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Sample records for alga botryococcus braunii

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of a hydrocarbon-producing green alga Botryococcus braunii strain Showa.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiajun; Bi, Guiqi

    2016-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of Botryococcus braunii strain Showa was assembled and annotated. It contains 31 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA (23S, 16S, 5S rRNA) genes. The 31 protein-coding genes include 5 atp genes, 3 cox genes, 9 nad genes, 12 ribosomal protein genes, cob and tatC genes. The presence of extra non-coding regions makes it currently the largest mitochondrial genome in Trebouxiophyceae. Phylogenetic analysis showed Botryococcus braunii strain Showa clustered into Trebouxiophyceae clade and had close genetic relationship with algae Coccomyxa sp. C-169. PMID:26119114

  2. A novel alphaproteobacterial ectosymbiont promotes the growth of the hydrocarbon-rich green alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Okazaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Kai, Atsushi; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2015-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colony-forming green alga that accumulates large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons within the colony. The utilization of B. braunii for biofuel production is however hindered by its low biomass productivity. Here we describe a novel bacterial ectosymbiont (BOTRYCO-2) that confers higher biomass productivity to B. braunii. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the sequence of BOTRYCO-2 shows low similarity (<90%) to cultured bacterial species and located BOTRYCO-2 within a phylogenetic lineage consisting of uncultured alphaproteobacterial clones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies and transmission electric microscopy indicated that BOTRYCO-2 is closely associated with B. braunii colonies. Interestingly, FISH analysis of a water bloom sample also found BOTRYCO-2 bacteria in close association with cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa colonies, suggesting that BOTRYCO-2 relatives have high affinity to phytoplankton colonies. A PCR survey of algal bloom samples revealed that the BOTRYCO-2 lineage is commonly found in Microcystis associated blooms. Growth experiments indicated that B. braunii Ba10 can grow faster and has a higher biomass (1.8-fold) and hydrocarbon (1.5-fold) yield in the presence of BOTRYCO-2. Additionally, BOTRYCO-2 conferred a higher biomass yield to BOT-22, one of the fastest growing strains of B. braunii. We propose the species name 'Candidatus Phycosocius bacilliformis' for BOTRYCO-2. PMID:26130609

  3. A novel alphaproteobacterial ectosymbiont promotes the growth of the hydrocarbon-rich green alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Okazaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Kai, Atsushi; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Makoto M.

    2015-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colony-forming green alga that accumulates large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons within the colony. The utilization of B. braunii for biofuel production is however hindered by its low biomass productivity. Here we describe a novel bacterial ectosymbiont (BOTRYCO-2) that confers higher biomass productivity to B. braunii. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the sequence of BOTRYCO-2 shows low similarity (<90%) to cultured bacterial species and located BOTRYCO-2 within a phylogenetic lineage consisting of uncultured alphaproteobacterial clones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies and transmission electric microscopy indicated that BOTRYCO-2 is closely associated with B. braunii colonies. Interestingly, FISH analysis of a water bloom sample also found BOTRYCO-2 bacteria in close association with cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa colonies, suggesting that BOTRYCO-2 relatives have high affinity to phytoplankton colonies. A PCR survey of algal bloom samples revealed that the BOTRYCO-2 lineage is commonly found in Microcystis associated blooms. Growth experiments indicated that B. braunii Ba10 can grow faster and has a higher biomass (1.8-fold) and hydrocarbon (1.5-fold) yield in the presence of BOTRYCO-2. Additionally, BOTRYCO-2 conferred a higher biomass yield to BOT-22, one of the fastest growing strains of B. braunii. We propose the species name ‘Candidatus Phycosocius bacilliformis’ for BOTRYCO-2. PMID:26130609

  4. Active Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Accumulation in a Green Alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race A)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Mana; Mukaida, Fukiko; Okada, Sigeru

    2013-01-01

    Among oleaginous microalgae, the colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii accumulates especially large quantities of hydrocarbons. This accumulation may be achieved more by storage of lipids in the extracellular space rather than in the cytoplasm, as is the case for all other examined oleaginous microalgae. The stage of hydrocarbon synthesis during the cell cycle was determined by autoradiography. The cell cycle of B. braunii race A was synchronized by aminouracil treatment, and cells were taken at various stages in the cell cycle and cultured in a medium containing [14C]acetate. Incorporation of 14C into hydrocarbons was detected. The highest labeling occurred just after septum formation, when it was about 2.6 times the rate during interphase. Fluorescent and electron microscopy revealed that new lipid accumulation on the cell surface occurred during at least two different growth stages and sites of cells. Lipid bodies in the cytoplasm were not prominent in interphase cells. These lipid bodies then increased in number, size, and inclusions, reaching maximum values just before the first lipid accumulation on the cell surface at the cell apex. Most of them disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the second new accumulation at the basolateral region, where extracellular lipids continuously accumulated. The rough endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane is prominent in B. braunii, and the endoplasmic reticulum was often in contact with both a chloroplast and lipid bodies in cells with increasing numbers of lipid bodies. We discuss the transport pathway of precursors of extracellular hydrocarbons in race A. PMID:23794509

  5. Colony organization in the green alga Botryococcus braunii is specified by a complex extracellular matrix

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Weiss, Taylor L.; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vithda, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Goodenough, Ursula

    2012-08-31

    Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quickfreeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell ismore » surrounded by a fibrous β-1, 4- and/or β-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. In addition, we propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM.« less

  6. Study of a bloom of the oil-rich alga Botryococcus braunii in the Darwin River Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, L.V.; Hillen, L.W.

    1980-01-01

    A bloom of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii Kutzing appeared in the Darwin River Reservoir in 1976. At the time of algal sampling, the bloom was estimated at 1500 ton and possibly double this mass at a maximum cell concentration. The alga is characterized by a high liquid hydrocarbon content, sufficient to cause flotation of the algal colonies. This report is an examination of the waters of the reservoir and of the characteristics of the alga. Observations are included on the formation of a material known as Coorongite, a rubbery complex produced by the drying of colony aggregates at the shoreline. Earlier reports of blooms of B. braunii are reviewed in relation to this study. 42 references.

  7. Micronutrient Requirements for Growth and Hydrocarbon Production in the Oil Producing Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang; Qin, Jian G.; Su, Shengqi; Xu, Jianhe; Clarke, Stephen; Shan, Yichu

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of micronutrients for biomass and hydrocarbon production in Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were studied using response surface methodology. The concentrations of four micronutrients (iron, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel) were manipulated to achieve the best performance of B. braunii in laboratory conditions. The responses of algal biomass and hydrocarbon to the concentration variations of the four micronutrients were estimated by a second order quadratic regression model. Genetic algorithm calculations showed that the optimal level of micronutrients for algal biomass were 0.266 µM iron, 0.707 µM manganese, 0.624 µM molybdenum and 3.38 µM nickel. The maximum hydrocarbon content could be achieved when the culture media contained 10.43 µM iron, 6.53 µM manganese, 0.012 µM molybdenum and 1.73 µM nickel. The validation through an independent test in a photobioreactor suggests that the modified media with optimised concentrations of trace elements can increase algal biomass by 34.5% and hydrocarbon by 27.4%. This study indicates that micronutrients play significant roles in regulating algal growth and hydrocarbon production, and the response surface methodology can be used to optimise the composition of culture medium in algal culture. PMID:22848502

  8. Nitrogen deprivation-induced de novo transcriptomic profiling of the oleaginous green alga Botryococcus braunii 779.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenyu; He, Jing; Qi, Shuyuan; Liu, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effect of nitrogen deprivation (ND), a moderately growing A-race Botryococcus braunii subisolate 779 was subjected to nitrogen deprivation for 3 days. De novo transcriptome was assembled and annotated by using Trinity software and Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST), respectively. Comparative analysis indicates that transcriptomes of A-races differ from those of B-races. Furthermore, majority of the homologous ESTs in A-race but not B-race transcriptomes were unknown sequences. Upon ND, level of photosynthetic transcripts, but not photosynthetic efficiency was downregulated. Unlike hydrocarbon contents, ESTs involved in hydrocarbon biosynthesis were not upregulated. Taken together, our results imply that A- and B-races belong to different B. braunii subspecies. Upon ND, excess photosynthetic transcripts are recycled for nitrogen; and hydrocarbon accumulation is not via de novo biosynthesis. Here we describe in details the data contents and analytic methodologies associated with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE71296). PMID:26697382

  9. Hydrocracking of the oils of Botryococcus braunii for transport fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hillen, L.W.; Pollard, G.; Wake, L.V.; White, N.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrocarbon oils of the alga Botryococcus braunii, extracted from a natural ''bloom'' of the plant, have been hydrocracked to produce a distillate comprising 67% gasoline fraction, 15% aviation turbine fuel fraction, 15% diesel fuel fraction, and 3% residual oil. The distillate was examined by a number of standard petroleum industry test methods. This preliminary investigation indicates that the oils of B. braunii are suitable as a feedstock material for hydrocracking to transportation fuels;

  10. Hydrocracking of the oils of Botryococcus braunii to transport fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hillen, L.W.; Pollard, G.; Wake, L.V.; White, N.

    1980-07-01

    Hydrocarbon oils of the alga Botryococcus braunii, extracted from a natural 'bloom' of the plant, have been hydrocracked to produce a distillate comprising 67% a petrol fraction, 15% an aviation turbine fuel fraction, 15% a diesel fuel fraction and 3% residual oil. The distillate was examined by a number of standard petroleum industry test methods. This preliminary investigation indicates that the oils of B. braunii are suitable as a feedstock material for hydrocracking to transport fuels.

  11. Hydrocracking of the oils of Botryococcus braunii to transport fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hillen, L.W.; Pollard, G.; Wakr, L.V.; White, N.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrocarbon oils of the alga Botryococcus braunii, extracted from a natural ''bloom'' of the plant, have been hydrocracked to produce a distillate comprising 67% gasoline fraction, 15% aviation turbine fuel fraction, 15% diesel fule fraction, and 3% residual oil. The distillate was examined by a number of standard petroleum industry test methods. This preliminary investigation indicates that the oils of B. braunii are suitable as a feedstock material for hydrocracking to transport fuels.

  12. Colony organization in the green alga Botryococcus braunii is specified by a complex extracellular matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Taylor L.; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vithda, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Goodenough, Ursula

    2012-08-31

    Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quickfreeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous β-1, 4- and/or β-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. In addition, we propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM.

  13. Colony Organization in the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) Is Specified by a Complex Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Taylor L.; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous β-1, 4- and/or β-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form “drapes” between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

  14. Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of the Hydrocarbon Oil-Producing Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii Race B (Showa)

    PubMed Central

    Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Botryococcus braunii is capable of the production and excretion of high quantities of long-chain hydrocarbons and exopolysaccharides. In this study, we present the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes of the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa), with a total length of 156,498 and 129,356 bp, respectively. PMID:27284138

  15. Seawater-Cultured Botryococcus braunii for Efficient Hydrocarbon Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Kenichi; Saga, Kiyotaka; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    As a potential source of biofuel, the green colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of hydrocarbons that are accumulated in the extracellular matrix. Generally, pretreatment such as drying or heating of wet algae is needed for sufficient recoveries of hydrocarbons from B. braunii using organic solvents. In this study, the Showa strain of B. braunii was cultured in media derived from the modified Chu13 medium by supplying artificial seawater, natural seawater, or NaCl. After a certain period of culture in the media with an osmotic pressure corresponding to 1/4-seawater, hydrocarbon recovery rates exceeding 90% were obtained by simply mixing intact wet algae with n-hexane without any pretreatments and the results using the present culture conditions indicate the potential for hydrocarbon milking. Highlights Seawater was used for efficient hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii. The alga was cultured in media prepared with seawater or NaCl. Hydrocarbon recovery rate exceeding 90% was obtained without any pretreatment. PMID:23799107

  16. Functional Identification of Triterpene Methyltransferases from Botryococcus braunii Race B*

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, Tom D.; Kinison, Scott; Okada, Shigeru; Yeo, Yun-soo; Bell, Stephen A.; Cui, Ping; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Chappell, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii race B is a colony-forming, green algae that accumulates triterpene oils in excess of 30% of its dry weight. The composition of the triterpene oils is dominated by dimethylated to tetramethylated forms of botryococcene and squalene. Although unusual mechanisms for the biosynthesis of botryococcene and squalene were recently described, the enzyme(s) responsible for decorating these triterpene scaffolds with methyl substituents were unknown. A transcriptome of B. braunii was screened computationally assuming that the triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) might resemble the S-adenosyl methionine-dependent enzymes described for methylating the side chain of sterols. Six sterol methyltransferase-like genes were isolated and functionally characterized. Three of these genes when co-expressed in yeast with complementary squalene synthase or botryococcene synthase expression cassettes resulted in the accumulation of mono- and dimethylated forms of both triterpene scaffolds. Surprisingly, TMT-1 and TMT-2 exhibited preference for squalene as the methyl acceptor substrate, whereas TMT-3 showed a striking preference for botryococcene as its methyl acceptor substrate. These in vivo preferences were confirmed with in vitro assays utilizing microsomal preparations from yeast overexpressing the respective genes, which encode for membrane-associated enzymes. Structural examination of the in vivo yeast generated mono- and dimethylated products by NMR identified terminal carbons, C-3 and C-22/C-20, as the atomic acceptor sites for the methyl additions to squalene and botryococcene, respectively. These sites are identical to those previously reported for the triterpenes extracted from the algae. The availability of closely related triterpene methyltransferases exhibiting distinct substrate selectivity and successive catalytic activities provides important tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the specificities exhibited by these unique

  17. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga thatmore » compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.« less

  18. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    SciTech Connect

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.

  19. Culture of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii Showa with LED irradiation eliminating violet light enhances hydrocarbon production and recovery.

    PubMed

    Atobe, Sueko; Saga, Kiyotaka; Maeyama, Haruko; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii), race B, was cultured under light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation with and without violet light. This study examined the effect of violet light on hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. C34 botryococcene hydrocarbons were efficiently extracted by thermal pretreatments at lower temperatures when the alga was cultured without violet light. The hydrocarbon content was also higher (approximately 3%) in samples cultured without violet light. To elucidate the mechanism of effective hydrocarbon recovery and production, we examined structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The amounts of extracellular carotenoids and water-soluble polymers extracted by thermal pretreatment from the ECM were decreased when the alga was cultured without violet light. These results indicate that LED irradiation without violet light is more effective for hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. Furthermore, structural ECM components are closely involved in hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. PMID:25069809

  20. Effect of thermal pretreatments on hydrocarbon recovery from Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Magota, A; Saga, K; Okada, S; Atobe, S; Imou, K

    2012-11-01

    Thermal pretreatment were tested to increase the recovery of hydrocarbons from Botryococcus braunii/water mixtures via extraction with hexane. The effectiveness of treatment temperature was dependent on the B. braunii strain and the lowest temperatures which recovered over 90% of hydrocarbons were 60, 85 and 75°C for the Yamanaka, Showa and Kawaguchi-1 strains respectively. The holding times of thermal pretreatment had less of an influence on hydrocarbon recovery than treatment temperature and, depending on the strain, recoveries of between 74.9% and 94.9% were achieved after thermal pretreatments at 80-90°C for only 2.5min. These results suggest thermal pretreatment could reduce the energy consumption of oil recovery process from wet B. braunii cells. PMID:22940319

  1. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy. Results A de novo assembly of 1,334,609 next-generation pyrosequencing reads form the Showa strain of the B race of B. braunii yielded a transcriptomic database of 46,422 contigs with an average length of 756 bp. Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of pathways that produce terpenoid liquid hydrocarbons from primary metabolites, and pathways that divert photosynthetic carbon into tetraterpenoid carotenoids, diterpenoids, and the prenyl chains of meroterpenoid quinones and chlorophyll. Inventories of machine-assembled contigs are also presented for reconstructed pathways for the biosynthesis of competing storage compounds including triacylglycerol and starch. Regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, and the extracellular localization of the hydrocarbon oils by active transport and possibly autophagy are also investigated. Conclusions The construction of an annotated transcriptomic database, publicly available in a web-based data depository and annotation tool, provides a foundation for metabolic pathway and network reconstruction, and facilitates further omics studies in the absence of a genome sequence for the Showa strain of

  2. Identification of unique mechanisms for triterpene biosynthesis in Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, Tom D.; Okada, Shigeru; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Watt, David S.; Sviripa, Vitaliy; Chappell, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Botryococcene biosynthesis is thought to resemble that of squalene, a metabolite essential for sterol metabolism in all eukaryotes. Squalene arises from an initial condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form presqualene diphosphate (PSPP), which then undergoes a reductive rearrangement to form squalene. In principle, botryococcene could arise from an alternative rearrangement of the presqualene intermediate. Because of these proposed similarities, we predicted that a botryococcene synthase would resemble squalene synthase and hence isolated squalene synthase-like genes from Botryococcus braunii race B. While B. braunii does harbor at least one typical squalene synthase, none of the other three squalene synthase-like (SSL) genes encodes for botryococcene biosynthesis directly. SSL-1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of PSPP and SSL-2 the biosynthesis of bisfarnesyl ether, while SSL-3 does not appear able to directly utilize FPP as a substrate. However, when combinations of the synthase-like enzymes were mixed together, in vivo and in vitro, robust botryococcene (SSL-1+SSL-3) or squalene biosynthesis (SSL1+SSL-2) was observed. These findings were unexpected because squalene synthase, an ancient and likely progenitor to the other Botryococcus triterpene synthases, catalyzes a two-step reaction within a single enzyme unit without intermediate release, yet in B. braunii, these activities appear to have separated and evolved interdependently for specialized triterpene oil production greater than 500 MYA. Coexpression of the SSL-1 and SSL-3 genes in different configurations, as independent genes, as gene fusions, or targeted to intracellular membranes, also demonstrate the potential for engineering even greater efficiencies of botryococcene biosynthesis. PMID:21746901

  3. Hydrocarbon production in high density Botryococcus braunii race B continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Waqas; Hendrix, Robert; Niehaus, Tom; Chappell, Joe; Curtis, Wayne R

    2014-03-01

    Continuous cultures of Botryococcus braunii race B were maintained at photosynthetic cell densities as high as 20 g dry weight per liter for up to 3 months. Growth associated triterpene hydrocarbon accumulation was nearly constant at 22.5% of dry weight for a range of growth rates maintained by daily replacement of 5-15% of the respective cultures. The ability to achieve high cell concentrations and oil levels of roughly 5 g triterpene oil/L resulted from a combination of high light (∼ 1/4 full sun for 15 h/day) and replenishing stoichiometrically balanced growth medium. Due to light-limited growth conditions, cell concentration dropped nearly linearly with increased dilution rate. This reduction in cell number resulted in increased productivity per cell at higher dilution rates and was accompanied by a dramatic increase in algae colony size from 0.09 to 0.343 mm at high dilution rate. This change in colony size resulted in an equally dramatic change in optical density (OD) per gram dry weight, which precluded use of simple correlations of OD and cell concentration. A trickle-film photobioreactor was also demonstrated as a scalable approach to achieving these ultra-high cell concentrations. Additional media analysis revealed a steady increase in photobioreactor conductivity suggesting an accumulation of ions may be the reason for rapid culture crash and washout observed at all dilution rates after several months of continuous operation. The volumetric productivity of 22.5 mg oil/L/photo-h reported here is more than an order of magnitude higher than previous reports for B. braunii race B, reflecting the high cell densities used in this work and substantiating a higher metabolic rate for B. braunii race B than previously surmised from its relatively long doubling times. PMID:24122424

  4. Biosynthesis, purification and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Botryococcus braunii kütz.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Ganapathy; Kurinjimalar, Chidambaram; Sivakumar, Krishnan; Palani, Perumal; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2016-08-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is completely biodegradable which is metabolised by microorganisms in the soil as their sole food source in few years. The level of PHB up to 10.6% of algal dry weight is of great potential of the eco-friendly nature. Botryococcus braunii is mainly used for the production of biodiesel and is also capable of producing biopolymer polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB). In this study, Botryococcus braunii is used which generally produce PHB to around 20% of the dry weight. Three different microalgae were isolated from the fresh water of Kolavoi lake of Tamil Nadu. They were identified by their morphological features under the light microscope. The primary screening of PHB intracellular granules was made by using Nile red dye under a fluorescent microscope. Among them, Botryococcus braunii showed high accumulation of PHB granules. For authentic confirmation, the chloroform extracted PHB was analysed by FTIR, XRD and DSC-TGA analyses to characterize PHB with commercial biodegradable thermoplastic. This is the first report in B. braunii for its PHB production. PMID:27151667

  5. A squalene synthase-like enzyme initiates production of tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in Botryococcus braunii Race L

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Hem R.; Naik, Mandar T.; Okada, Shigeru; Takada, Kentaro; Molnár, István; Xu, Yuquan; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii is considered a promising biofuel feedstock producer due to its prodigious accumulation of hydrocarbon oils that can be converted into fuels. B. braunii Race L produces the C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon lycopadiene via an uncharacterized biosynthetic pathway. Structural similarities suggest this pathway follows a biosynthetic mechanism analogous to that of C30 squalene. Confirming this hypothesis, the current study identifies C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) as a precursor for lycopaoctaene biosynthesis, the first committed intermediate in the production of lycopadiene. Two squalene synthase (SS)-like complementary DNAs are identified in race L with one encoding a true SS and the other encoding an enzyme with lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS) activity. Interestingly, LOS uses alternative C15 and C20 prenyl diphosphate substrates to produce combinatorial hybrid hydrocarbons, but almost exclusively uses GGPP in vivo. This discovery highlights how SS enzyme diversification results in the production of specialized tetraterpenoid oils in race L of B. braunii. PMID:27050299

  6. A squalene synthase-like enzyme initiates production of tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in Botryococcus braunii Race L.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Hem R; Naik, Mandar T; Okada, Shigeru; Takada, Kentaro; Molnár, István; Xu, Yuquan; Devarenne, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii is considered a promising biofuel feedstock producer due to its prodigious accumulation of hydrocarbon oils that can be converted into fuels. B. braunii Race L produces the C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon lycopadiene via an uncharacterized biosynthetic pathway. Structural similarities suggest this pathway follows a biosynthetic mechanism analogous to that of C30 squalene. Confirming this hypothesis, the current study identifies C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) as a precursor for lycopaoctaene biosynthesis, the first committed intermediate in the production of lycopadiene. Two squalene synthase (SS)-like complementary DNAs are identified in race L with one encoding a true SS and the other encoding an enzyme with lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS) activity. Interestingly, LOS uses alternative C15 and C20 prenyl diphosphate substrates to produce combinatorial hybrid hydrocarbons, but almost exclusively uses GGPP in vivo. This discovery highlights how SS enzyme diversification results in the production of specialized tetraterpenoid oils in race L of B. braunii. PMID:27050299

  7. Catalytic gasification of oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideo; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic gasification of the oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale continuous feeding dual bed reactor. Steam gasification at 1023 K over Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst can completely reform tar derived from pyrolysis of the residue biomass into C1 gases and hydrogen, and has achieved 91%-C conversion to gaseous product (CO+CO2+CH4). Composition of product gas has higher contents of CO and H2 with their ratio (H2/CO) of around 2.4 which is slightly H2-rich syngas. Maximum hydrogen yield of 74.7 mmol g-biomass(-1) obtained in this work is much higher than that from gasification of other algal biomass reported in literature. The residue biomass of B. braunii can be a superior renewable source of syngas or hydrogen. PMID:25817421

  8. Structure and chemistry of a new chemical race of Botryococcus braunii (chlorophyceae) that produces lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, P.; Allard, B.; Casadevall, E. ); Berkaloff, C.; Coute, A. )

    1990-06-01

    New strains of the hydrocarbon rich alga Botryococcus braunii Kuetzing were isolated from water samples collected in three tropical freshwater lakes. These strains synthesize lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid metabolite, as their sole hydrocarbon. The morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of these algae are similar to those reported for previously described strains which produce either alkadienes or botryococcenes. The pyriform shaped cells are embedded in a colonial matrix formed by layers of closely appressed external walls; this dense matrix is impregnated by the hydrocarbon and some other lipids. We believe the new strains synthesizing lycopadiene form a third chemical race in B. braunii, besides the alkadiene and botryococcene races, rather than a different species. Like the other two types of hydrocarbons, lycopadiene was produced primarily during the exponential and linear growth phases. The major fatty acid in the three races was oleic acid. This fatty acid was predominant in the alkadiene race; palmitic and octacosenoic acid also were present in appreciable amounts in the three races. Cholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol, 24-methylcholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol occurred in the three races; three unidentified sterols also were detected in the lycopadiene race. Moreover, the presence of very long chain alkenyl-phenols in the lipids of algae of the alkadiene race was not observed in the botryococcene and lycopadiene races. Of the polysaccharides released in the medium, galactose appeared as a primary component: it predominated in the botryococcene race. The other major constituents were fucose for the alkadiene race and glucose and fucose for the lycopadiene race.

  9. A squalene synthase-like enzyme initiates production of tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in Botryococcus braunii Race L

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Thapa, Hem R.; Naik, Mandar T.; Okada, Shigeru; Takada, Kentaro; Molnar, Istvan; Xu, Yuquan; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2016-04-06

    Here, the green microalga Botryococcus braunii is considered a promising biofuel feedstock producer due to its prodigious accumulation of hydrocarbon oils that can be converted into fuels. B. braunii Race L produces the C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon lycopadiene via an uncharacterized biosynthetic pathway. Structural similarities suggest this pathway follows a biosynthetic mechanism analogous to that of C30 squalene. Confirming this hypothesis, the current study identifies C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) as a precursor for lycopaoctaene biosynthesis, the first committed intermediate in the production of lycopadiene. Two squalene synthase (SS)-like complementary DNAs are identified in race L with one encoding a true SSmore » and the other encoding an enzyme with lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS) activity. Interestingly, LOS uses alternative C15 and C20 prenyl diphosphate substrates to produce combinatorial hybrid hydrocarbons, but almost exclusively uses GGPP in vivo. In conclusion, this discovery highlights how SS enzyme diversification results in the production of specialized tetraterpenoid oils in race L of B. braunii.« less

  10. Improvement of hydrocarbon recovery by spouting solvent into culture of Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Phill; Bahn, Sang-Hoon; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-12-01

    Botryococcus braunii, a green microalga, is known to produce plentiful liquid hydrocarbons as promising biodiesel resources. However, the hydrocarbon extraction methods that have so far achieved have several problems such as low efficiency and high cost. In our study, a solvent-spouted extraction process integrated with photo-bioculture was designed for simultaneous realization of hydrocarbon extraction and cell culture in two phases. The n-octane was selected as the best solvent among several solvents because its biocompatibility was highest for B. braunii. As a result, high level of biomass and hydrocarbon, 4.17 and 893.79 mg/L, respectively, was attained at 100 mL/min of solvent recycling rate through three times of processes for 66 days. Moreover, formation of cell clump was suppressed in solvent extraction, cells were regenerated after it, and thus cell viability was maintained even after repeated cycles of it. Finally, this solvent-spouted culture process required the smaller cost due to reuse of the less solvent and regenerated cells, compared with the other conventional methods. Accordingly, this technique would be applicable to exploit the continuous extraction of hydrocarbon from the algal biomass, especially for application on a large scale. PMID:23703677

  11. Raman spectroscopy analysis of botryococcene hydrocarbons from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Taylor L; Chun, Hye Jin; Okada, Shigeru; Vitha, Stanislav; Holzenburg, Andreas; Laane, Jaan; Devarenne, Timothy P

    2010-10-15

    Botryococcus braunii, B race is a unique green microalga that produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons known as botryococcenes that can be used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. The simplest botryococcene (C(30)) is metabolized by methylation to give intermediates of C(31), C(32), C(33), and C(34), with C(34) being the predominant botryococcene in some strains. In the present work we have used Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of botryococcenes in an attempt to identify and localize botryococcenes within B. braunii cells. The spectral region from 1600-1700 cm(-1) showed ν(C=C) stretching bands specific for botryococcenes. Distinct botryococcene Raman bands at 1640 and 1647 cm(-1) were assigned to the stretching of the C=C bond in the botryococcene branch and the exomethylene C=C bonds produced by the methylations, respectively. A Raman band at 1670 cm(-1) was assigned to the backbone C=C bond stretching. Density function theory calculations were used to determine the Raman spectra of all botryococcenes to compare computed theoretical values with those observed. The analysis showed that the ν(C=C) stretching bands at 1647 and 1670 cm(-1) are actually composed of several closely spaced bands arising from the six individual C=C bonds in the molecule. We also used confocal Raman microspectroscopy to map the presence and location of methylated botryococcenes within a colony of B. braunii cells based on the methylation-specific 1647 cm(-1) botryococcene Raman shift. PMID:20705610

  12. Closed pyrolyses of the isoprenoid algaenan of Botryococcus braunii, L race: geochemical implications for derived kerogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, F.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.

    1995-07-01

    Algaenans, i.e., highly aliphatic, nonhydrolysable, insoluble macromolecular constituents, have been identified in a number of microalga cell walls and their selective preservation shown to play a major role in the formation of numerous kerogens. All the algaenans so far examined comprise a network of long polymethylenic chains, except for the L race of Botryococcus braunii. The resistant macromolecular material isolated from the latter, termed PRB L, is based on C 40 isoprenoid chains with a lycopane-type skeleton. Recent comparative studies of PRB L and of Botryococcus-derived sediments provided the first example of kerogen formation via the selective preservation of an "isoprenoid" algaenan. The present study is concerned with PRB L pyrolyses in sealed gold tubes under various temperature/time conditions (260-350°C, 0.5-69 h). For the conversion rates thus obtained, ranging from 30 to 100%, a complete mass balance of the different families of pyrolysis products was established; most of the C 1 to C 40 pyrolysate constituents were identified and the abundances of the above compounds and their variations with conversion progress were determined. This study thus allowed us (1) to derive further information about PRB L chemical structure (location of the ether bridges, contribution of linear chains and their relationships with the C 40 isoprenoid ones), (2) to determine the behaviour of this isoprenoid algaenan to thermal stress (timing of the formation of the different groups of products then released, nature of the primary cleavages, origin and mode of formation of the secondary products, and further degradations), and (3) to show, in connection with previous studies, that PRB L-derived kerogens should exhibit pronounced differences relative to standard type I kerogens, the latter being based on polymethylenic chains, regarding not only the structure of the generated products but also the timing of oil generation (upward shift of the catagenesis zone).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cryogel structures for isolation of EPSs from Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Turu, Irem Cemre; Turkcan-Kayhan, Ceren; Kazan, Aslihan; Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Akgol, Sinan; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the objective was to separate exopolysaccharides (EPSs) released in the broth subsequent to outdoor cultivation of Botryococcus braunii. For this, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogels were synthesized. After that, the surface was modified by coupling Concanavalin A. Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of freezing temperature, Con A concentration and flow rate on Con A binding capacity. Optimum synthesis conditions were elicited as -14.48°C freezing temperature, 1.00mg/ml Con A concentration and 0.30ml/min flow rate yielding 3.18mg Con A/g cryogel, whereas -16°C, 1.00mg/ml and 0.30ml/min yielded the highest (3.38mg) binding capacity in experimental cryogel preparation. The EPS adsorption capacity of the optimum cryogel column was found as 3.26mg EPS/g cryogel corresponding to adsorption yield of 80%. Besides; swelling test, elemental analysis, Micro-CT, SEM and FTIR analysis were carried out for characterization of the synthesized cryogels. PMID:27312648

  14. Development of a draft-tube airlift bioreactor for Botryococcus braunii with an optimized inner structure using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Liu, Rui; Wang, Feng; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-09-01

    The key parameters of the inner structure of a cylindrical airlift bioreactor, including the ratio of the cross-section area of the downcomer to the cross-section area of the riser, clearance from the upper edge of the draft tube to the water level, and clearance from the low edge of the draft tube to the bottom of the reactor, significantly affected the biomass production of Botryococcus braunii. In order to achieve high algal cultivation performance, the optimal structural parameters of the bioreactor were determined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulated results were validated by experimental data collected from the microalgal cultures in both 2 and 40-L airlift bioreactors. The CFD model developed in this study provides a powerful means for optimizing bioreactor design and scale-up without the need to perform numerous time-consuming bioreactor experiments. PMID:22750496

  15. Culture of the hydrocarbon producing microalga Botryococcus braunii strain Showa: optimal CO2, salinity, temperature, and irradiance conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Okada, Shigeru; Honda, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Specific growth rates and hydrocarbon contents of Botryococcus braunii strain Showa were measured under a wide range of CO2, salinity, temperature, and irradiance conditions. The bubbling CO2 concentration of 0.2-5% and no addition of salinity were favorable conditions for growth. The strain cannot grow at 5°C and above 35°C under any irradiance levels. Maximum specific growth rate of 0.5 day(-1) (doubling time of 1.4 days), the highest value reported for B. braunii in the past studies, was observed at 30°C and 850 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). Since hydrocarbon productivity, shown as the product of hydrocarbon content and specific growth rate, increased with the increasing specific growth rate, we conclude that more efficient hydrocarbon production by the mass culture of strain Showa can be achieved by maintaining higher specific growth rate based on the culture conditions presented in this study. PMID:23428820

  16. Low-cost production of green microalga Botryococcus braunii biomass with high lipid content through mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2014-09-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a microalga that is regarded as a potential source of renewable fuel because of its ability to produce large amounts of lipid that can be converted into biodiesel. Agro-industrial by-products and wastes are of great interest as cultivation medium for microorganisms because of their low cost, renewable nature, and abundance. In this study, two strategies for low-cost production of B. braunii biomass with high lipid content were performed: (i) the mixotrophic cultivation using molasses, a cheap by-product from the sugar cane plant as a carbon source, and (ii) the photoautotrophic cultivation using nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with CO2 as a carbon source. The mixotrophic cultivation added with 15 g L(-1) molasses produced a high amount of biomass of 3.05 g L(-1) with a high lipid content of 36.9 %. The photoautotrophic cultivation in nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with 2.0 % CO2 produced a biomass of 2.26 g L(-1) and a lipid content of 30.3 %. The benefits of this photoautotrophic cultivation are that this cultivation would help to reduce accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and more than 90 % of the nitrate could be removed from the wastewater. When this cultivation was scaled up in a stirred tank photobioreactor and run with semi-continuous cultivation regime, the highest microalgal biomass of 5.16 g L(-1) with a comparable lipid content of 32.2 % was achieved. These two strategies could be promising ways for producing cheap lipid-rich microalgal biomass that can be used as biofuel feedstocks and animal feeds. PMID:24989454

  17. Effect of light, nutrient, cultivation time and salinity on lipid production of newly isolated strain of the green microalga, Botryococcus braunii KMITL 2.

    PubMed

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat

    2012-04-01

    The green microalga strain, Botryococcus braunii KMITL 2, was isolated from a freshwater reservoir in central Thailand, and the effects of light, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, cultivation time and salinity on lipid production were studied by varying parameters one at a time. When cultured in Chlorella medium containing 222 mg L(-1) phosphorus (PO(4)(3-)-P) under continuous illumination of 200 μE m(-2)s(-1) with a salinity of 0 psu, a maximum lipid content of 54.69 ± 3.13% was obtained. Its high lipid content makes strain KMITL 2 a potential source for biodiesel production in tropical regions. PMID:21803571

  18. Monitoring lipid accumulation in the green microalga Botryococcus braunii with frequency-modulated stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Chandrappa, Dayananda; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Moger, Julian

    2015-03-01

    The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy has received considerable interest because they can produce lipids (fatty acids and isoprenoids) that can be readily converted into biofuels. However, significant research in this area is required to increase yields to make this a viable renewable source of energy. An analytical tool that could provide quantitative in situ spectroscopic analysis of lipids synthesis in individual microalgae would significantly enhance our capability to understand the synthesis process at the cellular level and lead to the development of strategies for increasing yield. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has great potential in this area however, the pump-probe signal from two-color two-photon absorption of pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids) overwhelm the SRS signal and prevent its application. Clearly, the development of a background suppression technique is of significant value for this important research area. To overcome the limitation of SRS in pigmented specimens, we establish a frequency-modulated stimulated Raman scattering (FM-SRS) microscopy that eliminates the non-Raman background by rapidly toggling on-and-off the targeted Raman resonance. Moreover, we perform the background-free imaging and analysis of intracellular lipid droplets and extracellular hydrocarbons in a green microalga with FM-SRS microscopy. We believe that FM-SRS microscopy demonstrates the potential for many applications in pigmented cells and provides the opportunity for improved selective visualization of the chemical composition of algae and plants

  19. Effects of different media and nitrogen sources and levels on growth and lipid of green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to find an optimum culture medium for green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and investigate its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Four different media were tested. Chlorella medium was the best medium for lipid yield. Among four nitrogen sources tested, KNO3 produced the highest lipid yield. When varied the nitrogen concentrations, this strain gave the highest lipid yield at the highest nitrogen level. When cultivated in the best medium and nitrogen source and level for 30 days, and then cultivated further for 14 days in the medium with no nitrogen, the highest lipid content and yield were 49.94±0.82% and 2.71±0.02 g L(-1), respectively. C16:0 fatty acid was the major fatty acid found. Fatty acid profiles of B. braunii KMITL cultivated in Chlorella medium with 1.25 g L(-1) KNO3 gave the best biodiesel properties with the lowest iodine value, maximum cetane number, and lowest degree of unsaturation. PMID:25677535

  20. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Pradhan, S.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The research program involves the determination of the biocatalytic characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale studies, and the feasibility study and economic analysis of the Botryococcus braunii culture systems for the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The objective of the third quarter of this research program was to determine the growth and hydrogen formation characteristics of free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale photobioreactors. Raceway and inclined surface type bioreactors were used for free cell and immobilized cell studies respectively. The free cell studies with air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% (v/v) CO{sub 2} in air] in media with and without NaHCO{sub 3} were conducted.

  1. The use of artificial neural network for modelling of phycoremediation of toxic elements As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using Botryococcus braunii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, M. S.; Majumder, C. B.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, a thorough investigation has been done on the removal efficiency of both As(III) and As (V) from synthetic wastewater by phycoremediation of Botryococcus braunii algal biomass. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are practised for predicting % phycoremediation efficiency of both As(III) and As(V) ions. The influence of several parameters for example initial pH, inoculum size, contact time and initial arsenic concentration (either As(III) or As(V)) was examined systematically. The maximum phycoremediation of As(III) and As(V) was found to be 85.22% and 88.15% at pH 9.0, equilibrium time of 144 h by using algal inoculum size of 10% (v/v) and initial arsenic concentration of 50 mg/L. The data acquired from laboratory scale experimental set up was utilized for training a three-layer feed-forward back propagation (BP) with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm having 4:5:1 architecture. A comparison between the experimental data and model outputs provided a high correlation coefficient (R2all_ANN equal to 0.9998) and exhibited that the model was capable for predicting the phycoremediation of both As(III) and As(V) from wastewater. The network topology was optimized by changing number of neurons in hidden layers. ANNs are efficient to model and simulate highly non-liner multivariable relationships. Absolute error and Standard deviation (SD) with respect to experimental output were calculated for ANN model outputs. The comparison of phycoremediation efficiencies of both As(III) and As(V) between experimental results and ANN model outputs exhibited that ANN model can determine the behaviour of As(III) and As(V) elimination process under various circumstances.

  2. Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex and its regulator from the green alga Chara braunii expands the evolutionary breadth of plant G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

    2013-12-01

    The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

  3. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Patel, S.; Conrad, J.; Benemann, J.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. Free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii were grown in aqueous medium supplemented with nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral nutrients. Air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% to 15% (V/V) CO{sub 2}] in the gas phase and 0.2% to 2% NaHCO{sub 3} in the liquid medium served as the carbon source. Growth and hydrocarbon formation characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii were determined in bench-scale photobioreactors. Technical and economic feasibility of the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons by Botryococcus braunii culture systems was evaluated. In free cell systems, the hexane extractable oil productivity was about 15 to 37 grams of oil per 100 grams of cell dry weight. In immobilized cell systems, the oil production ranged between 5% and 47% at different immobilization systems and immobilized surface locations, with an average of 19% of cell biomass dry weight. The feasibility and economic evaluation estimated the cost of oil produced from flue gas CO{sub 2} by algae to range between $45 and $75 per barrel assuming that a hydrocarbon yield of about 50% of the biomass weight is achievable and a credit of $60 per ton of carbon removed is available. A future research program leading to development of a multistage process, consisting of closed systems for heavy inoculum buildup followed by lower cost open systems for oil production is recommended.

  4. Characterization of the Heterotrimeric G-Protein Complex and Its Regulator from the Green Alga Chara braunii Expands the Evolutionary Breadth of Plant G-Protein Signaling1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

  5. Glycine induced culture-harvesting strategy for Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhu, Wenzhe; Chen, Chaozhou; Nie, Yilei

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of culture conditions, including carbon sources and concentration, culture period, and precondition time, on the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and its influence on microalgal flocculation. EPS are natural high molecule polymer, excreted by microalgae themselves. EPS can accelerate the formation of microbial aggregates through binding cells closely. Organic carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, acetate and glycine were compared to select the optimal source to stimulate EPS accumulation. Subsequently, the effect of culture period, glycine dose and precondition time on EPS production and its influence on biomass growth and flocculation efficiency were investigated. As the main parts of EPS, tightly bound EPS were found positively related to suspended solids concentration. However, the loosely bound EPS may weaken the floc structure, leading to poor water-cells separation. Under the optimal condition with culture period of 16 days, glycine dose of 0.5 g l(-1) and precondition time of 5 days, the biomass concentration increased from 1.49 to 2 g l(-1), and the maximum suspended solids concentration of 7.06% with biomass recovery rate of 70.6% was achieved. PMID:26553477

  6. New insights on the structure of algaenan from Botryoccocus braunii race A and its hexane insoluble botryals based on multidimensional NMR spectroscopy and electrospray-mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andre J; Zang, Xu; Kramer, Robert; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2003-03-01

    Through solution state NMR spectroscopy and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) studies of the hexane insoluble botryal extract of the algae Botryococcus braunii race A, coupled with high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy of the algaenan from this alga, it has been possible to advance the structural understanding of this geochemically important biopolymer. It was found that the hexane insoluble botryals in this study constitute a mixture of low molecular weight unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes and unsaturated hydrocarbons with an average chain length of about 40 carbons. Exact assignments were provided for many of the structural units present and describe the average constitution of the mixture as a whole. Reticulation of the low molecular weight chains via acetal and ester links explains the primary make up of algaenan. In this study, it is concluded that the algaenan results from the reticulation of low molecular weight hexane insoluble botryal species rather than the polyaldehyde as previously observed in studies of algae at alternate stages of their growth cycle. PMID:12620332

  7. [Diurnal progress of NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase in synchronous culture of unicellular green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii and its susceptibility to X-irradiation and inhibitiors of protein synthesis].

    PubMed

    Theiss-Seuberling, H B

    1975-06-22

    1. The daily progress of NADP-linked GPD-activity rise in synchronous culture of Ankistrodesmus braunii was investigated in respect to short time increase of activity by light. After various exposure times cells were temporarily deprived of light and subsequently the so-called dark value as well as the light value (dark value plus light-induced part) of the enzyme activity was determined. 2. The increase of dark and light values per cell number is greater in the first half of the day than in the second. The minor activity rise in the second half seems to be caused by culture conditions since the activity of the light and dark values-after reduction of cell density to half in the early afternoon-shows a greater increase again. With regard to chlorophyll, around noon the enzymes activity reaches a maximum which corresponds to numerous other physiological maxima in synchronous algae cultures. 3. The absolute value of the light-induced part of NADP-linked GPD-activity per cell number also increases with increasing exposure time in the first half of the day more than in the second. 4. X-irradiation retards the rise of the dark value of the NADP-GPD. This is particularly evident if the cells are exposed to light for 4 hrs after X-irradiation: 10-25 krad is enough to completely arrest the rise of the dark value. 5. The light-induced part of GDP-activity is hardly affected by high X-ray doses (424 krad), either immediately following the X-irradiation altered the effect of the irradiation: the rise of the dark value was not as great as the control; the light-induced part of enzyme activity was obviously retarded more than it had been after only 4 hrs exposure time. Thus it can be assumed that with regard to the dark value of GPD-activity there is a recovery from the irradiation damage, whereas the radiation effect on the light-induced part of GDP-activity is possibly increased. 8. The D37 of chlorophyll synthesis of synchronous Ankistrodesmus cultures is approximately 85

  8. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in

  9. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Pradhan, S.; Banerjee, D.

    1993-05-01

    The studies reported here confirmed our preliminary observations that Botryococcus braunii can tolerate and grow well in flue gas CO{sub 2} concentrations of 10 to 15%, and produce oil. The highest extracted oil was observed in 10% CO{sub 2} enriched air. Initial pH of the medium at or near 10 pH is favorable to cell growth probably by stimulating the CO{sub 2} solubilization in the medium. This is also indicated in Botryococcus braunii growth and oil formation in NaHCO{sub 3} added medium. The lack of growth in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} containing media was probably due to high pH. The CaCO{sub 3} precipitation from the CA{sup ++} gelled alginate beads indicate the need for alternative immobilization systems. But the attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors may eliminate the need for gel entrapment systems as the immobilization matrices. Attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors, rather than remaining in the suspension, reduces the significance of self shadowing and related liquid height (thickness) effect. The capability of Botryococcus braunii to grow in NaHCO{sub 3} solutions is very encouraging toward development of an alkaline scrubbing system for the flue gas followed by removal of the CO{sub 2} from the alkaline solution. In such a system the pH 10 is the currently observed upper limit.

  10. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  11. Enhancement of pigment extraction from B. braunii pretreated using CO2 rapid depressurization.

    PubMed

    Uquiche, Edgar; Antilaf, Ivette; Millao, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of compounds from microalgae requires cell disruption as a pretreatment to increase extraction yield. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with a significant content of carotenoids and other antioxidant compounds, such as chlorophylls. Cell disruption of B. braunii using CO2 rapid depressurization was studied as a pretreatment for the extraction of carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments. We studied the effect of temperature (21-49°C) and pressure (6-13MPa) during static compression on pigment recovery with supercritical CO2 at 40°C, 30MPa and solvent flow of 4.7LNPT/min. Within the experimental region, the extraction yield of carotenoids and chlorophylls increased by 2.4- and 2.2-fold respectively. Static compression conditions of high pressure and low temperature increased the extraction of carotenoids and especially chlorophylls. We selected 21°C and 13MPa as the cell disruption condition, which produced 1.91g/kg d.s. of carotenoids and 14.03mg/kg d.s. of chlorophylls. Pretreated microalga gave a 10-fold higher chlorophyll extraction yield compared to the untreated sample. While for carotenoids and tocopherols were 1.25 and 1.14-fold higher, respectively. Additionally, antioxidant activity of pretreated microalga (33.22mmol TE/kg oil) was significantly higher than the value for the untreated samples (29.11mmol TE/kg oil) (p≤0.05). Confocal microscopy images showed morphological differences between micro-colonies with and without disruption treatment, suggesting that partial cell disruption by rapid depressurization improved the extraction of microalga compounds. PMID:26991281

  12. Effects of cadmium and copper on the ultrastructure ofAnkistrodesmus braunii andAnabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Massalski, A; Laube, V M; Kushner, D J

    1981-06-01

    The effects of brief exposure to, or growth in the presence of, lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cu(NO)2 and Cd(NO3) on the ultrastructure of the blue-green algaAnabaena 7120 and the green algaAnkistrodesmus braunii were studied. Exposure to increasing amount of both metal ions led to the appearance of larger proportions of electron-dense cells whose organelles were less well defined than those of untreated cells. Metal-treated cells ofAnabaena 7120 became distorted. Some had a corrugated appearance. Others lysed, leaving a much larger proportion of heterocysts. Such heterocysts were often empty or had a curious collapsed appearance. Growth ofA. braunii in the presence of 10(-4) M Cu(NO2)2 produced substantial numbers of multinucleate giant cells with thick walls; such cells result from repeated mitotic division without subsequent cytokinesis. The giant cells contained centrioles, structures not as yet found in normal cells of the genusAnkistrodesmus. Some nuclei of giant, but not of normal, cells contained deep indentations that appeared as "holes" in cross section. Some giant cells also contained triple parallel strands of endoplasmic reticulum which extended across much of the cell, connecting to the nuclear envelope. Some ultrastructural changes were also noted in algal cells grown over sediment containing Cu or Cd, but these were generally less severe than those occurring when metal ions were added directly to the algal cultures. PMID:24227427

  13. Antilipemic and hypocholesteremic activities of Globimetula braunii in rats.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Abovwe, Joseph A; Adefegha, Adeniyi S; Egwuche, Rabiat U; Fafunso, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Antilipemic/hypocholestermic activities of the methanolic extracts of Globimetula braunii were studied in the tissues of normo and hypercholesteremic rats. Hypercholesteremia was induced in the rats by feeding with dietary cholesterol at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. A significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the body and the visceral organs relative weights in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a significant increase in the levels of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesteremic rats when compared to normo rats. Administration of the methanolic extracts restored the elevated levels of serum lipids to normal. The methanolic extracts of G. braunii produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and lipid peroxidation of the extract treated group compared to hypercholesteremic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of HDL-cholesterol as compared to hypercholesteremic control. The results obtained from this study are indications of the antilipemic and hypocholestermic activities of G. braunii as well as its cardio-protective potential in normo and hypercholesteremia conditions. PMID:20619620

  14. Botryococcene - A tetramethylated acyclic triterpenoid of algal origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. E.; Burlingame, A. L.; Wilson, D. M.; Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The green alga Botryococcus braunii, implicated in the formation of certain geological deposits, produces unusual isomeric C34H58 alkenes, botryococcene and isobotryococcene, during a particular physiological state. A structure for botryococcene is suggested, taking into account NMR techniques, oxidative degradation, and established biosynthetic principles. Botryococcene appears terpenoid in origin.

  15. The oleaginous Botryococcus from the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, Northwestern China: Morphology and its paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Li-ming; Yan, Kui; Meng, Fan-wei; Zhao, Min

    2010-05-01

    High abundance but rather low diversity algal fossils were found in the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Ch 7-2-Ch 7-3 section, Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Xifeng area of southwest Ordos Basin, which are mainly composed of prolific Leiosphaeridia and Botryococcus. Botryococcus colonies are of various forms; the majority is nubbly, with some of cluster and cotton shape. The nubbly colonies appear globular, cordiform, ternate petal, obtuse triangle, chrysanthemum shape and so on. Most Botryococcus are saffron or brown and are frequently covered with clay under transmission microscope, and shows strong yellow and light brown under fluorescence microscope. Botryococcus could live in freshwater and brackish water. The Botryococcus colonies that lived in fresh water are small with small single cells arranged radially, with undulant or indented edges. The Botryococcus colonies that lived in brackish water are bigger, with larger single cells arranged irregularly, with slippery contours. The most of Botryococcus are discovered from the organic-rich argillaceous sediment with abundant pyrites in the semi- and deep-lake facies, and shows they were preserved in low-energy reducing environments. Taphonomic characteristics of various microfossils and the present of Pediastrum in the phytoplankton flora indicate that they are in situ or near burial. The lake area of the Ordos Basin was gradually expanding and reaching its most extensive flood surface in the Ch 7 of Yanchang Formation interval during the Middle and Late Triassic, with warm climate, plentiful rainfall, and luxuriant vegetation, as determined by the environmental analysis with Botryococcus in Xifeng area. The presence of two ecological types of Botryococcus indicates that the salinity of lake water was fluctuating in the Ch 7 interval. The occurrence of symbiotic acritarchs and geochemical salinity indices show that the Ordos Lake was a typical fresh-water lake, which was gradually desalted, and its salinity

  16. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1–1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  17. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  18. Elemental composition and molecular structure of Botryococcus alginite in Westphalian cannel coals from Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Botryococcus-derived alginites from the Westphalian Skyline, No. 5 Block, Leatherwood (eastern Kentucky) and Breckinridge (western Kentucky) coal beds have been analyzed for elemental composition and functional group distribution using an electron microprobe and micro-FTIR, respectively. The alginites from Kentucky show a carbon range of 81.6 to 92% and oxygen content of 3.5 to 9.5%. Sulphur content ranges from 0.66 to 0.84% and Fe, Si, Al and Ca occur in minor quantities. FTIR analysis demonstrates dominant CH2, CH3 bands and subordinate aromatic carbon in all alginites. The major differences between alginites are in the ratios of CH2 and CH3 groups and ratios between aromatic bands in the out-of-plane region. These differences suggest that, although the ancient Botryococcus derives from a selective preservation of a resistant polymer, it undergoes molecular and some elemental changes through the rank equivalent to vitrinite reflectance of 0.5-0.85%. Other differences, such as intensities of ether bridges and those of carboxyl/carbonyl groups, are attributed to differences in depositional environments.

  19. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1 261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  20. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  1. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOEpatents

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  2. Molecular composition and mobility of torbanite precursors: Implications for the structure of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Batts, B.D.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Coorongite, a torbanite precursor found in South Australia, and algal residues derived from Botryococcus braunii and other algae have been examined by solid-state 13C NMR techniques. The majority of carbon in these materials is present as (CH2)n. However, variable-temperature studies show that a considerable proportion of the alkyl chains have unusual dipolar-dephasing behavior and are more mobile than in rigid solids. It is suggested that these mobile structures contribute to the so-called "guest phases" in coal. The data are also consistent with a vascular and algal model of coal. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  3. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  4. Heterotrimeric G proteins in green algae: an early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophyaceaen green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  5. Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.

    PubMed

    Schwerbrock, R; Leuschner, C

    2016-07-01

    (1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species. PMID:26891763

  6. [Harmful algae and health].

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Harri T

    2011-01-01

    Harmful algae are a worldwide problem. Phycotoxins is a general term for toxic compounds produced by harmful species of the phytoplankton. This review deals with the occurrence of harmful algae and phycotoxins in the Baltic Sea and other domestic waters, the ways of getting exposed to them, and their effects. Advice on how to avoid the exposure is provided. PMID:21834336

  7. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  8. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae. An early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:25764428

  9. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open. PMID:25516500

  10. Clocks in algae.

    PubMed

    Noordally, Zeenat B; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-01-20

    As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in other taxa have not been as widely applied to algae. We review results from seven species: the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ostreococcus tauri, and Acetabularia spp.; the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium spp.; the euglenozoa Euglena gracilis; and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The relative simplicity, experimental tractability, and ecological and evolutionary diversity of algal systems may now make them particularly useful in integrating quantitative data from "omic" technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with computational and mathematical methods. PMID:25379817

  11. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  12. Arsoniumphospholipid in algae*

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Robert V.; Mumma, R. O.; Benson, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A novel phospholipid containing arsenic was formed by all marine algae cultured in [74As]arsenate. Components of the labeled algal extracts readily separated by two-dimensional paper radiochromatography. Base-catalyzed deacylation of the major lipid yielded a phosphodiester identical to one of the two major water-soluble compounds. Acid or enzymic hydrolysis of the phosphodiester produced a product identified as trimethylarsoniumalactic acid. The structure of the phospholipid therefore is O-phosphatidyltrimethylarsoniumlactic acid. Detoxication of arsenate by marine algae leads to accumulation of the arsoniumphospholipid as a major reservoir for arsenic. Its degradation to trimethylarsoniumbetaine, dimethylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, and arsenate in marine food chains and its metabolism in human beings are of considerable interest. Images PMID:16592562

  13. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  14. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  15. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  16. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  17. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  18. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    PubMed

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  19. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  20. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  1. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  2. Cambrian calcareous algae and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinina, Veronica A.; Terleev, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Individual calcareous algae were known in Riphean. Their mass distribution is connected to the beginning of Cambrian. Despite of a long history of study, the nature of this group long time remained not clear. The new unique finds of algae from East Sayan region have shown, that primary carbonate thallus disappeared in the process of fossilization, and after it the calcareous cover formed by association of bacteria and cyanobacteria only.

  3. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  4. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  5. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  6. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  18. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  19. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  20. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  1. Biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic analogs by several green algae and other algal species under gold and white light.

    PubMed

    Warshawsky, D; Cody, T; Radike, M; Reilman, R; Schumann, B; LaDow, K; Schneider, J

    1995-07-14

    This laboratory has shown that the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), by a freshwater green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, under gold light proceeds through a dioxygenase pathway with subsequent conjugation and excretion. This study was undertaken to determine: (1) the effects of different light sources on the enzymatic or photochemical processes involved in the biotransformation of BaP over a dose range of 5-1200 mg/l; (2) the phototoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs and mutagenic quinones to a green alga; (3) the ability of other algal systems to metabolize BaP. Cultures were exposed to different doses of BaP for 2 days at 23 degrees C under gold, white or UV-A fluorescent light on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark. Under gold light, metabolites of BaP produced by Selenastrum capricornutum were the dihydrodiols of which the 11,12-dihydrodiol was the major metabolite. Under white light, at low doses, the major metabolite was the 9,10-dihydrodiol. With increasing dose, the ratio of dihydrodiols to quinones decreased to less than two. With increasing light energy output, from gold to white to UV-A in the PAH absorbing region, BaP quinone production increased. Of other carcinogenic PAHs studied, only 7H-dibenz[c,g]carbazole was as phototoxic as BaP while 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, dibenz[a,j]acridine and non-carcinogenic PAHs, anthracene and pyrene, were not phototoxic. The 3,6-quinone of BaP was found to be highly phototoxic while quinones that included menadione, danthron, phenanthrene-quinone and hydroquinone were not. The data suggest that the phototoxicity of BaP is due to photochemical production of quinones; the 3,6-quinone of BaP is phototoxic and is probably the result of the production of short lived cyclic reactive intermediates by the interaction of light with the quinone. Lastly, only the green algae, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus acutus and Ankistrodesmus braunii almost completely

  2. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. PMID:24845347

  3. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  4. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  5. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  6. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  7. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  8. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  9. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  10. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  11. Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  12. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  13. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. PMID:24602833

  14. Flocculation of model algae under shear.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

  15. Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Burkhard; Marin, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background Land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte green algae, a small group of freshwater algae ranging from scaly, unicellular flagellates (Mesostigma) to complex, filamentous thalli with branching, cell differentiation and apical growth (Charales). Streptophyte algae and embryophytes form the division Streptophyta, whereas the remaining green algae are classified as Chlorophyta. The Charales (stoneworts) are often considered to be sister to land plants, suggesting progressive evolution towards cellular complexity within streptophyte green algae. Many cellular (e.g. phragmoplast, plasmodesmata, hexameric cellulose synthase, structure of flagellated cells, oogamous sexual reproduction with zygote retention) and physiological characters (e.g. type of photorespiration, phytochrome system) originated within streptophyte algae. Recent Progress Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Mesostigma (flagellate) and Chlorokybus (sarcinoid) form the earliest divergence within streptophytes, as sister to all other Streptophyta including embryophytes. The question whether Charales, Coleochaetales or Zygnematales are the sister to embryophytes is still (or, again) hotly debated. Projects to study genome evolution within streptophytes including protein families and polyadenylation signals have been initiated. In agreement with morphological and physiological features, many molecular traits believed to be specific for embryophytes have been shown to predate the Chlorophyta/Streptophyta split, or to have originated within streptophyte algae. Molecular phylogenies and the fossil record allow a detailed reconstruction of the early evolutionary events that led to the origin of true land plants, and shaped the current diversity and ecology of streptophyte green algae and their embryophyte descendants. Conclusions The Streptophyta/Chlorophyta divergence correlates with a remarkably conservative preference for freshwater/marine habitats, and the early freshwater

  16. Engineering Triterpene and Methylated Triterpene Production in Plants Provides Biochemical and Physiological Insights into Terpene Metabolism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Bush, Caroline J.; Nybo, S. Eric; Chappell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Linear, branch-chained triterpenes, including squalene (C30), botryococcene (C30), and their methylated derivatives (C31–C37), generated by the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B have received significant attention because of their utility as chemical and biofuel feedstocks. However, the slow growth habit of B. braunii makes it impractical as a production system. In this study, we evaluated the potential of generating high levels of botryococcene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants by diverting carbon flux from the cytosolic mevalonate pathway or the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate pathway by the targeted overexpression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase along with two versions of botryococcene synthases. Up to 544 µg g−1 fresh weight of botryococcene was achieved when this metabolism was directed to the chloroplasts, which is approximately 90 times greater than that accumulating in plants engineered for cytosolic production. To test if methylated triterpenes could be produced in tobacco, we also engineered triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) from B. braunii into wild-type plants and transgenic lines selected for high-level triterpene accumulation. Up to 91% of the total triterpene contents could be converted to methylated forms (C31 and C32) by cotargeting the TMTs and triterpene biosynthesis to the chloroplasts, whereas only 4% to 14% of total triterpenes were methylated when this metabolism was directed to the cytoplasm. When the TMTs were overexpressed in the cytoplasm of wild-type plants, up to 72% of the total squalene was methylated, and total triterpene (C30+C31+C32) content was elevated 7-fold. Altogether, these results point to innate mechanisms controlling metabolite fluxes, including a homeostatic role for squalene. PMID:26603654

  17. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  18. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  19. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  20. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  1. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  2. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  3. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  4. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  5. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  6. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately. PMID:27206398

  7. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  8. The Alga Ochromonas danica Produces Bromosulfolipids.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander R; Duggan, Brendan M; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-01

    Many halogenases interchangeably incorporate chlorine and bromine into organic molecules. On the basis of an unsubstantiated report that the alga Ochromonas danica, a prodigious producer of chlorosulfolipids, was able to produce bromosulfolipids, we have investigated the promiscuity of its halogenases toward bromine incorporation. We have found that bromosulfolipids are produced with the exact positional and stereochemical selectivity as in the chlorosulfolipid danicalipin A when this alga is grown under modified conditions containing excess bromide ion. PMID:26889956

  9. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  10. Effect of Interactions Among Algae on Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) in Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; Greene, Sarah; Alexander, Martin

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by algae in flooded soil was limited by interactions within the algal community. Nitrogen fixation by either indigenous algae or Tolypothrix tenuis was reduced severalfold by a dense suspension of the green alga Nephrocytium sp. Similarly, interactions between the nitrogen-fixing alga (cyanobacterium) Aulosira 68 and natural densities of indigenous algae limited nitrogen-fixing activity in one of two soils examined. This was demonstrated by developing a variant of Aulosira 68 that was resistant to the herbicide simetryne at concentrations that prevented development of indigenous algae. More nitrogen was fixed by the resistant variant in flooded soil containing herbicide than was fixed in herbicide-free soil by either the indigenous algae or indigenous algae plus the parent strain of Aulosira. Interference from indigenous algae may hamper the development of nitrogen-fixing algae introduced into rice fields in attempts to increase biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:16345463

  11. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production. PMID:25859392

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  13. Inhibition of mast cells by algae.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A; Sanny, Charles; Shevlin, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    There is a history of use of algae as foods and as food additives, or nutraceuticals. Although algae are a safe component of human foods and animal feeds, the effects of the algae other than as a source of protein are not clear. We examined the prevalence of an antiinflammatory activity in selected algae using, as an assay system, the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. Methanolic extracts of eleven algae were examined for activity to inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells in vitro. This activity was found widely among the samples tested. The activities of these extracts were not uniformly stable in acid methanol. Selected extracts studied further did not separate with the use of size-exclusion filtration filters. LH-20 chromatography suggested at least two main elution areas of activity of the Chlorella extract. In summary, we saw wide phylogenetic dispersion of mast cell inhibition activity, suggesting that this antiinflammatory property is common in algae. This effect was apparently due to multiple activities within the algal extracts. PMID:12639395

  14. Cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of a diverse group of microalgae based on the Extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek (XDLVO) approach using the previously reported physico-chemical surface properties. The microalgae included 10 different species of green algae and diatoms from both freshwater and saltwater environments while the substrata included glass, indium-tin oxide (ITO), stainless steel, polycarbonate, polyethylene, and polystryrene. The results indicated that acid-base interactions were the dominating mechanism of interaction for microalgae. For green algae, if at least one of the interacting surfaces was hydrophobic, adhesion at primary minimum was predicted without any energy barrier. However, most diatom systems featured energy barriers for adhesion due to repulsive van der Waals interactions. The results reported in this study are expected to provide useful data and insight into the interaction mechanisms of microalgae cells with each other and with substrata for a number of practical applications including prevention of biofouling of photobioreactors and other man-made surfaces, promotion of biofilm formation in algal biofilm photobioreactors, and developing bioflocculation strategies for energy efficient harvesting of algal biomass. Particularly, Botryococcus braunii and Cerithiopsis fusiformis were identified as promising species for biofloccuation and biofilm formation in freshwater and saltwater aquatic systems, respectively. Finally, based on the observed trends in this study, use of hydrophilic algae and hydrophilic coatings over surfaces are recommended for minimizing biofouling in aquatic systems. PMID:24004676

  15. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  16. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  17. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  18. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  19. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  20. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature. PMID:16414751

  1. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  2. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2014-06-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  3. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  4. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  5. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  6. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    PubMed

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  7. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  8. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  9. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Wu, Jilong

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W, lambda(max) = 365 nm) was investigated. Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algae-water systems. The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration, and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution. Meanwhile, the cooperation action of algae and Fe(III), and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxacin. The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae. In addition, we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae. This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae, for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution. PMID:22894111

  10. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  11. ALGAE BLOOMS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN LAKE LOWELL, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae blooms limit recreational use of Lake Lowell, ID (17050114) by reducing water clarity and esthetic qualities. Under bloom conditions, algae have a negative impact on the reservoir fishery because of periodic oxygen depletion associated with respiration and decomposition. ...

  12. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  13. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  14. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  15. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  16. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  17. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  19. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  20. Potential of mass algae production in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, A.; Fekri, M.

    1984-11-01

    The rationale for efficient light absorption by algae at a production unit is given and design details of an intensive thin-layer technology outdoor (2.11m/sup 2/) unit are presented. Data on productivity under extreme conditions were collected. Maximum productivity data are close to those reported in the literature for similar geographic areas.

  1. Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

  2. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  3. OPTIMAL COST CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ATTACHED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis for alternative programs intended for the control of the nuisance growth of an attached alga (Cladophora). Such analyses require that changes in water quality be quantitatively related to the cost of implementation for specific manageme...

  4. [The effect of oxygen on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphates and organic phosphates in Ankistrodesmus braunii in the light].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, W R

    1970-09-01

    Short time incorporation of (32)P was carried out with synchronised algae (young cells) depleted of phosphate. For the separation and determination of the acid-insoluble phosphate fractions of the cells an improved fractionation procedure was applied. In order to exclude competition by carbon dioxide all experiments were done in the absence of CO2.Compared with nitrogen, CO2-free air produces an increase in the labelling of phosphorylated compounds in the light. In strong white light, at high pH, air effects a remarkable increase of (32)P in the acid-insoluble phosphate (P u), mainly in inorganic polyphosphates (P ul), whereas the total phosphate uptake remains almost unchanged. The increase in labelling of acid-insoluble phosphate is, therefore, accompanied by a substantial decrease in the labelling of acid-soluble compounds (P l). In weak white light or in far-red light, at low pH even in strong white or red light, an increase of phosphate uptake and an increased labelling of the acid-stable organic acid-soluble fraction (P os) is observed instead. The effect of oxygen increases somewhat with increasing light intensity up to light saturation, and it increases markedly with increasing oxygen concentration.An essential contribution by oxidative phosphorylation to this oxygen effect can be ruled out on account of its much higher sensitivity to oxygen. Pseudocyclic photophosphorylation is also not regarded as the main force because of its higher oxygen affinity. Occurrence of photorespiration has not been clearly established so far in related algae (Chlorella), and its use for phosphorylation is unknown. A better, although not complete explanation is given by comparing the oxygen effect with the well-known inhibition of photosynthesis by oxygen (Warburg effect), which leads to an increase in glycolate formation and a simultaneous decrease in the pool sizes of carbon reduction cycle intermediates, even in the absence of CO2. Since the photophosphorylation process, as

  5. Characterization of Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales: Discovery of extremely organic sulphur-rich Type I kerogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de las Heras, F. Xavier C.; van Bergen, Pim F.; de Leeuw, Jan W.

    1993-01-01

    The kerogens of three Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales were analyzed by light microscopy, flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bulk composition methods (elemental analysis, Rock Eval pyrolysis). Two of the three kerogens (Ribesalbes and Campins) are extremely rich in organic sulphur (atomic S org/C ratio > 0.04) and hydrogen (atomic ratio H/C ratio > 1.5) and are, consequently, classified as Type I-S kerogens. Very characteristic distribution patterns of flash pyrolysis products (e.g., alkan-9- and -10-ones, alkadienes) of the Ribesalbes kerogen revealed that it is predominantly composed of fossilized organic matter of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii. These two findings demonstrate that sulphurization of organic matter may also occur in lacustrine sediments provided that sulphate is supplied by external sources. Data on the third kerogen sample (Cerdanya) suggest that the freshwater alga Pediastrum may contain a (partly) aromatic biomacromolecule that is selectively preserved upon diagenesis. These findings testify to the large variability in palaeodepositional conditions in lacustrine environments. A comparison of the biomarker composition of the extract of the Ribesalbes oil shale with the kerogen composition indicate that biomarkers often cannot be used to assess the major sources of organic matter in such settings. A similar conclusion can be drawn from a comparison of literature data concerning the Messel Oil Shale.

  6. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  7. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  8. Phycobilisomes in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Ruth B.; Bowen, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater blue-green algae, including unicellular, filamentous, and colonial forms, were subjected to a variety of fixatives, fixation conditions, and stains for comparison of the preservation of phycobilisomes. Absorption spectra of the corresponding in vivo and released photosynthetic pigments, in 10 of the species that were maintained in culture, demonstrated the presence of phycocyanin in all 10 species and phycoerythrin in only 2 of them. Spectroscope and electron microscope evidence was obtained for localization of phycobiliproteins in phycobilisomes of Nostoc muscorum. Phycobilisomes were observed in all species examined in situ, strenghening the hypothesis that phycobilisomes are common to all phycobiliprotein-containing photosynthetic blue-green algae. Images PMID:4204443

  9. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

    1997-12-01

    Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCB<1,2-DCB<1,2,3,4-TeCBalgae was almost in the order: Pyramidomonas sp. < Platymonas subcordiformis < Nannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

  10. Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene in marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Lin; Ma, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun

    1997-09-01

    Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; and toxicity of TeCB to the marine algae were tested. Values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k 1, elimination rate constant k 2 and bioconcentration factor BCF, were obtained not only from the time course of TeCB uptake by the marine algae by using a bioconcentration model, but also from the acute toxicity test data for percent inhibition PI(%)˜exposure concentration of TeCB-time by using a combined bioconcentration and probability model. The results showed good relationship between k 1(TOXIC) and k 1(UPTAKE) and k 2(TOXIC), k 2(UPTAKE), and BCF D(IOXIC) and BCF D(UPTAKE). Especially, the values of BCF D(TOXIC) were well consistent with those of BCF D(UPTAKE).

  11. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  12. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  13. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  14. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice. PMID:686747

  15. Sequestration of CO2 by halotolerant algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential of halotolerant algae isolated from natural resources was used to study CO2 fixation and algal lipid production. Biological fixation of CO2 in photobioreactor in presence of salinity is exploited. The CO2 concentration 1060 ppm gave the highest biomass yield (700 mg dry wt/l), the highest total lipid content (10.33%) with 80% of CO2 removal. PMID:24847439

  16. Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

    1972-01-01

    The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

  17. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops. PMID:20085253

  18. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  19. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  20. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  1. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research. PMID:9005517

  2. Hydrogenases in green algae: do they save the algae's life and solve our energy problems?

    PubMed

    Happe, Thomas; Hemschemeier, Anja; Winkler, Martin; Kaminski, Annette

    2002-06-01

    Green algae are the only known eukaryotes with both oxygenic photosynthesis and a hydrogen metabolism. Recent physiological and genetic discoveries indicate a close connection between these metabolic pathways. The anaerobically inducible hydA genes of algae encode a special type of highly active [Fe]-hydrogenase. Electrons from reducing equivalents generated during fermentation enter the photosynthetic electron transport chain via the plastoquinone pool. They are transferred to the hydrogenase by photosystem I and ferredoxin. Thus, the [Fe]-hydrogenase is an electron 'valve' that enables the algae to survive under anaerobic conditions. During sulfur deprivation, illuminated algal cultures evolve large quantities of hydrogen gas, and this promises to be an alternative future energy source. PMID:12049920

  3. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, where heterotrophic bacteria grow on organics produced by algae and recycle nutrients. Ecological studies have identified the co-occurrence of particular species of algae and bacteria, suggesting the presence of their specific interactions. Algae/bacteria interactions are categorized into nutrient exchange, signal transduction and gene transfer. Studies have examined how these interactions shape aquatic communities and influence geochemical cycles in the natural environment. In parallel, efforts have been made to exploit algae for biotechnology processes, such as water treatment and bioenergy production, where bacteria influence algal activities in various ways. We suggest that better understanding of mechanisms underlying algae/bacteria interactions will facilitate the development of more efficient and/or as-yet-unexploited biotechnology processes. PMID:25744715

  4. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  5. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  6. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  7. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2014-06-02

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  8. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  9. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  10. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  11. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  12. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  13. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  14. Chemical characterization of torbanites by transmission micro-FTIR spectroscopy: Origin and extent of compositional heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, P.; Rochdi, A. ); Largeau, C.; Derenne, S. )

    1993-06-01

    Four Permian to Carboniferous torbanites of various geographical origins were examined by transmission micro-FTIR spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections (10--25 [mu]m). Several types of heterogeneities (different types of organic matrix; yellow and orange Botryococcus braunii colonies) were identified and chemically characterized. Important differences were noted between the organic constituents of the matrix and the algal bodies, regarding the intensity of OH, C[double bond]O, and aromatic C[double bond]C absorptions. The previous IR studies of torbanites on bulk samples therefore afforded substantially biased information on the composition of B. braunii fossil colonies, on their oil potential, and on the maturity of such kerogens. Micro-FTIR spectra indicate that the organic matrix corresponds neither to an extensive breaking up of colonies nor to humic substances. This matrix is highly heterogeneous; two types were identified in the Autun sample (chiefly corresponding to degraded algal and bacterial constituents, respectively). A precise characterization of the organic matrix was made difficult, however, in Pumpherston torbanite, due to intimate mixing with minerals. The co-occurrence of yellow and orange colonies, with contrasted micro-FTIR features, in Autun torbanite neither reflects radiolysis processes nor differences in maturation and/or source algae. A specific spatial relation was observed between these two types of algal bodies and the organo-mineral matrix, thus revealing differences in colony microenvironment after deposition. The orange colonies are likely derived, in agreement with their micro-FTIR spectra and their spatial correlation with the matrix, from sedimentological and/or matrix-catalyzed diagenetic transformations of some yellow colonies. This first application of micro-FTIR to kerogens confirmed the utility of this nondestructive, in situ pin-point method. 69 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Chemical characterization of torbanites by transmission micro-FTIR spectroscopy: Origin and extent of compositional heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Patrick; Rochdi, Aïcha; Largeau, Claude; Derenne, Sylvie

    1993-06-01

    Four Permian to Carboniferous torbanites of various geographical origins were examined by transmission micro-FTIR spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections (10-25 μm). Several types of heterogeneities (different types of organic matrix; yellow and orange Botryococcus braunii colonies) were identified and chemically characterized. Important differences were noted between the organic constituents of the matrix and the algal bodies, regarding the intensity of OH, CO, and aromatic CC absorptions. The previous IR studies of torbanites on bulk samples therefore afforded substantially biased information on the composition of B. braunii fossil colonies, on their oil potential, and on the maturity of such kerogens. Micro-FTIR spectra indicate that the organic matrix corresponds neither to an extensive breaking up of colonies nor to humic substances. This matrix is highly heterogeneous; two types were identified in the Autun sample (chiefly corresponding to degraded algal and bacterial constituents, respectively). A precise characterization of the organic matrix was made difficult, however, in Pumpherston torbanite, due to intimate mixing with minerals. The co-occurrence of yellow and orange colonies, with contrasted micro-FTIR features, in Autun torbanite neither reflects radiolysis processes nor differences in maturation and/or source algae. A specific spatial relation was observed between these two types of algal bodies and the organo-mineral matrix, thus revealing differences in colony microenvironment after deposition. The orange colonies are likely derived, in agreement with their micro-FTIR spectra and their spatial correlation with the matrix, from sedimentological and/or matrix-catalysed diagenetic transformations of some yellow colonies. This first application of micro-FTIR to kerogens confirmed the utility of this nondestructive, in situ pin-point method. Although torbanites have been extensively studied, all the analytical methods so far used only

  16. Inorganic carbon acquisition in some synurophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2008-05-01

    Some characteristics of photosynthesis of three synurophyte algae, Synura petersenii, Synura uvella and Tessellaria volvocina were investigated to determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake. All three species were found to have no external carbonic anhydrase, no capacity for direct bicarbonate uptake and a low whole-cell affinity for C(i). The internal pH of S. petersenii determined using (14)C-benzoic acid and [2-(14)C]-5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione was pH 7.0-7.5, over an external pH range of 5.0-7.5. Thus, the pH difference between the cell interior of S. petersenii and the external medium was large enough, over the alga's growth range, to allow the accumulation of C(i) by the diffusive uptake of CO(2). Monitoring O(2) evolution and CO(2) uptake by suspensions of S. petersenii at pH 7.0 by mass spectrometry did not indicate a rapid uptake of CO(2), and the final CO(2) compensation concentration reached was 24 +/- 0.7 microM. Furthermore, when the cells were darkened, a brief burst of CO(2) occurred before a steady rate of dark respiration was established, suggesting a loss of CO(2) by photorespiration. An examination of the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in homogenates of cells of S. petersenii, S. uvella and Mallomonas papillosa showed that values of the K(m) (CO(2)) were 28.4, 41.8 and 18.2 microM, respectively. These species lack the characteristics of cells with a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism because the cell affinity for C(i) appears to be determined by the relatively high CO(2) affinity of the Rubisco of these algae. PMID:18298411

  17. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  18. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  19. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated. PMID:19826917

  20. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  1. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  2. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with themore » requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.« less

  3. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  4. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppm (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppm NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppm NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

  5. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppM (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppM NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppM NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx. 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppM of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

  6. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  7. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  8. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  9. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  10. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    SciTech Connect

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  11. Algae Farming in Low Earth Orbit: Past Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, N.

    Algal strains used as a production engine represent a novel example of living mechanical systems with tremendous potential for applications in space. Algae use photosynthesis to create lipids, glycerin, and biomass, with different strains of algae producing different oils. Algae can be grown to produce many types of oils, with low, medium or long hydrocarbon chain lengths. This article examines the history of algae research, as well as its value to astronauts as both a food supplement and as an oxygen production and carbon sequester engine. Consideration is given to ways algae is currently being used and tested in space, followed by a look forward envisioning dynamic living technological systems that can help to sustain our race as we travel the void between stars.

  12. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. IV. Plastoquinones in Algae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Elena; Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1968-01-01

    Plastoquinones A and C have been found in all classes of algae, including representatives of greens, yellow-greens, blue-greens, reds, browns and the flagellate, Euglena. Plastoquinone C from red and brown algae can be separated into 6 different types. An additional plastoquinone C has been found in Gigartina and Rhydomela. From chromatographic evidence this may be equivalent to plastoquinone Co, a C type with a hydroxyl group on the first isoprene unit of the terpenoid sidechain of this substituted benzo-quinone. The ubiquinone, vitamin K and α-tocopherylquinone content of several algae is also reported. The presence of plastoquinone A in all green plants and many algae indicates that it may be a functional element in photosynthesis. Our study shows that plastoquinone C is more regularly present in algae than has been previously shown. PMID:16656993

  13. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study. PMID:26623940

  14. Triterpene hydrocarbon production engineered into a metabolically versatile host--Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nymul E; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-08-01

    Triterpene hydrocarbon biosynthesis of the ancient algae Botryococcus braunii was installed into Rhodobacter capsulatus to explore the production of C30 hydrocarbon in a host capable of diverse growth habits-utilizing carbohydrate, sunlight or hydrogen (with CO2 fixation) as alternative energy feedstocks. Engineering an enhanced MEP pathway was also used to augment triterpene accumulation. Despite dramatically different sources of carbon and reducing power, nearly the same level of botryococcene or squalene (∼5 mg oil/g-dry-weight [gDW]) was achieved in small-scale aerobic heterotrophic, anaerobic photoheterotrophic, and aerobic chemoautotrophic growth conditions. A glucose fed-batch bioreactor reached 40 mg botryococcene/L (∼12 mg/gDW), while autotrophic bioreactor performance with CO2 , H2 , and O2 reached 110 mg/L (16.7 mg/gDW) during batch and 60 mg/L (23 mg/gDW) during continuous operation at a dilution rate corresponding to about 10% of μ(max). Batch and continuous autotrophic specific productivity was found to reach 0.5 and 0.32 mg triterpene/g DW/h, comparable to prior reports for terpene production driven by heterotrophic growth conditions. This demonstrates the feasibility of alternative feedstocks and trophic modes to provide comparable routes to biochemicals that do not rely on sugar. PMID:25728701

  15. A 150-year record of phytoplankton community succession controlled by hydroclimatic variability in a tropical lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrifa Yamoah, Kweku; Callac, Nolwenn; Fru, Ernest Chi; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Wiech, Alan; Chabangborn, Akkaneewut; Smittenberg, Rienk H.

    2016-07-01

    Climate and human-induced environmental change promote biological regime shifts between alternate stable states, with implications for ecosystem resilience, function, and services. While these effects have been shown for present-day ecosystems, the long-term response of microbial communities has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the decadal variations in phytoplankton communities in a ca. 150 year long sedimentary archive of Lake Nong Thale Prong (NTP), southern Thailand using a combination of bulk geochemical analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and lipid biomarkers techniques including compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis as a proxy for precipitation. Relatively drier and by inference warmer conditions from ca. 1857 to 1916 Common Era (CE) coincided with a dominance of the green algae Botryococcus braunii, indicating lower nutrient levels in the oxic lake surface waters, possibly related to lake water stratification. A change to higher silica (Si) input around 1916 CE was linked to increased rainfall and concurs with an abrupt takeover by diatom blooms lasting for 50 years. These were increasingly outcompeted by cyanobacteria from the 1970s onwards, most likely because of increased levels of anthropogenic phosphate and a reduction in rainfall. Our results showcase that the multi-proxy approach applied here provides an efficient way to track centennial-scale limnological, geochemical and microbial change, as influenced by hydroclimatic and anthropogenic forcing.

  16. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the spectral complex index of refraction of biofuel producing photosynthetic microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. They were retrieved from their experimentally measured average absorption and scattering cross-sections. The microalgae were treated as homogeneous polydisperse spheres with equivalent diameter such that their surface area was identical to that of their actual spheroidal shape. An inverse method was developed combining Lorentz-Mie theory as the forward method and genetic algorithm. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125 and its truncated chlorophyll antenna transformants tla1, tlaX, and tla1-CW+ as well as Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale were investigated. These species were selected for their ability to produce either hydrogen gas or lipids for liquid fuel production. Their retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction were continuous functions of wavelength with absorption peaks corresponding to those of in vivo Chlorophylls a and b. The T-matrix method was also found to accurately predict the experimental measurements by treating the microalgae as axisymmetric spheroids with the experimentally measured major and minor diameter distributions and the retrieved spectral complex index of refraction. Finally, pigment mass fractions were also estimated from the retrieved absorption index. The method and/or the reported optical properties can be used in various applications from ocean remote sensing, carbon cycle study, as well as photobiological carbon dioxide mitigation and biofuel production.

  17. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia. PMID:23097503

  18. Random flow induced by swimming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Rushkin, Ilia; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    In this work we studied the random flow induced in a fluid by the motion of a dilute suspension of the swimming algae Volvox carteri. The fluid velocity in the suspension is a superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions that decay as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocity fluctuations are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet. Deviations from Gaussianity are shown to arise from near-field effects. Comparison is made with the statistical properties of abiotic sedimenting suspensions. The experimental results are supplemented by extensive numerical studies.

  19. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  20. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia

    PubMed Central

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia. PMID:23097503

  1. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-01-01

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences. PMID:26846729

  2. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  3. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  4. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 {mu}g C {center dot} {mu}g chl{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h{sup {minus}1} higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and {sup 14}C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and {sup 14}C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities.

  5. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution. PMID:23011851

  6. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  7. EXTRACTION OF SUGARS FROM ALGAE FOR DIRECT CONVERSION TO BUTANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will have a complete full scale design at the end of this project including algae growth and butanol production. Further, the group will have a working prototype for display at the National Mall.

  8. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Uses and restrictions. The color additive dried algae meal may be safely used in chicken feed in... color of chicken skin and eggs. (2) The quantity of the color additive incorporated in the feed is...

  9. The plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Costa, Joana F

    2015-06-01

    We present the 174,935 nt long plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia sp. JFC0032. It is the third plastid genome characterized for the largest order of red algae (Ceramiales). The circular-mapping plastid genome is small compared to most florideophyte red algae, and our comparisons show a trend toward smaller plastid genome sizes in the family Rhodomelaceae, independent from a similar trend in Cyanidiophyceae. The Laurencia genome is densely packed with 200 annotated protein-coding genes (188 widely conserved, 3 open reading frames shared with other red algae and 9 hypothetical coding regions). It has 29 tRNAs, a single-copy ribosomal RNA cistron, a tmRNA, and the RNase P RNA. PMID:26986672

  10. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  11. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM GROUNDWATER IMMOBILIZED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to adsorb mercury from contamina...

  12. ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

  13. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed. PMID:23049529

  14. [Parameter determination of algae growth based on ecological tank experiment].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Ding, Ling; Gao, Guang

    2005-05-01

    A dynamic simulation experiment of algae in an ecological tank was performed at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. During the experiment, water from Taihu Lake was infused into the ecological tank and samples were taken continually to observe algae growth under varying conditions, such as temperature, sunlight and nutrients. Based on the experiment, an algae growth model, considering nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, was developed by using the advanced PHREEQC model. After that, a detailed calibration and validation of parameters in the model were done on the basis of experimental results. The least square method was used to determine the optimal set of parameters. The calculated values of algae and nutrient concentrations show fairly satisfying fittness with measured data. PMID:16124474

  15. ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

  16. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  17. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  18. Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varani, F.T.; Schellenbach, S.; Veatch, M.; Grover, P.; Benemann, J.

    1980-05-16

    The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into a fuel gas. The biogas produced would power the electrical generation plant already in service. Previous studies have established techniques of digester operation and the nutritional value for effluent solids as fed to cattle. The inclusion of a single-strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenidosa in the process was evaluated here for its capability (1) to be grown in both open and closed ponds of the discharge water from the solids separation part of the process, (2) to purify the discharge water, and (3) to act as a growth stimulant for cattle feed consumption and conversion when fed at a rate of 6 grams per head per day. Although it was found that the algae could be cultured and grown on the discharge water in the laboratory, the study was unable to show that algae could accomplish the other objectives successfully. However, the study yielded supplementary information useful to the overall process design of the utility plant. This was (1) measurement of undried digester solids fed to cattle in a silage finishing ration (without algae) at an economic value of $74.99 per dry ton based on nutritional qualities, (2) development of a centrate treatment system to decolorize and disinfect centrate to allow optimum algae growth, and (3) information on ionic and mass balances for the digestion system. It is the recommendation of this study that algae not be used in the process in the Lamar bioconversion plant.

  19. Photobiological hydrogen production in green algae and photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have shown that, under appropriate physiological conditions, certain freshwater and marine green algae are capable of splitting water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen in a sustained steady-state reaction. In these algae, the gaseous-fuel-producing reaction can be driven by light throughout the visible portion of the solar emission spectrum, including the long wavelength (red) 700-nm region. No external energy sources are required.

  20. Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers. PMID:25499055

  1. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  2. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  3. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  4. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  5. Extraction of mercury from ground-water using immobilized algae

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bio-recovery Systems Inc., conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to absorb mercury from contaminated groundwater in laboratory studies and pilot-scale field tests. Algae biomass was incorporated in a permeable polymeric matrix. The product, AlgaSORB, packed into absorption columns, exhibited excellent flow characteristics, and functioned as a 'biological' ion exchange resin. A sequence of eleven laboratory tests demonstrated the ability of the product to absorb mercury from groundwater that contained high levels of total dissolved solids and hard water components. However, use of a single AlgaSORB preparation yielded non-repeatable results with samples collected at different times of the year. The strategy of extracting the groundwater through two columns containing different times of the year. The strategy of extracting the groundwater through two columns containing different preparations of AlgaSORB was developed and proved successful in laboratory and pilot-scale field tests. Field test results indicate that AlgaSORB could be economically competitive with ion exchange resins for removal of mercury, with the advantage that hardness and other dissolved solids do not appear to compete with heavy metals for binding capacity. (Copyright (c) 1991--Air and Waste Management Association.)

  6. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    SciTech Connect

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  7. Phosphorus-limited growth of a green alga and a blue-green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.S.; Brown, E.J.

    1981-12-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nageli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nageli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nageli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). (Refs. 44).

  8. Toxicity of haloacetic acids to freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jayne F; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R

    2010-01-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAA), such as trichloroacetic acid (TCA), are commonly occurring by-products from disinfection and bleaching processes using sodium hypochlorite. Currently, the lowest no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for TCA is reported to be 8.7microgL(-1), which was derived from a toxicity study conducted in 1981 on Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The purity of the test material was not documented and it is unknown if other halogenated impurities or co-formulants were present. However, this NOEC is used to derive a predicted no effect concentration, which is used in various regulatory risk assessments. We present a range of algal toxicity studies conducted on five different algal species and two HAAs and observed no toxicity of TCA to C. pyrenoidosa at 115mgL(-1). The most sensitive species to TCA (NOEC, 3mgL(-1)) were Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus subspicatus, demonstrating that the toxicity of TCA to algae is over two orders of magnitude less sensitive than previously reported. PMID:19828197

  9. Microfluidic one-way streets for algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-02-01

    Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Koid, Amy E; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C; Caron, David A; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657