery. He reported that the removal of foreign bodies from the trachea must be easier through an autoscope then by means of a tracheostomy; furthermore, catheterisation of the bronchi should now present no great difficulties. The similarity between the blades he used and those described in the 1940s by Macintosh and Miller is remarkable. PMID:7632859

  2. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. PMID:25684289

  3. Alfred C. Kinsey and the politics of sex research.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, John

    2004-01-01

    In view of the recent phase of political opposition to sex research and intense public interest in Alfred C. Kinsey, this paper considers the impact that Kinsey's research has had on the political process in the past 50 years. Initial reactions to Kinsey's research that remain relevant today include "normal" people don't participate in sex surveys, sex surveys are intended to promote homosexuality, and asking people about their sex lives in a nonjudgmental fashion promotes immorality. Episodes of political opposition are documented, and the long-running anti-Kinsey campaign and its impact on the political process are described and discussed. Reasons why people might still oppose sex research are considered, and conclusions are reached about how sex researchers might deal with this problem. PMID:16913278

  4. [Oncological care according Alfred Schütz].

    PubMed

    Popim, Regina Célia; Boemer, Magali Roseira

    2005-01-01

    The study was realized among oncological nurses in their daily work routine and aimed to understand these professionals' subjective action, starting from their relation with patients, adopting a phenomenological reference framework based on the ideas of Alfred Schütz. The question: what does working in oncological care mean to you? Please describe, was used to collect statements, which were analyzed and clarified the typical action of a nurse caregiver in this daily routine. The study revealed that oncological care implies dealing with humans in a fragile situation; requires a relationship of affectivity; is care delivery that entails the genesis of professional burnout. Care delivery in oncology is highly complex, requiring a professional competence that goes beyond the technical-scientific sphere. Nursing professionals need to seek strategies which enable them to face the fatigue they are submitted to in their work. PMID:16308624

  5. Alfred P. Dachnowski and the scientific study of peats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Cohen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Botanist Alfred Paul Dachnowski (1875–1949) was a major contributor to efforts at mapping organic soils in the United States during the early 20th century. He began his career at The Ohio State University, and spent most of his professional life at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC. His work spanned a diversity of topics, including bog ecology and the ecosystem services provided by wetlands, the mapping and chemical characterization of peat, and the commercial applications of peat. We present a biography and overview of his work. Dachnowski is best known today for the peat sampler that bears his name. The details of its operation are described here, and its place in modern peat studies is discussed.

  6. Association of Wegener's granulomatosis with HLA antigens and other genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Papiha, S S; Murty, G E; Ad'Hia, A; Mains, B T; Venning, M

    1992-01-01

    The frequencies of the HLA-A, B, C, DR, DQ antigens and of several other genetic markers in biopsy proved and well characterised patients with Wegener's granulomatosis were compared with control frequencies of the region. A highly significant increase in HLA-DR1 was found. The percentage combined frequency of DR1-DQw1 was significantly higher in patients than in the controls. Interestingly, association with the red cell enzyme GLOI and complement locus C4B was also seen. As both of these markers are either linked or within the major histocompatibility complex region (MHC) this is further evidence for the involvement of chromosome 6 in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis. To understand the pathology of the disease fully molecular genetic studies of the MHC region are warranted. PMID:1550412

  7. Successful Management of Refractory Dialysis Independent Wegener's Granulomatosis with Combination of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange and Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sheetal; Dhawan, Hari Krishan; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Aman

    2016-06-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) is an autoimmune, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody mediated necrotizing vasculitis involving renal, and upper and lower respiratory systems. Treatment relies on a combination of immunosuppressive drugs and tapering regimen of glucocorticoids. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been recognized as a second line treatment. We report the successful use of TPE in combination with rituximab in achieving remission in a patient with WG (dialysis independent) not responding to conventional therapy. PMID:27408429

  8. Alfred Nier and the sector field mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    De Laeter, John; Kurz, Mark D

    2006-07-01

    Science and technology are intimately related, and advances in science often become possible with the availability of new instrumentation. This has certainly been the case in mass spectrometry, which is used in so many scientific disciplines. Originally developed as an instrument for research in physics it was used in the discovery of isotopes, their recognition as the fundamental species comprising the elements, and the investigation of elemental isotopic composition. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry is a metrological technique of the highest order, and has been widely used in chemical, biochemical, cosmochemical, environmental, geological, physical, and nuclear research. Mass spectrometry presently plays a key role not only in scientific research, but also in industrial operations. This paper highlights the role that Alfred Otto Carl Nier played in bringing mass spectrometry into the mainstream of science. Nier's career spanned a remarkable period in science, and he made crucial contributions to atomic weights, geochronology, isotope geochemistry, nuclear physics, and space science. He is widely viewed as the 'father of modern mass spectrometry', because of his genius with instrumentation, his innovations, and the generosity with which he shared his ideas and designs. It is timely to remember his fundamental work in mass spectrometry, particularly the development of the sector field mass spectrometer, which is still the instrument of choice for many isotope scientists some 66 years after its first appearance in 1940. PMID:16810642

  9. Alfred binet and the concept of heterogeneous orders.

    PubMed

    Michell, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In a comment, hitherto unremarked upon, Alfred Binet, well known for constructing the first intelligence scale, claimed that his scale did not measure intelligence, but only enabled classification with respect to a hierarchy of intellectual qualities. Attempting to understand the reasoning behind this comment leads to an historical excursion, beginning with the ancient mathematician, Euclid and ending with the modern French philosopher, Henri Bergson. As Euclid explained (Heath, 1908), magnitudes constituting a given quantitative attribute are all of the same kind (i.e., homogeneous), but his criterion covered only extensive magnitudes. Duns Scotus (Cross, 1998) included intensive magnitudes by considering differences, which raised the possibility (later considered by Sutherland, 2004) of ordered attributes with heterogeneous differences between degrees ("heterogeneous orders"). Of necessity, such attributes are non-measurable. Subsequently, this became a basis for the "quantity objection" to psychological measurement, as developed first by Tannery (1875a,b) and then by Bergson (1889). It follows that for attributes investigated in science, there are three structural possibilities: (1) classificatory attributes (with heterogeneous differences between categories); (2) heterogeneous orders (with heterogeneous differences between degrees); and (3) quantitative attributes (with thoroughly homogeneous differences between magnitudes). Measurement is possible only with attributes of kind (3) and, as far as we know, psychological attributes are exclusively of kinds (1) or (2). However, contrary to the known facts, psychometricians, for their own special reasons insist that test scores provide measurements. PMID:22912619

  10. Alfred Binet and the Concept of Heterogeneous Orders†

    PubMed Central

    Michell, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In a comment, hitherto unremarked upon, Alfred Binet, well known for constructing the first intelligence scale, claimed that his scale did not measure intelligence, but only enabled classification with respect to a hierarchy of intellectual qualities. Attempting to understand the reasoning behind this comment leads to an historical excursion, beginning with the ancient mathematician, Euclid and ending with the modern French philosopher, Henri Bergson. As Euclid explained (Heath, 1908), magnitudes constituting a given quantitative attribute are all of the same kind (i.e., homogeneous), but his criterion covered only extensive magnitudes. Duns Scotus (Cross, 1998) included intensive magnitudes by considering differences, which raised the possibility (later considered by Sutherland, 2004) of ordered attributes with heterogeneous differences between degrees (“heterogeneous orders”). Of necessity, such attributes are non-measurable. Subsequently, this became a basis for the “quantity objection” to psychological measurement, as developed first by Tannery (1875a,b) and then by Bergson (1889). It follows that for attributes investigated in science, there are three structural possibilities: (1) classificatory attributes (with heterogeneous differences between categories); (2) heterogeneous orders (with heterogeneous differences between degrees); and (3) quantitative attributes (with thoroughly homogeneous differences between magnitudes). Measurement is possible only with attributes of kind (3) and, as far as we know, psychological attributes are exclusively of kinds (1) or (2). However, contrary to the known facts, psychometricians, for their own special reasons insist that test scores provide measurements. PMID:22912619

  11. Alfred Adler, pioneer in prevention of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1990-09-01

    Alfred Adler (1870-1937) one of the four original members of what was to become the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, was the first to accept a humanistic-educational model of man in contrast to Freud's medical model of man. This was in line with his deep involvement with prevention; in fact his original interest was in medical prevention. The present paper describes how his work touched on all the points of the contemporary field of psychological prevention. He developed a personality theory most suitable for application in prevention, education and brief psychotherapy. He identified various categories of children at risk. He advocated the right to abortion partly to prevent the birth of a child severely at risk by being unwanted. He considered the then existing dominance of the male sex to be damaging to both sexes. He engaged in practical prevention work by addressing general audiences and especially teachers and by the establishment of and participation in Educational Counseling Centers. He felt that the honest psychologist for reasons of prevention is bound to social advocacy, and that a true psychology of mental health merges into a corresponding world philosophy. These points are fully documented with quotations and references. PMID:24264862

  12. At home among strangers: Alfred Russel Wallace in Russia.

    PubMed

    Levit, Georgy S; Polatayko, Sergey V

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) was an influential figure within Russian pre-Synthetic evolutionary biology, i.e. the time period before the Synthetic Theory of Evolution was established (ca. 1880-1930s). His major works were translated into Russian and his general ideas were read and discussed by both insiders and outsiders of scientific evolutionism. At the same time, Wallace played a controversial role in the growth of Darwinism in Russia, and Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) has eclipsed Wallace in his influence on Russian evolutionary thinking. In this paper we briefly outline Wallace’s impact on Russian pre-Synthetic scientific evolutionism and its general intellectual climate. We demonstrate that both Russian pro-Darwinian evolutionists and anti-Darwinians (scientific anti-Darwinians as well as creationists) were fully aware of Wallace’s contributions to the development of evolutionary theory. Yet, Wallace’s radical selectionism, as well as his controversial arguments for “design in nature”, predetermined his special place within the Russian intellectual landscape. PMID:24022180

  13. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years. PMID:11625479

  14. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... AGENCY Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County.... Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of...

  15. Confessions of a serial entrepreneur: a conversation with Alfred E. Mann. Interview by Molly Joel Coye.

    PubMed

    Mann, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    In this wide-ranging interview, Alfred Mann describes the activities of several medical technology enterprises with which he is engaged. Several of them are companies that he formed; one is a nonprofit foundation, the Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering, founded to establish research-oriented institutes on a dozen university campuses and support their work in developing marketable innovations. Mann discusses the need to consider the cost implications of technology, in the context of U.S. health system reform, and describes several important innovations that have emerged from his companies over the years. PMID:16537551

  16. [A suspected case of Wegener granulomatosis accompanied with pachymeningitis and white matter lesions].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tomohisa; Abe, Tetsuya; Kurakawa, Eri; Kasuga, Ikuma; Park, Jinho; Akata, Souichi; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2005-03-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of high fever and abnormal chest radiograph shadows. Chest X-ray on admission showed a nodular shadow in the right upper lung field and a mass shadow with a cavity in the left middle lung field. Laboratory data indicated leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Pulmonary suppuration was suspected, panipenem/betamipron was prescribed, but a mass and consolidation developed, and the medication was changed to ciprofloxacin. Convulsive seizures with loss of consciousness appeared after the change to ciprofloxacin. Lumbar puncture revealed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells (198/3) and elevated protein(83 mg/dl). Brain CT showed no abnormal image, and acute aseptic meningitis was diagnosed and was treated with cefotaxime, clindamycin, fluconazole, acicrovir and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. However, the treatment did not result in symptomatic improvement, and brain MRI showed intracranial disorders. Serum PR3-ANCA was elevated to 15 U/ml. Taken together with chest X-ray, sinusitis and clinical course, a generalized form of Wegener's granulomatosis was diagnosed. She was given 60 mg/day of prednisolone, 100 mg/day of cyclophosphamide and 9 g/day of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and progressively improved. In this process, enhanced MR images showed thickened dural enhancement of the falx and bilateral anterior regions, which showed improvement on brain MRI at 8 months after starting treatment. We report a rare case of Wegener's granulomatosis accompanied with pachymeningitis and white matter lesions. PMID:15912757

  17. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  18. Wegener's Granulomatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... dots on the lower extremities (known as “palpable purpura”). Inadequate blood flow to fingers and toes can ... vision from retro-orbital pseudotumor, scleritis), skin (ulcers, purpura). or peripheral nerve (mononeuritis multiplex). Wegener’s granulomatosis may ...

  19. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  20. [The social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and its contribution for the nursing].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Capalbo, Creusa; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deise Moura; Tocantins, Florence Romijn; Rodrigues, Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará; Ciuffo, Lia Leão

    2013-06-01

    Nursing care can be considered a social action that is set in the everyday world, where intersubjective relations are established and must be valued by the nurse in the different contexts in which it acts. It is a theoretical study which aimed to highlight the main concepts of the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz's and its contribution to Nursing as a knowledge and professional practice field. The following questions guided this study: what is the understanding of caring in Nursing from the perspective of the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz's? How to apply Alfred Schütz's theoretical concepts in the action of caring in Nursing? The theoretical concepts of the social phenomenology and their interface with Nursing were delimited. By incorporating the concepts of the t theory of social action developed by Alfred Schütz into Nursing, this study allows nurses to value and apply the aspects highlighted by this theoretical framework within healthcare, education and scientific research. PMID:24601154

  1. Further additions to the bibliography of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913).

    PubMed

    Smith, C H

    2004-04-01

    Twenty-one previously unrecorded published writings by the English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) are noticed. The writings vary greatly in date, size and importance, and include items pertaining both to Wallace's natural history as well as social and political interests PMID:15190918

  2. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  3. Recent developments in the WegenerNet high-resolution climate station network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsberger, Jürgen; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Kabas, Thomas; Bichler, Christoph; Galovic, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The Feldbach region in southeast Austria, characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns, has been selected as the focus area for a pioneering weather and climate observation network at very high resolution: The WegenerNet comprises 151 meteorological stations measuring temperature, precipitation, and other parameters, in a tightly spaced grid within an area of about 20 km × 15 km centered near the city of Feldbach (46.93°N, 15.90°E). With its stations about every 2 km2, each with 5-min time sampling, the network provides regular measurements since January 2007. Quality-controlled station time series and gridded field data (spacing 200 m × 200 m) are available in near-real time (data latency less than 1-2 h) for visualization and download via a data portal (www.wegenernet.org). Detailed information is available in the recent description by Kirchengast et al. (2014) and via www.wegcenter.at/wegenernet. The network is set to serve as a long-term monitoring and validation facility for weather and climate research and applications. Uses include validation of nonhydrostatic models operated at 1-km-scale resolution and of statistical downscaling techniques (in particular for precipitation), validation of radar and satellite data, study of orography-climate relationships, and many others. The poster gives a brief introduction to the WegenerNet design and setup, its processing system and its data products, with a focus on recent developments. The latter include calibration of weather radar data (by calculating the reflectivity-rain rate transfer function of each single radar image), derivation of soil moisture from matric potential data (for inclusion in the International Soil Moisture Network), and the development of a versatile semi-automatic maintenance system. Also some example results are shown, including extreme weather events and climate variability over the 8-yr period from 2007 to 2014. Reference: Kirchengast, G., T. Kabas, A

  4. Airway Surgery in Tracheostomised Patients with Wegener Granulomatosis Leading to Subglottic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Sivrikoz, Nükhet; Çamcı, Emre

    2015-10-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a multisystemic disorder characterised by granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory system. The growing of proliferative tissue towards the larynx and trachea may cause airway obstruction on account of subglottic stenosis. In this situation, the surgical goal is to eliminate the airway obstruction by providing natural airway anatomy. While mild lesions do not require surgical intervention, in fixed lesions, surgical intervention is required, such as tracheostomy, laser resection and dilatation. In tracheostomised patients, granuloma formation surrounding the tracheostomy cannula may occur in the trachea. Inflammation and newly formed granulation tissue result in severe stenosis in the airways. During surgical treatment of such patients, airway management is important. In this case report, we will discuss gas exchange and airway management with jet ventilation (JV) during excision of the granulation tissue with endolaryngeal laser surgery, leading to subglottic stenosis in tracheostomised patients in WG. PMID:27366530

  5. Meningeal involvement in Wegener granulomatosis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Soriano, A; Lo Vullo, M; Casale, M; Quattrocchi, C C; Afeltra, A

    2012-01-01

    Wegener Granulomatosis (WG) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that most commonly involves the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and kidneys. The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is infrequent and can cause stroke, cranial nerve abnormalities, cerebrovascular events, seizures, and meningeal involvement. Meningeal involvement is rare and may occur due to local vasculitis, directly spread from adjacent disease in the skull base, paranasal or orbital region. We describe the case of a 20-year-old Caucasian man who was diagnosed with sinonasal WG with frontal focal meningeal involvement. A literature review on diagnosis and treatment of meningeal involvement in course of WG was carried out. The importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of localized WG has been emphasized, in order to avoid the progression to a severe form of disease, especially in younger patients and in paucisymptomatic cases. PMID:23298504

  6. Pyoderma gangrenosum and Wegener granulomatosis-like syndrome induced by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Gallo, D; Albarrán-Planelles, C; Linares-Barrios, M; Rodríguez-Hernández, C; Martínez-Rodríguez, A; García-Moreno, E; Bravo-Monge, R

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine abuse is associated with various skin and rheumatological diseases that mimic primary autoimmune diseases, including retiform purpura with involvement of the ears, cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), and eruptive pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). Previous reports have suggested the use of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) with specificity against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) to differentiate these cocaine-induced diseases from primary autoimmune diseases. We describe a case of a 54-year-old woman with a history of cocaine abuse, who had PG lesions on her legs with accompanying CIMDL and lung lesions similar to those seen in Wegener granulomatosis. Detection of HNE-positive pANCA, and improvement or clinical recurrence after cessation or consumption of cocaine, respectively, were key to differentiating this presentation from primary autoimmune disease. PMID:24252079

  7. [Alfred Döblin (1878-1957). Notes on the cover picture].

    PubMed

    von Stuckrad-Barre, S; Schröter, K

    2003-11-01

    Alfred Döblin studied medicine after completing his Abitur (A-levels). In 1905 he earned his doctorate under Alfred Hoche, director of the psychiatric clinic, by presenting a study on "Memory disorders in Korsakoff's psychosis." He subsequently worked as an assistant doctor in various psychiatric clinics until he switched to internal medicine in 1908. He opened a practice as panel doctor in 1911, which he operated until 1930. Although Döblin had already published a few stories, he first became generally known in 1929 with the appearance of his novel entitled "Berlin Alexanderplatz: the story of Franz Biberkopf." After the burning of the Reichstag in February 1933, as a Jewish socialist Döblin was forced to emigrate. He was unable to work as a physician during his exile, but remained active in his literary pursuits. Döblin died on 26 June 1957 in the state hospital in Emmendingen. PMID:14598043

  8. Video Q&A: Allergies and allergen immunotherapy - an interview with Alfred William Frankland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this video Q&A, we talk to Dr Alfred William Frankland about the highlights of his career, including working alongside Sir Alexander Fleming, co-founding the British Allergy Society, and introducing pollen counts to UK weather forecasts. We also discuss his opinions on why misconceptions about allergies and allergen immunotherapy still exist. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/255. PMID:24447813

  9. Video Q&A: allergies and allergen immunotherapy--an interview with Alfred William Frankland.

    PubMed

    Frankland, A William

    2014-01-01

    In this video Q&A, we talk to Dr Alfred William Frankland about the highlights of his career, including working alongside Sir Alexander Fleming, co-founding the British Allergy Society, and introducing pollen counts to UK weather forecasts. We also discuss his opinions on why misconceptions about allergies and allergen immunotherapy still exist. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/255. PMID:24447813

  10. Preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky by Alfred Adler, MD.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    This is a previously unpublished work by Alfred Adler that was written in 1936 as a preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky. A theory of schizophrenia is described in which characteristic prepsychotic features, especially lack of social interest and oversensitivity to real and imagined slights, lead to increasing irrationalism and preoccupation with grandiose ideas. The establishment of a cooperative therapeutic relationship and the instilling of hope are presented as central factors for successful treatment. PMID:7018450

  11. [Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].

    PubMed

    Gilman, S L

    2002-01-01

    The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin. PMID:11791189

  12. Alfred Bentz - Erdölgeologe in schwieriger Zeit, 1938-1947

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, E.; Seibold, I.

    2002-08-01

    Alfred Bentz was the leading oil geologist in Germany during the Third Reich, the World War II and thereafter. His relevant activities are treated here mainly on the base of documents in the Geologenarchiv Freiburg. In spite of his prominent position during the Nazi Regime he can obviously not be blamed for personal guilt. As a loyal civil servant he was embedded in the tragic German fate in these years.

  13. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  14. Nuclear Planetology: Constraining the Driving Force in Wegener's Continental Drift Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, G.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear planetology [1] is a new research field, which aims at deciphering the nuclear physics processes responsible for the evolution of ultra-substellar objects and the driving force in Wegener's continental drift theory by means of Re-Os nuclear geochronometry [2]. Terrestrial Re/Os ratios observed within diamond sulphide inclusions [3], compatible with lunar r-process production ratios of Th/U≈1≈Au/Ir [4], drop from ≈0.8 to 0.2-0.05 for nucleogeochronometric ages between 2.3 Ga and 1.4 Ga [5]. It has therefore been argued [5,6] that the Re/Os fractionation is related to a change in oxygen fugacity due to the physics/chemistry of Earth's core after a possibly Fermi-pressure controlled core collapse [4]. Here, Pd/Ru, Pd/Pt, Pd/Ir, Pd/Os, Ru/Ir, Ru/Os, Pt/Ir or Pt/Os ratios from 24 published H chondrite components [7] are connected to their respective nucleogeochronometric ages to constrain an extended fossil fractionation record over 800 Ma. The following ranges are obtained: 0.06-1.04 (Pd/Ru), 0.06-0.79 (Pd/Pt), 0.06-1.76 (Pd/Os), 0.07-1.94 (Pd/Ir), 1.08-1.99 (Ru/Ir), 0.83-2.41 (Pt/Os), 0.82-2.64 (Pt/Ir). Comparing the Re/Os fractionation pattern of the diamond sulphide inclusions with these results and considering that Re is readily oxidized even at ultra-low oxygen fugacity, it may be concluded that (i) extremely reducing conditions within Earth's core basically preserve any unfractionated r-process element ratio until today; and (ii) nuclear/quantum physics processes leading to the observed ratios and fractionation pattern are ultimately the driving force in Wegener's continental drift theory. [1] Roller (2015), Abstract T34B-0407, AGU Spring Meeting. [2] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-17. [3] Smit et al. (2010), GCA 74, 3292. [4] Roller (2015), Abstract #5041, 78th Ann. Met. Soc. Meeting. [5] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-2399. [6] Roller (2015), Abstract PG34A-0283, AGU Spring Meeting. [7] Horan et al. (2009), GCA 73

  15. [Delayed diagnosis in a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) with initial predominance of joint involvement].

    PubMed

    Macri, Anca; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, Florin; Popa, Gabriela; Stoica, Radu

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 53-year-old female, initially admitted in a rheumatology department for fever and diffuse arthritis--being diagnosed with sero-positive rheumathoid arthritis. Although the chest X-ray and CT scan of thorax showed several abnormal features (medium lobe atelectasis, pseudo-cyst in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe with satellite milliary nodules, mediastinal lymph node enlargement), the investigations performed in our pneumology department couldn't establish the etiology of radiological abnormalities. With non-steroidal antiinflamatory treatment, the patient got worse, being readmitted in our hospital after 3 months for high fever, diffuse arthralgia with functional impairment, small hemoptysis, loss of hearing and left ear ache and on chest X-ray with bilateral macronodules, some of these with cavitation. The investigations showed a slight alveolar hemorrhagic syndrome, positive cANCA antibodies, negative antiCCP antibodies--the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis with lung and ENT involvement being established. Puls-therapy with Solumedrol and i.v. Cyclophosphamide was thereafter initiated with a favorable evolution. This case is special because of the initial misdiagnosis due to the atypical pulmonary manifestations and the non-specific paraclinical findings, in the context of diffuse arthritis with positive rheumatoid factor. PMID:24800597

  16. Silent Ischemic Heart Disease in a Patient with Necrotizing Glomerulonephritis due to Wegener's Granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Exaire, Daniel; Ramos-Gordillo, Manolo; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Salazar-Cabrera, Celia Elena; Sanchez-Uribe, Magdalena; Calleja-Romero, Maria Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing vasculitis that mainly affects the respiratory tract and kidneys, but can also affect other systems such as the eye, joints, skin, muscles, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract. Cardiac involvement is traditionally believed to be rare. We report a patient with silent myocardial infarction (MI) and review previously reported cases showing this association. Methods A Medline database search of cases published between January 1978 and July 2008 both in English and Spanish, reporting silent MI complicating WG, was conducted. Results We describe a typical patient with WG who had both respiratory and renal involvement and died unexpectedly following a silent MI after a period of clinical improvement induced by treatment with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. We report necropsy findings and the association with 5 additional cases of WG with silent MI reported in the literature. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of potential cardiac involvement due to WG. Careful evaluation of each patient, with or without cardiac symptoms, using ECG, echocardiogram, and myocardial enzymes is prudent. PMID:22969778

  17. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances. PMID:24983802

  18. Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: their dispute over the units of selection.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace independently discovered the mechanism of natural selection for evolutionary change. However, they viewed the working of selection differently. For Darwin, selection was always focused on the benefit for the individual. For Wallace, selection was as much something of benefit for the group as for the individual. This difference is traced to their different background political-economic views, with Darwin in favor of Adam Smith's view of society and Wallace following Robert Owen in being a socialist. PMID:24014173

  19. H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Irmgard K.

    2002-06-01

    During the 19th century the letter H sometimes represented heat, but the designation of enthalpy was placed into the scientific literature in 1909 by J. P. Dalton and credited by him to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. In 1922 Alfred W. Porter formally proposed that H become the accepted symbol for Kamerlingh Onnes' enthalpy. During the 20th century, however, the genesis of that word became obscured by error, speculation, and use without attribution. This paper resolves current confusion about origins of the word enthalpy and its symbol H by examining their early uses in the literature.

    See Letter re: this article.

  20. Long-term damage to the ENT system in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Martinez Del Pero, Marcos; Walsh, Michael; Luqmani, Raashid; Flossmann, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Jani, Piyush; Rasmussen, Niels; Jayne, David

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to describe long-term ENT damage and assess risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed and treated Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) using the vasculitis damage index (VDI). Data from four randomised controlled trials carried out by the European Vasculitis Study Group was used. Patients newly diagnosed with WG with complete data at 5 years were included. Patients enrolled into the trials without 5-year data were excluded. Total and ENT VDI scores were recorded at 12 months and after at least 5 years. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess risk factors using total ENT and overall VDI score over the follow-up period, the proportion of patients with increased VDI score and the presence or absence of damage as the main outcomes. One hundred and thirty-eight patients were included. Ninety patients (65%) had long-term damage and 81% of these (73/90) developed some damage in the first 12 months. Positive ENT activity score (BVAS) at baseline and relapses were associated with higher ENT VDI scores long-term (OR = 6.90, 95% CI 2.01-23.75; OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.20-5.82). Increasing BVAS score showed a trend towards lower VDI scores (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99). Only ENT relapses and number of relapses were associated with an increase in VDI over time (OR = 8.38, 95% CI 3.10-22.68; OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.24-2.58). In conclusion, most of the ENT damage in these patients was accrued within 12 months of diagnosis. We have shown an association between later ENT damage and the presence of ENT disease at baseline; lower initial BVAS and higher rate of disease relapse. PMID:21085976

  1. The interface of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hajj-Ali, Rula A; Major, Jennifer; Langford, Carol; Hoffman, Garry S; Clark, Tiffany; Zhang, Li; Sun, Zhiyuan; Silverstein, Roy L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between inflammatory disease in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's) and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 46 adult patients with GPA were enrolled. Disease status was measured by Birmingham vasculitis assessment scores as modified for GPA, vasculitis damage index, disease duration, and number of relapses. Classic atherosclerotic risk factors, platelet aggregation responses, and circulating microparticle (MP) levels were recorded. All patients underwent carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement as outcome for subclinical atherosclerosis. In univariate analyses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine, and age were significantly associated with higher IMT (ρ values 0.37, 0.38, 0.35, and 0.054, respectively [P < 0.02 for all]). In a multiple regression model, greater number of relapses, older age at the onset of disease, and higher diastolic blood pressure were found to be associated with higher IMT (P values 0.003, <0.001, and 0.031, respectively). MP counts and platelet reactivity correlated well with disease activity in GPA. Furthermore, MPs were found to activate vascular endothelial cells and platelets in vitro. The cumulative burden of systemic inflammation in GPA correlated with the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. The correlation with subclinical atherosclerosis could be because of glucocorticoid use and not the inflammatory process in GPA, giving the inherent bias that exits with the use of glucocorticoid with each relapse. The findings of increased levels of circulating leukocyte-derived MPs and enhanced platelet reactivity during relapse suggest possible roles for MPs and platelets in disease pathogenesis and support a growing literature that links inflammation, atherosclerosis, and platelet activation. This hypothesis is further substantiated by our demonstration that MPs isolated from plasma of GPA patients can activate

  2. Tracheobronchial Stenoses in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's): A Report on 26 Cases.

    PubMed

    Girard, Charlotte; Charles, Pierre; Terrier, Benjamin; Bussonne, Guillaume; Cohen, Pascal; Pagnoux, Christian; Cottin, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-François; Guillevin, Loïc

    2015-08-01

    Tracheobronchial stenoses (TBSs) are potentially severe manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) that usually respond poorly to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. We describe 26 GPA patients with ≥1 tracheal (mainly subglottic, SGS) and/or bronchial stenosis(ses) (BS(s)).Sixteen patients had solitary SGS and 10 had ≥1 BS(s). The male/female sex ratio was 9:17, and the median age at GPA diagnosis was 32 years (3:13 and 28 years, respectively, for SGS patients). Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies were proteinase 3-positive in 65.5% of the patients (50% of those with SGS).Despite conventional GPA therapy, 62% patients experienced ≥1 stenosis relapse(s) (81% of SGS patients, for a total of 1-8 relapses per patient). None of the several systemic or endoscopic treatments prevented future relapses. Cyclophosphamide induction therapy was effective in 4/6 patients with BS(s) and in 1 patient with SGS among the 7 treated. After many relapses, rituximab achieved remission in 3/4 SGS patients. Endoscopic treatments (dilation, laser, corticosteroid injection, etc.) had only transient efficacy. Other GPA manifestations relapsed independently of TBSs. One SGS patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome.Our findings confirmed that TBSs are severe GPA manifestations that evolve independently of other organ involvements and do not respond to conventional systemic regimens. As previously described, our population was younger and comprised more females than usual GPA patients, especially those with SGS.The small number of patients and the wide variety of local and systemic treatments prevent us from drawing definitive conclusions about the contribution of each procedure. However, cyclophosphamide seemed to effectively treat BSs, but not SGS, and rituximab may be of interest for SGS management. PMID:26266344

  3. Increased expression of chemokines in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis – modulating effects of methylprednisolone in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Torheim, E A; Yndestad, A; Bjerkeli, V; Halvorsen, B; Aukrust, P; Frøland, S S

    2005-01-01

    Chemokines, a group of cytokines that attracts and activates leucocyte subpopulations in inflamed tissue, have been associated with the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases, and some recent reports have suggested their involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). To elucidate further the possible role of chemokines in WG we examined serum levels of several CC- and CXC-chemokines in WG patients and assessed the ability of corticosteroids to modulate the expression of these mediators in vitro. Our main findings were: (i) WG patients (n = 14) had elevated serum levels of several inflammatory chemokines [i.e. regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-8] compared to healthy controls (n = 9), as assessed by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs); (ii) by using EIAs and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we demonstrated the ability of methylprednisolone (MP) to down-regulate both the spontaneous and the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced release of chemokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro in both WG patients and controls, possibly involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms; and (iii) the ability of MP to attenuate chemokine secretion was less pronounced in WG patients than in controls, particularly with regard to inhibition of spontaneous release. Our findings suggest a role for chemokines in the pathogenesis of WG. The diminished MP-mediated suppression of chemokines in PBMC from WG patients suggests that more specific modulators of chemokine levels should be investigated in this disorder. PMID:15807865

  4. Using inpatient data to estimate the prevalence of Wegener's granulomatosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Cui, Yazhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Heng; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Summary China lacks a registry for most rare diseases, so specific epidemiological data on those diseases are lacking. A strategy involving the DISMOD II model was recently formulated to estimate the epidemiological parameters of rare diseases, and this strategy has been used to study several rare diseases. The current study used this strategy to estimate the prevalence of one such rare disease, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), in China based on its incidence, mortality, and rate of remission according to the software tool DISMOD II. The incidence of WG was calculated based on inpatient data from 100 hospitals throughout China. The cause-specific mortality from WG was estimated based on data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States and adjusted for the Chinese population. The rate of disease remission was based on the results of previous study. The current results indicated that the prevalence of WG in China is 1.94/100,000, which is slightly lower than that in Europe and the United States. The mean age at onset of WG in China was calculated to be 38.9 years for males and 39.3 years for females and the duration of disease was 28 years for both male and female patients. These figures are similar to published data from other countries. In conclusion, the DISMOD II model was used to estimate the prevalence of WG in China, providing a basis to evaluate the potential disease burden and orphan drug use by patients with WG. The DISMOD II model could be used to estimate the prevalence of other rare diseases. PMID:26989646

  5. Selective killing of B-cell hybridomas targeting proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Reiners, Katrin S; Hansen, Hinrich P; Krüssmann, Anne; Schön, Gisela; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Engert, Andreas; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

    2004-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare disease characterized by granulomatous lesions, small vessel vasculitis and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCAs) in the sera of affected patients. Their main target antigen is proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophil and monocyte-derived neutral serine protease. Since the standard treatment of this severe autoimmune disease, with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids, is associated with potential side-effects, the development of a more specific immunotherapeutic agent is warranted. The key role of ANCA in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and the effectiveness of anti-CD20 antibodies in patients with refractory WG points towards the importance of B cells in WG. We thus evaluated a new approach to selectively eliminate PR3-specific autoreactive B cells by targeting the B-cell receptor. For this purpose we used a bifunctional recombinant fusion protein consisting of the antigen PR3 and a toxin. The cytotoxic component of this novel fusion protein was the ribonuclease angiogenin, a human toxin with low immunogenicity. The toxin was stabilized by exchanging the catalytically relevant histidine in position 44 with glutamine to eliminate the autoproteolytic activity. PR3H44Q was fused either to the N terminus or to the C terminus of angiogenin. The recombinant proteins were expressed in 293T cells. Binding assays demonstrated the appropriate size and recognition by anti-PR3 antibodies. Using TUNEL technology, we demonstrated that these autoantigen toxins kill proteinase 3-specific B-cell hybridomas selectively by inducing apoptosis. The data indicate that autoantigen-toxins are promising tools in the treatment or co-treatment of autoimmune diseases in which the antigen is known. PMID:15147566

  6. How Earth works 100 years after Wegener's continental drift theory and IGCP 648

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Evans, D. A.; Zhong, S.; Eglington, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    It took half a century for Wegener's continental drift theory to be accepted as a fundamental element of the plate tectonic theory. Another half a century on, we are still unsure of the driving mechanism for plate tectonics: is it dominated by thermal convection, gravitational forces, or by a combination of mechanisms? Nonetheless, breakthroughs in the past decades put us in a position to make a major stride in answering this question. These include: (1) widely accepted cyclic occurrences of supercontinent assembly and break-up (whereas random occurrence of supercontinents was an equal possibility in the 1990s); (2) the discovery of two equatorial and antipodal large low seismic velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that dominate the lower mantle and appear to have been the base for almost all mantle plumes since at the Mesozoic, and of subduction of oceanic slabs all the way to the core-mantle boundary, which together suggesting whole-mantle convection; (3) the recognition of true polar wander (TPW) as an important process in Earth history, likely reflecting Earth's major internal mass redistribution events; and (4) rapidly enhancing computer modelling power enabling us to simulate all aspect of Earth's dynamic inner working. Many new yet often controversial ideas have been proposed, such a possible coupling in time (with an offset) and space between supercontinent cycle and superplume (LLSVP) events which oppose to the idea of static and long-lived LLSVPs, and the orthoversion v.s. introversion or extroversion models for supercontinent transition. To fully utilise these advances as well as the rapidly expanding global geoscience databases to address the question of how Earth works, an UNESCO-IUGS sponsored IGCP project No. 648 was formed to coordinate a global cross-disciplinary effort. We aim to achieve a better understanding of the supercontinent cycle, and examine the relationship between supercontinent cycle and global plume events. We will establish a series of global

  7. Increased expression of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    OHLSSON, S; FALK, R; YANG, J J; OHLSSON, K; SEGELMARK, M; WIESLANDER, J

    2003-01-01

    The secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is a low molecular weight, tissue-specific inhibitor of proteases, such as elastase and cathepsin G. It is the major local protease inhibitor in the upper airways. Proteinase 3, the main autoantigen in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), can degrade SLPI proteolytically. In addition, SLPI is sensitive to oxidative inactivation by myeloperoxidase-generated free oxygen radicals. SLPI also has an antimicrobial capacity that can be of interest, as infection is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of WG. This study focuses on SLPI expression in patients suffering from WG, something that to our knowledge has not been explored hitherto. Serum samples and nasal biopsies were obtained from 12 Swedish WG patients, while buffy coats were obtained from 33 American WG patients. SLPI levels in serum were measured by means of ELISA and the protein was detected by means of immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies. mRNA expression was studied by means of in situ hybridization on nasal biopsies and RT-PCR on leucocytes. IL-6 or ESR were measured as markers of inflammatory activity. Cystatin C or creatinine was measured as a marker of renal filtration. White blood cell counts were registered. In serum, we found close to normal SLPI levels, without any correlation to IL-6. Two patients had greatly elevated values, both of them suffering from severe renal engagement. Strong SLPI mRNA expression was found in nasal biopsies. RT-PCR on leucocyte mRNA showed normal or greatly elevated expression of SLPI mRNA, correlating with disease activity. Leukocyte SLPI expression seems to be up-regulated in active WG. Serum levels were measured in a small number of patients and were found to be close to normal. Lack of correlation to the acute phase response indicates a specific regulation. This might be linked to an altered protease/antiprotease balance. These findings could indicate that SLPI locally participates in the anti-inflammatory and

  8. [A case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in the course of Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Idasiak-Piechocka, I; Oko, A; Łochyńska, K; Woźniak, A; Czekalski, S

    2000-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of the respiratory tract and glomerulonephritis (GN). Prognosis of this disease is poor and about 20% of untreated patients die after one year from the onset. WG was recognized in 45-year-old patient on the basis of: 1) clinical symptoms (joint pain and swollen, purpura on the skin which appeared one week after respiratory tract infection, ulceration of the tonsils and lingula), 2) results of additional testing (X-chest-ray-infiltrates of both lungs), positive results of the cANCA (titre 1:640) and rapidly progressive renal failure [the increase of serum creatinine level (Pcr) from 123.7 to 707 mumol/l (1.4 to 8.0 mg/dl) during one week]. Renal biopsy revealed extracapillary GN (cellular crescents in 7 out of 8 glomeruli and scattered foci of fibrinoid necrosis of capillary walls in all). At the beginning of the treatment Pcr raised to 884 mumol/l (10 mg/dl) and the patient required hemodialysis. He was treated with methylprednisolone (M) at flash doses of 1000 mg/24 h by three days followed by 125 mg/24 h i.v.--because of peptic ulcer, with cyclophosphamide (C-150 mg/24 h p.p.), with trimetoprim/sulphametoxazole, with pentoxifylline and omeprazol. After six weeks of the treatment in the control kidney biopsy sclerotic changes in 10 out of 13 glomeruli and diffuse interstitial fibrosis were found. However, during the same time, we observed clinical remission of the disease and the decrease of Pcr to 176.8 mumol/l (2 mg/dl). The M dosis was reduced by 5 mg every weeks and the C dosis--to 50 mg (because of the increase of aminotransferase levels) After six months of the treatment Pcr was 132.6 mumol/l (1.5 mg/dl) and CANCA titer was 1:16. In this case of RPGN, despite off the progression of the morphological changes in the kidney, we obtained the clinical remission of the disease and significant decrease of Pcr level. These results suggest that aggressive treatment of WG is justified even in

  9. Effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process to Black Carbon Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; He, Cenlin; Wang, Xin; Huang, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    We systematically investigated the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process to black carbon (BC) simulation by a global 3D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem constrained by measurements of BC scavenging efficiencies, concentration in air, deposition fluxes, concentration in snow and washout ratios. Including effect of WBF process reduces the annual mean BC scavenging efficiencies (the ratio of BC in cloud droplets to total BC) at all altitudes by 43-76% in the Arctic. For mid latitude BC scavenging efficiencies decrease by 8-22%, 23-39%, and 41-50% in lower (0-2 km), middle (2-5 km) and upper troposphere (5-10 km), respectively. Simulated BC in air in the Arctic and at mid altitude (˜4 km) in mid latitude increases by ˜40%, and the discrepancy reduces from -65% to -30%. Simulated median BC in snow decreases from 25.7 to 22.4 ng g‑1, by 15% in mid latitude and increases from 8.7 to 11.0 ng g‑1, by 26% in the Arctic and the comparison with observations improves. The model overestimates washout ratios (ratio of BC in fresh snow/rain to BC in surface air) at most of the sites by up to a factor of 165. With effect of WBF process included, the discrepancy decreases to a factor of 72. The simulated BC burden increases from 0.22 to 0.35 mg m‑2 yr‑1 when effect of WBF process is included, partly explains the scaled up of BC burden in Bond et al., 2013. Moreover, burden above 5 km increases from 22% to 27% when WBF process is included, indicating a higher forcing efficiency. We also found that BC simulation is insensitive to the temperature criteria between mixed phase clouds and ice clouds. The simulated BC burden is the same when the temperature is set as -15° C and -25° C. This study also suggests that more observations are needed to better distinguish riming dominated and WBF dominated conditions and better parameterize BC scavenging efficiency under the two conditions.

  10. 75 FR 30427 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is..., Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID, that meet the definitions of ``unassociated... Laboratory of Anthropology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the five cultural...

  11. Shock at the millennium. I. Walter B. Cannon and Alfred Blalock.

    PubMed

    Chambers, N K; Buchman, T G

    2000-06-01

    Present management of shock derives, in part, from the classic investigations of Walter B. Cannon and Alfred Blalock. The intersections of their professional lives as recorded in the professional literature and in personal correspondence suggest that Blalock's pivotal studies of experimental shock were fueled, at least in part, by Cannon's inability to resolve the inconsistencies of the then-popular toxic theory of shock. Cannon appears to have substantially shaped Blalock's thought and work, initially as authority and competitor and later as colleague and friend. Blalock's experimental proof that injury precipitated obligatory locoregional fluid losses, the effects of which could be ameliorated by vigorous restoration of plasma volume, became a cornerstone of shock theory and therapy. PMID:10847639

  12. Discussion of Alfred Alder's preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    In his preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky, Alfred Adler (1) found his theory of the dynamics of schizophrenia supported in the Diary, (2) alluded to Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, and (3) briefly touched on the possibility and conditions of recovery. To add to the understanding of Adler's "Preface," this discussion (1) expands his theory of schizophrenia, (2) gives some concrete data of Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, (3) describes two episodes of recovery subsequent to the "Preface," and (4) introduces an important aspect of Adler's theory, which he had to omit out of consideration for Nijinsky's wife, Romola-namely, her role in her husband's disorder. With the larger theoretical and historical context established. Adler's "Preface" can be appreciated for its predictive validity. PMID:7018451

  13. Alfred Russel Wallace's medical libertarianism: state medicine, human progress, and evolutionary purpose.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), naturalist and explorer of South America and the Malay Archipelago, secured his place in history by independently discovering the theory of natural selection. His letter outlining the theory was sent from Ternate in eastern Indonesia and received at Down House, according to Charles Darwin (1809-82), on June 18, 1858, prompting the now-famed evolutionist to rush his languishing manuscript to press. Wallace's contributions to evolutionary biology, biogeography, and anthropology are well known, but his medical views have received far less attention. Within the context of a strident populist antivaccination movement and an ominous elitist eugenics campaign, Wallace took his stand, which revealed itself in a libertarianism that defended traditional socialist constituencies (the working poor, the lumpenproletariat, and feminist reformers) against state-mandated medical interventions. Rather than viewing Wallace as a heterodox contrarian, this article argues that his positions were logical outgrowths of his medical libertarianism and evolutionary and social theories. PMID:23989935

  14. Capturing the will: Imposture, delusion, and exposure in Alfred Russel Wallace's defence of spirit photography.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Benjamin David

    2014-06-01

    The co-discoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace, found himself deeply embroiled in a range of controversies surrounding the relationship between science and spiritualism. At the heart of these controversies lay a crisis of evidence in cases of delusion or imposture. He had the chance to observe the many epistemic impasses brought about by this crisis while participating in the trial of the American medium Henry Slade, and through his exchanges with the physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter and the psychical researcher Frederic Myers. These contexts help to explain the increasing value that Wallace placed on the evidence of spirit photography. He hoped that it could simultaneously break these impasses, while answering once and for all the interconnected questions of the unity of the psyche and the reliability of human observation. PMID:24603059

  15. Alfred Russel Wallace and the road to natural selection, 1844-1858.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has had it that the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and his colleague Henry Walter Bates journeyed to the Amazon in 1848 with two intentions in mind: to collect natural history specimens, and to consider evidential materials that might reveal the causal basis of organic evolution. This understanding has been questioned recently by the historian John van Wyhe, who points out that with regard to the second matter, at least, there appears to be no evidence of a "smoking gun" variety proving it so. In the present essay the circumstances of Wallace's interest in the matter are reviewed, and van Wyhe is taken to task with alternate explanations for the facts he introduces in his argument. The conclusion is that Wallace almost certainly did have the second objective in mind when he left for both the Amazon, and the Far East. PMID:25424743

  16. The Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein Signaling Then and Now: A Tribute to Alfred G. Gilman.

    PubMed

    Sunahara, Roger K; Insel, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    The recent, unfortunate death of Alfred G. ("Al") Gilman, M.D., Ph.D., represents a sad signpost for an era spanning over 40 years in molecular pharmacology. Gilman's discoveries, influence, and persona were dominant forces in research and training in pharmacology. Here, we review the progression of ideas and knowledge that spawned early work by Gilman and collaborators (among them, one of the authors) and later efforts (including those of the other author) that have recently yielded a comprehensive and precise structural understanding of fundamental topics in pharmacology: the binding of ligands to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the interaction of GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins and effector molecules. Those data provide new and important insights into the molecular basis that underlies affinity and efficacy, two of the most important features of drug action, which represent the latest chapter in the saga that Al Gilman's work helped launch. PMID:26984025

  17. [Doctor and poet as rivals. Sigmund Freud, Alfred von Berger and the narrative of female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a passage in the Dora case history where Freud suggests some differences between a literary and a clinical narrative of female homosexuality, this paper presents examples which he might have had in mind. Besides Balzac's "La fille aux yeux d'or" (1834/35) it is in particular Alfred v. Berger's novella "Die Italienerin [The Italian woman]" (1904) which may have served as a model and counterpoint to the literary strategies used in Freud's case history. Freud had a relationship of long standing with Berger. This newly discovered source may provide a clue for the date at which Freud finalized the Dora manscript which he had held back for years. PMID:21598589

  18. Alfred P. Southwick, MDS, DDS: dental practitioner, educator and originator of electrical executions.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2000-11-01

    The search for a modern, humane method of criminal execution was triggered by a freak accident which occurred in Buffalo, New York in 1881. Dr. Alfred P. Southwick (a former steam-boat engineer, noted dentist and dental educator) happened to witness an intoxicated man die after he inadvertently touched a live generator terminal. Southwick's initial reaction was shock. Later, as he pondered this tragic event, he concluded that electrocution was, at least, a quick and seemingly painless way to depart from this earth. As his thoughts turned to common methods of capital punishment, Alfred concluded that death by electrocution could become a more humane alternative, as compared with the more grisly methods (e.g., hanging, beheading by guillotine, garroting, suffocation and flaying). Working through the governor of New York and the state legislature, Southwick originated and successfully promoted the passage of laws which mandated electrical executions in New York and in approximately 20 other states. During 1888-1889, Southwick served on the state's three-person Electrical Death Commission, a group who reported that electrical execution was superior to all other methods. On January 1, 1889, the world's first electrical execution law went into effect. On August 6, 1890, William Francis Kemmler, who had murdered his mistress, was the first person to die in the electric chair. However, this public event became an amateurish spectacle: the initial surge of current did not cause Kemmler's immediate death and a second jolt was needed. Those who witnessed this bungled execution were stunned. Graphic and detailed criticism from both the press and the general public ran high. However, Dr. Southwick vigorously continued to support and finally achieve his goal--to humanize capital punishment through the legal use of electrical execution. PMID:11806253

  19. C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis induces lung vasculitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    WEIDEBACH, W; VIANA, V S T; LEON, E P; BUENO, C; LEME, A S; ARANTES-COSTA, F M; MARTINS, M A; SALDIVA, P H N; BONFA, E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse in rats the ability of C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction in triggering inflammatory response on pulmonary tissue. Wistar rats (n = 18) were injected via the the internal jugular vein with 20 mg of total C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction isolated from serum of three different Wegener's granulomatosis patients obtained before therapy. Similarly, control rats were treated with IgG fraction from two rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 7), IgG from six normal human sera (n = 15) or saline (n = 18), respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24h of injection for histological analysis of the lungs. Vasculitis and inflammatory infiltrate were consistently absent in rats injected with rheumatoid arthritis IgG or saline and in 14/15 of normal IgG treated animals. In contrast, marked vasculitis was observed in all 18 animals injected with C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction. The histological features were characterized by the presence of a perivascular pleomorphic cellular sheath, particularly around small vessels, endothelial adherence and diapedesis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and presence of granuloma-like lesions. A dose–response relationship was observed between protein concentration of C-ANCA IgG sample and the intensity of the inflammatory response in the animals. In addition, IgG fraction with undetectable C-ANCA, obtained from one patient in remission after treatment, was not able to reproduce the pulmonary tissue alterations induced by its paired IgG that was positive for C-ANCA taken before therapy. The experimental model described herein may be useful to characterize more effectively the pathogenic mechanism of C-ANCA in Wegener's disease. PMID:12100022

  20. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    PubMed

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations. PMID:20827837

  1. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  2. The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing. In 1909, Ernst Haeckel gave a talk in Jena, later published under the title The worldview of Darwin and Lamarck (Das Weltbild von Darwin und Lamarck), but not as the Darwin-Wallace concept. Haeckel mentions Wallace only once. In two important proceedings volumes from the 1959 anniversaries, Wallace was ignored. The only fair treatment of Wallace is given in another book, a collection of documents edited by Gerhard Heberer, for which the author selected nine key documents and reprinted excerpts (1959). Three of them were articles by Wallace, including the Sarawak- and Ternate-papers of 1855 and 1858, respectively. An analysis of the dominant themes during the celebrations of 2009 shows that none of the six topics had much to do with Wallace and his work. Thus, the tendency to exclude Alfred Russell Wallace is an international phenomenon, and largely attributable to the "Darwin industry". PMID:23975642

  3. Implementation of damage detection algorithms for the Alfred Zampa Memorial Suspension Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebinejad, I.; Sedarat, H.; Emami-Naeini, A.; Krimotat, A.; Lynch, Jerome

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated a number of different damage detection algorithms for structural health monitoring of a typical suspension bridge. The Alfred Zampa Memorial Bridge, a part of the Interstate 80 in California, was selected for this study. The focus was to implement and validate simple damage detection algorithms for structural health monitoring of complex bridges. Accordingly, the numerical analysis involved development of a high fidelity finite element model of the bridge in order to simulate various structural damage scenarios. The finite element model of the bridge was validated based on the experimental modal properties. A number of damage scenarios were simulated by changing the stiffness of different bridge components including suspenders, main cable, bulkheads and deck. Several vibration-based damage detection methods namely the change in the stiffness, change in the flexibility, change in the uniform load surface and change in the uniform load surface curvature were employed to locate the simulated damages. The investigation here provides the relative merits and shortcomings of these methods when applied to long span suspension bridges. It also shows the applicability of these methods to locate the decay in the structure.

  4. Sex research at the borders of gender: transvestites, transsexuals, and Alfred C. Kinsey.

    PubMed

    Meyerowitz, J J

    2001-01-01

    Sex researcher Alfred Kinsey's vision of sexual taxonomy continued to evolve after he published his first landmark volume on human sexuality, and his research into sexual subcultures went beyond his initial studies of homosexuality and prostitution. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, he developed a new interest in cross-dressing and cross-gender identification. This article outlines how and why he began to interview transvestites and transsexuals, and places his emerging vision of gendered behavior and gender identity within the scientific theories of his day. Kinsey rejected the prevailing views, preferring instead a behaviorist model of gender. He saw cross-dressing and crossgender identification as male phenomena and used them to speculate about sex differences in the capacity for psychological conditioning. In his usual style, he did not condemn transvestites or transsexuals, but he disapproved of the genital surgery requested by male-to-female transsexuals. It was here that Kinsey hit the limits of his well-known sexual liberalism in which he approved of all sexual variations that did not involve coercion. PMID:11420452

  5. The ornithologist Alfred Russel Wallace and the controversy surrounding the dinosaurian origin of birds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Over many years of his life, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) explored the tropical forests of Malaysia, collecting numerous specimens, including hundreds of birds, many of them new to science. Subsequently, Wallace published a series of papers on systematic ornithology, and discovered a new species on top of a volcano on Ternate, where he wrote, in 1858, his famous essay on natural selection. Based on this hands-on experience, and an analysis of an Archaeopteryx fossil, Wallace suggested that birds may have descended from dinosaurian ancestors. Here, we describe the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis" that originated with the work of Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895). We present the strong evidence linking theropod dinosaurs to birds, and briefly outline the long and ongoing controversy around this concept. Dinosaurs preserving plumage, nesting sites and trace fossils provide overwhelming evidence for the dinosaurian origin of birds. Based on these recent findings of paleontological research, we conclude that extant birds indeed descended, with some modifications, from small, Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. In the light of Wallace's view of bird origins, we critically evaluate recent opposing views to this idea, including Ernst Mayr's (1904-2005) arguments against the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis", and document that this famous ornithologist was not correct in his assessment of this important aspect of vertebrate evolution. PMID:23975643

  6. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Fabien L.; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A. H.; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace’s pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group. PMID:26133078

  7. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A H; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace's pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group. PMID:26133078

  8. Alfred Russel Wallace and the destruction of island life: the Iguana tragedy.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Kleinhans, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), but Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. In contrast to Darwin, Wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. Here, we outline two case studies pertinent to Wallace's prediction. First, we summarize the behavior of the predator-naive marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands, which are threatened by feral dogs and cats imported by humans. We also describe the unique life cycle of the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura bakeri) from the island of Utila (Honduras), a rare species whose populations are declining because of habitat destructions. In contrast to these threatened, endemic island species, the Green iguana (Iguana iguana) is still widely distributed, although, as a result of de-forestation, in some areas of South America local populations have disappeared. We conclude that Wallace was correct in his prediction that, because of human activities, numerous species of animals and plants will be driven to extinction, notably on islands. PMID:23975644

  9. Low dose radiotherapy as an effective treatment in a patient with solitary Wegener's granulomatosis resistant to systemic treatment – case report

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Składowski, Krzysztof; Hejduk, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare disease (10 per 1 000 000 new cases per year), etiologically connected with necrotizing vasculitis of small to medium-size vessels. The disease occurs predominantly in the upper respiratory tract, lungs and kidneys, but any organ may be affected during the course of the illness. It may be difficult to diagnose, especially when c-ACNA antibodies (serologic symptom of Wegener's granulomatosis) are undetectable and chest X-ray is normal. Early diagnosis is crucial for treatment results. Untreated disease may lead to death. Cyclophosphamide used simultaneously with prednisone is the treatment of choice as the first line procedure. Resistance to standard systemic treatment may be a significant problem. New drugs (rituximab, infliximab) are still under clinical investigation, with promising results. Very limited data concerning effectiveness of radiation therapy exist. We present a report of a female patient with solitary form of Wegener's granulomatosis located in the facial region, who underwent successful radiation therapy with a complete response. PMID:23788974

  10. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history. PMID:26507378

  11. The color of complexes and UV-vis spectroscopy as an analytical tool of Alfred Werner's group at the University of Zurich.

    PubMed

    Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Two PhD theses (Alexander Gordienko, 1912; Johannes Angerstein, 1914) and a dissertation in partial fulfillment of a PhD thesis (H. S. French, Zurich, 1914) are reviewed that deal with hitherto unpublished UV-vis spectroscopy work of coordination compounds in the group of Alfred Werner. The method of measurement of UV-vis spectra at Alfred Werner's time is described in detail. Examples of spectra of complexes are given, which were partly interpreted in terms of structure (cis ↔ trans configuration, counting number of bands for structural relationships, and shift of general spectral features by consecutive replacement of ligands). A more complete interpretation of spectra was hampered at Alfred Werner's time by the lack of a light absorption theory and a correct theory of electron excitation, and the lack of a ligand field theory for coordination compounds. The experimentally difficult data acquisitions and the difficult spectral interpretations might have been reasons why this method did not experience a breakthrough in Alfred Werner's group to play a more prominent role as an important analytical method. Nevertheless the application of UV-vis spectroscopy on coordination compounds was unique and novel, and witnesses Alfred Werner's great aptitude and keenness to always try and go beyond conventional practice. PMID:24983805

  12. Male sexuality and Alfred Kinsey's 0-6 scale: toward "a sound understanding of the realities of sex".

    PubMed

    Drucker, Donna J

    2010-01-01

    Using a 0-6 scale, Alfred Kinsey demonstrated that the complexity of human sexuality could best be represented on a continuum rather than as a binary. Kinsey developed the scale from models created by his predecessors in human sex research. A primary intention of the scale was to eradicate sexual identity categories altogether in order to eliminate sexual identity-based persecutions and to promote equal rights. As proponents and opponents of homosexual rights both depended on constructions of sexual identity to advance their agendas, Kinsey's ideal was never realized. The scale nonetheless continues to challenge postmodern associations of identity and sexuality. PMID:20924926

  13. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which

  14. Examining the Extent and Nature of Online Learning in American K-12 Education: The Research Initiatives of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picciano, Anthony G.; Seaman, Jeff; Shea, Peter; Swan, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 1992, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation began its "Anytime, Anyplace Learning Program", the purpose of which was to explore educational alternatives for people who wanted to pursue an education via Internet technology. Part of this grant activity was a research award to the Babson College Survey Research Group to examine online learning in…

  15. Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, masquerading as recalcitrant periodontitis in a patient with a diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Florek, Aleksandra; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Sikorska, Monika; Starzyńska, Anna; Drogoszewska, Barbara; Włodarkiewicz, Adam

    2013-02-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with similar presentation to various benign inflammatory diseases. Adequate biopsy is required for a diagnosis because this lymphoma frequently coexists with large amount of necrosis and inflammation. In this study, a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting with a 3-week history of right maxillary alveolar ridge pain with a subsequent diagnosis of periodontitis is described. The patient's clinical condition deteriorated over a period of 6 weeks. Computed tomography delineated involvement of the right maxillary sinus, posterior part of the right pharynx and right nasal cavity. Immunohistopathology initially revealed Wegener's granulomatosis, followed by extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma. Severe refractory periodontitis in a background of Wegener's granulomatosis may be the initial presentation of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. In addition to careful examination, radiographic and laboratory testing, multiple large biopsies should be taken for immunohistochemical analysis to obtain an appropriate diagnosis. PMID:23111392

  16. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated. PMID:25975358

  17. [Alfred Th. Leber (1881-1954): a pioneer in tropical ophthalmology. Missing in the South Seas--rediscovered in India].

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, J; Mehlhorn, H

    1992-10-01

    In spite of the brief duration of German colonial rule during that period tropical medicine enjoyed a remarkable growth and development. This is the first account of the career of the pioneer of tropical ophthalmology, Alfred Theodor Leber (1881-1954); medical history had previously reported him missing in Java after the 1st world war. His career was greatly influenced by his uncle, Theodor Leber (1840-1917), the founder of experimental ophthalmology. Alfred Leber was the one who combined teaching and research in the subjects of ophthalmology and tropical medicine. During his first expedition as a private lecturer together with von Prowazek in Samoa (1910-1911), he discovered the involvement of the eye in filarial infections with Wuchereria bancrofti (Lebers fundus). In consideration of his extraordinary work he was appointed professor at the young age of 33. After his training at the eye clinic at Berlin University under von Michel he worked as senior physician with von Hippel in Göttingen. Both Ludwig Külz and the famous painter Emil Nolde joined him on his second expedition, to New Guinea, in 1913. During his expedition in summer 1914 World War I broke out. Leber could not return to Germany. He stayed in the neutral Dutch East Indies during these years. Favoured by the ravages of war, British and Australian authorities (Military Intelligence, War Office, Defence) succeeded in seizing some of Leber's research reports and kept them under lock and key. The "Leber-Külz medical demographic New Guinea expedition on behalf of the Reich's Colonial Office" was therefore known to the public only as "Emil Nolde's travels in the South Seas".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1453664

  18. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    MedlinePlus

    ... American College of Rheumatology Committee on Communications and Marketing. This information is provided for general education only. ... Lists Supporters About Us Leadership Careers at ACR Social Media Newsroom Annual Reports & Financial Statements Policies & Guidelines ...

  19. Un mode de révélation rare de la maladie de Wegener: une myocardite associée a une endocardite fibroblastique

    PubMed Central

    Arous, Salim; Bensahi, Ilham; Noureddine, Malika; Habbal, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons à travers cette observation le cas rare d'une maladie de Wegener révélée par une myocardite associée à une endocardite fibroblastique. Le patient a été admis initialement dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque globale, avec un trouble du rythme type flutter auriculaire à l'ECG. A l’échocardiographie le ventricule gauche était non dilaté, siège d'une dysfonction sévère, avec un dosage des troponines positif. Une insuffisance rénale sévère a été découverte fortuitement nécessitant une hémodialyse, associée à une anémie inflammatoire confirmée par la férritinémie et le myélogramme. Le dosage des c-ANCA était fortement positif confirmant le diagnostic. La TDM thoracique avait objectivé une pneumopathie basale droite. Après avoir démarré un traitement adapté comprenant une corticothérapie et un traitement immunosuppresseur, l’évolution a été favorable avec normalisation de la fonction systolique du ventricule gauche. Bien que les manifestations cardiaques cliniques évidentes soient rares, l'atteinte cardiaque au cours de la maladie de Wegener est décrite, nécessitant une orientation diagnostic rapide et une connaissance rigoureuse de cette maladie grave. PMID:27279960

  20. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (−62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  1. Biochar and Glomus caledonium influence Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance).

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  2. Engaging with Lyell: Alfred Russel Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers as reactions to Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology.

    PubMed

    Costa, J T

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) are honored as the founders of modern evolutionary biology. Accordingly, much attention has focused on their relationship, from their independent development of the principle of natural selection to the receipt by Darwin of Wallace's essay from Ternate in the spring of 1858, and the subsequent reading of the Wallace and Darwin papers at the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. In the events of 1858 Wallace and Darwin are typically seen as central players, with Darwin's friends Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) playing supporting roles. This narrative has resulted in an under-appreciation of a more central role for Charles Lyell as both Wallace's inspiration and foil. The extensive anti-transmutation arguments in Lyell's landmark Principles of Geology were taken as the definitive statement on the subject. Wallace, in his quest to solve the mystery of species origins, engaged with Lyell's arguments in his private field notebooks in a way that is concordant with his engagement with Lyell in the 1855 and 1858 papers. I show that Lyell was the object of Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers through a consideration of the circumstances that led Wallace to send his Ternate paper to Darwin, together with an analysis of the material that Wallace drew upon from the Principles. In this view Darwin was, ironically, intended for a supporting role in mediating Wallace's attempted dialog with Lyell. PMID:24014172

  3. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

  4. Keeping the fire burning: Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the one of the world's leading physicians during the final third of the 19th century. Rewarded in 1882 with the creation of the first chair in the diseases of the nervous system, he was extremely successful at recruiting loyal and talented students. Charcot himself never produced a general treatise on hysteria, but instead encouraged his pupils to write their own books. Here, we describe how the work on hysteria of Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet was closely associated with Charcot, and how they remained faithful to their mentor. We will highlight the unusual personality of G. Gilles de la Tourette and the tragic end to his life, the exceptional artistic talent of P. Richer (writer and painter of his magnificently illustrated thesis), the prolific writing capacity of C. Féré (bearing witness to his broad fields of interest) and A. Binet (blessed with an extraordinary capacity for work, and author of The Psychology of Reasoning, before presenting his metric scale of intelligence). PMID:20938148

  5. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENT MAKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: THE CASE OF ALFRED BINET AT THE SORBONNE LABORATORY.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology. PMID:27159374

  7. In vitro production of anti-neutrophilocyte-cytoplasm-antibodies (ANCA) by Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mayet, W J; Hermann, E; Kiefer, B; Lehmann, H; Manns, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1991-01-01

    The frequent detection of anti-neutrophilocyte-cytoplasm-antibodies (ANCA) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) led to the supposition that this disease might be of autoimmune nature. For some authors assume that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of human B-lymphocytes besides polyclonal activation could reveal the cryptic immune status against different autoantigens in patients with autoimmune diseases we investigated EBV-transformed B-lymphocytes from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, WG and healthy blood donors. Two stable B-cell lines (Ho3, We1) could be established. Inhibition experiments showed that antibodies produced by transformed B-lymphocytes and serum ANCA (C-ANCA type) of 10 WG patients recognized the identical antigen. Stimulation of one clone (Ho3) with interleukin 6 (IL-6) led to a switch from IgM to IgG production. Antibodies produced by this clone also stained glomeruli of human frozen kidney sections. Western blot analysis using immunoaffinity purified antigen prepared from human granulocytes revealed a reaction with a protein of approx. 29 kD MW. Our data underscore some new aspects concerning the direct pathogenicity of C-ANCA confirming the hypothesis that the autoimmune B-cell repertoire in WG not only reflects a polyclonal B-cell activation but is shaped by antigen driven responses. PMID:1725964

  8. Alfred E. Bergeat (1866-1924): a distinguished volcanologist and ore deposit researching scientist at the mining academies of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains) in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2010-06-01

    Alfred E. Bergeat, originated from a family, who produced gold-glance in a factory (porcelain painting), studied mineralogy and geology at the University of Munich from 1886 to 1892. Due to the results of his habilitation work on the volcanism of island arcs, especially of the Stromboli volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, he became a recognized volcanologist and specialist in volcanic petrography. He further became an explorer of syngenetic, epigenetic and deuterogenic ore deposits at the mining academies (Bergakademien) of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains). He described these ore deposits in a two-volume manual (1904-1906) which was summarized again in 1913. After his early death in 1924, the two manuals “Die Vulkane” (1925) and “Vulkankunde” (1927) were posthumously published by his colleague and friend Karl Sapper (1866-1945).

  9. Swedenborg, Linnaeus and brain research--and the roles of Gustaf Retzius and Alfred Stroh in the rediscovery of Swedenborg's manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Gordh, Torsten E; Mair, William G P; Sourander, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at the end of his long life became famous as a visionary mystic and founder of a new religion. However, at younger age, he was recognized as a prominent mining engineer and natural philosopher, particularly interested in geology, mineralogy, cosmology, paleontology and last but not least physiology of the brain. In his Oeconomica regni animalis (1740) and in several posthumously published extensive manuscripts, he described and analyzed e.g. the structural and functional organization of the cerebral cortex, the hierarchical construction of the nervous system, the localization of the cerebrospinal fluid and the secretory functions of the pituitary gland. In these fields, he presented remarkable insights and far reaching conclusions which in some cases have been experimentally verified in modern times. In spite of family relations Swedenborg rarely met the 19 years younger Linnaeus. Linnaeus was not only the founder of the systemic botany but as physician a keen and to some extent original observer of neurological symptoms; one of the first who adequately described motor aphasia. To regard these two men, among the few Swedish authors of the 18th century whose names are still internationally well known, as early precursors of neurological research, seems justified. The young Canadian, Alfred H. Stroh (1878-1922), had a crucial importance for the research on the works of Swedenborg, and the rediscovery of his manuscripts. His work was supported and financed to a large extent by professor Gustaf Retzius, at that time the most prominent Swedish researcher in anatomy and histology. There are many reasons to be thankful for the important contributions made by Alfred Stroh and Gustaf Retzius to stimulate the interest for Emanuel Swedenborg in Sweden and internationally. PMID:17578815

  10. The excluded philosophy of evo-devo? Revisiting C.H. Waddington's failed attempt to embed Alfred North Whitehead's "organicism" in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    Though a prominent British developmental biologist in his day, a close friend of Theodosius Dobzhansky, and a frequent correspondent with Ernst Mayr, C.H. Waddington did not enter the ranks of "architect" of the Modern Synthesis. By the end of his career, in fact, he recognized that other biologists reacted to his work "as though they feel obscurely uneasy"; and that the best that some philosophers of biology could say of his work was that he was not "wholly orthodox" (Waddington 1975c, 11). In this essay, I take Waddington's self-assessments at face value and explore three potential reasons why his work did not have more of a direct impact: Waddington's explicit support for the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead; a lack of institutional support; and Waddington's occasional marginalization from the core network of American neo-Darwinians. Though excluded from the Modern Synthesis in the mid-20th century, it now appears that Waddington's work does undergird the emerging evo-devo synthesis. Whether this indicates concomitant, if implicit, support for Whiteheadian philosophy is an interesting question not explored here. PMID:22696826

  11. Resister's logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907.

    PubMed

    Fichman, Martin; Keelan, Jennifer E

    2007-09-01

    In the 1880s, Alfred Russel Wallace, the celebrated co-discoverer of natural selection, launched himself into the centre of a politicised and polarised debate over the unpopular compulsory vaccination laws in England. Wallace never wavered in his belief that smallpox vaccination was useless and likely dangerous. Six years before his death, the anti-vaccinationists successfully secured a conscience clause that effectively dismantled the compulsory vaccination laws. Several other important Victorian scientists joined Wallace in the fight to repeal compulsory vaccination arguing that widely held views on the effectiveness of vaccination and evidence for immunity were inconclusive in the light of (then) contemporary standards of evidence. This article situates Wallace's anti-vaccination logic within the broader matrix of sociopolitical and cultural reform movements of the late Victorian era. Additionally it provides the first detailed analysis of his critique of vaccination science, in particular the role statistics played in his arguments. In this period, both pro-vaccinationists and anti-vaccinationists invested great efforts in collating and analysing statistical data sets that either supported or refuted the claims of vaccination's effectiveness. While each side presented 'controlled' case studies to support their assertions, without an unambiguous test to measure or demonstrate vaccination's effectiveness, the anti-vaccinationists continued to mount credible statistical critiques of vaccination science. PMID:17893067

  12. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induced differential Cd and P phytoavailability via intercropping of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance): post-harvest study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Li, Jintian; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Ye, Zhihong; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-01

    A post-harvest experiment was conducted further to our previous greenhouse pot study on upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) intercropping system in Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Previously, four treatments were established in the intercropping experiment, including monoculture of kangkong (control), intercropping with stonecrop (IS), and IS plus inoculation with Glomus caledonium (IS+Gc) or Glomus versiforme (IS+Gv). Both kangkong and stonecrop plants were harvested after growing for 8 weeks. Then, the tested soils were reclaimed for growing post-harvest kangkong for 6 weeks. In the post-harvest experiment, there were no significant differences between the IS and control treatments, except for a significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil available P concentration with IS treatment. Compared with IS, both IS+Gc and IS+Gv significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations, but not total Cd, by elevating soil pH, causing significantly lower (p<0.05) Cd concentrations in both the root and shoot of kangkong. In addition, both Gc and Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) soil acid phosphatase activities and available P concentrations and hence resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) plant P acquisitions. However, only Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) kangkong yield, while Gc only significantly elevated (p<0.05) the shoot P concentration. It suggested that AM fungi have played key roles in Cd stabilization and P mobilization in the intercropping system, and such positive responses seemed to be sustainable and valuable in post-harvest soils. PMID:23797707

  14. Alfred Vulpian and Jean-Martin Charcot in each other's shadow? From Castor and Pollux at La Salpêtrière to neurology forever.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Walusinski, Olivier; Moulin, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    While Alfred Vulpian (1826-1887) is not completely forgotten, he cannot match the uninterrupted celebrity which Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) still enjoys today. After becoming interne (residents) at the same institute in 1848, both were involved in shaping the cradle of what would become modern neurology. Both started work as chiefs at a La Salpêtrière service on January 1, 1862, making common rounds and studies, with several common publications. While their friendship remained 'for life', as stated by Charcot at Vulpian's funeral, their career paths differed. Vulpian progressed quicker and higher, being appointed full professor and elected at the Académie Nationale de Médecine and the Académie des Sciences several years before Charcot, as well as becoming dean of the Paris Faculty of Medicine. These positions also enabled him to support his friend Charcot in getting appointed full clinical professor and becoming the first holder of the chair of Clinique des Maladies du Système Nerveux in 1882. Before studying medicine, Vulpian had worked in physiology with Pierre Flourens, and his career always remained balanced between physiology and neurology, with remarkable papers. He introduced Charcot to optic microscopy during their La Salpêtrière years, indirectly helping him to become his successor to the chair of pathological anatomy in 1872. While Vulpian succeeded so well in local medical affairs, Charcot spent his time building up a huge clinical service and a teaching 'school' at La Salpêtrière, which he never left for over 31 years until his death. This 'school' progressively became synonymous with clinical neurology itself and perpetuated the master's memory for decades. Vulpian never had such support, although Jules Déjerine was his pupil and Joseph Babinski was his interne before becoming Charcot's chef de clinique (chief of staff) in 1885. This unusual switch in Parisian medicine contributed to Charcot's unaltered celebrity over more than a century

  15. Frank Bursley Taylor - Forgotten Pioneer of Continental Drift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, George W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Frank B. Taylor was an American geologist who specialized in the glacial geology of the Great Lakes. This article discusses his work on the Continental Drift theory, which preceeded the work of Alfred Wegener by a year and a half. (MA)

  16. Eberhard Fahrbach (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut; Schauer, Ursula; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Rintoul, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Eberhard Fahrbach, an internationally known oceanographer, died on 21 April 2013 at age 65 after battling a brain tumor. He had retired 1 year earlier from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, where he directed research on observational oceanography.

  17. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    In the About AGU article "AGU Union Fellows elected for 2014," published in the 29 July 2014 issue of Eos (95(30), 272, doi:10.1022/ 2014EO300008), a joint research group affiliation was inadvertently omitted for one Fellow. Antje Boetius is with the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany, and the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

  18. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth sciences in the last 10 years. The theory of plate tectonics combines many of the ideas about continental drift (originally proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener in Germany) and sea-floor spreading (suggested originally by Harry Hess of Princeton University). 

  19. Lovell, Alfred Charles Bernard [Sir Bernard] (1913-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist and astronomer, born in Oldland Common, Gloucestershire, England. Worked on cosmic rays at Manchester, researched radar in the Second World War, and afterwards with J S HEY procured an ex-army mobile radar unit used to detect V-2 rockets and attempted to detect cosmic ray showers with it. Interference from the electric trams at Manchester displaced the work to the university's botanical...

  20. William Alfred Fowler (1911-1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific career of W. A. Fowler enduringly enriched astronomy by providing us with a systematic treatment of nuclear reaction rates in stars. I clarify how and why this achievement earned him both the 1979 Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics (jointly with S. Chandrasekhar). I attempt to share my understanding and experience of this great man, what he was like personally, and the larger context of his life. (SECTION: Obituary)

  1. Fowler, William Alfred [`Willy'] (1911-95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    American nuclear physicist, born in Pittsburgh, PA, worked at CalTech. Nobel prizewinner (1983). While at the Kellogg Laboratory studied the nuclear reactions of protons with the isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, the very reactions in the CN cycle identified at that time by HANS BETHE as occurring in the stars. Established the science of nuclear astrophysics. Found that there was a gap in the sequ...

  2. [Sigmund Freud's ambition and Alfred Adler].

    PubMed

    Lebzeltern, G

    1984-11-01

    Freud never admitted to himself that he possessed a greater-than-average sense of ambition, which manifested itself in dreams, malachievement and priority problems. A completely new picture of Freud arises from such a perspective. Freud experienced childhood trauma in the form of his relationship with his nephew, John, in whom both an intimate friend and hated enemy were incorporated. This experience left a life-long impression which predetermined the neurotic element in Freud's relationship with men. Freud's own interpretation being that he had been betrayed by Breuer, Fliess, Adler and Jung. That is why the sentencing of his Uncle Joseph to a term of imprisonment had such far-reaching consequences for Freud. A further noteworthy observation is the close connection between ambition and death wishes and also between ambition and guilt feelings. Who, after all, likes to admit to harbouring such feelings? It appeared necessary to investigate the extent to which Freud's excessive ambition influenced his relationships with Breuer, Fliess and Adler. Freud was never prepared to recognize that Adler's contribution consisted of revealing the importance of the natural laws governing those layers of the psyche nearer to the conscious. The picture of the whole person emerges only by a combination of psychoanalysis and individual psychology. PMID:6395508

  3. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Report for 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, NY.

    This Sloan Foundation report for 1976 discusses foundation activities in the three facets of the General Program--(1) Education for the Public Service, (2) Economics and Management, and (3) Science and Technology--as well as in three Particular Programs--(1) Minority Engineering Education, (2) Technology in Education, and (3) Neuroscience. The…

  4. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  5. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener): clinical aspects and treatment.

    PubMed

    Comarmond, Cloé; Cacoub, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis, which affects small- and medium-sized blood vessels and is often associated with cytoplasmic ANCA. GPA occurs in patients between 45 and 60 years old of both genders, and is rarely observed in blacks. The prevalence of GPA increases along a south-north gradient in Europe (20 to 150/million). The main clinical characteristics involve the upper and/or lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Ear, nose and throat manifestations with recurrent sinusitis and crusting rhinorrhea are usually severe. Lung nodules are frequently seen, sometimes excavated. Renal involvement is characterized by rapidly progressive necrotizing glomerulonephritis with extracapillary crescents. Limited forms of GPA predominantly affect the upper respiratory tract, whereas generalized forms of GPA include renal manifestations and/or alveolar hemorrhage and/or vital organ involvement with an altered general condition. The combination of immunosuppressant drugs and corticosteroids has converted this typically fatal illness into one in which 80% of patients achieve remission. However, despite considerable therapeutic progress over the last decades, relapses remain frequent (50% at 5 years), and maintenance treatment is now the main therapeutic challenge. PMID:25149391

  6. A presentation of cerebritis secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (wegener).

    PubMed

    Norman, James; Pande, Ira; Taylor, Timothy; Gran, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Neurological manifestations of GPA are common, most frequently as a peripheral neuropathy. Cerebritis as a principal presentation is extremely rare. We report a patient who presented with subacute progression of ataxia, confusion, and vacant episodes. An MRI of her brain showed bilateral signal abnormalities in the cingulate and superior sagittal gyrus while a staging CT revealed a mass in the right upper lobe of the patient's lung with a satellite nodule. C-ANCA antibodies specific for PR3 at high titres were positive and a diagnosis of GPA was made. The patient was commenced on intravenous methylprednisolone followed by cyclophosphamide and responded well to treatment. GPA is a rare and treatable differential diagnosis for confused patients with acute or subacute neurological features and unusual MRI findings. PMID:24900930

  7. A Presentation of Cerebritis Secondary to Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener)

    PubMed Central

    Norman, James; Pande, Ira; Taylor, Timothy; Gran, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Neurological manifestations of GPA are common, most frequently as a peripheral neuropathy. Cerebritis as a principal presentation is extremely rare. We report a patient who presented with subacute progression of ataxia, confusion, and vacant episodes. An MRI of her brain showed bilateral signal abnormalities in the cingulate and superior sagittal gyrus while a staging CT revealed a mass in the right upper lobe of the patient's lung with a satellite nodule. C-ANCA antibodies specific for PR3 at high titres were positive and a diagnosis of GPA was made. The patient was commenced on intravenous methylprednisolone followed by cyclophosphamide and responded well to treatment. GPA is a rare and treatable differential diagnosis for confused patients with acute or subacute neurological features and unusual MRI findings. PMID:24900930

  8. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener's Granulomatosis) Accompanied by Dysuria

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Isao; Takizawa, Issei; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old male visited us with complaints of retarded urination, dysuria, gross hematuria, and fever. Urinalysis showed pyuria. Prostatic tumor with lung metastasis was suspected from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Transurethral prostatic biopsy and bronchoscopic biopsy only revealed fibrinoid necrosis and inflammatory infiltration. Right lateral maxillary sinusitis was also found by MRI. ANCA testing was positive with specificity for anti-PR3 (PR3-ANCA). On the basis of these results, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was diagnosed. GPA involving the prostate gland is unusual, and only a few cases have previously been reported. PMID:27034883

  9. The theory of natural selection of Alfred Russel Wallace FRS.

    PubMed

    Bulmer, Michael

    2005-05-22

    Wallace's 1858 paper 'On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type' is often thought to present a theory of natural selection identical with that of Darwin. Examination of Wallace's argument shows that it is different from Darwin's because Wallace thought that an inferior variety could coexist with a superior variety until environmental deterioration forced the extinction of the inferior one. Other interpretations of Wallace's argument are re-examined in the light of this finding. PMID:16116703

  10. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational…

  11. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-03-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational ideas have now come full circle, and it is time to bring Gage and his texts and ideas to 21st-century physics teachers.

  12. Social background of the discovery and the reception of the periodic law of the elements: recognizing the contributions of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Masanori

    2003-05-01

    The favorable and relatively rapid reception of Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements can be attributed, in part at least, to his social connections. These connections were evident in the recently organized Russian Chemical Society. In addition, Mendeleev enjoyed the support of the editorial board of the journal of the German Chemical Society. PMID:12796115

  13. The Ny-Alesund aerosol and ozone measurements intercomparison campaign 1997/1998 (NAOMI-1998)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuber, R.; Beyerle, G.; Beninga, I.; VonderGathen, P.; Rairoux, P.; Schrems, O.; Wahl, P.; Gross, M.; McGee, Th.; Iwasaka, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Shibata, T.; Klein, U.; Steinbrecht, W.

    1998-01-01

    An intercomparison campaign for Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and aerosol has been conducted at the Primary Station of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) in Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen during January-February 1998. In addition to local instrumentation, the NDSC mobile ozone lidar from NASA/GSFC and the mobile aerosol lidar from Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) participated. The aim is the validation of stratospheric ozone and aerosol profile measurements according to NDSC guidelines. This paper briefly presents the employed instruments and outlines the campaign. Results of the blind intercomparison of ozone profiles are given in a companion paper and temperature measurements are described in this issue.

  14. WEGENER: Solid Body Dynamics Investigation of Venus. Results from Summer School Alpbach 2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, A.; Coyle, S.; Czeluschke, A.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Donohoe, A.; Hu, H.; Koopmans, R.-J.; Lucchetti, A.; Mannel, T.; Nachon, M.; Nilsson, D.; Shelakhaev, N.; Suer, A.; Timoney, R.

    2015-10-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by the Orange Team during Summer School Alpbach 2014, which mainly concerns about geophysics of terrestrial planets. A mission is designed to investigate the past and current tectonic and volcanic activity on Venus. During the mission, a simultaneous observations from topographic, magnetic and gravitational measurements will be performed and the combination of the information has the potential to provide an improved understanding of the formation and evolution of the planet.

  15. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's disease): An updated review of ocular disease manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Kubaisi, Buraa; Abu Samra, Khawla; Foster, C. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a potentially lethal systemic disorder that is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small arteries and veins. The respiratory system is most commonly affected in limited forms of the disease, however upper and lower respiratory system, systemic vasculitis, and necrotizing glomerulonephritis are the characteristic components of the disease triad. The peak incidence is observed at 64–75 years of age, with a prevalence of 8–10 per million depending on geographic location. In this review we focus on the ocular manifestations of the disease which occur in nearly in one third of the patients. In addition we describe the neuro-ophthalmic complications which occur in up to half of cases. We also discuss the current systemic treatment options including corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and the available biologic response modifiers including rituximab. The disease remains difficult to diagnose due to the generalized symptomatic presentation of patients with GPA. As a result, several sets of diagnostic criteria have been developed which include clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to varying extents. Early diagnosis and multi-specialty collaboration among physicians is necessary to adequately manage the disease and the potential complications that may result from drugs used in the treatment of the disease. Despite recent advances, more research is necessary to prevent the high rates of mortality from the disease itself and from therapeutic side effects. PMID:27195187

  16. Surfaces and interfaces of glass and ceramics; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Special Topics in Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, N.Y., August 27-29, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, V. D. (Editor); Lacourse, W. C.; Burdick, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characterization of surfaces and interfaces is considered along with the infrared spectra of several N-containing compounds absorbed on montmorillonites, applications of surface characterization techniques to glasses, the observation of electronic spectra in glass and ceramic surfaces, a method for determining the preferred orientation of crystallites normal to a surface, and the friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics. Attention is given to the wear behavior of cast surface composites, an experimental investigation of the dynamic and thermal characteristics of the ceramic stock removal process, a dynamic elastic model of ceramic stock removal, and the structure and properties of solid surfaces. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  17. Comment on 'Magnetic fabrics, crystallographic preferred orientation, and strain of progressively deformed metamorphosed pelites in the Helvetic zone of the Central Alps (Quartenschiefer Formation)' by Carl Richter, Lothar Ratschbacher, and Wolfgang Frisch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, Pierre

    1994-11-01

    This comment is designed to promote a more 'physically correct' way to analyze magnetic susceptibility in terms of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic contributions, and incidentally to plead against the still current underestimation of the role of pyrrhotite in paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies. Even if my contention of misleading identification of the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibility source in the Quartenschiefer is right, the interpretations of Richter et al. (1993)-anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) versus petrofabric data-remain correct as long as muscovite (from which the pole figures are acquired) shares the same preferred orientation as the more iron-rich phyllosilicates probably responsible for AMS. These results of quantitative correlation between AMS petrofabric and stain therefore remain an important contribution to the development of tectonic applications of AMS. It is finally worth noting the good agreement between our respective data in terms of directions of magnetic lineations.

  18. Citation for presentation of the 2010 Alfred Treibs Award to John Volkman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Jan W.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decades, Dr. John Volkman has established himself as a world authority on the discovery and application of biomarkers in organic geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, petroleum geochemistry and palaeoclimatology. His work has laid the foundation on which much modern biomarker research is based and his studies of lipids in microalgae, in particular, have had a considerable influence and is widely cited. He has identified many new compounds including sterols, alcohols, diols and hydrocarbons. He has written a large number of review papers which are commonly used by younger organic geochemists to become acquainted with the field and as reference work by many others. John Volkman is truly exceptional in the breadth of expertise, his ability to integrate different sub-disciplines and his openness for young organic geochemists to act as a sparring-partner in scientific discussions. John has achieved this very impressive record even though he has not been employed as a “hard-core” organic geochemist for the last two decades but has nevertheless remained active in organic geochemistry in his “free” time. In addition, John's contributions to more applied fields of research are also numerous.

  19. 78 FR 19009 - Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D.; Decision And Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... proceeding under section 304, 21 U.S.C. 824, of the CSA.'' Zhiwei Lin, 77 FR 18862, 18864 (2012) (citing... Kentucky, not Florida.) \\16\\ See Michael G. Dolin, M.D., 65 FR 5661 (2000); see also Philip E. Kirk, M.D., 48 FR 32887 (1983), aff'd sub nom. Kirk v. Mullen, 749 F.2d 297 (6th Cir. 1984). \\17\\ See 28...

  20. Scenic memory of the Shoah--"the adventuresome life of Alfred Silbermann".

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Kurt

    2013-03-01

    This paper addresses the late psychosocial sequelae of extreme trauma and its impact on the Second Generation in Germany. The example of the short-term analysis of a Shoah survivor and his relationship to his son conducted in his home environment shows how psychic consequences of extreme traumatization and more particularly their unconscious transgenerational transmission to the Second Generation mainly take place as part of unconscious "scenes". The concept of "scenic memory of the Shoah" goes beyond the classical type of transference. PMID:23470970

  1. Sex will never be the same: the contributions of Alfred C. Kinsey.

    PubMed

    Bullough, Vern L

    2004-06-01

    Kinsey built upon what other European and American researchers had done, but in his male volume he was much more critical of his predecessors than he was in the female volume. Although he mentioned many of the European sex researchers, several were conspicuous by their absence and, at times, he seemed very moralistic (e.g., that Hirschfeld was not an objective researcher because of his campaign for gay rights or the failure of H. Ellis to have face-to-face contact with his participants). He had little positive to say about psychiatrists in general, although he imparted a more positive message in the female volume. If bibliographical citations are any example, Kinsey explored much more widely in the social sciences in the female volume than he did in the male volume, indicating that he himself acquired greater expertise over the years. Certainly, the female volume was a more well rounded treatment. Overall, the effect of his books was to change the way people looked at sex; indeed, sex could never be the same again. PMID:15129046

  2. Handbook for Faculty and Administration of Alfred University. 1973-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred Univ., NY.

    Included in this faculty and administration handbook are descriptions of the responsibilities of university administrators, deans, and faculty (and a 1974 organizational chart), provisions of faculty recruitment, selection, and appointment including teaching load and salary scale, By-Laws of the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred…

  3. Project Update: Alfred Kiger Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    21st Century School Fund, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location project is designed to meet a number of important goals for Washington, D.C. Public Schools (DCPS) and the District of Columbia. It will improve the teaching and learning conditions for Savoy Elementary School so that they are in excellent condition, can support a high quality curriculum,…

  4. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  5. [Work in a psychosocial care center: an analysis based on Alfred Schütz].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Camatta, Marcio Wagner; Nasi, Cíntia

    2007-12-01

    This essay aimed at understanding the work of a mental health team in a Psychosocial Care Center. It was based on Albert Schütz's phenomenological sociology ideas. Qualitative research was the methodological base of this study, in which statements were submitted to comprehensive analysis. Information was collected by interviewing eight people between July and September, 2006. The thematic units were social behavior, relevance, and interactive relations. Results revealed an innovative form of mental health care, allowing a dynamic vision of the team, who organize their experiences during their daily work in search of psychosocial rehabilitation. This study allowed understanding the work in a Psychosocial Care Center, providing support for teams that act in this context for a better understanding of their work in mental health. PMID:18464467

  6. The Alfred Hospital experience of resumption of cardiac activity after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.

    PubMed

    Sa, Yong; S, D'Souza; S, Philpot; Dv, Pilcher

    2016-09-01

    With the advent of donation after circulatory death programs in Australia and New Zealand, greater knowledge is needed about physiologic variation in haemodynamic activity following withdrawal of cardiorespiratory support. The ANZICS Statement on Death and Organ Donation allows provision for variation in the observation times between two and five minutes after cessation of the circulation prior to declaration of death. We report our experience of two cases, the first where electrical activity and pulse returned after a 102 second pause and the second where electrical activity returned after a three minute pause; both longer than previously reported cases. PMID:27608344

  7. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-02

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry.

  8. 76 FR 17672 - Alfred E. Boyce, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, 873 F.2d 1089, 1091 (8th Cir. 1989); Thomas E. Johnston, 45 FR 72311 (1980... '' (emphasis supplied). Roy Chi Lung, 74 FR 20346, 20347 (2009); Scott Sandarg, D.M.D., 74 FR 17528, 174529 (2009); John B. Freitas, D.O., 74 FR 17524, 17525 (2009); Roger A. Rodriguez, M.D., 70 FR 33206,...

  9. "Gulliver's Travels" by Alfred Silver with Music by Stephen Naylor. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Milde; Flynn, Rosalind, Ed.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a musical adaptation of Jonathan's Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" (performed by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia), this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. Beginning with an illustration of aspects…

  10. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  11. Quality assurance of solar UV irradiance in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Wuttke, Sigrid; Schrems, Otto; De Simone, Sara; Gallo, Veronica; Rafanelli, Claudio; Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Edvardsen, Kåre; Stebel, Kerstin

    2010-03-01

    The first Arctic intercomparison of three solar ultraviolet (UV) spectroradiometers and two multifilter radiometers was held in May and June 2009 at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway. The transportable reference spectroradiometer QASUME acted as reference instrument for this intercomparison. The measurement period extended over eleven days, comprising clear sky and overcast weather conditions. Due to the high latitude, measurements could be performed throughout the day during this period. The intercomparison demonstrated that the solar UV measurements from all instruments agreed to within +/-15% during the whole measurement period, while the spectroradiometer from the Alfred-Wegener Institute agreed to better than +/-5%. This intercomparison has demonstrated that solar UV measurements can be performed reliably in the high-latitude Arctic environment with uncertainties comparable to mid-latitude sites. PMID:20221466

  12. Instability Rules: The Ten Most Amazing Ideas of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Charles

    2002-03-01

    World-altering discoveries that reveal a universe of uncertainty and constant change Whether probing the farthest reaches of the vast universe or exploring the microscopic world of genetics and the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, Instability Rules is a remarkably informative and engaging look at ten milestone discoveries and their discoverers-a wide range of very human personalities whose insights have dramatically altered our most basic assumptions about human existence during the last century. The stories include Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe, Alfred Wegener and continental drift, Neils Bohr and quantum mechanics, Alan Turing and artificial intelligence, and James Watson and Francis Crick and DNA. Also covering discoveries of the twenty-first century that are already refining these and other ideas, Instability Rules is an exhilarating, sometimes amusing encounter with the defining scientific discoveries of our age.

  13. An updated estimate of tornado occurrence in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotzek, Nikolai

    Results from a survey on average tornadic activity in Europe conducted among the participants of the European Conference on Severe Storms (ECSS) 2002 are presented. Compared to Alfred Wegener's estimate of "at least 100 tornadoes per year in Europe" the present survey shows a total of 329±12 tornadoes over land and water per year based on observations, and more than twice as many cases (697±36) for an estimate of the expected true climatological number, accounting for present underreporting in many European countries. Traditionally, European tornado numbers include waterspouts. For comparison to the current number of 1170 observed tornadoes over land per year in the USA, the European numbers are 169±9 per year based on observations, and 304±25 based on estimates. As European severe weather research is rapidly developing, one can expect less underreporting in the future, leading to an augmented database for upcoming surveys like the present one.

  14. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  15. ESSReS-PEP, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Promoting young researchers is a major priority of the German Helmholtz Association. Since more than five years graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science has been established in Bremen and Bremerhaven, north-western Germany. Using the network and collaboration of experts and specialists on observational and paleoclimate data as well as on statistical data analysis and climate modelling from two Universities and the Helmholtz research institute on Polar and Marine Research, master and PhD students are trained to understand, decipher and cope with the challenges of recent climate change on an highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional level. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. At the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar

  16. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  17. Operational tsunami modelling with TsunAWI - recent developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, N.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Harig, S.; Immerz, A.; Danilov, S.; Hiller, W.; Schröter, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this article, the tsunami model TsunAWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) and its application for hindcasts, inundation studies, and the operation of the tsunami scenario repository for the Indonesian tsunami early warning system are presented. TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and simulates all stages of a tsunami from the origin and the propagation in the ocean to the arrival at the coast and the inundation on land. It solves the non-linear shallow water equations on an unstructured finite element grid that allows to change the resolution seamlessly between a coarse grid in the deep ocean and a fine representation of coastal structures. During the GITEWS project and the following maintenance phase, TsunAWI and a framework of pre- and postprocessing routines was developed step by step to provide fast computation of enhanced model physics and to deliver high quality results.

  18. On solving the momentum equations of dynamic sea ice models with implicit solvers and the elastic-viscous-plastic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losch, Martin; Danilov, Sergey

    Experiments with idealized geometry are used to compare model solutions of implicit VP- and explicit EVP-solvers in two very different ice-ocean codes: the regular-grid, finite-volume Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and the Alfred Wegener Institute Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM). It is demonstrated that for both codes the obtained solutions of implicit VP-and EVP-solvers can differ significantly, because the EVP solutions tend to have smaller ice viscosities ("weaker" ice). EVP solutions tend to converge only slowly to implicit VP solutions for very small sub-cycling time steps. Variable resolution in the unstructured-grid model FEOM also affects the solution as smaller grid cell size leads to smaller viscosity in EVP solutions. Models with implicit VP-solvers can block narrow straits under certain conditions, while EVP-models are found to always allow flow as a consequence of lower viscosities.

  19. Transport Pathways of Pollution Plumes into the Canadian Arctic during RACEPAC and NETCARE 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoor, P. M.; Bozem, H.; Koellner, F.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Burkart, J.; Willis, M. D.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC and NETCARE 2014. The measurements were performed in May and July 2014 out of Inuvik and Resolute Bay with the POLAR 6 DC-3 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and focused on cloud processes in the Canadian Arctic as well as transport processes of pollution. CO and CO2 measurements indicate that long range transport from various sources affected the arctic lower troposphere during spring /summer 2014. Whereas the high latitudes were relatively unaffected by pollution plumes from lower latitudes, the more southern parts of the arctic regions were strongly perturbed by pollution from various sources. These events are likely connected to biomass burning. We also performed measurements of local emissions from shipping, to investigate their potential to penetrate the arctic boundary layer and affect the arctic free troposphere thereby becoming part of the large scale flow.

  20. TsunaFLASH Benchmark and Its Verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranowo, Widodo; Behrens, Joern

    2010-05-01

    In the end of year 2008 TsunAWI (Tsunami unstructured mesh finite element model developed at Alfred Wegener Institute) by Behrens et al. (2006 - 2008) [Behrens, 2008], had been launched as an operational model in the German - Indonesian Tsunami EarlyWarning System (GITEWS) framework. This model has been benchmarked and verified with 2004 Sumatra-Andaman mega tsunami event [Harig et al., 2008]. A new development uses adaptive mesh refinement to improve computational efficiency and accuracy, this approach is called TsunaFLASH [Pranowo et al., 2008]. After the initial development and verification phase with stabilization efforts, and study of refinement criteria, the code is now mature enough to be validated with data. This presentation will demonstrate results of TsunaFLASH for the experiments with diverse mesh refinement criteria, and benchmarks; in particular the problem set-1 of IWLRM, and field data of the Sumatra-Andaman 2004 event.

  1. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) with hard palate and bronchial perforations treated with rituximab - a case report.

    PubMed

    Kosałka, Joanna; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Zugaj, Anna; Ignacak, Maria; Zuk, Joanna; Sokołowska, Barbara; Musiał, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), who in the seventh months of immunosuppressive treatment (cyclophosphamide) progressed with new pulmonary changes and perforations of the hard palate and bronchi. Rituximab was introduced resulting in B-cell depletion and disappearance of anti-PR3 antibody. Palatal holes have substantially diminished and all bronchial perforations disappeared, covered by fibrous tissue. In the fourth month after rituximab administration, large scarring obstruction of the right main bronchus with upper and middle lobes atelectasis emerged. Because of increasing dyspnoea, stenotic bronchus was re-opened by bronchoscopy. Intervention was complicated by bilateral pneumothorax and later, on the seventh day, by fatal pulmonary bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GPA refractory to cyclophosphamide complicated by palatal and bronchial perforations. PMID:25133814

  2. Symbiogenesis, natural selection, and the dynamic Earth.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, U

    2009-08-01

    One century ago, Constantin S. Mereschkowsky introduced the symbiogenesis theory for the origin of chloroplasts from ancient cyanobacteria which was later supplemented by Ivan E. Wallin's proposal that mitochondria evolved from once free-living bacteria. Today, this Mereschkowsky-Wallin principle of symbiogenesis, which is also known as the serial primary endosymbiosis theory, explains the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic cells and hence the emergence of all eukaryotes (protists, fungi, animals and plants). In 1858, the concept of natural selection was described independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred R. Wallace. In the same year, Antonio Snider-Pellegrini proposed the idea of shifting continents, which was later expanded by Alfred Wegener, who published his theory of continental drift eight decades ago. Today, directional selection is accepted as the major cause of adaptive evolution within natural populations of micro- and macro-organisms and the theory of the dynamic Earth (plate tectonics) is well supported. In this article, I combine the processes and principles of symbiogenesis, natural selection and the dynamic Earth and propose an integrative 'synade-model' of macroevolution which takes into account organisms from all five Kingdoms of life. PMID:19399544

  3. The theologician Alfred Jeremias (1864-1935) of Leipzig and the history of early astronomy; (German Title: Der Leipziger Theologe Alfred Jeremias (1864-1935) und die Geschichte der frühen Astronomie )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgauds, Hans-Joachim

    We present, after a short sketch of the life of A. Jeremias, his concept of historical development and bis political views. Jeremias carried out religious studies at Leipzig University, and was one of the main proponents of "Panbabylonism", the notion that the Babylonian astral world view has given its imprint to all world cultures. He substantiated his views in handbooks as well as polemic brochures. The astronomical knowledge assigned to the Babylonians by the panbabylonists Winckler, Jeremias and Weidner is summarized, and the concept of precession is discussed in some detail. Obviously there were no contacts to astronomers of Leipzig Observatory, and Jeremias' poorly substantiated views were justiy dismissed by later scientists like O. Neugebauer.

  4. Beyond Courseware: A Report and Bibliography Prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation on Computing Technology in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantz, David; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is based on a literature search which was commissioned to complement the report on a conference hosted by Dartmouth University (New Hampshire) in October 1988. An introductory essay describes the conference, which brought together 30 educators from a wide variety of institutions for 3 days to reflect on the…

  5. The Eye of the Storm. The Seventh Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Survey of Broadcast Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Marvin; Sklar, Zachary

    This book, the seventh in a series surveying broadcast journalism, provides behind-the-scenes details of news coverage during 1978-79, evaluating the growth and sophistication of the news media. The first section of the book discusses the treatment of major issues and news events, including the "odd couple" of politics and broadcasting, the…

  6. From Scoresby to Nansen to Wegener: The Role of Polar History in Producing the Next Generation of High-Latitude Hydrologic and Cryospheric Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Many scientists, like myself, were first attracted to the polar regions by tales of heroic explorers. These earlier explorers were also scientists, or more correctly, naturalists. They produced maps, sketches, and studies on atmospheric, cryospheric, biological, and sociological topics alike. For many of us, reading about polar history led directly to our interests in cryospheric and hydrological science. While the age of geographical exploration is long over, replaced by Google Earth, the stories from that by-gone era may still be one of the most powerful recruiting tools for producing passionate and committed polar scientists for the next generation. I would argue for an increased emphasis in teaching our students about the history of exploration and science. If we do so, at a minimum our students will better appreciate modern clothing, transportation, data loggers, communication equipment, and computers. More importantly, it will introduce to the next generation the idea of the naturalist, whose purview is all components of the natural system. Many of the high latitude issues facing us today require a system-science approach that can be difficult to learn or master in an era of disciplinary specialization. The early naturalist-explorers understood this approach and still have much to teach us if we take the time to listen to what went before.

  7. Recombinant human proteinase 3, the Wegener's autoantigen, expressed in HMC-1 cells is enzymatically active and recognized by c-ANCA.

    PubMed

    Specks, U; Fass, D N; Fautsch, M P; Hummel, A M; Viss, M A

    1996-07-29

    We developed a stable expression system for conformationally intact recombinant human PR3 (rPR3) using the human mast cell line HMC-1. Like in U937 cells, the rPR3 is processed from a 34 kDa precursor to the 29 kDa mature form, primarily as the result of oligosaccharide trimming. The rPR3 binds [3H]DFP and hydrolyzes the substrate N-methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-pNA. The enzymatic activity is inhibited by greater than 95% by alpha 1-PI. The rPR3 and the enzymatically inactive mutant rPR3-S176A are both packaged in granules. Thus, proteolytic autoprocessing is not required for PR3's targeting to granules. This rPR3 is the first to be recognized by most c-ANCA from WG patients and all anti-PR3 ANCA that were detected by standard anti-PR3 specific ELISA. This expression system for rPR3 represents a versatile tool for the analysis of its intracellular processing, structure-function relationships and interaction with autoantibodies. PMID:8706874

  8. Glider observations of oceanic conditions in the Fram Strait, 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Latarius, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    The Fram Strait is the deepest gateway to the Arctic Ocean (2600 m sill depth), and a crucial pathway for exchange of heat and freshwater between the Arctic and the rest of the world ocean. The region is important for studying changes in the Arctic Ocean and possible feedback mechanisms between the ocean and sea ice. In order to monitor volume, heat and freshwater exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, the Alfred Wegener Institute and the North Polar Institute have been maintaining an oceanographic mooring array along 78°50'N since 1997. The Fram Strait is characterized by strong variability in temperature, salinity and currents on time and spatial scales corresponding to oceanic mesoscale phenomena. This makes estimation of long-term fluxes difficult. In order to improve monitoring the Fram Strait ocean observing system was extended by a multi-purpose acoustic system for thermometry, passive acoustics, and glider navigation between 2008 and 2012 as part of the ACOBAR project. Acoustic thermometry provides depth range averaged ocean temperature at a high temporal resolution. To improve the spatial resolution of the monitoring system Seagliders were deployed in Fram Strait for a few months at a time following a quasi-zonal transect and profiling down to 1000 m. We present analysis of hydrographic data from the Seagliders operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Fram Strait between 2008 and 2012. During eight glider missions physical oceanography data were collected along repeated sections south of the mooring array. In addition to the directly measured hydrographic data (conductivity, temperature, and pressure), depth-averaged current velocities are derived from glider displacements. Data from the five summer (July-September) and three autumn (September-November) glider missions are used to make year-to-year comparisons of vertical temperature and salinity profiles in the upper 1000 m of the water column. Glider section data show a high

  9. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    PubMed Central

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  10. CHAMP/GPS water vapor compared with a NWP model and with AMSU/B data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, K.-P.; Miao, J.

    2003-04-01

    The atmospheric water vapor plays a dominant role in the hydrological cycle and in the radiative balance. It is very important for the greenhouse effect in climate modelling as well as for short term numerical weather prediction. Specific humidities derived from CHAMP/GPS are compared with the High resolution Regional weather forecast Model HRM of the Deutscher Wetterdienst over Europe during the BALTEX/Bridge baseline period (October 1999 to February 2002): The model shows slightly larger specific humidities than the radio occultation data obtained from CHAMP (decreasing with increasing height) up to about 1.5~g/kg. Vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) data derived from the CHAMP/GPS profiles are also compared with IWV data derived from AMSU/B data over Antarctica. The AMSU/B IWV data were calculated using an algorithm of Miao (1999). The mean difference between both datasets is with -0.08 kg/m2 quite low and the standard deviation is about 0.79 kg/m2.[0.3cm] Miao, J: Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Content in Polar Regions Using Spaceborne Microwave Radiometry, Ph.D. thesis, Reports on Polar Research 289, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany, 1998

  11. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  12. The geometry of continental displacement and its application to Arctic geology: Eugen Wegmann's early approaches published in the Geologische Rundschau in 1943

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsch, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    Plate tectonics developed around 1965 as a powerful tool to describe the tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. The article demonstrates that basically four already existing theoretical concepts—subduction, seafloor spreading, the application of Euler's theorem and transform faults—had to be combined to arrive at the modern theory. Alfred Wegener, father of the theory of continental displacement, is often credited as the most direct forerunner of plate tectonics. However, none of the aforementioned concepts had been developed by him. The present article deals with the hitherto not duly credited contributions of the Swiss geologist Eugen Wegmann (1896-1982). He developed in a series of highly original papers published between 1943 and 1948 (one of them in the Geologische Rundschau), a critical test of the theory of continental displacement based on the regional geology of the Arctic. Furthermore, he gave a very concise account on the geometrical principles of drift movements. As a result, he developed for the first time—25 years before McKenzie and Parker's Nature 216:1276-1280, landmark paper on the Pacific (1967)—the geometrical basis to graphically test plate motion directions. However, his work has not yet received the credit it deserves, neither by scientist nor by historians of science.

  13. In Brief: European cooperation in polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    A new European Polar Framework agreement aims to increase research cooperation, streamline links between many European national research programs in the Arctic and Antarctic, and possibly create international research teams similar to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The new framework includes commitments to collaborate on new multinational research initiatives and to have national polar programs converge where appropriate. “Recent environmental shifts in the poles have been large and rapid. By linking together Europe's polar research more closely we can get a better grasp on the wide-ranging series of changes taking place,” said Paul Egerton, executive director of the European Science Foundation's European Polar Board, which aims to facilitate cooperation among various organizations. The agreement was signed on 24 June by 26 European scientific institutions, including the British Antarctic Survey; the Agency of Culture, Education, Research and the Church Affairs, Greenland; the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany; Italy's Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide; Norway's Norsk Polarinstitutt; and the Romanian Antarctic Foundation.

  14. Radio-echo sounding at Dome C, East Antarctica: A comparison of measured and modeled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Anna; Eisen, Olaf; Steinhage, Daniel; Zirizzotti, Achille; Urbini, Stefano; Cavitte, Marie; Blankenship, Donald D.; Wolff, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The internal layering architecture of ice sheets, detected with radio-echo sounding (RES), contains clues to past ice-flow dynamics and mass balance. A common way of relating the recorded travel time of RES reflections to depth is by integrating a wave-speed distribution. This results in an increasing absolute error with depth. We present a synchronization of RES-internal layers of different radar systems (Alfred Wegener Institute, Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, British Antarctic Survey and University of Texas Institute for Geophysics) with ice-core records from the Antarctic deep drill site Dome C. Synthetic radar traces are obtained from measurements of ice-core density and conductivity with a 1D model of Maxwell's equations. The reflection peaks of the different radar systems' measurements are shifted by a wiggle-matching algorithm, so they match the synthetic trace. In this way, we matched pronounced internal reflections in the RES data to conductivity peaks with considerably smaller depth uncertainties, and assigned them with the ice-core age. We examine the differences in shifts and resolution of the different RES data to address the question of their comparability and combined analysis for an extensive age-depth distribution.

  15. Acoustic monitoring in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using hydrophone of the Ocean Bottom Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sukyoung; Lee, Won Sang; Kuk Hong, Jong; Yoo, Hyun Jae; Park, Yongcheol; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Geissler, Wolfram H.

    2016-04-01

    Although a number of active source seismic experiments have been conducted over the last few decades to investigate the crustal structure in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, long-term observation to monitor underwater tectonic activities and changes in the cryospheric environment still remains challenging due to existence of sea ice in the study region. Korea Polar Research Institute has accomplished successful deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the Ross Sea collaborating with Alfred Wegener Institute during the period of 2011-2012 and 2014 by Korean icebreaker RV Araon. The OBS system manufactured by K.U.M. contains a hydrophone sensor that allow us to monitor underwater acoustics generated by tectonic and ice-related events. We present spectrograms of the continuous hydroacoustic data and various types of signals, e.g. seismic T-waves, iceequakes, and tremors. There are periodic and harmonic tremors that might be related with tidal modulation, and the seasonal variation of the background noise seems to be related with sea ice concentration.

  16. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  17. Major Ion concentrations in the new NEEM ice core in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, A.; Azuma, K. G.; Hirabayashi, M.; Schmidt, K.; Hansson, M.; Twarloh, B.

    2012-12-01

    The drilling of the new deep ice core in NEEM (77.45°N 51.06°W) was terminated in 2010. Using a continuous flow analysis system (CFA), discrete samples were filled and analyzed for major ion concentrations (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, SO_4 and NO_3) using Ion Chromatography (IC). The samples were measured at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany) and National Institute of Polar Research (Japan). Here we present preliminary results of the major Ion concentrations. We found highest variations in concentrations of Calcium and Magnesium which are mainly originating from terrestrial sources with concentrations between 5-10 ppb and 4 ppb during the Holocene compared to 800 ppb and 80 ppb during the LGM. This is in line with measurements of particulate dust concentrations. Sulphate concentrations closely follow DO events and vary between 25 ppb during the Holocene and ~400 ppb during the LGM. Sodium concentrations vary between ~ 8 ppb during the Holocene and up to 100 ppb during the LGM. We discuss influences of changes in the source areas and atmospheric transport intensity on the different time scales.

  18. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  19. Climate Change at the Poles: Research Immersion Experience at Bellingshausen, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Repina, I. A.; Baeseman, J. L.; Fernandoy, F.; Bart, S.

    2010-12-01

    We brought a party of 15 scientists, graduate students, and educators to King George Island, the largest of the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula, for an international workshop on Antarctica and global climate change in January 2010. Participants included professors, young scientists and graduate students from the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin, and the Michigan Technological University. Lindsay Bartholomew, an education and outreach specialist at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago connected the workshop via video and Internet with an audience of museum visitors. Scientists living and working at Bellingshausen, including Hans-Ulrich Peter, an eminent ecologist from Jena University (Germany), and Bulat Movlyudov (Institute of Geography, Moscow), a distinguished glaciologist, participated in the workshop. Field trips led by Peter and Movlyudov and others were made by day and lectures were held by night. Professors and graduate students made cutting-edge presentations on such subjects as permafrost, glaciology, and global climate models. Three workshop teams conducted field research projects at the foot of the Bellingshausen Dome icecap - two on carbon cycling and one on permafrost. Major funding sources for the workshop included the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russia), Wilderness Research Foundation (USA), NSF, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Museum for Science and Industry (Chicago). INACH, the Chilean Antarctic Institute, and IAU, the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, provided air charter services. On King George Island, our group was billeted at Russia’s Bellingshausen science station.

  20. Conception and realisation of educational models for an exhibition explaining the plate tectonics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerghi, S.; Harchi, M.; Riadh chebbi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Alfred Wegener suggested in 1915 that the seven continents were once one large land mass that broke apart creating the continents, which then drifted to their current locations. The Atlantic Ocean was created by this process. The mid-Atlantic Ridge is an area where new sea floor is being created. The sea floor continues to spread and the plates get bigger and bigger. Therefore, when plates diverge and form new crust in one area, the plates must converge in another area and be destroyed. When two continental plates meet each other this results in the formation of a mountain. As the subducting oceanic crust melts as it goes deeper into the Earth, the newly-created magma rises to the surface and forms volcanoes. So, the plates move towards each other. The amount of crust on the surface of the earth remains relatively constant. In this context, the aim of this study is to elaborate some educational models to facilitate the comprehension of plate tectonics and there results for pupils and science city visitors.

  1. The local environment of ice particles in arctic mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenczek, Oliver; Fugal, Jacob P.; Schledewitz, Waldemar; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    During the RACEPAC field campaign in April and May 2014, research flights were made with the Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Arctic clouds near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. One flight with the Polar 6 aircraft, done on May 16, 2014, flew under precipitating, stratiform, mid-level clouds with several penetrations through cloud base. Measurements with HALOHolo, an airborne digital in-line holographic instrument for cloud particles, show ice particles in a field of other cloud particles in a local three-dimensional sample volume (~14x19x130 mm3 or ~35 cm^3). Each holographic sample volume is a snapshot of a 3-dimensional piece of cloud at the cm-scale with typically thousands of cloud droplets per sample volume, so each sample volume yields a statistically significant droplet size distribution. Holograms are recorded at a rate of six times per second, which provides one volume sample approx. every 12 meters along the flight path. The size resolution limit for cloud droplets is better than 1 µm due to advanced sizing algorithms. Shown are preliminary results of, (1) the ice/liquid water partitioning at the cloud base and the distribution of water droplets around each ice particle, and (2) spatial and temporal variability of the cloud droplet size distributions at cloud base.

  2. Variations of ion concentrations in the deep ice core and surface snow at NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Azuma, K.; Wegner, A.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Miyake, T.; Motoyama, H.; NEEM Aerosol Consortium members

    2012-04-01

    Discrete samples were collected from the CFA (Continuous Flow Analysis) melt fractions during the field campaign carried out at NEEM, Greenland in 2009-2011, and were distributed to different laboratories. Ionic species were analyzed at National Institute of Polar Research (Japan) and Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany). Here we present and compare the ion concentration data obtained by both institutes. Most of the ions show good agreement between the two institutes. As is indicated with the CFA data (Bigler and the NEEM Aerosol Consortium members, EGU 2012), ion chromatograph data also display that calcium and sodium, mainly originated from terrestrial dust and sea-salt, respectively, show large variations associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, sodium, potassium and magnesium also show such variations, as has been already reported for other Greenland ice cores. New ion data obtained from the NEEM deep core also show large variability of oxalate and phosphate concentrations during DO events. Acetate, which is thought to be mainly derived from biomass burning, as is oxalate, appears to show variability associated with DO events, but to a lesser extent. On the other hand, nitrate, ammonium and methanesulfonate do not show such variations. Together with ion data from the deep ice core, we present those from the pits dug during the NEEM field campaign to discuss seasonal variations of ionic species. The seasonal and millennial scale variations of ions are thought to be caused by changes in atmospheric circulation and source strength.

  3. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009) and document the procedures that we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo- and preindustrial (PI) time slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene, as simulated with our COSMOS setup and PRISM boundary conditions, is both warmer and wetter in the global mean than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  4. On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Ritter, C.

    2010-03-01

    The Two-Stream technique employs simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars pointing at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a number of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) campaigns dedicated to Arctic research, the AWI's Polar 2 aircraft with the integrated onboard nadir-pointing Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) was utilised. The aircraft flew over a vicinity of Ny Ålesund on Svalbard, where the zenith-pointing Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) has been located. This experimental approach gave the unique opportunity to retrieve the extinction profiles with a rarely used Two-Stream technique against a well established Raman technique. Both methods were applied to data obtained for clean Arctic conditions during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric clouds and Radiation (ASTAR 2004) campaign, and slightly polluted Arctic conditions during the Svalbard Experiment (SvalEx 2005) campaign. Successful comparison of both evaluation tools in different measurement conditions demonstrates sensitivity and feasibility of the Two-Stream method to obtain particle extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles without assumption of their relationship (lidar ratio). The method has the potential to serve as an extinction retrieval tool for KARL or AMALi simultaneous observations with the space borne CALIPSO lidar overpasses during the ASTAR 2007.

  5. Preliminary results of a radio echo sounding survey of the Recovery Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Angelika; Kleiner, Thomas; Steinhage, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The Recovery Glacier is draining about 8% of the East Antarctic ice sheet and feeds into the Filchner Ice Shelf. This ice shelf might be subjected in future to increasing basal melting (Hellmer et al., 2012) forcing potentially grounding line retreat. Compared to other areas in Antarctica this glacier is been surveyed very sparse and hence does not allow modeling studies yet. As many large and small subglacial lakes are present underneath this ice stream at different locations along the flow, the question of the influence of the lakes on ice stream genesis and ice stream dynamics arose. For investigating this influence by observation and subsequent modelling, an airborne campaign of the Alfred Wegener Institute was carried out in January 2014, covering the Recovery Ice Stream and two smaller glaciers merging with it, the Ramp Glacier and the Blackwall Glacier. The radar system uses a carrier frequency of 150MHz and a 600ns pulse. The survey includes several flights along flow lines in order to assess the basal roughness of the ice stream. Here we present the first preliminary data analysis.

  6. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized community earth system models (COSMOS) and document the procedures which we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo and preindustrial (PI) time-slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene as simulated with our COSMOS-setup and PRISM boundary conditions is both warmer and wetter than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  7. ESA Cryovex 2011 Airborne Campaign for CRYOSAT-2 Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourup, H.; Einarsson, I.; Sandberg, L.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Davidson, M.

    2011-12-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA's CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar and laser measurements, as the laser reflects on the surface, and by overflight of laser reflectors. In the spring of 2011 the DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar-5 carrying an EM-bird. We present an overview of the 2011 airborne campaign together with first results of the CryoSat-2 underflights.

  8. AMALi - the Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar for Arctic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Neuber, R.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Wehrle, G.

    2010-03-01

    The Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) is an instrument developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research for reliable operation under the challenging weather conditions at the Earth's polar regions. Since 2003 the AMALi has been successfully deployed for measurements in ground-based installation and zenith- or nadir-pointing airborne configurations during several scientific campaigns in the Arctic. The lidar provides backscatter profiles at two wavelengths (355/532 nm or 1064/532 nm) together with the linear depolarization at 532 nm, from which aerosol and cloud properties can be derived. This paper presents the characteristics and capabilities of the AMALi system and gives examples of its usage for airborne and ground-based operations in the Arctic. As this backscatter lidar normally does not operate in aerosol-free layers special evaluation schemes are discussed, the nadir-pointing iterative inversion for the case of an unknown boundary condition and the two-stream approach for the extinction profile calculation if a second lidar system probes the same air mass. Also an intercomparison of the AMALi system with an established ground-based Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) is given.

  9. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  10. Supercycles, Wilson cycles and the future of Earth's oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Rosas, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    At the dawn of the 20th Century Alfred Wegener proposed the existence of a supercontinent - Pangaea - gathering all the continental masses on Earth. Five decades later, while seeding the theory of plate tectonics, Tuzo Wilson introduced a new concept that would become known as Wilson cycles, which describes the evolution of oceans: 1) opening and spreading, 2) foundering of the passive margins and development of new subduction zones and 3) consumption and closure. Later on, in the 70's evidences for the existence of a number of other supercontinents and ancient oceans on Earth's history started to emerge. Today, concepts like supercycles, supercontinents, superoceans and Wilson cycles are loosely used. However, several important questions remain. How do subduction zones initiate in pristine oceans? Which major ocean on Earth will close to form the next supercontinent? The Atlantic (introversion), the Pacific (extroversion), or both? Are Wilson cycles of lower order than Supercycles? Are we in an abnormally long supercycle? Is there any cyclicity at all? These are some of the questions that we will tentatively address together with the proposal of several future scenarios for the evolution of Earth's oceans and continents.

  11. Simulation of Coastal Polynyas in the Western Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal polynyas play a prominent role in the formation and modification of water masses in the polar oceans. A coastal polynya is usually kept open mechanically, primarily by winds, and the ocean surface is at freezing point. Thus a major fraction of the annual ice production of the high-latitude oceans occurs in polynyas and hence the duration and extent of their appearance has a substantial effect on bottom water formation. In the western Weddell Sea, recurring coastal polynyas are formed in front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and in the area of the decayed Larsen A/B Ice Shelf. Simulations to study polynya formation and their impact on ice production and bottom water formation in the western Weddell Sea were performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). FESOM is a fully coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. The simulations were conducted on a global grid with a resolution varying between roughly 300 km in tropical latitudes and <5 km along the coast of the southwestern Weddell Sea. In vertical direction, the grid uses terrain-following coordinates. The model results give insight into the mechanisms governing the formation of transient and persistent polynyas and their influence on ice production and deep water formation. Water mass formation and ice export rates are quantified and compared to observation-based estimates.

  12. First results from the aerosol lidar and backscatter sonde intercomparison campaign STRAIT'1997 at table mountain facility during February-March 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Gross, M. R.; Haner, D. A.; Kjome, N. T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Schaefer, H. - J.; Schrems, O.

    1998-01-01

    First results of an intercomparison measurement campaign between three aerosol lidar instruments and in-situ backscatter sondes performed at Table Mountain Facility (34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg E, 2280 m asl) in February-March 1997 are presented. During the campaign a total of 414 hours of lidar data were acquired by the Aerosol-Temperature-Lidar (ATL, Goddard Space Flight Center) the Mobile-aerosol-Raman-Lidar (MARL, Alfred Wegener Institute), and the TMF-Aerosol-Lidar (TAL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and four backscatter sondes were launched. From the data set altitude profiles of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization of stratospheric background aerosols at altitudes between 15 and 25 km and optically thin high-altitude cirrus clouds at altitudes below 13 km are derived. On the basis of a sulfuric acid aerosol model color ratio profiles obtained from two wavelength lidar data are compared to the corresponding profiles derived from the sonde observations. We find an excellent agreement between the in-situ and ATL lidar data with respect to backscatter and color ratio. Cirrus clouds were present on 16 of 26 nights during the campaign. Lidar observations with 17 minute temporal and 120-300 m spatial resolution indicate high spatial and temporal variability of the cirrus layers. Qualitative agreement is found between concurrent lidar measurements of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization.

  13. A multi-satellite concept in support of high latitude permafrost modelling and monitoring - The ESA DUE Permafrost project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Duguay, Claude; Schmullius, Christiane; Strozzi, Tazio; Heim, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    A number of remotely sensed products have been developed in the past which provide information relevant to permafrost distribution on circumpolar scale. They comprise parameters such as land surface temperature, land cover, soil moisture, disturbances, snow and terrain. A monitoring system of high latitude permafrost requires regular and multiscale observation of all these parameters. Further on, the datasets need to meet requirements of permafrost models as well as support related research in geomorphology, botany and hydrology. Such a comprehensive database is setup within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) program. The ESA DUE Permafrost project establishes a monitoring system on local to pan-boreal/arctic scale based on satellite data. Within this project permafrost relevant remotely sensed products are assessed and eventually provided to users. The complexity of the phenomenon permafrost requires the close cooperation with the scientific community working in this field. The consortium is led by I.P.F, Vienna University of Technology and supported by four partners: Gamma Remote Sensing, University of Waterloo, Jena University and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost

  14. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots. Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes. Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  15. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots.Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes.Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  16. Determination and Use of the Local Recovery Factor for Calculating the Effectiveness Gas Temperature for Turbine Blades / Jack B. Esgar and Alfred L. Lea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Lea, Alfred L

    1951-01-01

    In an in experimental investigation of local recovery factors for a blade having a pressure distribution similar to that of a typical reaction-type turbine blade, it a was found that the recovery factors were essentially independent of Mach number, Reynolds number, pressure gradient, and position on the blade surface except for regions where the boundary layer was probably in the transition range from laminar to turbulent. The recommended value of local subsonic recovery factor for use in calculating the effective gas temperature for gas turbine blades was 0.89.

  17. GIS-based Reconstruction of Pangaea with Recent Progresses in Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.-H.; Cheong, H.-B.; Lee, Y.-W.

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that the continents or land masses are constantly, slowly moving, or drifting over the asthenosphere as the sea floors spread in response to the mantle convection. These continents were joined together at one time, some 250 million years ago, in a single giant landmass called Pangaea. Alfred Wegener, who proposed originally the hypothesis of continental drift, succeeded in reconstructing the Pangaea in early 20th century, by gathering evidences such as land features, fossils, and climate change. The shape of Pangaea shown by Wegener is a huge landmass which is in rounded shape close to an oval. The Pangaea of Wegener was found to be in good agreement with the supercontinent which was reconstructed by modern scientists in late 1960s based on concrete and sophisticated sciences such as the plate tectonics. There are a couple of shapes describing the Pangaea by now, other than the Wegener's, that are recognized by the geological community. In spite of profound geological data and development of related-area sciences, uncertainties still remains on the precise shape of Pangaea before the stage of breaking up and drifting apart. In this study, the Pangaea is reconstructed taking the recent progresses of plate tectonics into full consideration with the use of an elaborate Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping technique. For a better visualization of the shape of the supercontinent the equidistant map projection is incorporated to display the Pangaea, where the central point of Pangaea is placed on the center of the map. The Pangaea reconstructed in this way appears in an almost circular shape, which has never been seen in previous studies (Fig. 1). The radius of the circle which circumscribes the Pangaea is about 9 000 km, giving the total area slightly above that of continents and lands of present day, because some of the continental margins were considered as a part of continents. This result suggests us that the Pangaea might have

  18. The ANCA Vasculitis Questionnaire (AAV-PRO©)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA); Wegener Granulomatosis (WG); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV); Vasculitis

  19. Kane Basin, Nares-Strait: Strike-slip induced sediment deformation along the coastline of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Nares-Strait (NS), a seaway between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, is important to understand the plate tectonic history of the Arctic region. As it is clear that rifting and seafloor spreading took place between Greenland and Baffin Island, it is unclear how the extension was compensated between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Already Alfred Wegener suggested some kind of left lateral transform fault along the NS, a straight seaway separating the Greenland Plate from the North American Plate, nowadays proposed as the Wegener-Fault. Plate tectonic reconstruction models require a transform fault for the compensation of several hundred km of extension and seafloor spreading from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. However, land geological data do not support this thesis and let assume that no lateral displacement occurred between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. With the formation of the recent Midatlantic Ridge System between Greenland and Europe since the early Eocene, the western branch became inactive and consequently the proposed transform fault, too. Northeast motion of Greenland replaced the left lateral transform and caused compression. The inactive transform fault was overprinted and as a consequence it was altered, probably displaced and is difficult to recognize. The Kane Basin is one of a series of basins that are aligned along the NS. It resembles probably a pull-apart basin following the approach that NS developed as transform fault. This paper presents insight into the Kane Basin by means of 2D seismic data, sonobuoy data, gravity and magnetic data acquired during surveys of BGR in 2001 and 2010. The eastern Kane Basin is characterized by a deeper rim and a more shallow central part. Most of it is floored by Proterozoic crust without any sediment on top of it. Only in the western part of the Kane Basin a sedimentary infill can be recorded which terminates with an erosional truncation on to the seafloor. Because of the mapped sediment and

  20. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  1. ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Hanfland, Claudia; Sprengel, Claudia; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bijma, Jelle; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2014-05-01

    Postgraduate education is gaining increasing importance and has been identified as one instrument to foster quality and promote networking, both in research and in education. Exchange and co-operation between graduate programmes that have related topics produce added value for all. Students have access to a range of research facilities, course offers, and a broad scientific community from which they can start building their individual scientific network. Larger events like PhD conferences, career symposia or cost-intensive trainings are more easily tackled by joining forces of various players. The postgraduate programmes ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR are part of a larger network of marine and climate science programmes in the north-western region of Germany and together host up 180 (23 ESSReS, 130 POLMAR, 30 PEP) PhD/Master students in their respective programmes. Here, we will present a number of joint activities from this collaboration. Today, the PhD education is completely different to that from 15 years ago due to a variety of different scientific offerings including e.g. excursions, soft skill courses and special seminars. In the framework of the ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR concept the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Two different ways to further graduation are currently possible at the Alfred Wegener Institute. The Helmholtz Graduate School for Polar and

  2. The Dark Side of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Henry

    1986-10-01

    Wood's The Dark Side of the Earth is another addition to the growing list of books on the recent revolution in the earth sciences. Wood rightly points out that any new book on the topic should break new ground. In the preface, he writes of himself and his book that he has benefited from previous accounts by saving himself research time, and that his book, unlike others, “attempts to tell one complete story of the study of the Earth, geologists, geophysicists, dreamers and all” (p. vi). Wood is ambitious, for his work covers much of 19th-century geology as well as the development, reception, rejection, and eventual acceptance of mobilist ideas. Before discussing the work of the German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred L. Wegener, American glacial geomorphologist Frank Taylor, and several of their predecessors who proposed “mobilist” ideas, he manages to string together brief descriptions of the contributions of (among others) German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner, British geologists James Hutten and John Playfair, British engineer William Smith, British geologist Charles Lyell, American geologists James Hall and James Dwight Dana, British volcanologist William Lowthian Green, American geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, French geologist Elie de Beaumont, British geologist and mathematician Osmond Fisher, American geologist Clarence Dutton, British mathematician and physicist Lord Kelvin, Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, French geologist Marcel Bertrand, and American geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin. Moreover, Wood offers an interesting thesis about the revolution in the earth sciences. He claims that the real revolution was not the replacement of fixist views with the mobilist ones of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, but rather the replacement of geology with the new discipline of the earth sciences in which geophysics and geochemistry play the central role.

  3. Results of the NY-Alesund ozone measurements intercomparison NAOMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Gross, M.; McGee, T.; Neuber, R.; Gathen, P. V. D.; Wahl, P.; Klein, U.; Langer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, about ten Differential Absorption Lidars are used for long-term monitoring of stratospheric ozone. These systems are an important component of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. Although DIALs are self-calibrating in principle, regular intercomparisons with other ozone-lidars, microwave radiometers or ozone-sondes are highly desirable to ensure high data quality at a well known level. The Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) validation policy suggests that such intercomparisons be "blind", meaning all participants submit their data to an impartial referee, without seeing results from the other participants. Here we report on the "blind" intercomparison taking place from January 20th to February 10th 1998 at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen (78.92 deg N, 11.95 deg E). Participating groups were from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, operating the NDSC DIAL system at Ny-Alesund, from the University of Bremen operating the NDSC microwave radiometer for ozone profiling at Ny-Alesund, and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center group with the "NDSC travelling standard" STROZ-LITE. The first author acted as the impartial referee. Also used for the intercomparison were data from ECC-6A/Vaisala RS80 ozone sondes routinely launched at Ny-Alesund by the AWI group. A 1% KI solution (3 ml) and the 1986 ECC pump correction (1.092 at 5 hPa) are used. The ECC-data were available to all participants during the campaign and thus were not "blind". Table 1 summarizes the expected performance of the instruments participating in the ozone intercomparison reported in this paper.

  4. Relative sea-level variations in the Amerasia Basin since the Lower Cretaceous (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokat, W.; Hegewald, A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multi-channel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-78°N and 170°E-170°W), namely across the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Plateau and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an airgun array with up to six airguns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) and a 3000 m long streamer with 240 active channels were used. One of the profiles, collected from the Chukchi Shelf towards the north into deep water, shows the paleo-shelf break structures over 250 km length as prograding, retrograding and aggrading sequences with a total thickness of 3500 m. To receive the ages of these sequences, five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were used. An existing network of 194 seismic reflection lines from the United States Geological Service (USGS), collected between 1977 and 1993, from the Norwegian company TGS-NOPEC (2006), and the American HOTRAX Expedition (2005) were used to correlate the well logging information into the AWI data. With the help of this network, it was possible to correlate tentatively four prominent horizons with ages between the Paleocene and Lower Cretaceous into the new data. The interpreted sequence boundaries in the seismic reflection profile were used to determine its chronostratigraphic significance, and concluded from that, the relative sea-level changes. Finally, in this presentation the Arctic Ocean sea-level changes will be compared with the global sea-level curve.

  5. Sediment structures and sediment ages of the Chukchi region, Amerasia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegewald, A.; Jokat, W.

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multichannel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-79°N and 170°E-165°W), namely the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Shelf, - Plateau, and - Abyssal Plain, and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an air gun array with up to six air guns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) was used. With a 3000 m long streamer including 240 active channels and a 600 m long streamer including 96 active channels the seismic signals were recorded. Obtaining the ages of the sediments, the information of five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were correlated into the new seismic lines. For this correlation an existing network of more than 200 seismic reflection lines on the East Siberian Shelf and Chukchi Shelf from the USGS, TGS-NOPEC and ION-GX Technology were used. The research area is dominated by two different sediment packages ranging from the Paleocene to the Jurassic. The upper part is an undisturbed unit with low amplitudes and flat-lying reflections. In contrast, the lower package is dominated by an undulated stratification with many fractures and faults. Moreover, the lower unit consists of higher amplitudes with strong reflection bands. The sedimentary thickness varied from the East Siberian Shelf to the Chukchi Plateau from more than 8 km to 4 km. In the basin between the Chukchi Plateau and the Mendeleev Ridge the sedimentary thickness is about 2 km. Furthermore, a series of prograding sequences at the continental margin of the Chukchi Shelf with ages of 65 Ma and younger were analysed. These sequences are the result of an enormous sediment influx from Siberia and Alaska and can be explained by variations in the sedimentation rate over time.

  6. On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different

  7. RTOPO-1: A consistent dataset for Antarctic ice shelf topography and global ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry (i.e. ice-shelf draft and ocean bathymetry). Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-minute bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. Locations of the merging line have been carefully adjusted in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves and for Pine Island Glacier have been carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam ship survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and again carefully merged into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-minute data set contains consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The Ice Shelf Cavern Geometry Team: Anne Le Brocq, Tara Deen, Eugene Domack, Pierre Dutrieux, Ben Galton-Fenzi, Dorothea Graffe, Hartmut Hellmer, Angelika Humbert, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Astrid Lambrecht, Keith Makinson, Fred Niederjasper, Frank Nitsche, Ole Anders Nøst, Lars Henrik Smedsrud, and Walter Smith

  8. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  9. RTopo-2: A global high-resolution dataset of ice sheet topography, ice shelf cavity geometry and ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph; Schaffer, Janin

    2016-04-01

    The RTopo-1 data set of Antarctic ice sheet/shelf geometry and global ocean bathymetry has proven useful not only for modelling studies of ice-ocean interaction in the southern hemisphere. Following the spirit of this data set, we introduce a new product (RTopo-2) that contains consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arc seconds resolution. We used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. To achieve a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry around the Greenland continent, we corrected data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ and Helheim Glacier assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79°N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model including all available multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for ice surface and ice base topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centers of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA/NSF) and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). For the Antarctic ice sheet/ice shelves, RTopo-2 largely relies on the Bedmap-2 product but applies corrections for the geometry of Getz, Abbot and Fimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available in full and in regional subsets in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database.

  10. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds during VERDI and RACEPAC: Combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in sea-ice covered areas the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) were initiated by a collaboration of German and French research institutes. The aircraft operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany were based in Inuvik, Canada from where the research flights of in total 149 flight hours (62 h during VERDI, 87 h during RACEPAC) were able to cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort. The aim of both campaigns was to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. Remote sensing instrumentation contained a backscatter lidar and spectral solar radiation measurements including a hyperspectral camera. In-situ sampling was highlighted by a suit of comprehensive cloud particle probes, aerosol particle counters and mass spectroscopy as well as trace gas detectors. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft (Polar 5) subsequently, for RACEPAC two identical aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) were coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In this way not only the combined analysis of radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably, also remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of both projects including instrumentation and flight patterns of the research flights. Beside flight missions dedicated to sample low level clouds by remote sensing and in situ probing, flights were also coordinated with satellite overpasses and ground based stations. Exemplary results will be highlighted.

  11. Aircraft observations of ultrafine particles and CCN from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in the Arctic summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Brauner, Ralf; Konrad, Christian; Herber, Andreas; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is one of the regions most sensitive to climate change. The shrinking extent of sea ice during the Arctic summertime increases the area covered by open ocean, which likely impacts Arctic aerosol, cloud properties, and thus climate. In this context extensive aerosol measurements (aerosol composition, particle number and size, cloud condensation nuclei, and trace gases) have been made during the NETCARE 2014 summer campaign from the Polar 6 aircraft. The Polar 6 is an adopted DC-3 aircraft owned by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany. In July 2014 eleven flights were conducted out of Resolute Bay. Flights included vertical profiles from as low as 60 m up to 3 km, as well as several low-level flights covering diverse terrains such as open ocean, fast ice, melt ponds, and polynyas. Here we discuss the vertical distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP, dp: 5 - 20 nm), size distributions of larger particles (dp: 20 nm to 1 μm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in relation to different meteorological conditions and terrains. UFPs have been observed predominantly within the boundary layer, where concentrations reached several hundreds and occasionally even a few thousand particles per cubic centimeter. Highest concentrations were observed above open ocean and at the top of low-level clouds. During such events, the dominant mode of the size distribution was below 20 nm. However, in a few cases this ultrafine mode extended to sizes larger than 40 nm, suggesting that these UFP can grow into the CCN size range and thereby impact cloud properties and become climatically relevant.

  12. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.

  13. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  14. Arctic and Antarctic Sea-Ice Freeboard and Thickness Retrievals from CryoSat-2 and EnviSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Schwegmann, Sandra; Helm, Veit; Rinne, Eero

    2016-04-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is now in the 6th year of data acquisition. With its synthetic aperture radar altimeter, CryoSat-2 achieves great improvements in the along track resolution compared to previous radar altimeter missions like ERS or Envisat. The latitudinal coverage contains major parts of the Arctic marine ice fields where previous missions left a big data gap around the North Pole and especially over the multiyear ice zone north of Greenland. With this unique data set, changes in sea-ice thickness can be investigated in the context of the rapid reduction of the Arctic sea-ice cover which has been observed during the last decades. We present the current state of the CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness retrieval that is processed at the Alfred Wegener Institute and available via seaiceportal.de (originally: meereisportal.de). Though biases in sea-ice thickness may occur due to the interpretation of waveforms, airborne and ground-based validation measurements give confidence that the retrieval algorithm enables us to capture the actual distributions of sea-ice regimes. Nevertheless, long time series of data retrievals are essential to estimate trends in sea-ice thickness and volume. Today, more than 20 years of radar altimeter data are potentially available and capable to derive sea ice thickness. However, data originate from satellites with different sensor characteristics. Therefore, it is crucial to study the consistency between single sensors to derive long and consistent time series. We present results from the tested consistency between Antarctic freeboard measurements of the radar altimeters on-board of Envisat and CryoSat-2 for their overlap period in 2011.

  15. Investigation of a rift zone in the western Fimbulisen by means of airborne radio echo sounding, satellite imagery, and ice flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Angelika; Steinhage, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The Fimbulisen, an ice shelf located roughly between 3°W-8°E at the coast of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, consists of the fast flowing extension of Jutulstraumen and slower moving parts west and east of it. The largely rifted western part of the Fimbulisen is the subject of this study, which combines observations and modelling. Airborne radio echo sounding performed by the Alfred Wegener Institute between 1996 and 2008 with a frequency of 150 MHz and pulse length of 60 ns, respectively 600 ns, is analysed in order to study the internal structure of the ice in parts of the rift zone and to estimate the ice thickness in this area precisely. High-resolution radar imagery acquired by the TerraSAR-X in 2008 and 2009 is used to evaluate principal deformation axis at characteristic locations, to detect crack modes as well as to classify zones of similar structural characteristics. These zones were incorporated in a 2D diagnostic ice flow model as sub-domains with variable stress enhancement factor and thus treated as zones of different damage related stiffness. The temperature-dependent stiffness is calculated by applying the solution of a validated 3D temperature model of the ice shelf and thus the simulations focus on the softening effect caused by cracks. Extensive parameter studies show the effect of the stress enhancement factor on the principal deformation rates and axis. Comparison with the estimated deformation pattern aims to confine the softening effect for each zone separately.

  16. The Face of the Earth and those of her sisters: why are they so different?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celal Sengor, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    The terrestrial planets, Mercury (uncompressed density: 5.3 g/cm3) Venus (4.4), the earth (4.4), and Mars 3.8) and the Moon, the rocky satellite of the earth (3.3), have formed some 4500 to 4600 million years ago through gravitational accretion about individual centres of attraction around the Sun. Yet all five have very different "faces" to use Eduard Suess' happy expression (adopted by Alfred Wegener for the Moon also). The earth looks blue when viewed from space because of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere. Venus looks yellowish due to its clouds of sulfuric acid and Mars is buff because of its dusty atmosphere. The earth's hypsometric curve is double-peaked; Mars' approaches the earth's. The others have single-peaked curves. Mercury and the Moon are very similar-looking, but this is deceptive: we now recognise that Mercury has extensive thrust faulting resulting from planetary contraction; the Moon probably has contractional structures, but on an incomparably smaller scale. Venus has an active interior albeit incapable of dividing its surface into horizontally-moving plates. Mars has a less active interior, but it seems nevertheless active with volcanism as recently as 2 Ma ago. Venus and Mars have plume-dominated tectonics. The earth gets its heat out by plate tectonics (but also by plumes) creating its most distinctive facial features: the orogenic belts and the oceans. The differences among the sisters seem to be due to distance from the sun, accretion history and final size. So far, the most thrilling results concerning their geology have been gained as soon as we obtained the capability of looking at their faces and knock on their rocks.

  17. Surface energy balance and turbulence measurements on Warszawa Icefield, King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Sala, H.; Braun, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat of glaciers, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield over 1.5 years from November 2010 to 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for one and a half years. Repeat measurements of snow accumulation and surface lowering along transects on the glacier and at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer within the source area of the ground measurements. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Carlini station, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute of Marine and Polar Research (Germany).

  18. Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Accurate Flooding and drying in Banda Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Haiyang; Pietrzak, Julie; Stelling, Guus; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused one of the largest tsunamis in recent times and led to widespread devastation and loss of life. One of the worst hit regions was Banda Aceh, which is the capital of the Aceh province, located in the northern part of Sumatra, 150km from the source of the earthquake. A German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (www.gitews.de) is currently under active development. The work presented here is carried out within the GITEWS framework. One of the aims of this project is the development of accurate models with which to simulate the propagation, flooding and drying, and run-up of a tsunami. In this context, TsunAWI has been developed by the Alfred Wegener Institute; it is an explicit, () finite element model. However, the accurate numerical simulation of flooding and drying requires the conservation of mass and momentum. This is not possible in the current version of TsunAWi. The P1NC - P1element guarantees mass conservation in a global sense, yet as we show here it is important to guarantee mass conservation at the local level, that is within each individual cell. Here an unstructured grid, finite volume ocean model is presented. It is derived from the P1NC - P1 element, and is shown to be mass and momentum conserving. Then a number of simulations are presented, including dam break problems flooding over both a wet and a dry bed. Excellent agreement is found. Then we present simulations for Banda Aceh, and compare the results to on-site survey data, as well as to results from the original TsunAWI code.

  19. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  20. A consistent data set of Antarctic ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and global bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, R.; Le Brocq, A.; Deen, T.; Domack, E.; Dutrieux, P.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Hellmer, H.; Humbert, A.; Jansen, D.; Jenkins, A.; Lambrecht, A.; Makinson, K.; Niederjasper, F.; Nitsche, F.; Nøst, O. A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates in ocean general circulation models depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry. Existing global or pan-Antarctic topography data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional surveys and maps into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-min bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography (ALBMAP bedrock topography) for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. The position of the merging line is individually chosen in different sectors in order to capture the best of both data sets. High-resolution gridded data for ice shelf topography and cavity geometry of the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves, and for Pine Island Glacier are carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and blended into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-min Refined Topography data set (RTopo-1) contains self-consistent maps for upper and lower ice surface heights, bedrock topography, and surface type (open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, bare land surface). The data set is available in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/pangaea.741917.

  1. CryoSat-2 Arctic Sea-Ice Thickness: Uncertainties and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Haas, C.; Davidson, M.

    2014-12-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is in the 4th year of its mission. It has collected a unique altimetry dataset with higher spatial resolution and a better coverage of Arctic sea ice than any previous radar altimeter mission. The along-track sharpened footprint allows resolving fine-scale features of the ice pack and the examination of retrievable information from the SAR waveforms is a field of ongoing research. Different methods can be applied to CryoSat-2 data: threshold retrackers that use the leading edge; or fitted forward models, which are applied to full waveforms. The uncertainty of these methods propagates into the uncertainty of the final sea-ice thickness estimate via the freeboard to thickness conversion. Theoretical considerations show that the magnitude of uncertainties in the radar retracking may be a major if not dominating contribution to the uncertainty budget of sea-ice thickness retrieval from CryoSat-2. We present a break-down of the uncertainty budget of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness of the threshold retracker based sea-ice thickness data product of the Alfred Wegener Institute. We discuss the differences in the radar waveform properties and the identification of leads in first-year and multi-year ice covered areas with the aim to mitigate ice type dependent biases. Though threshold retrackers are prone to a simplistic interpretation of the SAR waveforms we investigate the potential of this fast and robust method to retrieve additional physical properties at the sea ice surface.

  2. A consistent dataset of Antarctic ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and global bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, R.; Le Brocq, A.; Deen, T.; Domack, E.; Dutrieux, P.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Hellmer, H.; Humbert, A.; Jansen, D.; Jenkins, A.; Lambrecht, A.; Makinson, K.; Niederjasper, F.; Nitsche, F.; Nøst, O. A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2010-07-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates in ocean general circulation models depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry. Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-min bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography (ALBMAP bedrock topography) for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. The position of the merging line is individually chosen in different sectors in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for ice shelf topography and cavity geometry of the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves, and for Pine Island Glacier are carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and blended into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-min topography data set (RTopo-1) contains maps for upper and lower ice surface heights, bedrock topography, and consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The data set is available in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/pangaea.741917.

  3. Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankylä the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

  4. Surface energy balance measurements and modeling on the ice cap of King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Braun, M.; Sala, H.; Menz, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield for the austral summers November 2010 to March 2011 and January to February 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures in profile. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for an entire year. Repeat measurements of surface lowering at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the inland ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Jubany, King George Island) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute (German).

  5. Air and shipborne magnetic surveys of the Antarctic into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, A.; Bell, R.; Blankenship, D.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Masolov, V.; Riedel, S.; von Frese, R.; Young, D.

    2013-02-01

    The Antarctic geomagnetics' community remains very active in crustal anomaly mapping. More than 1.5 million line-km of new air- and shipborne data have been acquired over the past decade by the international community in Antarctica. These new data together with surveys that previously were not in the public domain significantly upgrade the ADMAP compilation. Aeromagnetic flights over East Antarctica have been concentrated in the Transantarctic Mountains, the Prince Charles Mountains - Lambert Glacier area, and western Dronning Maud Land (DML) — Coats Land. Additionally, surveys were conducted over Lake Vostok and the western part of Marie Byrd Land by the US Support Office for Aerogeophysical Research projects and over the Amundsen Sea Embayment during the austral summer of 2004/2005 by a collaborative US/UK aerogeophysical campaign. New aeromagnetic data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (120,000 line-km), acquired within the IPY Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province project reveal fundamental geologic features beneath the East Antarctic Ice sheet critical to understanding Precambrian continental growth processes. Roughly 100,000 line-km of magnetic data obtained within the International Collaboration for Exploration of the Cryosphere through Aerogeophysical Profiling promises to shed light on subglacial lithology and identify crustal boundaries for the central Antarctic Plate. Since the 1996/97 season, the Alfred Wegener Institute has collected 90,000 km of aeromagnetic data along a 1200 km long segment of the East Antarctic coast over western DML. Recent cruises by Australian, German, Japanese, Russian, British, and American researchers have contributed to long-standing studies of the Antarctic continental margin. Along the continental margin of East Antarctica west of Maud Rise to the George V Coast of Victoria Land, the Russian Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition and Geoscience Australia obtained 80,000 and 20,000 line-km, respectively, of

  6. FRAM - FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring: Permanent Observations in a Gateway to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwedel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to understand the complex interactions of biological, chemical, physical, and geological processes in the ocean is still limited by the lack of integrative and interdisciplinary observation infrastructures. The main purpose of the open-ocean infrastructure FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) is permanent presence at sea, from surface to depth, for the provision of near real-time data on climate variability and ecosystem change in an Arctic marine environment. The Alfred-Wegener-Institut I Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), together with partner institutes in Germany and Europe, aims at providing such infrastructure for the polar ocean as a major contribution to international efforts towards comprehensive Global Earth Observation. The FRAM Ocean Observing System targets the gateway between the North Atlantic and the Central Arctic, representing a highly climate-sensitive and rapidly changing region of the Earth system. It will serve national and international tasks towards a better understanding of the effects of change in ocean circulation, water mass properties and sea-ice retreat on Arctic marine ecosystems and their main functions and services. FRAM integrates and develops already existing observatories, i.e. the oceanographic mooring array HAFOS (Hybrid Arctic/Antarctic Float Observing System) and the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site HAUSGARTEN. It will implement existing and next-generation sensors and observatory platforms, allowing synchronous observation of relevant ocean variables, as well as the study of physical, chemical and biological processes in the water column and at the seafloor. Experimental and event-triggered platforms will complement observational platforms. Products of the infrastructure are continuous long-term data with appropriate resolution in space and time, as well as ground-truthing information for ocean models and remote sensing.

  7. Study on the location and fit of continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ohyeok; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Since Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift more than a century ago, continuous effort to reconstruct the super continent Pangea has been carried out paleo-geographically during past several decades. Although a remarkable success has been achieved, there remains still a great uncertainty on the precise location and fits of the continents that constitute the Pangea. While the fits are recognized as quite complete for Gondwana, the northern part of Pangea, the fits for Laurasia which contains North Ameraica and Eurasia, are left with a lot of improvement. What the two giant continents look like when they were fitted to form the Pangea is also a unsolved question. Several hypothesis for the fits of Laurasia and Gondwana have been raised, and the scenarios of Pangea A1, Pangea A2, Pangea B, and Pangea C were proposed hitherto. Recently, an updated version very close to Pangea A2 was suggested by authors including Van der Voo, Trond H. Torsvik, which have improved several deficiencies of the Pangea A2. However, it was found that the new scenario cannot be fully supported by the paleomagnetism data. Furthermore, it is not in complete agreement with previous paleogeological surveys on major geological features such as Variscan and Caledonian orogenic belt, indicating that a more sophisticated scenario is needed still for the Pangea. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean. A new fit of continents to form the Pangea is proposed, where the continents are fitted with enhanced accuracy compared to other models of Pangea particularly for the Mediterranean Sea, central America, Iran Plateau etc.. The results suggest that the continents were not distorted significantly on the process of drifting and merging during the past 200 million years.

  8. Critical Fracture Toughness Measurements of an Antarctic Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Webber, Kyle; Isaia, Daniel; Schader, Florian; Kippstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Humbert, Angelika

    2014-05-01

    Fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a pre-existing defect in a body to further crack extension. The fracture toughness of glacial ice as a function of density is important for modeling efforts aspire to predict calving behavior. In the presented experiments this fracture toughness is measured using an ice core from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The samples were sawed in an ice lab at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven at -20°C and had the dimensions of standard test samples with thickness 14 mm, width 28 mm and length 126 mm. The samples originate from a depth of 94.6 m to 96 m. The grain size of the samples was also identified. The grain size was found to be rather uniform. The critical fracture toughness is determined in a four-point bending approach using single edge V-notch beam samples. The initial notch length was around 2.5 mm and was prepared using a drilling machine. The experimental setup was designed at the Institute of Materials Science at Darmstadt. In this setup the force increases linearly, until the maximum force is reached, where the specific sample fractures. This procedure was done in an ice lab with a temperature of -15°C. The equations to calculate the fracture toughness for pure bending are derived from an elastic stress analysis and are given as a standard test method to detect the fracture toughness. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to determine the ice core densities. The tests cover densities from 843 kg m-3 to 871 kg m-3. Thereby the influence of the fracture toughness on the density was analyzed and compared to previous investigations of this material parameter. Finally the dependence of the measured toughness on thickness, width, and position in the core cross-section was investigated.

  9. Paleomagnetism and Pangea: The road to reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mathew; Van der Voo, Rob; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2012-01-01

    Outside the realm of paleomagnetic studies, it has been a long held tenet that Pangea amalgamated into and disseminated from essentially the same paleogeography, the conventional Pangea reconstruction of Alfred Wegener. There is widespread geologic and geophysical support for this continental configuration during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, but global paleomagnetic data have been repeatedly shown to be incompatible with this reconstruction for pre-Late Triassic time. This discrepancy, which has endured from the late 1950s to the present day, has developed into a fundamental enigma of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetism. The problem stems from a large disparity in the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are restored to the conventional fit. If the APWPs are forced to coincide while some semblance of this fit is maintained, a substantial crustal overlap (1000 + km) results between Laurussia and Gondwana. To resolve this problem, alternative Pangea reconstructions have been built to accommodate the paleomagnetic data, but these invariably require large-scale shearing between Laurussia and Gondwana to reach the conventional configuration, from which it is unanimously agreed that the Atlantic Ocean opened in the Jurassic. Evidence for a megashear between these landmasses is critically lacking. Another proposed solution invokes time-dependent non-dipole fields, but challenges the common assumption that the geomagnetic field has effectively been a geocentric axial dipole through the Phanerozoic. The remaining alternative is that the problem is a manifestation of artifacts/contamination in the paleomagnetic data. Here we review the historical development of this problem and conduct an up-to-date re-analysis. Using the most recent late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, we examine the influence of data-quality, refined continental fits, and theoretical inclination shallowing corrections, and confirm that

  10. A study of the stable boundary layer in strong gap flows in northwest Greenland using a research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.

  11. 75 FR 54024 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... the US70 (Alfred C. Cunningham) Bridge across Trent River, mile 0.0, at New Bern, NC, to accommodate a...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The US70 (Alfred C. Cunningham) Bridge a bascule lift bridge...

  12. 77 FR 18105 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... the US 70 Alfred Cunningham Bridge across the Trent River, mile 0.0, at New Bern, NC. The deviation is... current operating regulation of the US 70 Alfred Cunningham Bascule Bridge across the Trent River, mile...

  13. Interview with Christine Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  14. On two reports associated with James Wood-Mason and Alfred William Alcock published by the Indian Museum and the Indian Marine Survey between 1890 and 1891: implications for malacostracan nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Huys, Rony; Low, Martyn E Y; De Grave, Sammy; Ng, Peter K L; Clark, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Two rare documents associated with the Indian Museum and the Indian Marine Survey for the administrative year April 1890 to March 1891 have been examined and found to have nomenclatural consequences for malacostracan crustaceans. Even though they constitute available published works according to the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature, these reports have rarely been cited. Dating these two publications is of importance as they make decapod scientific names available and, in a few instances, describe the same taxa. After searching the collections deposited in the Asian and African Room, British Library, the Administration Report of the Indian Marine for the year April 1890 to March 1891 could be dated with some degree of certainty as 25 August 1891. In contrast, dating the Indian Museum Annual Report proved more difficult because after examination of copies held by the General Library in the Natural History Museum, London, it was evident that not all of these reports were consistently published on time to meet an end of year deadline. However, the publication of volume XXII of the Indian Museum Annual Report for the year April 1890 to March 1891 appeared to be contemporary with the year printed at the bottom of the title page. As no exact date could be established with confidence, the publication date for this volume was fixed as 31 December 1891 in accordance with ICZN Art. 21.3.2. Therefore the Administration Report of the Indian Marine (published 25 August 1891) is considered to take precedence over the Indian Museum Annual Report (published 31 December 1891) and as such the names made available in the former take priority. As original copies of the Administration Report of the Indian Marine are not readily available in most libraries and few scientists have actually had access to these publications, the relevant Appendix No. XIII, in which the names of several malacostracan taxa are made available, is reproduced here. Since the appendix is not conclusively attributable to a specific author, it is considered to be written anonymously and should therefore be cited as Anonymous (1891). A number of names in Appendix No. XIII are available since they are accompanied by a brief description of the taxa they denote, and are either attributable to James Wood-Mason or remain with anonymous authorship; others are nomina nuda without a diagnosis or indication, or have been diagnosed previously in the "Natural History Notes from H.M. Indian Marine Survey Steamer Investigator". The nomenclatural implications for eight names made available in Anonymous (1891) are discussed: Glyphocrangon caeca, Glyphocrangon sculptus var. coecescens, Psalidopodidae, Psalidopus, Psalidopus mirabilis, Psathyrocaris, Psathyrocaris fragilis and Psopheticus crepitans. The nomenclatural history of various other taxa, initially denoted by unavailable names in Anonymous (1891), is also documented. The authorships of the various crustacean taxa collected by the Indian Marine Survey Steamer Investigator during the seasons 1889-1890 and 1890-1891, and published in two series of connected parts in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, are also re-assessed and summarised. A rare document containing the list of R.I.M.S. Investigator stations for the period 1884-1913 is reproduced for the future benefit of the scientific community.  PMID:24869963

  15. Induction of Regulatory t Cells by Low Dose il2 in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Rheumatoid Arthritis; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Psoriasis; Behcet's Disease; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Takayasu's Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Autoimmune Hepatitis; Sclerosing Cholangitis

  16. Impact of Vasculitis on Employment and Income

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-26

    Vasculitis; Systemic Vasculitis; Behcet's Disease; CNS Vasculitis; Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis; Eosinophilic Granulomatosis; Temporal Arteritis; Wegener Granulomatosis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN); Takayasu's Arteritis; Urticarial Vasculitis

  17. Pediatric Vasculitis Initiative

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Wegeners Granulomatosis (Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis); Microscopic Polyangiitis; Churg Strauss Syndrome (Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis); Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu Arteritis; Primary CNS Vasculitis; Unclassified Vasculitis

  18. Educational Needs of Patients With Systemic Vasculitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-11

    Behcet's Disease; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Vasculitis, Central Nervous System; Giant Cell Arteritis; Wegener Granulomatosis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu's Arteritis

  19. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    smaller scale surveys - getting close to industry standards - targeted specific geological questions, the reconnaissance type of aerogeophysical projects continued in Dronning Maud Land, now in close cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). This very successful cooperation between the two German institutions - both working continuously in the polar regions - was already established in Arctic projects, namely in northern Greenland. Also, since the late 1990's BGR conducted together with Canada airborne surveys as part of PMAP (Polar Margins Aeromagnetic Program), thematically linked to the predominantly geological CASE (Circum Arctic Structural Events) program of BGR. A joint project of GSC (Geological Survey of Canada) and BGR in the Nares Strait was a highlight of combined geological and aeromagnetic research addressing the still widely discussed Wegener fault between Greenland and Ellesmere Island and the extent of tertiary basins in the Nares Strait itself. BGR intends to continue its successful combined geological-geophysical work in both polar regions. The increasing logistic and financial challenges to work in these extreme areas will demand not only a continuation but an intensification of national and international collaboration.

  20. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  1. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Climate Research / CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR), Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia, (5) MetAir AG, 6313 Menzingen, Switzerland, (6) Svertsov Institute for Evolutionary and Ecological Problems (IPEE), 117071 Moscow, Russia, (7) Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany, (8) Environment Canada, Climate Research Division / CCMR, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada, (9) Cherskii, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia

  2. Amphibian Seismological Studies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Kuk Hong, Jong; Lee, Won Sang; Geissler, Wolfram; Yun, Sukyoung; Gohl, Karsten; Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014

  3. An aircraft-based investigation of the turbulent stable boundary layer over the North Water polynya (Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens; Kramer, Daniel; Ernsdorf, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Atmosphere/sea-ice/ocean exchange processes over the NOW (North Water) polynya in northwest Greenland were studied during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. While a polynya is associated with a convective boundary layer during winter, the situation in early summer is quite different. With the surface temperature at the melting point of ocean water, warm air advection leads to the formation of a stable boundary layer. Over the NOW in June, a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were found in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects at Smith Sound a well-pronounced low-level jet system was documented. These channeling effects lead to an increased wind-induced sea-ice export from the Nares Strait through Smith Sound. Cross-sections of mean quantities over the polynya are presented. The multiresolution decomposition is used to identify the spectral gap for the computation of turbulent fluxes. For the NOW polynya flights gap scales are between 500 m - 1000 m. Sensible heat fluxes are around -30W/m² in the area of highest wind speed at Smith Sound. Accordingly, the momentum flux shows also a maximum caused by the channeling, which is an important factor for the process of NOW formation. The experimental data

  4. The IAOOS arctic network project, status and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelon, J.; Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Calzas, M.; Blouzon, F.; Gascard, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    intensive tests were very timely. The first IAOOS array deployment will start in August 2015 from R/V Araon during the Korean cruise organized by the KOPRI in the Canadian Basin and from R/V Polarstern during the German cruise TRANSARC II organized by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Eurasian Basin. First results obtained in the frame of IAOOS will be presented and discussed.

  5. PANGAEA® - Research Data enters Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, U.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.

    2012-04-01

    publication workflow used by PANGAEA®, the technical background of the dynamic linking approach done between conventional publishers and the data repository, and the further steps for integrating editorial processes on both sides. PANGAEA® is operated as a joint long term facility by MARUM at the University Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (47 International, 46 European and 37 national projects since the last 12 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  6. Fully automatic adjoints: a robust and efficient mechanism for generating adjoint ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.; Rognes, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of generating and maintaining adjoint models is sufficiently difficult that typically only the most advanced and well-resourced community ocean models achieve it. There are two current technologies which each suffer from their own limitations. Algorithmic differentiation, also called automatic differentiation, is employed by models such as the MITGCM [2] and the Alfred Wegener Institute model FESOM [3]. This technique is very difficult to apply to existing code, and requires a major initial investment to prepare the code for automatic adjoint generation. AD tools may also have difficulty with code employing modern software constructs such as derived data types. An alternative is to formulate the adjoint differential equation and to discretise this separately. This approach, known as the continuous adjoint and employed in ROMS [4], has the disadvantage that two different model code bases must be maintained and manually kept synchronised as the model develops. The discretisation of the continuous adjoint is not automatically consistent with that of the forward model, producing an additional source of error. The alternative presented here is to formulate the flow model in the high level language UFL (Unified Form Language) and to automatically generate the model using the software of the FEniCS project. In this approach it is the high level code specification which is differentiated, a task very similar to the formulation of the continuous adjoint [5]. However since the forward and adjoint models are generated automatically, the difficulty of maintaining them vanishes and the software engineering process is therefore robust. The scheduling and execution of the adjoint model, including the application of an appropriate checkpointing strategy is managed by libadjoint [1]. In contrast to the conventional algorithmic differentiation description of a model as a series of primitive mathematical operations, libadjoint employs a new abstraction of the simulation

  7. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  8. Improvement to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO): Updating the Data Base and the Grid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.

    2001-12-01

    The project to develop the IBCAO grid model was initiated in 1997 with the objective of providing to the Arctic research community an improved portrayal of the seabed north of 64-deg N, in a form suitable for digital manipulation and visualization. The model was constructed from a compilation of all single-beam and multibeam echo soundings that were available for the polar region, complemented where appropriate by newly released contour information. The grid features a cell size of 2.5 x 2.5 km on a polar stereographic projection; it is constructed on the WGS 84 datum, with true scale at 75-deg N. Designated the Beta Version, a preliminary implementation of IBCAO was introduced to the geophysical community in December 1999, and released four months later as a digital grid that could be downloaded from a project website hosted by the National Geophysical Data Center in Boulder, CO. Since that release, the Beta Version has seen widespread use in Earth Science applications, with the website continuing to garner between 500 and 1000 visitors per week; this reportedly makes it one of the most heavily-visited of all NGDC websites. IBCAO has since been updated with the development of Version 1.0, which incorporates new information and formats, along with an expanded range of bathymetric products that will be released for public use through the same project website. Improvements include corrections to errors that were identified off Svalbard, in Canada Basin, and in Barrow Strait, as well as contributions of significant new data sets that were collected by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the Alfred Wegener Institute off Norway and Svalbard, in Fram Strait, and over the Lomonosov Ridge. In addition, the portrayal of the Alaskan landmass was enhanced with a new topographic model extracted from NGDC's GLOBE data set. New formats include downloadable Cartesian grids that can be imported directly into ArcInfo and Intergraph's module Terrain Analyst. A geographic grid

  9. Lena Trough (Arctic Ocean): Active mantle exhumation on a continental rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; von der Handt, A.; Nauret, F.

    2004-12-01

    Lena Trough is the northern continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge through Fram Strait and into the Arctic Ocean. The rifting of Lena Trough began in the Miocene, and significantly, is the final and the most recent event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent. Lena Trough was mapped in 1999, 2001 and 2004 by PFS Polarstern (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany), revealing sea floor structures that are inconsistent with any normally conceived mid-ocean ridge spreading, and instead indicative of late continental rifting. Lena Trough is shown to be a deep, fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures that outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor. These basement ridges are roughly parallel along flow lines to the valley walls on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55°. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of fertile mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The peridotites compositions are consistent with either continental or oceanic (asthenospheric) mantle. They show evidence of low-degree mantle melting, followed by high-level stagnation in a thick lithosphere. This evidence (veining, impregnation) is more evident where little or no basaltic cover is present, while peridotites dredged in the vicinity of basalts tend to be more residual. This may indicate some degree of magmatic focusing in the absence of a basaltic crust per se. Lena Trough contains rare, highly alkaline basalts that are unlike any compositions dredged from mid-ocean ridges

  10. Lena Trough (Arctic Ocean): Active mantle exhumation on a continental rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; von der Handt, A.; Nauret, F.

    2007-12-01

    Lena Trough is the northern continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge through Fram Strait and into the Arctic Ocean. The rifting of Lena Trough began in the Miocene, and significantly, is the final and the most recent event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent. Lena Trough was mapped in 1999, 2001 and 2004 by PFS Polarstern (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany), revealing sea floor structures that are inconsistent with any normally conceived mid-ocean ridge spreading, and instead indicative of late continental rifting. Lena Trough is shown to be a deep, fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures that outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor. These basement ridges are roughly parallel along flow lines to the valley walls on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55°. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of fertile mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The peridotites compositions are consistent with either continental or oceanic (asthenospheric) mantle. They show evidence of low-degree mantle melting, followed by high-level stagnation in a thick lithosphere. This evidence (veining, impregnation) is more evident where little or no basaltic cover is present, while peridotites dredged in the vicinity of basalts tend to be more residual. This may indicate some degree of magmatic focusing in the absence of a basaltic crust per se. Lena Trough contains rare, highly alkaline basalts that are unlike any compositions dredged from mid-ocean ridges

  11. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  12. Numerical Aspects of Nonhydrostatic Implementations Applied to a Parallel Finite Element Tsunami Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, A.; Androsov, A.; Harig, S.; Hiller, W.; Rakowsky, N.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the jeopardy of devastating tsunamis and the unpredictability of such events, tsunami modelling as part of warning systems is still a contemporary topic. The tsunami group of Alfred Wegener Institute developed the simulation tool TsunAWI as contribution to the Early Warning System in Indonesia. Although the precomputed scenarios for this purpose qualify for satisfying deliverables, the study of further improvements continues. While TsunAWI is governed by the Shallow Water Equations, an extension of the model is based on a nonhydrostatic approach. At the arrival of a tsunami wave in coastal regions with rough bathymetry, the term containing the nonhydrostatic part of pressure, that is neglected in the original hydrostatic model, gains in importance. In consideration of this term, a better approximation of the wave is expected. Differences of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic model results are contrasted in the standard benchmark problem of a solitary wave runup on a plane beach. The observation data provided by Titov and Synolakis (1995) serves as reference. The nonhydrostatic approach implies a set of equations that are similar to the Shallow Water Equations, so the variation of the code can be implemented on top. However, this additional routines cause a lot of issues you have to cope with. So far the computations of the model were purely explicit. In the nonhydrostatic version the determination of an additional unknown and the solution of a large sparse system of linear equations is necessary. The latter constitutes the lion's share of computing time and memory requirement. Since the corresponding matrix is only symmetric in structure and not in values, an iterative Krylov Subspace Method is used, in particular the restarted Generalized Minimal Residual Algorithm GMRES(m). With regard to optimization, we present a comparison of several combinations of sequential and parallel preconditioning techniques respective number of iterations and setup

  13. From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. However, the evolution of phenotypic features is not predictable, and biologists no longer use terms such as "primitive" or "perfect organisms". Despite these insights, the Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae, i.e., the idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists until ca. 1850 (Charles Bonnet, Jean Lamarck and others). Charles Darwin is usually credited with the establishment of a branched evolutionary "Tree of Life". This insight of 1859 was based on his now firmly corroborated proposals of common ancestry and natural selection. In this article I argue that Darwin was still influenced by "ladder thinking", a theological view that prevailed throughout the 19th century and is also part of Ernst Haeckel's famous Oak tree (of Life) of 1866, which is, like Darwin's scheme, static. In 1910, Constantin Mereschkowsky proposed an alternative, "anti-selectionist" concept of biological evolution, which became known as the symbiogenesis-theory. According to the symbiogenesis-scenario, eukaryotic cells evolved on a static Earth from archaic prokaryotes via the fusion and subsequent cooperation of certain microbes. In 1929, Alfred Wegener published his theory of continental drift, which was later corroborated, modified and extended. The resulting theory of plate tectonics is now the principal organizing concept of geology. Over millions of years, plate tectonics and hence the "dynamic Earth" has caused destructive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. At the same time, it created mountain ranges, deep oceans, novel freshwater habitats, and deserts. As a result, these geologic processes destroyed numerous

  14. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    years as suggested by the radiocarbon dating of the upper centimeter of the sediment in PS87/030-2 (7792 ± 59 14C years BP), PS87/055-1 (3897 ± 41 14C years BP), and PS87/099-4 (1421 ± 66 14C years BP). Reference Stein, R. (Ed.), 2015. The Expedition PS87 of the Research Vessel Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean in 2014, Reports on Polar and Marine Research 688, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 273 pp (http://epic.awi.de/37728/1/BzPM_0688_2015.pdf).

  15. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  16. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    infancy, the initial methodologies and protocols will undoubtedly continue to need further development and regular revision - making continued collaboration and communication between the polar and space communities mutually beneficial and advisable. NRC Study Committee members: 1 John E. Hobbie (Chair), Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts; 2 Amy Baker, Technical Administrative Services, Littleton, Colorado; 3 Garry Clarke, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 4 Peter T. Doran, University of Illinois at Chicago, Earth and Environmental Sciences; 5 David Karl, University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Honolulu; 6 Barbara Methé, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland; 7 Heinz Miller, Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany; 8 Samuel B. Mukasa, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; 9 Margaret Race, SETI Institute, Mountain View, California; 10 Warwick Vincent, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; 11 David Walton, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 12 James White, University of Colorado, Boulder, 13 Maria Uhle (Study Director), National Research Council.

  17. Topographic effect in marine magnetotelluric data and implications to the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle beneath the Tristan da Cunha hotspot area in southern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, K.; Chen, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Utada, H.; Kammann, J.; Geissler, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Kiyoshi Baba1,2, Jin Chen2, Marion Jegen2, Hisashi Utada1, Janina Kammann3, and Wolfram H. Geissler4 1. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo2. GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel3. University of Hamburg4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchTristan da Cunha Island is one of the hot spots in the Atlantic Ocean. The discussion about its source have not reached consensus yet whether it is in shallow asthenosphere or deeper mantle, because of lack of the geophysical observations in the area. A marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted together with seismological observations in the area in 2012-2013 by collaboration between Germany and Japan, in order to give further constraints on the physical state of the mantle beneath the area. A total of 26 seafloor stations were deployed around the Tristan da Cunha islands and available data were retrieved from 23 stations. The MT responses were estimated for those available sites. The detailed data processing will be presented by Chen et al. in this meeting. In this study, we report on the topographic effect on the observed MT responses. During the cruises for seafloor instruments deployment and recovery, detailed bathymetry data were collected around the stations by onboard multi-narrow beam echo sounding (MBES) system. We compiled the MBES data and ETOPO1 data to incorporate the local and regional topography. Then, we applied iterative topographic effect correction and one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity structure inversion. The MT responses of each station were simulated by three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling. Preliminary results show the overall feature of the observed MT responses at some stations were qualitatively well explained by the seafloor topography included in the conductivity structure model over the 1-D mantle structure. An extreme example is the station near the Tristan da Cunha Island. The impedance phases varies ~300 degrees in

  18. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  19. Variability of Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean from summer hydrographic observations in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Walczowski, Waldemar; Fahrbach, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Before reaching the Arctic Ocean, warm and salty water masses, originating from the North Atlantic, pass the eastern rims of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and continue farther to the north through Fram Strait. During its northward advection the Atlantic water (AW) is continuously transformed and its temperature, salinity and heat content changes significantly. A part of the AW heat is released to the atmosphere while a major share is lost due to lateral exchanges and mixing with adjacent water masses. This study addresses summer-to-summer variability, transformation, and circulation patterns of the Atlantic water in the region between the northern Norway and northern Fram Strait. We will present results of the long-term summer measurements in the Norwegian-Atlantic and West Spitsbergen Currents, carried in 1996-2013 by Institute of Oceanology PAS, and compare them to continuous observations from the moored array maintained by Alfred Wegener Institute in the northern Fram Strait, to estimate the impact of seasonal variations on long-term changes in the AW properties. Significant variability over different time scales has been observed in the properties of the AW over the studied period with the warmest AW inflow in late 90s and 2005-2006 and a significant positive trend in AW salinity. Time series of temperature and salinity at the standard hydrographic section at 76°30'N reveal a presence of three 5-6 years long cycles. Spatial distributions of AW properties and geostrophic velocities in the studied region show alternating phases of intensified AW inflow into the Barents Sea and periods of increased northward volume and heat transport through Fram Strait. Using available reanalysis data and meteorological measurements from Svalbard area we will attempt to explain possible links between observed changes and atmospheric forcing. The hydrographic measurements, continued by IO PAS for nearly two decades in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait, have been strongly

  20. PANGAEA® - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science - Research data enters scholarly communication and big data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Riedel, Morris; Huber, Robert

    2014-05-01

    and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (more than 160 International to national projects since the last 15 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  1. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching

  2. Retrospect on the tsunami simulation efforts for the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2005, the GITEWS project (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) established from scratch a fully operational tsunami warning system at BMKG in Jakarta. GITEWS was succeeded in 2011 by the smaller project PROTECTS for training the Indonesian staff and consolidating the technical system. With the official end in March 2014, it is time to draw a balance and evaluate the approach. This presentation focuses on the contribution of the tsunami modelling group at the Alfred Wegener Institute. We will give a short overview on the developments of the numerical tsunami simulation model TsunAWI, of the scenario database built with TsunAWI, and of the simulation module SIM that interfaces the database to the decision support system. Some distinctive experiences will be highlighted. Topics include the modeling part as well as the matching process after the database is already set up. On the modeling side, unstructured mesh generation with focus on local bathymetric features and inclusion of precise coastline position as well as numerical parametrization and post processing are covered. The matching of pre calculated scenarios with incoming data in case of a tsunamigenic earthquake is performed in the simulation system SIM, which processes the data of multiple sensors and employs various metrics to limit the choice of possible scenarios from the database. One challenge was that the development of the matching algorithm had to start without having access to real sensor data except seismic information on epicenter and magnitude. Therefore, the algorithm is designed with robustness in mind. Still, the conservative approach allows to narrow down the scenario selection even with limited sensor information. Given more experience in the typical behaviour of sensor data in real events, the algorithm parameters can easily be calibrated towards a more restrictive scenario selection. Another challenge was to ensure the quality control of the data products derived from

  3. SMILES zonal and diurnal variation climatology of stratospheric and mesospheric trace gasses: O3, HCl, HNO3, ClO, BrO, HOCl, HO2, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Kasai, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    We present a climatology of the diurnal variation of short-lived atmospheric compounds, such as ClO, BrO, HO2, and HOCl, as well as longer-lived species: O3, the hydrogen chloride isotopes H35Cl and H37Cl, and HNO3. Measurements were taken by the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES). This spectrally resolving radiometer, with very low observation noise and altitude range from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere (20-100km), was measuring vertical profiles of absorption spectra along a non-sun-synchronous orbit, thus observing at all local times. We used the retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles to compile climatologies that are a function of pressure, a horizontal coordinate (latitude or equivalent latitude), and a temporal coordinate (solar zenith angle or local solar time). The main product presented are climatologies with a high resolution of the temporal coordinate (diurnal variation climatologies). In addition, we provide climatologies with a high resolution of the horizontal coordinate (zonal climatologies).The diurnal variation climatologies are based on data periods of 2 months and the zonal climatologies on monthly data periods. Consideration of the SMILES time-space sampling patterns with respect to the averaging coordinates is a key issue for climatology creation, especially in case of diurnal variation climatologies. Biases induced by inhomogeneous sampling are minimized by carefully choosing the size of averaging bins. The sampling biases of the diurnal variation climatology of ClO and BrO are investigated in a comparison of homogeneously sampled model data versus SMILES-sampled model data from the stratospheric Lagrangian chemistry and transport model Alfred Wegener Institute Lagrangian Chemisrty/Transport System. In most cases, the relative sampling error is in the range of 0-20%. The strongest impact of sampling biases is found where the species' temporal gradients are strongest (mostly at sunrise and sunset

  4. Pollution in the Summertime Canadian High Arctic observed during NETCARE 2014: Investigation of origin and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The clean and sensitive Arctic atmosphere is influenced by transport of air masses from lower latitudes that bring pollution in the form of aerosol particles and trace gases into the Arctic regions. However, the transport processes causing such pollution events are yet not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on results from the aircraft campaign NETCARE 2014 that took place in July 2014 in Resolute Bay, Nunavut (Canada) as part of the "Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environment" (NETCARE). These airborne measurements add to only a very few of such measurements conducted in the Arctic during the summertime. The instrumentation on board the research aircraft Polar 6 (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) included a large set of physico-chemical aerosol analysis instruments, several trace gas measurements and basic meteorological parameters. Here we focus on observed pollution events that caused elevated trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the summertime Canadian High Arctic between 50 and 3500 m. In order to better understand the chemical composition and the origin of those polluted air masses, we use single particle aerosol composition obtained using the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA), combined with aerosol size distributions and number concentrations from an Optical Particle Counter as well as trace gas measurements of CO and CO2. CO and CO2 are important tracers to study pollution events, which are connected to anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic combustion processes, respectively biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The ALABAMA provides a detailed single particle aerosol composition analysis from which we identify different particle types like soot-, biomass burning-, organics-, diesel exhaust- and metallic particles. The measurements were compared to Lagrangian models like FLEXPART and LAGRANTO to find the pollution sources

  5. Estimation of Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness Using CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanggyun; Im, Jungho; yoon, Hyeonjin; Shin, Minso; Kim, Miae

    2014-05-01

    data were used to identify leads. Rule-based machine learning approaches such as random forest and See5.0 and human-derived decision trees were used to produce rules to identify leads. With the freeboard height calculated from the lead analysis, sea ice thickness was finally estimated using the Archimedes' buoyancy principle with density of sea ice and sea water and the height of freeboard. The results were compared with Arctic sea ice thickness distribution retrieved from CryoSat-2 data by Alfred-Wegener-Institute.

  6. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German scientific and technological cooperation project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 3-times the carbon within the atmosphere. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, a 4.5 million Euro project for scientific and technological cooperation, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and

  7. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Eliseev, A. V.; Evgrafova, S.; Fedorova, I.; Glagolev, M.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H. W.; Knoblauch, C.; Kunitsky, V.; Kutzbach, L.; Reichstein, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Wagner, D.; Zimov, S. A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 2.5-times the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg

  8. A three-dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne Sun photometer observations: PAM-ARCMIP, April 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. S.; Herber, A.; Vitale, V.; Mazzola, M.; Lupi, A.; Schnell, R. C.; Dutton, E. G.; Liu, P. S. K.; Li, S.-M.; Dethloff, K.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Neuber, R.; Maturilli, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Arctic climate is modulated, in part, by atmospheric aerosols that affect the distribution of radiant energy passing through the atmosphere. Aerosols affect the surface-atmosphere radiation balance directly through interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and indirectly through interactions with cloud particles. Better quantification of the radiative forcing by different types of aerosol is needed to improve predictions of future climate. During April 2009, the airborne campaign Pan-Arctic Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (PAM-ARCMIP) was conducted. The mission was organized by Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research of Germany and utilized their research aircraft, Polar-5. The goal was to obtain a snapshot of surface and atmospheric conditions over the central Arctic prior to the onset of the melt season. Characterizing aerosols was one objective of the campaign. Standard Sun photometric procedures were adopted to quantify aerosol optical depth AOD, providing a three-dimensional view of the aerosol, which was primarily haze from anthropogenic sources. Independent, in situ measurements of particle size distribution and light extinction, derived from airborne lidar, are used to corroborate inferences made using the AOD results. During April 2009, from the European to the Alaskan Arctic, from sub-Arctic latitudes to near the pole, the atmosphere was variably hazy with total column AOD at 500 nm ranging from ˜0.12 to >0.35, values that are anomalously high compared with previous years. The haze, transported primarily from Eurasian industrial regions, was concentrated within and just above the surface-based temperature inversion layer. Extinction, as measured using an onboard lidar system, was also greatest at low levels, where particles tended to be slightly larger than at upper levels. Black carbon (BC) (soot) was observed at all levels sampled, but at moderate to low concentrations compared with

  9. Coupling of the microphysical and optical properties of an Arctic nimbostratus cloud during the ASTAR 2004 experiment: Implications for light-scattering modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, Olivier; Mioche, Guillaume; Garrett, Timothy J.; SchwarzenböCk, Alfons; Vidot, JéRôMe; Xie, Yu; Shcherbakov, Valery; Yang, Ping; Gayet, Jean-FrançOis

    2010-12-01

    Airborne measurements in an Arctic mixed-phase nimbostratus cloud were conducted in Spitsbergen on 21 May 2004 during the international Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR) campaign. The in situ instrument suite aboard the Alfred Wegener Institute Polar 2 aircraft included a polar nephelometer (PN), a cloud particle imager (CPI), a Nevzorov probe, and a standard PMS 2DC probe to measure the cloud particle single-scattering properties (at a wavelength of 0.8 μm), and the particle morphology and size, as well as the in-cloud partitioning of ice/water content. The main objective of this work is to present a technique based on principal component analysis and light-scattering modeling to link the microphysical properties of cloud particles to their optical characteristics. The technique is applied to the data collected during the 21 May case study where a wide variety of ice crystal shapes and liquid water fractions were observed at temperatures ranging from -1°C to -12°C. CPI measurements highlight the presence of large supercooled water droplets with diameters close to 500 μm. Although the majority of ice particles were found to have irregular shapes, columns and needles were the prevailing regular habits between -3°C and -6°C while stellars and plates were observed at temperatures below -8°C. The implementation of the principal component analysis of the PN scattering phase function measurements revealed representative optical patterns that were consistent with the particle habit classification derived from the CPI. This indicates that the synergy between the CPI and the PN can be exploited to link the microphysical and shape properties of cloud particles to their single-scattering characteristics. Using light-scattering modeling, we have established equivalent microphysical models based on a limited set of free parameters (roughness, mixture of idealized particle habits, and aspect ratio of ice crystals) that reproduce the main

  10. Selective preservation of organic matter in marine environments; processes and impact on the sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Kasten, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Emeis, K.-C.; Huguet, C.; Koch, B. P.; de Lange, G. J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Middelburg, J. J.; Mollenhauer, G.; Prahl, F. G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Wakeham, S. G.

    2010-02-01

    The present paper is the result of a workshop sponsored by the DFG Research Center/Cluster of Excellence MARUM "The Ocean in the Earth System", the International Graduate College EUROPROX, and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. The workshop brought together specialists on organic matter degradation and on proxy-based environmental reconstruction. The paper deals with the main theme of the workshop, understanding the impact of selective degradation/preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments on the interpretation of the fossil record. Special attention is paid to (A) the influence of the molecular composition of OM in relation to the biological and physical depositional environment, including new methods for determining complex organic biomolecules, (B) the impact of selective OM preservation on the interpretation of proxies for marine palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, and (C) past marine productivity and selective preservation in sediments. It appears that most of the factors influencing OM preservation have been identified, but many of the mechanisms by which they operate are partly, or even fragmentarily, understood. Some factors have not even been taken carefully into consideration. This incomplete understanding of OM breakdown hampers proper assessment of the present and past carbon cycle as well as the interpretation of OM based proxies and proxies affected by OM breakdown. To arrive at better proxy-based reconstructions "deformation functions" are needed, taking into account the transport and diagenesis-related molecular and atomic modifications following proxy formation. Some emerging proxies for OM degradation may shed light on such deformation functions. The use of palynomorph concentrations and selective changes in assemblage composition as models for production and preservation of OM may correct for bias due to selective degradation. Such quantitative assessment of OM degradation may lead to more

  11. Development and First Results of a new Airplane Based Fixed Wing Electromagnetic Induction Sea Ice Thickness Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenstein, L.; Lobach, J.; Haas, C.

    2007-12-01

    Regular observation of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice thickness is of high importance for a better understanding of processes of climate change in polar regions. For regular and accurate observations of polar sea ice thickness a long range airborne device is necessary. Airborne electromagnetic induction (AEM) sounding was found to be an ideal method for accurate and wide area sea ice thickness measurements. As a consequence of five years of successful helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) sea ice thickness measurements and to overcome helicopter range restrictions, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) constructed a new airplane based fixed wing EM system. The first test flights were carried out in 2006 over the North Sea and in April 2007 in Svalbard, where the system's performance was proven under arctic conditions. The system operates in frequency domain with 1990 Hz and a vertical coplanar coil configuration. Thus the system produces a horizontal dipole. The coils are mounted beneath the wings with a separation of 11.6 meters. The airplane, a Dornier 228, is also equipped with a laser altimeter to determine the altitude of the instrument with an accuracy of 2cm. The compensation of the transmitter signal at the receiver coil is done electronically. Flights over open sea are used for the calibration of the system, because the ocean functions as a homogeneous half space with well known conductivity. A data acquisition computer records four voltages with a sample rate of 10 Hz. These are the reference voltage of the transmitter, the compensated and raw receiver voltages and the compensation signal. The laser height is recorded with a sample rate of 100 Hz to account for surface roughness. EM instruments for sea ice thickness sounding should have a vertical resolution of 10cm but due to the electrical noise caused by the airplane engines this was not easy to achieve. To account for the noise a time average filter is used. Alternatively, in order to keep the original

  12. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Centre Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (HZG). Further participating centres are: the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Research Centre Jülich (FZJ), the Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Sciences (GEOMAR), the Karlsruher Institute for Technology (KIT) and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). The webpage will be accessible at www.eskp.de.

  13. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help

  14. Earth System Science - Bridging the gaps between disciplines; Perspectives from a multi-disciplinary Helmholtz Research School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bracher, Astrid; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Unnithan, Vikram; Buschmann, Matthias; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Notholt, Justus

    2015-04-01

    Post-graduate education in Germany has changed a lot over the past decades. Formerly, PhD students generally did not have the option to attend formal classes and lectures and were expected to conduct their independent research, including occasionally teaching courses for students. Since the introduction of bachelor and masters studies with the Bologna Process in the late 90th, the higher education in Europe has been harmonized, leading to more structured and focused studies at the expense of a broad and universal disciplinary education. At this same time, special fields such as Earth System Science became more interdisciplinary. In consequence, universities and research institutes have established so-called research schools and/or graduate schools, offering specific courses and training alongside the doctorate. Especially, Earth System Science has developed from an interesting concept in Earth Sciences education to a fully integrative Science focussed on understanding the complex system Earth. This evolution is partially due to the radical and far reaching anthropogenic changes and the general feeling of helplessness with regards to the possible consequences and future impacts on the Earth System. The Helmholtz "Earth System Science Research School" (ESSReS) is a small unit of PhD students co-organized by three educational and research institutions in the city state Bremen: University of Bremen (Institute for Environmental Physics, IUP), Jacobs University (School of Engineering and Science (JU)), and Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven (AWI). ESSReS aims at the integration of research at the interface of Geology, Biology, Physics, Geophysics, Mathematics and Informatics. It is therefore multi- and interdisciplinary in every aspect. The training, curriculum, and PhD research subjects are closely located at the interfaces between the participating disciplines. This is guaranteed by interdisciplinary supervision of

  15. Reconciling Paleomagnetism and Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, M. M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Outside of the realm of paleomagnetic studies, it has been a long held tenet that Pangea amalgamated into and disseminated from essentially the same paleogeography, the conventional Pangea reconstruction of Alfred Wegener. There is widespread geologic and geophysical support for this re-assembly during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, but global paleomagnetic data have been repeatedly shown to be incompatible with this reconstruction for pre-Late Triassic time. This discrepancy, which has endured from the late 1950's to the present day, has developed into a fundamental enigma of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetism. The problem stems from a large disparity in the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are restored to the conventional paleogeography. If the APWPs are made to coincide while the conventional fit is maintained, a substantial crustal misfit results; a continental overlap of approximately 10° latitude (1000+ km) occurs between Laurussia and Gondwana. To resolve this problem, alternative Pangea reconstructions have been built to accommodate the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, but these invariably require large-scale shearing between Laurussia and Gondwana to reach the conventional Pangea re-assembly, from which it is unanimously agreed that the Atlantic Ocean opened in the Jurassic. Evidence for a megashear between these landmasses is critically lacking. Another proposed solution invokes time-dependent non-dipole fields, but challenges the working assumption that the geomagnetic field has effectively been a geocentric axial dipole through the Phanerozoic. The final alternative is that the problem is a manifestation of artifacts/contamination in the paleomagnetic data. Previous investigations of this last hypothesis have demonstrated its theoretical plausibility, but lacked the exhaustive analysis of global paleomagnetic data necessary to assuredly dispel the problem as an enduring data

  16. A Generic Framework for Enabling the Flow of Sensor Observations to Archives: O2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchow, Peter; Koppe, Roland; Macario, Ana; Haas, Antonie; Shäfer-Neth, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) has been continuously committing to develop and sustain an e-Infrastructure for coherent discovery, visualization, dissemination and archival of scientific information in polar and marine regions. Most of the data originates from research activities being carried out in a wide range of AWI-operated research platforms: vessels, land-based stations, ocean-based stations and aircrafts. Archival and publishing in PANGAEA repository along with DOI assignment to individual datasets is a typical end-of-line step for most data owners. Within AWI, a workflow for data acquisition from vessel-mounted devices along with ingestion procedures for the raw data into the institutional archives has been well-established for many years. However, the increasing number of ocean-based stations and respective sensors along with heterogeneous project-driven requirements towards satellite communication, sensor monitoring, QA/QC control and validation, processing algorithms, visualization and dissemination has recently lead us to build a more generic and cost-effective framework. This framework, hereafter named O2A, has as main strength its seamless flow of sensor observation to archives and the fact that it complies with internationally used OGC standards and thus assuring interoperability in international context (e.g. SOS/SWE, WPS, WMS WFS,..). O2A is comprised of several extensible and exchangeable modules (e.g. controlled vocabularies and gazetteers, file type and structure validation, aggregation solutions, processing algorithms, etc) as well as various interoperability services. At the first data tier level, not only each sensor is being described following SensorML data model standards but the data is being fed to an SOS interface offering streaming solutions along with support to O&M encoding. Project administrators or data specialists are now able to monitor the individual sensors displayed in a map by simply clicking

  17. Ice-tethered measurement platforms in the Arctic Ocean: a contribution by the FRAM infrastructure program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Katlein, Christian; Scholz, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been in the focus of many studies during recent years, investigating the state, the causes and the implications of the observed rapid transition towards a thinner and younger sea-ice cover. However, consistent observational datasets of sea ice, ocean and atmosphere are still sparse due to the limited accessibility and harsh environmental conditions. One important tool to fill this gap has become more and more feasible during recent years: autonomous, ice-tethered measurement platforms (buoys). These drifting instruments independently transmit their data via satellites, and enable observations over larger areas and over longer time periods than manned expeditions, even throughout the winter. One aim of the newly established FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) infrastructure program at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute is to realize and maintain an interdisciplinary network of buoys in the Arctic Ocean, contributing to an integrated, Arctic-wide observatory. The additional buoy infrastructure, ship-time, and developments provided by FRAM are critical elements in the ongoing international effort to fill the large data gaps in a rapidly changing Arctic Ocean. Our focus is the particularly underrepresented Eurasian Basin. Types of instruments range from snow depth beacons and ice mass balance buoys for monitoring ice growth and snow accumulation, over radiation and weather stations for energy budget estimates, to ice-tethered profiling systems for upper ocean monitoring. Further, development of new bio-optical and biogeochemical buoys is expected to enhance our understanding of bio-physical processes associated with Arctic sea ice. The first set of FRAM buoys was deployed in September 2015 from RV Polarstern. All datasets are publicly available on dedicated web portals. Near real time data are reported into international initiatives, such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). The

  18. From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. However, the evolution of phenotypic features is not predictable, and biologists no longer use terms such as "primitive" or "perfect organisms". Despite these insights, the Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae, i.e., the idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists until ca. 1850 (Charles Bonnet, Jean Lamarck and others). Charles Darwin is usually credited with the establishment of a branched evolutionary "Tree of Life". This insight of 1859 was based on his now firmly corroborated proposals of common ancestry and natural selection. In this article I argue that Darwin was still influenced by "ladder thinking", a theological view that prevailed throughout the 19th century and is also part of Ernst Haeckel's famous Oak tree (of Life) of 1866, which is, like Darwin's scheme, static. In 1910, Constantin Mereschkowsky proposed an alternative, "anti-selectionist" concept of biological evolution, which became known as the symbiogenesis-theory. According to the symbiogenesis-scenario, eukaryotic cells evolved on a static Earth from archaic prokaryotes via the fusion and subsequent cooperation of certain microbes. In 1929, Alfred Wegener published his theory of continental drift, which was later corroborated, modified and extended. The resulting theory of plate tectonics is now the principal organizing concept of geology. Over millions of years, plate tectonics and hence the "dynamic Earth" has caused destructive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. At the same time, it created mountain ranges, deep oceans, novel freshwater habitats, and deserts. As a result, these geologic processes destroyed numerous

  19. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On-going activities of the NASA special consultant to WEGENER (Working group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research) program are reported. Topics cover include: the WEGENER 2002 conference in Greece and the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS).

  20. Diagnosing the influence of diabatic processes on the explosive deepening of extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Andreas H.; Pohle, Susan; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Knippertz, Peter

    2012-04-01

    A novel version of the classical surface pressure tendency equation (PTE) is applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data to quantitatively assess the contribution of diabatic processes to the deepening of extratropical cyclones relative to effects of temperature advection and vertical motions. The five cyclone cases selected, Lothar and Martin in December 1999, Kyrill in January 2007, Klaus in January 2009, and Xynthia in February 2010, all showed explosive deepening and brought considerable damage to parts of Europe. For Xynthia, Klaus and Lothar diabatic processes contribute more to the observed surface pressure fall than horizontal temperature advection during their respective explosive deepening phases, while Kyrill and Martin appear to be more baroclinically driven storms. The powerful new diagnostic tool presented here can easily be applied to large numbers of cyclones and will help to better understand the role of diabatic processes in future changes in extratropical storminess.

  1. Analysis and Forecast of Two Storms Characterized by Extreme Deepening Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, Oreste; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Between 25 and 27 December 1999 two very intense cyclones, named Lothar and Martin, swept across northern and western France causing substantial life and property loss. In this work, the finite volume general circulation model and data assimilation system (fvDAS) developed at the Data Assimilation Office of the NASA Goddard Space and Flight Center is being used to investigate these storms. In the first part of this article the dynamics of the storms is analyzed, and some important mechanisms are unveiled. The second part describes a set of eleven data assimilation experiments to study the impact of different data types on the automated analyses. Cloud-track winds provided by EUMETSAT and surface winds from QuikSCAT are being used. These data are assimilated with a range of different parameter settings of the forecast error covariance model. The results show that generally the additional wind data set have positive impacts on the analyses: particularly, the analysis of Lothar can be slightly improved by using the Eumetsat winds, and the analysis of Martin can be strongly improved by using the full-resolution QuikSCAT winds with a more localized influence. The third part of this article is focused on the forecast of Lothar which is very well predicted in the 1-5 day range by the fvDAS system.

  2. The Resolution of a Completely Inorganic Coordination Compound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Takaji; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a technique used by Alfred Werner to resolve inorganic coordination compounds. The materials, procedures and analysis necessary for undergraduates to repeat this procedure are described. (CW)

  3. 77 FR 18259 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Grove, Shaw, Alfred, Magnolia, Kingshighway, & Vandeventer Aves., St. Louis (Independent City), 12000207... Junction Historic District, Roughly bounded by W. Berkley St., Roberts, Germantown, & Wayne...

  4. 41. PENCIL DRAWING OF SELECTED DESIGN Drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PENCIL DRAWING OF SELECTED DESIGN Drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, undated. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Groupware as a Knowledge Repository. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Herrick Library (Alfred University, Alfred, NY) reference guru of 18 years, Frank McBride, retired recently, leaving a smaller and less experienced staff to collectively handle reference questions. Frank had conscientiously documented much of his experience in a collection of paper files. In this column, the author (Herrick's new coordinator of…

  6. Using Web Services and XML Harvesting to Achieve a Dynamic Web Site. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Exploiting and contextualizing free information is a natural part of library culture. In this column, Gary Roberts, the information systems and reference librarian at Herrick Library, Alfred University in Alfred, NY, describes how to use XML content on a Web site to link to hundreds of free and useful resources. He gives a general overview of the…

  7. 78 FR 41843 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... 70/ Alfred C. Cunningham Bridge across the Trent River, mile 0.0, at New Bern, NC. The deviation... passage for pedestrians and vehicles during Mumfest. The US 70/Alfred C. Cunningham Bridge across the... C. Cunningham Bridge would open on signal during this timeframe. However, under this...

  8. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    MedlinePlus

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a rare disease. It is a type of vasculitis, or inflammation of the ... trachea (windpipe), lungs, and kidneys. The cause of GPA is unknown. It can affect people at any ...

  9. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of different conditions, such as: Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Wegener granulomatosis Risks There is a possibility of ... fibrous Mesothelioma - malignant Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Viral pneumonia X-ray Update ...

  10. Mononeuritis multiplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Lyme disease , HIV, or hepatitis Leprosy Sarcoidosis Sjogren syndrome Wegener's granulomatosis Symptoms Symptoms will depend ... Peripheral neuropathy Polyarteritis nodosa Primary amyloidosis Rheumatoid arthritis Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Update Date 7/ ...

  11. Reproductive Health in Men and Women With Vasculitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-25

    Giant Cell Arteritis; Takayasu's Arteritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Kawasaki Disease; Henoch-schoenlein Purpura; Vasculitis, Central Nervous System; Drug-induced Necrotizing Vasculitis

  12. S.Res.652 — 111th Congress (2009-2010) A resolution honoring Mr. Alfred Lind for his dedicated service to the United States of America during World War II as a member of the Armed Forces and a prisoner of war, and for his tireless efforts...

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2010-09-28

    09/28/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7666-7669; text as passed Senate: CR S7666; text of measure as introduced: CR S7635) (All Actions)

  13. Heinz-Wolfram Kasemir: His Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-04-01

    The story of Heinz-Wolfram Kasemir's scientific research is the not-uncommon tale of a researcher forced to the fringes for pushing hypotheses that ran against the grain. In the AGU monograph Heinz-Wolfram Kasemir: His Collected Works, Vladislav Mazur and Lothar Ruhnke pull together all of Kasemir's published works, some of them translated from German, in one place for the first time. In this interview, Vladislav Mazur shares with Eos a look into Kasemir's life and work, the science of atmospheric electricity and lightning, and an insider perspective on how science changes course.

  14. Formal Nuclear and Atomic Structure of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nduka, Amagh

    2004-05-01

    In the paper "The Space of 4-Operators and the Unification of the Fundamental Interactions" (see APS paper with log number 10016) we discussed the Fundamental Particle Scheme (not the Standard Model). As an application of the theory, we discuss in this paper formal atomic and nuclear structures and (1) deduce the correct periodic table of the elements that accounts for the missing elements of the empirically derived Chancourtois-Newlands-Lothar Meyer-Mendeleev table; and a table of the nuclides, (2) calculate the mass of the electron neutrino, and deduce the missing mass and dark matter of the universe.

  15. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar

    2014-05-01

    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure, the Patagonian Orocline. Despite the fact that this major structure was already described by Alfred Wegener in his famous textbook in 1929, few paleomagnetic studies have been attempted to describe the rotations associated with the formation of the Patagonian Orocline. In this study we present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from more than 130 sites obtained from the Ultima Esperanza region (NS structures at ~51°S) to Península Hardy, south of the Beagle Channel at ~55°S. 45 sites were sampled in early-cretaceous gabbros (gabbro complex), mid-cretaceous tonalites and granodiorites (Canal Beagle group) and Paleocene intrusive rocks (Seno Año Nuevo group) from the South Patagonian batholith, 4 sites from the late Jurassic Hardy formation, a volcanic succession outcropping in Hardy Peninsula and Stewart Island, 9 sites were drilled in the lower cretaceous sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes Basin, 3 sites from the Tortuga ophiolite, a quasi-oceanic crust related to the opening of the Rocas Verdes basin. 80 sites were sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Magallanes fold and thrust belt and Magallanes Basin. Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRMs) obtained from the Rocas Verdes Basin tectonic province correspond to secondary magnetizations postdating the early phase of folding. Pyrrhotite is the main magnetic carrier in some of these sites. ChRMs from the South Patagonian Batholith correspond to a primary magnetization. These rocks record about 90° counterclockwise rotations south of the Beagle channel. Few sites from sediments of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt have stable ChRM. The available paleomagnetic results show that no rotation has occurred in the Provincia of Ultima Esperanza (51.5°S), at least, for the last 60 Ma. In the southern part of Provincia de Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego

  16. New constraints on the crustal structure in the eastern part of northern Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, C. J.; Damm, V.; Altenbernd, T.; Berglar, K.; Block, M.; Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Baffin Bay is a key area for testing plate kinematic models for the Paleocene-Eocene motion of Greenland relative to North America and to decipher the evolution of the thick sedimentary basins in this area. In summer 2010, a multidisciplinary marine geoscientific expedition focusing on the Greenland part of northern Baffin Bay was performed under the direction of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources Hannover, Germany in cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener Institute Bremerhaven. Using 70 days ship time onboard the German R/V Polarstern a comprehensive data set was acquired along profiles extending from the deep oceanic basin in the central part of North Baffin Bay onto the Greenland continental margin in an area which was bordered by the Kane Basin in the North and Disco Island in the South. By means of multi-channel seismic, wide angle seismic, gravimetric and magnetic methods the structural inventory of the crust in the NW Baffin Bay was investigated. Additionally, heat flow data and sediment cores were collected at selected positions along lines across the Greenland continental margin. The cores were extracted for geochemical and geomicrobiological analysis to be used for basin modeling and studying the hydrocarbon potential. Aeromagnetic data was acquired covering part of the marine survey area to investigate magnetic signatures of the oceanic crust and the continental margin. In our presentation we will give an overview of the first results of the expedition with special focus on multi-channel seismic data. With a total length of 3500 km, the initial interpretation of multi-channel seismic data shows that the West Greenland margin is a typical passive continental margin with large rotated basement blocks, listric faults facing mainly seaward, and deep syn-rift-basins in between. The most prominent reflector under the shelf and the slope probably indicates the transition from rifting to drifting and therefore the beginning of

  17. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Shupe, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    be used to identify specific gaps and parameterization needs. Preliminary modeling and operational forecasting will also be necessary to directly guide field planning and optimal implementation of field resources, and to support the safety of the project. The MOSAiC Observatory will be deployed in, and drift with, the Arctic sea-ice pack for at least a full annual cycle, starting in fall 2019 and ending in autumn 2020. Initial plans are for the drift to start in the newly forming autumn sea-ice in, or near, the East Siberian Sea. The specific location will be selected to allow for the observatory to follow the Transpolar Drift towards the North Pole and on to the Fram Strait. IASC has adopted MOSAiC as a key international activity, the German Alfred Wegener Institute has made the huge contribution of the icebreaker Polarstern to serve as the central drifting observatory for this year long endeavor, and the US Department of Energy has committed a comprehensive atmospheric measurement suite. Many other nations and agencies have expressed interest in participation and in gaining access to this unprecedented observational dataset. International coordination is needed to support this groundbreaking endeavor.

  18. Modeling acoustic wave propagation in the Southern Ocean to estimate the acoustic impact of seismic surveys on marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Bohlen, T.

    2007-12-01

    According to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, adopted 1991, seismic surveys in the Southern Ocean south of 60°S are exclusively dedicated to academic research. The seismic surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany during the last 20 years focussed on two areas: The Wedell Sea (60°W - 0°W) and the Amundsen/Bellinghausen Sea (120°W - 60°W). Histograms of the Julian days and water depths covered by these surveys indicate that maximum activities occurred in January and February, and most lines were collected either in shallow waters of 400 - 500 m depth or in deep waters of 2500 - 4500 m depth. To assess the potential risk of future seismic research on marine mammal populations an acoustic wave propagation modeling study is conducted for the Wedell and the Amundsen/ Bellinghausen Sea. A 2.5D finite-difference code is used. It allows to simulate the spherical amplitude decay of point sources correctly, considers P- and S-wave velocities at the sea floor and provides snapshots of the wavefield at any spatial and temporal resolution. As source signals notional signatures of GI-, G- and Bolt guns, computed by the NUCLEUS software (PGS) are used. Based on CTD measurements, sediment core samplings and sediment echosounder recordings two horizontally-layered, range-independent generic models are established for the Wedell and the Amundsen/Bellinghausen Sea, one for shallow (500 m) and one for deep water (3000 m). They indicate that the vertical structure of the water masses is characterized by a 100 m thick, cold, low sound velocity layer (~1440 - 1450 m/s), centered in 100 m depth. In the austral summer it is overlain by a warmer, 50 m thick surface layer with slightly higher sound velocities (~1447 - 1453 m/s). Beneath the low-velocity layer sound velocities increase rapidly to ~1450 - 1460 m/s in 200 m depth, and smoothly to ~1530 m/s in 4700 m depth. The sea floor is mainly

  19. The whole is more than the sum of its parts: Added value from a Graduate School as a structuring element within the wider field of early and pre-career support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanfland, Claudia; Sprengel, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Structured postgraduate programs are a relatively new feature at German Higher Educational Institutions, mainly fostered in the 90ies by the funding programs of the German Science Foundation (Research Training Groups) and the Max-Planck-Association (International Max Planck Research Schools). Since then, funding opportunities for postgraduate programs have equally been set up by the Helmholtz and Leibniz Associations as well as the Excellence Initiative. Today, doctoral candidates can chose from a wide range of training programs to earn a doctoral degree within a structured framework under excellent research conditions. In consequence, the percentage of PhD students in natural sciences that follow a PhD within a structured program has been continuously increasing. Graduate Schools provide a roof under which different curricula can be accommodated. They offer a comprehensive training program, foster interdisciplinary thinking and are a key instrument for quality assurance by providing rules relevant and equal to all doctoral candidates regardless of funding or affiliation. With more and more Graduate Schools becoming a permanent feature in the training of doctoral candidates, universities and research institutions are provided with a tool to create added value for the whole range of early career scientists and beyond. The Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) is currently developing a comprehensive strategy for early and pre-career support with the aim to provide a continuous support chain from high school students to Postdocs. Included are also the apprentices that get a vocational training at AWI as laboratory assistants, office clerks or qualified IT specialists. AWI aims at establishing a solid training network between these groups (apprentices, high school students, Bc and Ms students, internships, doctoral candidates, and Postdocs) across biographic borders. This network serves more than the classical transition phases from high school

  20. An Integrated Concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences Postgraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John; Sprengel, Claudia; Bijma, Jelle

    2010-05-01

    Today's graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science is a highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional challenge. The integration of observations, palaeoclimate data, and climate modelling requires networks and collaborations of experts and specialists in order to better understand natural climate variations over a broad range of timescales and disciplines, and to cope with the challenges of recent climate change. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred-Wegener-Institut Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment in north-western Germany to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Based on this successful cooperation a similar programme is in preparation with the Lulea University of Technology, Sweden. The Earth System Science Research School (ESSReS) (www.earth-system-science.org) at the AWI enables PhD students from a variety of

  1. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  2. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences [1]. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a larger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). With the school-term of 2002/03 the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). The program is the most important component of SEA. Each year 22 high school students (grade 10 or 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their school for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects have been rearranged in their temporal sequencing thus enabling a conceptual formulation of four major questions to be dealt with in the course of the three-year program [2]. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperation schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between both groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. We are organizing expeditions for every group of HIGHSEA-students (e. g. to the Arctic or to mid-Atlantic seamounts). For each student expedition we devise a "real" research question. Usually a single working group at the AWI has a special interest in the

  3. Monthly to seasonal low flow prediction: statistical versus dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Klein, Bastian; Meissner, Dennis; Rademacher, Silke

    2016-04-01

    the Alfred Wegener Institute a purely statistical scheme to generate streamflow forecasts for several months ahead. Instead of directly using teleconnection indices (e.g. NAO, AO) the idea is to identify regions with stable teleconnections between different global climate information (e.g. sea surface temperature, geopotential height etc.) and streamflow at different gauges relevant for inland waterway transport. So-called stability (correlation) maps are generated showing regions where streamflow and climate variable from previous months are significantly correlated in a 21 (31) years moving window. Finally, the optimal forecast model is established based on a multiple regression analysis of the stable predictors. We will present current results of the aforementioned approaches with focus on the River Rhine (being one of the world's most frequented waterways and the backbone of the European inland waterway network) and the Elbe River. Overall, our analysis reveals the existence of a valuable predictability of the low flows at monthly and seasonal time scales, a result that may be useful to water resources management. Given that all predictors used in the models are available at the end of each month, the forecast scheme can be used operationally to predict extreme events and to provide early warnings for upcoming low flows.

  4. Ice-free summers predominant in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean - New insights from a proxy-modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Schreck, Michael; Knorr, Gregor; Forwick, Matthias; Lohmann, Gerrit; Niessen, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Lohmann, G., 2011. Towards quantitative sea ice reconstructions in the northern North Atlantic: A combined biomarker and numerical modelling approach. Earth Planetary Science Letters 306, 137-148. Stein, R. (Ed.), 2015. The Expedition PS87 of the Research Vessel Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean in 2014, Reports on Polar and Marine Research 688, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 273 pp (http://epic.awi.de/37728/1/BzPM_0688_2015.pdf). Stein, R., K. Fahl, Schreck, M., Knorr, G., Niessen, F., Forwick, M., Gebhardt, C., Jensen, L., Kaminski, M., Kopf, A., Matthiessen, J., Jokat, W., Lohmann, G. and the PS87 Geoscience Party, 2016. Ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean - New insights from proxy/model reconstruction. Nature Communications, revised version under review.

  5. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  6. Active spreading processes at ultraslow mid-ocean ridges: Unusual seismicity at the amagmatic Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läderach, Christine; Schlindwein, Vera; Riedel, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Lena Trough is the southern continuation of the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge and with its position in the Fram Strait between Greenland and Spitsbergen it is the only deep-sea gateway to the Arctic Ocean. DFG funded Emmy Noether group 'Mid-Ocean Volcanoes and Earthquakes' located at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research is focusing on the seismicity of ultraslow spreading ridges and is especially interested in Lena Trough as an ultraslow spreading ridge in a developing stage. The southern Lena Trough shows similarities to the northern Red Sea spreading centre which is in the early stage of development from continental to oceanic rift. Cochran postulated in 2003 that the continental crust within the water-covered Red Sea is less than 10 km thick and that the northern part of the Red Sea rift spreads ultraslow as well. At Lena Trough an actively spreading mid-ocean ridge with a narrow rift valley has already developed but continental crust lies within a short distance. Lena Trough is extending from 83°N/5°W to 80.3°N/2°W where it passes into the transform fault of the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. The geometry of Lena Trough and certain asymmetric structures in the rift valley indicate oblique spreading and mostly tectonic and amagmatic rifting. There are several topographic highs west of the ridge axis which could be bounded by deep faults with normal faulting or detachment character exposing mantle material at the surface. Seismicity at the Lena Trough shows apparently the same asymmetric character with epicenters of teleseismically recorded earthquakes concentrating predominantly west of the ridge axis. The most frequent focal mechanism of the earthquakes within the rift valley is normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faults occur in the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. We relocalized teleseismic earthquakes recorded from May 1973 to April 2009 in the region using a refined localization algorithm and could confirm systematic asymmetry in the

  7. Permafrost as palaeo-environmental archive - potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, L.; Wetterich, S.; Meyer, H.; Grosse, G.; Schwamborn, G.; Siegert, C.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1994, the Periglacial Research Group of the Alfred Wegener Institute is studying permafrost sequences of the Beringian landmass. The study sites in Siberia cover lake banks on Taymyr Peninsula, coastal sites at the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, locations in the Lena Delta, at the lower Kolyma river, the middle Lena and the lower Aldan rivers, and the catchment area of the El'gygytgyn crater lake in Chukotka. In Alaska, permafrost tunnels near Fairbanks and Barrow, and coastal sites on the Seward Peninsula coast were studied. In addition, Canadian sites on Herschel Island in the Beaufort Sea and at the adjacent coast of the Yukon plain were studied. Subsurface exposures like tunnels and cellars provided the opportunity for three-dimensional studies of sedimentary and ground ice features, relatively ‘clean' field conditions for in-situ experiments, monitoring procedures, and detailed and repeatable sampling. Permafrost cores were drilled in order to study inaccessible sequences below the terrain surface and shelf sea floor. Cores were transported and stored frozen for further high-resolution analysis. Reference core sections were preserved for subsequent later studies. Terrestrial sediment cores are highly localized records, sometimes problematic in extrapolating horizons in inhomogeneous sediments like ground ice-deformed permafrost deposits, and drill campaigns are usually cost intensive and logistical challenging. Coastal permafrost cliffs often naturally expose large cross sections trough modern and ancient landscapes. Contrary to cores, they provide an opportunity to study the wider context of depositional environments and ground ice features. Due to the relative easy access to coasts and the recurring natural exposure of cliffs by thermo-abrasive wave action they are very convenient study objects for regional comparisons and correlation of past environmental conditions. Finally, palaeogeographical reconstructions are also guided by remote sensing

  8. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  9. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    . Observations of under-ice topography by upward-looking multibeam sonar combined with aerial images provide a unique three dimensional picture of the complexity of the non-uniform sea ice layer. ROV surveys cover the scale of an entire ice floe and are an excellent tool to bridge the scale gap between isolated point measurements and larger scale surveys, such as specifically designed under-ice nets with sensor arrays or surveys by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). In the framework of the infrastructure project FRAM (Frontiers in Arctic Marine Monitoring), the Alfred Wegener Institute is in the process of commissioning a new lightweight mobile ROV system for interdisciplinary research underneath sea ice. This new system profits from the acquired experiences and will receive a significantly upgraded suite of scientific sensors, maintaining the rugged and reliable characteristics of the past systems. The interdisciplinary sensor suite will be extended towards the measurement of more oceanographic and biological parameters with a CTD, different fluorometers, and biogeochemical sensors. While basic intervention capabilities are already available, the system can be extended with advanced manipulation and sampling capabilities in the future.

  10. Impact of coastal polynyas on sea ice production and water mass modification in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, V.; Timmermann, R.; Ebner, L.; Heinemann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the world ocean is partly driven by deep water formation at high-latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, deep and bottom water formation in the marginal seas is induced by high freezing rates as generally found at coastal polynyas. Atmospheric cooling and brine-release enable the production of very cold and saline water masses. In the southwestern Weddell Sea, wide shelves allow for a strong salinification of the whole water column and the formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The impact of coastal polynyas on ice production and water mass formation in the southwestern Weddell Sea was studied employing the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven. FESOM is a coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. Simulations were conducted on a global unstructured mesh with a strong focus on the southwestern Weddell Sea coastline (up to 3 km resolution). In vertical direction, the grid features 37 z-coordinate depth levels of which 6 are within the uppermost 100 m. The model runs were initialised in 1980 and forced with NCEP reanalysis data (daily resolution). The year 2008 was also simulated with higher-resolution GME and regional COSMO forcing data. For data evaluation and analysis the period 1990-2009 is used. A comparison of AMSR sea ice concentration and model results shows good accordance in spatial and temporal polynya extent. Also, calculated vertical temperature and salinity profiles agree well with CTD measurements. Our simulations feature a 20-year winter mean area of coastal polynyas of 6.7 · 103 km2 (0.4% of the continental shelf area) in the southwestern Weddell Sea which is in good agreement with observations. Winter sea ice production within the coastal polynyas exceeds the ice production of the surrounding ice-covered area by a factor of 7 in the 20-year mean, so that the polynya contribution to total sea ice

  11. Sea Ice Thickness Variability in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerland, S.; Renner, A.; Haas, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M.; Hansen, E.; Hendricks, S.; Hudson, S. R.; Beckers, J.; Goodwin, H.

    2011-12-01

    On this poster, we show results from airborne electromagnetic (EM) sea ice thickness measurements demonstrating the temporal and spatial complexity of the ice thickness distribution in Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard. Knowledge about the spatial and temporal sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean is necessary to assess the state of the sea-ice cover, and to understand relevant processes and changes. Since 2003, the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) has been conducting systematic in situ monitoring of sea ice thickness in the western Fram Strait, using both ground and airborne techniques. Fram Strait is a key region for large-scale ice dynamics in the Arctic. It represents the main export route for sea ice from the Arctic and the only deep strait connecting the interior Arctic Ocean and the rest of the world oceans. The ice thickness distribution in this region is the result of a combination of dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice processes. Transects for airborne EM observations were flown by NPI in spring 2005, 2008, and late summer 2010, and by the Alfred Wegener Institute in spring 2009. The regional ice thickness distributions are supplemented with ground measurements including snow thickness observations taken on ice stations during ship expeditions in spring 2005, 2007, and 2008 and annually in late summer from 2003 to 2011. From all these observations, we can show the differing characteristics of the thickness distributions in spring (2005, 2008, 2009) and late summer (2010) when the ice thickness is at its annual maximum (end of the freezing period) and minimum (end of the melting period), respectively. The ice thickness distribution can also vary spatially over short distances in north-south direction. Features such as the East Greenland Polynya, which varies in size for a given time from year to year, contribute to the spatial and temporal variability on the Greenlandic Shelf. In spring 2005, a gradient is visible across Fram Strait from

  12. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  13. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the University of Hamburg, Germany. One of the responsibilities of TEPO is to provide assistance to students taking part in scientific research (undergraduate and post-graduate practical work and organization of summer schools and seminars). In 2005 a joint summer student field excursion with the Moscow State University Department of Cryolithology and Glaciology took place at TEPO headquarters. The teaching courses consist of the following main topics: 1. Environment and Permafrost of northern West Siberia; 2. Paleocryogenic Formation of Alluvial Terraces; 3. Hydrology and Hydrogeological Conditions of the Territory; 4. Geotechnical Monitoring of Gas Fields; 5. Geotechnical Dangers in the Cryolithozone. The workshop "Stability of Pipelines in the Cryolithozone" held in Nadym at August, 29-31 with participation of "Nadymgasprom", TSOGU and Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan) included a field excursion. TEPO is expected to be the basis for scientific and educational exchange with national and foreign universities and research institutes and part of the global international monitoring in the northern regions.

  14. MaNIDA: Insight into the German Marine Network for Integrated Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Angela; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) builds a sustainable e-Infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of data from distinct marine and earth science data providers in Germany (see ESSI1.2 and ESSI2.2). Thereby we implement the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" for coherent discovery, view, download and dissemination of aggregated content. MaNIDA receives a unique momentum from the cooperation and financial partnership between main German marine research institutes (AWI, MARUM, HZG, GEOMAR, Uni Hamburg, Uni Kiel, Uni Bremen) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency as well as active participation in international and major EU-initiatives (ICSU, GEOSS, SeaDataNet, EMODNET, ODIP). Together with a coherent management strategy coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, sustainability will be achieved via the long-term commitment of framework funding by the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific research organization for large-scale facilities and scientific infrastructure. Strategic Aims The installation of the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" will address the urgent demands of the German research community for reliable and easy access to marine research data at one single point of access and truth. Primary focus will be given to data derived from nationally operated research and monitoring facilities (vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc), whereby related contextual content and publications will become an integral part of the aggregation effort. For the scientific community we define responsibilities and commitments across partners while complementing existing data repositories and the new portal with well-articulated workflows from the instrument to the data product. Necessary level of quality assurance and user support will be implemented to achieve substantial enhancements in the whole lifecycle management of marine scientific data. The creation of a data

  15. 25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM PATENT BAKE OVEN ROASTER BY ALFRED H. REIP NO. 337 BALT. STREET BALTIMORE - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  16. 31. 'LAMP STANDARD, DETAIL OF UPPER PART,' drawn by project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. 'LAMP STANDARD, DETAIL OF UPPER PART,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, April 2, 1934, revised April 23, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 36. DETAIL, ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS Pencil drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAIL, ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 30. DETAIL, TOP OF LAMP STANDARD, drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL, TOP OF LAMP STANDARD, drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, February 15, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 28. 'TOWER DESIGN NO. 11, ADAPTED FROM NO. 9,' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. 'TOWER DESIGN NO. 11, ADAPTED FROM NO. 9,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, undated, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 29. 'LAMP STANDARD ON CONCRETE PARAPET,' drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. 'LAMP STANDARD ON CONCRETE PARAPET,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, April 14, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS BLOOD PROGRAM AWARD GROUP - LEFT TO RIGHT - SEATED - JOHN S BROWN - MISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS BLOOD PROGRAM AWARD GROUP - LEFT TO RIGHT - SEATED - JOHN S BROWN - MISS ELEANOR KIPLINGER - DR SHARP - JESSIE SHEWARD - DR VICTORY - FIRST ROW - GORDON ROMIG - ROBERT BRIGADOI - MIKE VACCARO - ALFRED VALERINO -

  2. Social Interest and the Core Conditions: Could It Be that Adler Influenced Rogers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents primary source documentation highlighting the similarities between Alfred Adler's social interest construct and the counselor-oriented core conditions of Carl Rogers. Implications of the similarities are discussed. (Author)

  3. [From Institut Pasteur to Radio Luxembourg. The surprising history of Tho-Radia].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Thierry; Raynal, Cécile

    2002-01-01

    The authors study of the history of "Tho-Radia", a cream with base of thorium and radium, launched in 1933 by Dr Alfred Curie and a pharmacist, Alexis Moussali. Tho-Radia disappears near 1960. PMID:12521056

  4. The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

  5. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, 1936 STAIR IN SOUTH END OF CROSS-HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Alfred Battle Home, Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. [Book review] The youngest science: notes of a medicine-watcher, by Lewis Thomas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Review of: The youngest science: notes of a medicine-watcher. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Series. Lewis Thomas. Penguin Books, 1995. Pennsylvania State University. 270 pp. ISBN: 0140243275, 9780140243277.

  7. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This progress report discusses the status and progress made in joint international programs including: 1) WEGENER; 2) Arabian Peninsula program; 3) Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) program; 4) the Fourteenth International Workshop on Laser Ranging; 5) the International Laser Ranging Service; and 6) current support for the NASA network.

  8. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Life Threatening Autoimmune Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch; Graft Versus Host Disease; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Hypersensitivity Vasculitis; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Giant Cell Arteritis; Pure Red Cell Aplasia; Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Takayasu Arteritis

  9. Vasculitis Pregnancy Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Vasculitis; Behcet's Disease; CNS Vasculitis; Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis; Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (GPA); Wegener's Granulomatosis; IgA Vasculitis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura (HSP); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN); Takayasu Arteritis (TAK); Urticarial Vasculitis; Systemic Vasculitis

  10. Physik gestern und heute Der Spion, der die Wärme untersuchte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Der in Massachusetts geborene Benjamin Thompson, der ab 1792 auch den Titel eines Grafen von Rumford führte, ist eine der schillerndsten Figuren der Physikgeschichte. Berühmt wurde er insbesondere wegen seiner Experimente zur Wärmetheorie.http://www.famousamericans.net/benjaminthompsonrumford

  11. Generation of a Catalogue of European Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, Filipa; Baptiste Granier, Jean; Bordoy, Roger; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Souch, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The probability of multiple wind-storm events within a year is crucial to any (re)insurance company writing European wind business. Indeed, the volatility of losses is enhanced by the clustering of storms (cyclone families), as occurred in early 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke), December 1999 (Lothar, Martin) or December 2015 (Desmond, Eva, Frank), among others. In order to track winter extratropical cyclones, we use the maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa of the new-released long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from the ECMWF since the beginning of the 20th Century until 2010. We develop an automatic procedure to define events. We then quantify the severity of each storm using loss and meteorological indices at country and Europe-wide level. Validation against market losses for the period 1970-2010 is undertaken before considering the severity and frequency of European windstorms for the 110 years period.

  12. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Bronnimann, Stefan

    2016-03-30

    This study investigates the wind gusts and associated economic loss patterns of high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland between 1871 and 2011. A novel approach for simulating windstorm-related gusts and losses at regional to local scales is applied to a sample of 84 windstorms. The approach involves the dynamical downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble mean to 3-km horizontal grid size using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Economic losses are simulated at municipal level for present-day asset distribution based on the downscaled (parameterised) wind gusts at high spatiotemporal resolution using the open-source impact model climada. A comparisonmore » with insurance loss data for two recent windstorms ("Lothar'' in 1999, "Joachim'' in 2011) indicates that the loss simulation allows to realistically simulate the spatial patterns of windstorm losses. The loss amplitude is strongly underestimated for 'Lothar', while it is in reasonable agreement for 'Joachim'. Possible reasons are discussed. Uncertainties concerning the loss simulation arise from the wind gust estimation method applied; estimates can differ considerably among the different methods, in particular over high orography. Furthermore, the quality of the loss simulation is affected by the underlying simplified assumptions regarding the distribution of assets and their susceptibilities to damage. For the whole windstorm sample, composite averages of simulated wind gust speed and loss are computed. Both composites reveal high values for the densely populated Swiss Plateau and lower values for south-eastern Switzerland; metropolitan areas stand out in the loss composite. Eight of the top 10 events concerning the losses simulated for present-day asset distribution and summed over all Swiss municipalities occurred after 1950. Furthermore, it remains uncertain whether this is due to decadal-scale changes of winter windstorms in Switzerland or merely due to a possible

  13. [Women in natural sciences--Nobel Prize winners].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Kolcić, Ivana; Spoljar-Vrzina, Sanja; Polasek, Ozren

    2006-01-01

    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the founder of the Nobel Foundation, which has been awarding world-known scientists since 1901, for their contribution to the welfare of mankind. The life and accomplishments of Alfred Bernhard Nobel are described as well as scientific achivements of 11 women, Nobel prize winners in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and/or medicine. They are Marie Sklodowska Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Irene Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Gertrude Elion, Christine Nusslein-Volhard and Linda B. Buck. PMID:16802565

  14. Heinz L. Ansbacher (1904-2006).

    PubMed

    Musty, Richard Rik E

    2007-09-01

    Heinz Ludwig Ansbacher was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on October 21, 1904. He died at his home in Burlington, Vermont, on June 22, 2006, at the age of 101 years. Alfred Adler's influence led Ansbacher to the field of psychology, where he began a lifelong scholarship on the psychology of Alfred Adler. Among Heinz's distinctions and honors were being named a Fulbright lecturer at the University of Kiel, Germany, and serving as president of the North American Society of Adlerian Psychology. Many of us will remember Professor Ansbacher as a person who lived by Adlerian principles: encouraging others while helping them to find a goal in life. PMID:17874904

  15. The GNSS-based Ground Tracking System (GTS) of GFZ; from GITEWS to PROTECTS and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, Carsten; Merx, Alexander; Ramatschi, Markus

    2013-04-01

    , Education and Consulting for Tsunami Early Warning System) are carried out by a large group of scientists and engineers from (GFZ) German Research Centre for Geosciences and its partners from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the GKSS Research Centre, the Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung (KDM), the Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), the United Nations University (UNU), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and other international partners. Funding is provided by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), Grant 03TSU01 and 03TSU07.

  16. Permafrost as palaeo-environmental archive - potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, L.; Wetterich, S.; Meyer, H.; Grosse, G.; Schwamborn, G.; Siegert, C.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1994, the Periglacial Research Group of the Alfred Wegener Institute is studying permafrost sequences of the Beringian landmass. The study sites in Siberia cover lake banks on Taymyr Peninsula, coastal sites at the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, locations in the Lena Delta, at the lower Kolyma river, the middle Lena and the lower Aldan rivers, and the catchment area of the El'gygytgyn crater lake in Chukotka. In Alaska, permafrost tunnels near Fairbanks and Barrow, and coastal sites on the Seward Peninsula coast were studied. In addition, Canadian sites on Herschel Island in the Beaufort Sea and at the adjacent coast of the Yukon plain were studied. Subsurface exposures like tunnels and cellars provided the opportunity for three-dimensional studies of sedimentary and ground ice features, relatively ‘clean' field conditions for in-situ experiments, monitoring procedures, and detailed and repeatable sampling. Permafrost cores were drilled in order to study inaccessible sequences below the terrain surface and shelf sea floor. Cores were transported and stored frozen for further high-resolution analysis. Reference core sections were preserved for subsequent later studies. Terrestrial sediment cores are highly localized records, sometimes problematic in extrapolating horizons in inhomogeneous sediments like ground ice-deformed permafrost deposits, and drill campaigns are usually cost intensive and logistical challenging. Coastal permafrost cliffs often naturally expose large cross sections trough modern and ancient landscapes. Contrary to cores, they provide an opportunity to study the wider context of depositional environments and ground ice features. Due to the relative easy access to coasts and the recurring natural exposure of cliffs by thermo-abrasive wave action they are very convenient study objects for regional comparisons and correlation of past environmental conditions. Finally, palaeogeographical reconstructions are also guided by remote sensing

  17. Impact of mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic changes in sea ice on the development of low pressure systems in the Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungert, U.; Schlünzen, K. H.; Ries, H.

    2009-09-01

    sea ice seem to be more important than thermodynamic changes. For sea ice export this is less clear. Zones of strong convergences and divergences in the wind field support break up of sea ice and the positioning of high wind regimes leads to important changes in ice drift velocities. Under these conditions, changes in ice concentration are mainly due to dynamic processes thus playing an important role for the exchange of heat and momentum between ocean, sea ice and atmosphere and for the development of low pressure systems. References: Birnbaum, G., 1998: Numerical modelling of the interaction between atmosphere and sea ice in the Arctic marginal ice zone. Reports on Polar Research, Vol. 268, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 160 pp. Brümmer, B., Launiainen, J., Müller, G. and Schröder, D., 2005: FRAMZY 2002, Second field experiment on Fram Strait Cyclones and their impact on sea ice. Field report with Measurement Examples. Rep. 37, Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung der Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 154 pp. Brümmer B., Schröder D., Müller G., Spreen G., Jahnke-Bornemann A. Launiainen J. (2008): Impact of a Fram Strait cyclone on ice edge, drift, divergence, and concentration: Possibilities and limits of an observational analysis. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 113, C12, C12003, DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004149. Dierer S., Schlünzen K.H., Birnbaum G., Brümmer B., Müller G. (2005): Atmosphere- Sea Ice Interactions during a Cyclone Passage Investigated by Using Model Simulations and Measurements. Month. Wea. Rev., 133, No.12, 3678-3692. Lüpkes C. and Schlünzen K.H. (1996): Modelling the Arctic convective boundary-layer with different turbulence parameterizations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 79, 107- 130. Schlünzen, K.H., 1990: Numerical studies on the inland penetration of sea breeze fronts at a coastline with tidally flooded mudflats, Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., 63, 243-256.

  18. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    /GEOTOP, Canada) Mathieu Duchesne (Geological Survey of Canada-Québec, Canada) Frédérique Eynaud (EPOC/Universite Bordeaux I, France) Pierre Francus (INRS-ETE/GEOTOP, Canada) Martin Frank (IFM-GEOMAR, Germany) Yves Gélinas (Concordia/GEOTOP, Canada) Joël Guiot (CEREGE, France) Claude Hillaire-Marcel (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) Patrick Lajeunesse (University Laval, Canada) Jean-François Lemieux (Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, USA) Guillaume Massé (LOCEAN/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, France) Matt O'Regan (Cardiff University, UK) Joseph Ortiz (Kent State University, USA) Frank Rack (University Nebraska-Lincoln, USA/ANDRILL Science Management Office) Taoufik Radi (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) André Rochon (ISMER-UQAR/GEOTOP, Canada) Ruediger Stein (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany) Guillaume St-Onge (ISMER-UQAR/GEOTOP, Canada) Bjorn Sundby (ISMER-UQAR, Canada) GEOTOP logoUQAM UQAR logoINRS logo Universite de Quebec logoGeological Survey of Canada logo

  19. Climate-related postglacial development of Lake Donggi Cona on the NE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Climate-related postglacial development of Lake Donggi Cona on the NE Tibetan Plateau S. Opitz (1), E. Dietze (4), K. Hartmann (4), U. Herzschuh (1), J. Ijmker (2), F. Lehmkuhl (2), Li Shijie (3), S. Mischke (4), G. Stauch (2), B. Wünnemann (3,4), B. Diekmann (1) (1) Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam Germany (Stephan.Opitz@awi.de), (2) Department of Geography, RWTH Aachen University, Germany (3) School of Geography and Oceanography, Nanjing University, China, (4) Institute of Geographical Sciences, Interdisciplinary Center of Ecosystem Dynamics of Central Asia (EDCA), Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, Lake Donggi Cona is located in the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau at the boundary between monsoon and westerly climate influence. The main objective of limnogeological resaerch is to infer late glacial to Holocene lake development in response to monsoon dynamics. Donggi Cona is an oligotrophic freshwater lake with a recent open-basin system. The 30 km long, 8 km wide, and up to 90 m deep open lake basin is a tectonic pull-apart structure, situated along the Kunlun suture. Sub-bottom profiling of the lake basin revealed the presence of graben structures, conjugate faults, subaquatic terraces, and ancient fan systems, draped by 4 to 5 m thick postglacial lacustrine muds. After analysis of the seismic pre-survey, five sediment cores were retrieved at between 40 m and 2 m water depths. The cores are partly laminated and composed of calcareous muds with variable amounts of carbonate micrite, organic matter, detrital silt and clay, and are rich in ostracods and plant remains. Dating results from the top of the cores reveal radiocarbon ages around 2000 yr BP. These too old ages of recent sediments suggest a marked reservoir offset by hard-water effects. Nineteen reservoir-corrected and calibrated 14C AMS dates in combination with sedimentological proxy data document palaeoenvironmental change of the lake system during

  20. The GNSS data processing component within the Indonesian tsunami early warning centre provided by GITEWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, M.; Merx, A.; Falck, C.; Ramatschi, M.

    2010-05-01

    movements which can occur, e.g., due to strong earthquakes. The ground motion information is a valuable source for a fast understanding of an earthquake's mechanism and consequences with possible relevance for a potentially following tsunami. Regarding kinematic coordinates of a buoy only the vertical component is of interest as it corresponds to the instant sea level. The kinematic coordinates are delivered to an oceanographic post-processing unit which applies dipping-, tilting- and tidal-corrections to the data. Deviations to the mean sea level are an indicator for a possibly passing tsunami wave. By this means the GNSS system supports the decision finding process whether a tsunami has been released or not. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed which monitors the whole processing chain from data transmission and GNSS data processing to the displaying of the kinematic coordinate time series. It supports both, a quick view for all staff members at the warning centre (24h/7d shifts) and deeper analysis by GNSS experts. The GNSS GUI system is web-based and allows all views to be displayed on different screens at the same time, even at remote locations. This is part of the concept, as it can support the dialogue between warning centre staff on duty or on standby and sensor station maintenance staff. Acknowledgements The GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is carried out by a large group of scientists and engineers from (GFZ) German Research Centre for Geosciences and its partners from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the GKSS Research Centre, the Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung (KDM), the Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), the United Nations University (UNU), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and other international partners. Most relevant partners in Indonesia with

  1. The GNSS-based component for the new Indonesian tsunami early warning centre provided by GITEWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, C.; Ramatschi, M.; Bartsch, M.; Merx, A.; Hoeberechts, J.; Rothacher, M.

    2009-04-01

    sensors on land the processing system delivers deviations from their normal, mean coordinates. The deviations or so called displacements are indicators for land mass movements which can occur, e.g., due to strong earthquakes. The ground motion information is a valuable source for a fast understanding of an earthquake's mechanism with possible relevance for a potentially following tsunami. By this means the GNSS system supports the decision finding process whether most probably a tsunami has been generated or not. For buoy based GNSS data the processing (differential, with GNSS reference station on land) delivers coordinates as well. Only the vertical component is of interest as it corresponds to the instant sea level height. Deviations to the mean sea level height are an indicator for a possibly passing tsunami wave. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the GNSS system supports both, a quick view for all staff members at the warning centre (24h/7d shifts) and deeper analysis by GNSS experts. The GNSS GUI system is implemented as a web-based application and allows all views to be displayed on different screens at the same time, even at remote locations. This is part of the concept, as it can support the dialogue between warning centre staff on duty or on standby and sensor station maintenance staff. Acknowledgements The GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is carried out by a large group of scientists and engineers from (GFZ) German Research Centre for Geosciences and its partners from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the GKSS Research Centre, the Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung (KDM), the Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), the United Nations University (UNU), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and other international partners. Most relevant partners in Indonesia with respect

  2. The Courage to Teach: Whitehead, Emotion, and the Adventures of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Howard Robert

    2012-01-01

    The importance of moral courage to teaching and learning has been recognized by a number of authors. The process pedagogy of Alfred North Whitehead proposes that emotion is central to experience and to the imaginative questioning which enables learning and the ability to stand up for one's beliefs. Faculty who wish to connect with their students…

  3. Emerging Scholars: The Class of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Dana; Lum, Lydia; Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald; Rogers, Ibram; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Seymour, Add, Jr., Valdata, Patricia; Watson, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    This year's crop of "Emerging Scholars"--The Class of 2008--includes a math biologist who was only the second woman to receive the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in math; a geneticist who recently became one of 20 winners of the National Science Foundation's Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers; and an extensively published…

  4. Workshop in Al Kalfus: History of Mathematics, Problem Solving, Enrichment. Dissemination Packet--Summer 1989: Booklet #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Janet; And Others

    This booklet is the seventh in a series of nine from the Teacher Training Institute at Hofstra University (New York) and synthesizes the contribution of the late mathematics educator, Alfred Kalfus, to the institute as adviser, guest lecturer, and instructor. Descriptions of the enrichment topics for secondary school mathematics included in his…

  5. 78 FR 68687 - Final Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Advanced Avionics Under the Special Class (JAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... on September 2, 2003 (68 FR 56809). The regulation applicable to the Amended Type Certificate (TC... Aquila AT01-100 airplane to include Night-VFR as shown in NPRM 75 FR 32576. In conjunction with the... Register on September 6, 2013, (78 FR 54792). One comment was received from Mr. Alfred Schmiderer...

  6. Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010" represents the eighth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group with support from Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the…

  7. THE USE OF FLY ASH IN THE PRODUCTION OF SIALON BASED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: X832541C004
    Title: The Use of Fly Ash in the Production of SiAlON based Structural Ceramics
    Investigator: James R. Varner
    Institution: Alfred University
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Perio...

  8. Social Science Education Consortium Newsletter, Number 22, April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    A lead article, System-Based, Unified Social Sciences, written by Alfred Kuhn, examines the relationships of the social sciences to each other and to the entire field of science. The social sciences are related by an intrasystem and intersystem of analytic concepts that enable us to perceive similarities or patterns in both past and future events.…

  9. "The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

  10. A Time, and a Place, to Gather Stones Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Lenka Clayton, a British artist and documentary filmmaker, did not leave London and cross the Atlantic Ocean intending to paint tiny, precise numbers on 7,000 loose stones--that idea didn't come to her until later. By the time she began numbering, she had already started a class of freshmen at Alfred University mapping hard-to-map things (like…

  11. How Can Music Education Be Religious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines Alfred North Whitehead's claim that education should be construed as religious, and by extension, that music education should be religious. The analysis of questions relating to Whitehead's understanding of the notion of "religious," the defensibility of his claim, and its implications for notions of spirituality and music…

  12. 78 FR 52694 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Neuse River Bridge Run participants to safely complete their race without interruptions from bridge.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The event director for the annual Neuse River Bridge Run, with approval from the... deviation from the operating schedule to accommodate the Neuse River Bridge Run. The US 70/Alfred...

  13. 77 FR 37316 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... annual Neuse River Bridge Run. DATES: This deviation is effective from 6:30 a.m. until 9:30 a.m. on...: The Event Director for the Neuse River Bridge Run, with approval from the North Carolina Department of... to accommodate the Neuse River Bridge Run. The Alfred C. Cunningham Bridge operating regulations...

  14. CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CHLORINATED AND OZONATED-CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER: A COLLABORATION OF THE FOUR NATIONAL LABS OF THE U. S. EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CHLORINATED AND OZONATED-CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER: A COLLABORATION OF THE FOUR NATIONAL LABS OF THE U.S. EPA
    Susan D. Richardson1, Linda K. Teuschler2, Alfred D. Thruston, Jr.,1 Thomas Speth3, Richard J. Miltner3, Glenn Rice2, Kathle...

  15. Revision of the hillstream lizard loaches, genus Balitoropsis (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae).

    PubMed

    Randall, Zachary S; Riggs, Patrick A

    2015-01-01

    The genus Balitoropsis Smith 1945 consists of two species, B. zollingeri (Bleeker 1853) and B. ophiolepis (Bleeker 1853). Homaloptera maxinae Fowler 1937, Balitoropsis bartschi Smith 1945, and Homaloptera nigra Alfred 1969 are junior synonyms of B. zollingeri. Balitoropsis zollingeri has been reported from Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, and B. ophiolepis is known from Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. PMID:26249387

  16. Empowering Teachers and Parents: School Restructuring through the Eyes of Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr., Ed.

    Elmore (1990) has presented two contrasting models of school restructuring, each with different views about who is empowered--teachers or parents. This book examines what happens when schools and school districts attempt to implement either of these models. Following the introduction, "Examining School Restructuring Efforts," by G. Alfred Hess,…

  17. Methods of Comparative Androgogy: An International Expert Seminar (Bamberg, Germany, September 24-27, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Margaret A.

    A seminar collected, shared, and discussed the consensus on definitions, standards, methods, and current problems in research methodology in comparative andragogy. Alfred Hierold opened the seminar with a brief history of the evolution of the University of Bamberg. The opening session focused on the importance of the researcher as a tool in…

  18. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  19. Missing Data: Discovering the Private Logic of Adult-Wary Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John

    2010-01-01

    In his classic book, "The Problem Child," Alfred Adler (1930) noted that if educators do not understand the "private logic" and goals of a young person, their interventions may do more harm than good. But it is not a natural process to empathize with persons who fight their well-intended efforts to help. Adults and young people are often pitted as…

  20. The Use of Whiteheadian Principles in University Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Lucy Ann

    This study examines the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead to determine his theory of value and apply it to the principles, objectives, and positions of university adult education. Whitehead's value criteria are applied to the two major statements on policy of university adult education, which the writer feels are inadequate: the National…

  1. The Interaction of Evaluation and Policy: Case Reports from State Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L., Ed.; Caulley, Darrel N., Ed.

    The nature of educational evaluation and its interaction with policy in six state departments of education is examined. Case reports of research and evaluation units are presented for Virginia (by Gerald W. Bracey), Michigan (by David L. Donovan and Stanley A. Rumbaugh), Washington (by Alfred F. Rasp, Jr.), South Carolina (by Paul D. Sandifer),…

  2. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  3. Fiating Utopia: A Negative View of the Emergence of World Order Counterplans and Futures Gaming in Policy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsulas, John P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Critiques the views of Alfred Snider and Richard Edwards, who defend simultaneous advocacy of utopian and policy claims and promote utopian gaming. Argues that conceptions of debate theory promoting utopian advocacy are uneducational. Claims that fiat theory should be restricted to assumptions grounded in real world policy making processes. (MM)

  4. [Biennial Survey of Education, 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1930, No. 16. Chapter I - Chapter XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1930

    1930-01-01

    This document contains the first twenty chapters of the Biennial Survey of Education document, covering the years 1926-1928. The following chapters are included in this document: (1) Higher education (Arthur J. Klein); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Legal education (Alfred Z. Reed); (4) Significant movements in city school systems (W.…

  5. Zen and the Art of Higher Education Maintenance: Bridging Classic and Romantic Notions of Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Patricia M.

    Uses Robert Pirsig's ideas in "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" to explore two ways of viewing quality in higher education: the romantic and the classic. Analyzes historical and contemporary literature on quality using insights of Alfred Whitehead, Pirsig, and John Dewey, urging a vision that is honest and that incorporates caring,…

  6. Initiation Rites and Athletics: A National Survey of NCAA Sports Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred Univ., NY.

    Alfred University conducted a national survey of college athletes, coaches, and staff members at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions early in 1999 to determine the extent of hazing and initiation rites. A national random sample of 10,000 athletes was taken from a composite list of all athletes from 224 NCAA institutions…

  7. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  8. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  9. Self-Esteem: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…

  10. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING STEPPED TOWERS, AND WITH PYLONS CAPPED BY LANTERNS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 39. PENCIL SKETCH OF SELECTED DESIGN, DEPICTING OCEANGOING VESSEL (WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. PENCIL SKETCH OF SELECTED DESIGN, DEPICTING OCEAN-GOING VESSEL (WHICH WERE STILL NAVIGATING SACRAMENTO RIVER IN 1930s) APPROACHING LIFT SPAN Drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 35. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS, WITH ARCH REPEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS, WITH ARCH REPEATED BETWEEN TOWER LEGS, AND ASHLAR MASONRY WALLS AND PYLONS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. "A Tinge of Effeminacy": Masculinity and National Manhood in the Mosely Report, 1904

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ní Bhroiméil, Úna

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Mosely, a wealthy South African diamond mine owner and British industrialist, financed an Educational Commission that travelled to the United States during the winter of 1903. Its purpose was to ascertain how far education in the United States was responsible for the country's industrial progress, and its report was published in England in…

  15. The Nation's First Wire Service: Evidence Supporting a Footnote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    The Associated Press's claim that it is the oldest wire service in the United States (tracing its origin to formation of the New York City Associated Press in 1948) has been regularly sustained in journalism's history literature. This claim has been challenged by Alfred McClung Lee in his book "The Daily Newspaper in America," in which he contends…

  16. Moliere: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guicharnaud, Jacques, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jacques Guicharnaud, Rene Bray, Gustave Lanson, Alfred Simon, Will G. Moore, Ramon Fernandez, Paul Benichou, Lionel Gossman, Andre Villiers, James Doolittle, H. Gaston Hall, Robert J. Nelson, Jacques Copeau, Charles…

  17. Modes of Learning: Whitehead's Metaphysics and the Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, George

    2012-01-01

    Educators are familiar with Alfred North Whitehead's three stages of education: romance, precision, and generalization. Philosophers are familiar with his metaphysical theories about the primacy of temporal processes. In "Modes of Learning," George Allan brings these two sides of Whitehead's thought together for the first time in a book suitable…

  18. An Overview of Intelligence Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret B.; Hall, Alfred E.

    1980-01-01

    This article briefly traces the development of intelligence testing from its beginnings in 1905 with Alfred Binet; cites the intelligence theories of Spearman, Thurstone, and Guilford; and examines current objections to intelligence tests in terms of what they test and how they are interpreted. (SJL)

  19. Chemistry and Explosives: An Approach to the Topic through an Artistic and Historical Contribution Made by a Spanish Global Explosives Supplier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel; Garrido-Escudero, Amalio

    2016-01-01

    We present ideas about how to incorporate discussion of a paintings collection in chemistry classrooms. Specifically, it is a collection of paintings that have illustrated calendars since 1900, from a traditional Spanish explosives company (founded by Alfred Nobel and now known as Maxam). The case is discussed in relation to the "chemistry in…

  20. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  1. Appraising Birth Order in Career Assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  2. "The Dethronement of Yata."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Reflects on the Lakota myth of the winds from a psychological-sociological point of view with the purpose of destroying several false myths relating to children and family dynamics. Recounts the myth and relates it to Alfred Adler's views of the family constellation and birth order as a basis for personality determination. (RAH)

  3. Beyond the Scientific: A Comprehensive View of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, Arthur Wellesley, Ed.; Morrisett, Irving, Ed.

    Eight papers which discuss rational and nonrational modes of knowing and consciousness and their relevance to educational practice are presented. Richard Jones in "Looking Back and Forth on Consciousness" considers two modes, the rational and the metaphoric, in a discussion of dreams. Alfred Kuhn discusses random variation and selective retention…

  4. Intelligence, IQ and Race--When, How and Why They Became Associated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Andre

    The history and use of intelligence testing are reviewed, with emphasis on the validity of intelligence tests for black populations. Different definitions of intelligence are summarized, followed by an historical review of intelligence testing. The work of Alfred Binet is discussed, as well as the validity and reliability of his scales. A…

  5. Decentralization of Management in Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Alfred University has developed a Management Information System intended to support decentralized management, with more decision-making responsibilities delegated to academic managers. Information systems, curriculum interaction modeling, program costs, budget preparation and planning, and a training program for academic managers are discussed.…

  6. Shakespeare, The Tragedies: A collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbage, Alfred, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Alfred Harbage, H. B. Charlton, Willard Farnham, H. T. Price, Donald A. Stauffer, Brents Stirling, Maynard Mack, Helen Gardner, C. S. Lewis, Alvin Kernan, Bernard Spivack, L. C. Knights, Francis Fergusson, G. Wilson…

  7. Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006. Midwestern Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    "Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006--Midwestern Edition" is based on data collected for the fourth annual report on the state of online education in U.S. Higher Education. Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and based on responses from over 500 Midwestern colleges and universities, this year's study, like last…

  8. Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006. Southern Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    "Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006--Southern Edition" is based on data collected for the fourth annual report on the state of online education in U.S. higher education. Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and based on responses from over 700 southern colleges and universities, this year's study, like last…

  9. Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    "Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006" represents the fourth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. This year's study, like those for the previous three years, is aimed at answering some of the fundamental questions about the nature and extent of online education. Supported by the Alfred P.…

  10. "Soka Kyoikugaku Taikei" versus "Education for Creative Living": How Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's Educational Ideas Are Presented in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inukai, Nozomi

    2013-01-01

    The only available English translation of Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's most characteristic work, "Soka Kyoikugaku Taikei" ("The System of Value-Creating Pedagogy"; 1930-1934), was published as "Education for Creative Living" in 1989 with Alfred Birnbaum as the translator and Dayle M. Bethel as the editor. "Education for Creative Living", not…

  11. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  12. Faculty Retirement Transitions Revitalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ummersen, Claire; Duranleau, Lauren; McLaughlin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost ten years since the American Council on Education (ACE) began to raise awareness of the importance of workplace flexibility in faculty careers and to encourage colleges and universities to support faculty in better integrating their professional and personal lives. With the generous support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ACE…

  13. Learning To Work Smarter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    With support from federal grants and area industry, the Alfred State College of Technology in New York's Southern Tier is training future workers for high-skill manufacturing jobs. The college offers certification and associate's degree programs in welding and machine-tool technology and is developing a training program in computer technology.…

  14. Mathematics as Liberal Education: Whitehead and the Rhythm of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Howard

    2012-01-01

    In several of his works, Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) presents mathematics as a way of learning about general ideas that increase our understanding of the universe. The danger is that students get bogged down in its technical operations. He argues that mathematics should be an integral part of a new kind of liberal education, incorporating…

  15. Multidimensionality of Cultural Practices: Implications for Culturally Relevant Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ares, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Alfred Schademan's close and systematic analysis of the sociohistorical and science-related practices developed by African American men goes a long way in disrupting deficit-based notions of such students' capabilities. The rich resources he identifies open many possibilities for connecting peer and classroom knowledges. This response offers some…

  16. The Economic Impact of University Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Alfred R. III

    2005-01-01

    This article is an edited version of a speech given by Alfred R. Berkeley, former President and Vice-Chairman of the NASDAQ Stock Market Inc, as part of the 30th anniversary celebrations of the US Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) during the 2004 AUTM Annual MeetingSM. The article stresses the increasingly important role of…

  17. Enterprise Education: Revisiting Whitehead to Satisfy Gibbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to demonstrate that a truly learner-centered enterprise education programmer can be developed within a traditional business school environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper unites the broad teaching philosophy of Alfred Whitehead with that of Allan Gibbs's enterprise specific teaching philosophies to consider…

  18. Educational Leadership. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollett, John R., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on educational leadership from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Electronic Curriculum Development and Assessment" (Kevin M. Anderson and Cindy L. Anderson); "The Dilemma of Teacher Training" (Alfred Bork); "Technology and Higher Education Administration"…

  19. Managing Colleges and Universities: Issues for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Summers, Randal W., Ed.

    This collection of papers highlights topics relating to leadership in higher education. After a "Foreword" (Dean L. Hubbard) and "Introduction" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randal W. Summers), the 12 chapters are: (1) "Organizational Structure, Management, and Leadership for the Future" (Richard Alfred and Scott Rosevear); (2) "The Practitioner's…

  20. Teaching Business Shops and Stores' Locations through Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daihu; Wang, Ziying; Wu, Xianliang; Fu, Wenru

    2014-01-01

    Location, where geographic elements interwork spatially and dynamically, has been one of the enduring themes in geographic studies. There are a number of location theories to explain why things are located where they are. Alfred Weber's location theory stresses that the least cost of delivering products is a key factor in location selection,…

  1. Foreign Language in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard D., Ed.; Moore, Sarah Jane, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue of the journal, devoted to the subject of languages in the workplace, include: "Language Use in International Research" (Eugene Garfield, Alfred Welljams-Dorof); "The Foreign Language Needs of U.S.-Based Corporations" (Carol S. Fixman); "Foreign Language Use Among International Business Graduates" (Richard D. Lambert);…

  2. The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Enhancing Student Discipline in Secondary Schools in Koibatek District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgong, Victor Kipkemboi; Ngumi, Owen; Chege, Kimani

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the role of guidance and counseling in enhancing student discipline in secondary schools in Koibatek district. The study was guided by Alfred Adler (1998) theory of personality, and humanistic theory of Albert Bandura (1995) social learning model. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design.…

  3. Positioning Online Learning as a Strategic Asset in the Thinking of University Presidents and Chancellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Samuel H.; Smith, Samuel H.; Samors, Robert; Mayadas, A. Frank

    2008-01-01

    Within our nation's public universities, online courses and programs have been increasing in number. This increase has led to the establishment of a National Commission on Online Learning through a collaborative effort between the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. This commission…

  4. Online Learning as a Strategic Asset. Volume II: The Paradox of Faculty Voices--Views and Experiences with Online Learning. Results of a National Faculty Survey, Part of the Online Education Benchmarking Study Conducted by the APLU-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities- (APLU-) Sloan National Commission on Online Learning was created through a generous grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The purpose of the Commission was to engage the presidents, chancellors, and other institutional leaders in a unique, comprehensive discussion of the…

  5. Exploring the Significance of Resource-Rich Views in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In a recently published article in Cultural Studies of Science Education (Volume 6, Issue 2) titled, "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men", Alfred Schademan (Cult Stud Sci Educ 6:361-380, "2011") examines the resources that African American young men learn through playing a card came…

  6. National ESEA Chapter 1 Schoolwide Projects Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This document is a collection of schoolwide compensatory education project plans for 22 elementary schools in the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Schools system, with funding provided by Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. Chapter 1 project plans are included for the following schools: (1) Alfred A. Benesch; (2) Andrew J.…

  7. Librarians Form a Bridge of Books to Advance Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rawson, Casey H.; McCracken, Lisa; Leonard, Mary Gray; Cunningham, Heather; Vance, Katy J.; Boone, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    School librarians are natural partners in the effort to improve the education, social and employment outcomes of black males. School librarians in Durham, N.C., have been working to close the literacy gap for black males. One of the literacy initiatives centered on the work of Alfred W. Tatum who believes that efforts to engage black males in…

  8. A Threat to Accreditation: Defamation Judgment against an Accreditation Team Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Delaware Law School founder Alfred Avins successfully sued accreditation team member James White for defamation as a result of comments made in 1974 and 1975. An appeals brief claims Avins was a "public figure," that he consented to accreditation, and that the accreditation process deserves court protection against such suits. (PGD)

  9. The Integration of Christian Spirituality and Learning in Counselor Education: A Lesson from Adler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Kenneth

    The relationship between spirituality, and counseling and psychotherapy has been given increased attention in recent years. The author suggests that the teachings of Alfred Adler may assist counselor educators in integrating faith and learning in an unimposing manner respectful of religious tenets, focusing on spirituality, which can include…

  10. Democracy in the Hearing Impaired Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, James F.; Moore, Marian B.

    1974-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce classroom misbehavior and encourage positive accomplishments among congenitally deaf children, a democratic theoretical model based on the concepts of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs was applied with 27 deaf children (ages 4 to 9 years) in four classes. (LC)

  11. Adlerian Counseling: A Practical Approach for a New Decade. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Thomas J.

    This book describes the practical applications of the psychology of Alfred Adler. The first chapter provides a short introduction to Adler and his work. Chapter 2 contains a compendium of the latest research and practices on the characteristics of healthy persons as they relate to individual psychology. Chapters 3 and 4 explain dimensions and uses…

  12. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  13. An Introduction to Adlerian Psychology for the School Counsellor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alan M.

    The life and work of Alfred Adler is outlined with a listing and explanation of the five principles of his Individual Psychology: (1) social interest, (2) self-determinism, (3) goal directed behavior, (4) subjectively interpreted perception, and (5) holism. The Adlerian terms, life style and family constellation are likewise explained. There is…

  14. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  15. The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

  16. Adlerian Counseling: A Practitioner's Approach. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Thomas J.

    Written with the practitioner in mind, this overview of the theory and practice of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology explains the dimensions and uses of natural and logical consequences--the twin bases of Adlerian/Individual Psychology. The text takes a practical approach to the topic, and covers a variety of settings (school, home, community,…

  17. Adlerian Therapy with Aggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizer, Betty

    Alfred Adler devised a theory that was holistic, social, teleological, and phenomenological. Adler believed that the basis of problems with children originated in the child's inability to cooperate with society, feelings of inferiority, and a lack of a goal in life. Adler felt the child's life should be examined through the child's eyes.…

  18. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  19. Melville: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Richard Chase, D. H. Lawrence, Newton Arvin, Alfred Kazin, Henry A. Murray, R. P. Blackmur, Marius Bewley, Richard Harter Fogle, Daniel G. Hoffman, Robert Penn Warren, and F. O. Matthiessen--all dealing with the biography…

  20. Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Anthony

    1971-01-01

    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  1. A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Saundra Kay

    This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked to tape…

  2. From Weber to Parsons and Shutz: The Eclipse of History in Modern Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaret, David

    1980-01-01

    Compares the relationship between theoretical synthesis and historical research in light of research by Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, and Alfred Schutz. Traces theoretical developments within one subfield of sociology (action theory) and relates these developments to research problems confronting contemporary theoretical work in sociology. (DB)

  3. A Model and a Metalanguage for Research on Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A model of two-person interaction in psychological counseling, which is derived from Alfred Schutz's phenomenological theory of social relations, and a computer-assisted metalanguage based on case-grammar theory are presented, and their applicability to the analysis of natural language in counseling is argued. (Author)

  4. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  5. "You Don't Have Like an Identity...You Are Just Lost in a Crowd:" Forming a Student Identity in the First-Year Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Lesley; Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on research grounded in a theoretical framework informed by the work of Alfred Schutz and of Berger and Luckmann and explores transition to university as a loss experience. The specific loss examined here is that which results from student identity discontinuity as they undertake the initial transition to university--a…

  6. A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    How did standardized tests become the measure of performance in our public schools? In this compelling work, Mark J. Garrison attempts to answer this question by analyzing the development of standardized testing, from the days of Horace Mann and Alfred Binet to the current scene. Approaching the issue from a sociohistorical perspective, the author…

  7. Infant Mortality, Morbidity, and Childhood Handicapping Conditions: Psychosocial Factors. Based on Proceedings of a Bi-Regional Conference (Atlanta, Georgia, June 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Elizabeth L., Ed.; Melnick, Leslie R., Ed.

    In Part I, "Extent of Knowledge and Implications for Social Work Intervention," the following conference papers are presented: (1) "Unintended Pregnancy and Infant Mortality, Strategies and Interventions" (Alfred W. Brann, Jr.); (2) "Implications for Social Work Intervention in Biopsychosocial Factors Associated with Infant Mortality and…

  8. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Readjustment, Education, and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs: United States Senate, 92nd Congress, First Session (April 28, May 10, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Veteran's Affairs.

    Hearings held before a Congressional Committee on the problems of Readjustment and Job Assistance for Vietnam Veterans include the statements of H. R. Rainwater, Commander in Chief, Veterans of Foreign Wars and Alfred P. Chamie, National Commander, the American Legion. The need for vocational training for veterans is emphasized, this to include…

  9. Reaching Teachers and Students: Stargazing on the Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Julie; Thomas, Jay

    2006-01-01

    With support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Siemens Foundation, and the Associated Colleges of Illinois (ACI), National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and Technology (NCSSSMST) hosted its third summer science program in June 2006 at Aurora (IL) University's Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, campus. This program…

  10. Sloan Foundation Clicks "End Program" for Its Online-Education Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation is closing its online-education grant program, and some college officials are concerned that the decision will leave a fast-growing sector of American higher education without a major source of support. The New York City-based foundation has funneled roughly $80-million into online-education ventures around the…

  11. Communication and Mental Health: Psychiatric Forerunners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Deems M.

    The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…

  12. The Voyages of Columbus: A Turning Point in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Alfred W.; Nader, Helen

    The far-reaching and transforming interactions of the Old World and the New are known today as "the Columbian Exchange." Part 1 of this booklet is an introduction by John J. Patrick dealing with teaching about the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Part 2, "Columbus and Ecological Imperialism," by Alfred W. Crosby, provides an ecological perspective…

  13. Perspective: A Pull in Two Directions--Mothers Torn between Work and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anne Pleshette

    2004-01-01

    This article was excerpted from the author's "The 7 Stages of Motherhood: Making the Most of Your Life as a Mom," published by Alfred A. Knopf in 2004. The author describes the experiences of several professional women, including herself, returning to work from maternity leave. The article examines the varied and sometimes ambivalent responses…

  14. The Sloan Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2008-01-01

    This paper is basically the "story" of the Sloan Semester. It is written in a journalistic/case-study style. The Sloan Semester was a vibrant and vitally important undertaking that required the immediate attention of a group of dedicated educators. The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, though its sponsorship of the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C), financed…

  15. Effects of coal combustion byproduct encapsulated ammonium nitrate on wheat yield and uptake of nitrogen and metals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient that is taken up in large quantity. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used in agriculture as an N fertilizer, but it is also an ingredient in explosives. As a result of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in April 1995, regulations o...

  16. Social Inequality and Measurement of Cognition in the Schools: Focusing on Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    Social class, as reflected in socioeconomic status (SES), has such a profound influence on all aspects of performance that it is perhaps the most powerful predictor of academic achievement. Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests in one form or another have been used for quantitative assessment of academic ability since Alfred Binet first developed the…

  17. 35. Photographic copy of second floor plan of Bowditch Hall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of second floor plan of Bowditch Hall, Alfred Hopkins & Associates, 1943. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  18. 34. Photographic copy of first floor plan of Bowditch Hall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of first floor plan of Bowditch Hall, Alfred Hopkins & Associates, 1943. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  19. 36. Photographic copy of third floor plan of Bowditch Hall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of third floor plan of Bowditch Hall, Alfred Hopkins & Associates, 1943. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  20. The Decisions of Elementary School Principals: A Test of Ideal Type Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, John T.

    Interviews with 25 Georgia elementary school principals provided data that could be used to test an application of Max Weber's ideal type methodology to decision-making. Alfred Schuetz's model of the rational act, based on one of Weber's ideal types, was analyzed and translated into describable acts and behaviors. Interview procedures were…

  1. Perspectives on the Organization of Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s, under the aegis of such leading sociologists as Talcott Parsons, anthropologists like Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard and Alfred Kroeber of the University of California at Berkeley, as well as political scientists Gabriel Almond and Lucien Pye, of Yale and MIT, respectively, the analysis of societal and political culture came to play a…

  2. Ke Ha'a La Puna i Ka Makani: Pele and Hi'iaka Mo'olelo and the Possibilities for Hawaiian Literary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ho'omanawanui, ku'ualoha

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Hawai'i sponsored a symposium titled "Indigenizing the University." This symposium featured indigenous scholars such as Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Graham Smith, and Taiaiake Alfred, who addressed how indigenous political theory and methods of research were necessary to support indigenous research and how changes…

  3. Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better Human Resource Planning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of human resource planning and development for organizational effectiveness, and examines how the major components of a human resource planning and development system should be coordinated for maximum effectiveness. Available from Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,…

  4. Reaction Formulation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Reaction formation was studied by Sigmund Freud. This defense mechanism may be related to repression, substitution, reversal, and compensation (or over-compensation). Alfred Adler considered compensation a basic process in his individual psychology. Anna Freud discussed some defense mechanisms, and Bibring, Dwyer, Huntington, and Valenstein…

  5. Freud, Adler, and Women: Powers of the "Weak" and "Strong."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVitis, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses Freud's original psychoanalytic notions on women and morality and their influence on constructions of personality, power, culture, and socioeducational change. Also discussed is Freudian critic Alfred Adler's use of a larger external lens to focus women's lives in a wider context of "social interest" and social relationship.…

  6. Changes in Education and Measurement Since Sputnik. Annual Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems (10th, Los Angeles, California, May 5, 1961).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The 1961 meeting of the Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems dealt with changes in education and measurement since Sputnik. The following papers were presented: (1) "Who's Testing Whom and for What?" by Daniel D. Feder; (2) "Recent Development and Problems in the Teaching of English" by Alfred H. Grommon; (3) "The New Foreign Language…

  7. Online Learning and Student Satisfaction: Academic Standing, Ethnicity and Their influence on Facilitated Learning, Engagement, and Information Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, George; Wyatt, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    A study by Mullen and Tallent-Runnels (2006) found significance in the differences between online and traditional students' reports of instructors' academic support, instructors' demands, and students' satisfaction. They also recognized that the limitation to their study was their demographic data. In an original report funded by the Alfred P.…

  8. Analyzing the Factors that Influence Persistence Rates in STEM Field, Majors: Introduction to the Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the factors that influence persistence rates in STEM field majors, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation provided a grant to the Cornell Higher Education Research Institute in 2007 to study the question. The five papers in the symposium represent the output of the project. This introduction explains the motivation for…

  9. AERC 2000: An International Conference. Proceedings of the Annual Adult Education Research Conference (41st, Vancouver, Canada, June 2-4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sork, Thomas J., Ed.; Chapman, Valerie-Lee, Ed.; St. Clair, Ralf, Ed.

    These proceedings contain 102 papers, 32 roundtables, and 5 symposia. Among the papers are "Weathered by Their Experiences" (Aiken); "Politics of Knowledge and Theory Construction in Adult Education (AE)" (Alfred); "Self-Directed Learning as a Political Act" (Andruske); "All Things Bold and Beautiful" (Armstrong); "Violence Against Women" (Baird);…

  10. Summer Program Aims to Improve Literacy Skills of Black Male Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a summer program at the African American Adolescent Male Summer Literacy Institute which aims to improve literacy skills of black male teens. The African American Adolescent Male Summer Literacy Institute is now in its fourth year at the University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC). Alfred Tatum, director of the…

  11. Toward Eco-Civilization through Learning as Valuing: A Proposal for Whitehead Based Creative Inquiry in China's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of learning as valuing to support reform in Chinese schools as they transition from teaching as transmission to teaching as fostering creative inquiry in efforts to move China to become an eco-civilization. The notion of learning as valuing here is developed from the concept of value in the work of Alfred North…

  12. Indian Country Fellows: Foundations Pool Resources to Support TCU Faculty Dissertations, Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchbanks, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the American Indian College Fund helps tribal college and university (TCU) faculty members conduct research and complete their Ph.D.s--and tackle unique challenges. Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the fellowship programs administered by the College Fund pay a one-year stipend…

  13. Governance in Strategic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a retrospective look at governance in community colleges based on a working understanding of governance as a correlate of decision making. In its simplest form, governance is "a process for distributing authority, power, and influence in decision making among constituencies" (Alfred and Smydra, 1985, pp. 201-202). What…

  14. Anglo-French contributions to the recognition of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Kevin J.

    1982-01-01

    Early descriptions of rheumatoid arthritis in the English and French literature are reviewed. Charcot pointed out that the disease was recognised as distinct from gout in eighteenth century England, and pictorial evidence for this is presented. His own work on arthritis led to a series of noteworthy interactions with Alfred Baring Garrod, which are discussed. Images PMID:7051988

  15. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  16. WATERCOLOR RENDERING OF CABIN JOHN BRIDGE SCAFFOLDING. CAPTAIN M.C. MEIGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATERCOLOR RENDERING OF CABIN JOHN BRIDGE SCAFFOLDING. CAPTAIN M.C. MEIGS, CHIEF ENGINEER; ALFRED RIVES, ASSISTANT ENGINEER, DELINEATOR. NOVEMBER 30, 1859 - Cabin John Aqueduct Bridge, MacArthur Boulevard, spanning Cabin John Creek at Parkway, Cabin John, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Constructing Green: Sustainability and the Places We Inhabit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce de Leon, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming dean of the A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Michigan, the author was a professor of architecture at Harvard University where she taught design studio, lecture, and seminar courses on topics including digital technology and the history of design and an introductory course on the…

  18. Honoring Our Roots and Branches...Our History and Future. Proceedings of the Annual Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education (19th, Madison, Wisconsin, September 27-29, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 44 presentations in these categories: distance education and evaluation; community issues and research; multicultural issues and research; teaching and learning; research methods; and organizational development. The papers are "Philosophical Foundations of Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning" (Alfred); "Adult…

  19. Whitehead's Benedictine Ideal in Education: Rhythms of Listening, Reading and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caranfa, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The article attempts to clarify the appeal to the Benedictine ideal that Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) makes in "The Aims of Education and Other Essays" as a way to renew the life of the spirit in education. In particular, the essay will consider St. Benedict's three central themes of Whitehead's philosophy: freedom and discipline, the…

  20. Final Report of the Women's Experiences in College Engineering (WECE) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Irene F.

    2002-01-01

    The Women's Experiences in College Engineering (WECE) project is the first cross-institutional, longitudinal examination of undergraduate women's experiences and persistence in engineering majors. The study was funded by both the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and conducted by Goodman Research Group, Inc. (GRG), a…