These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effect of salinity on the biochemical composition of the alga Botryococcus braunii Kütz IPPAS H-252  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.3 and 0.7 M NaCl on biomass yield, total nitrogen content, intracellular lipid content, and fatty acid profile\\u000a of the lipids of the alga Botryococcus braunii IPPAS H-252 in different phases of the culture cycle was studied. The presence of sodium chloride in the medium inhibited\\u000a the growth of algal cells for the first 3 days of the experiment,

Natalia O. Zhila; Galina S. Kalacheva; Tatiana G. Volova

2011-01-01

2

Colony Organization in the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) Is Specified by a Complex Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous ?-1, 4- and/or ?-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form “drapes” between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

Weiss, Taylor L.; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas

2012-01-01

3

Colony organization in the green alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) is specified by a complex extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous ?-1, 4- and/or ?-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

Weiss, Taylor L; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas; Devarenne, Timothy P; Goodenough, Ursula

2012-12-01

4

Seawater-Cultured Botryococcus braunii for Efficient Hydrocarbon Extraction  

PubMed Central

As a potential source of biofuel, the green colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of hydrocarbons that are accumulated in the extracellular matrix. Generally, pretreatment such as drying or heating of wet algae is needed for sufficient recoveries of hydrocarbons from B. braunii using organic solvents. In this study, the Showa strain of B. braunii was cultured in media derived from the modified Chu13 medium by supplying artificial seawater, natural seawater, or NaCl. After a certain period of culture in the media with an osmotic pressure corresponding to 1/4-seawater, hydrocarbon recovery rates exceeding 90% were obtained by simply mixing intact wet algae with n-hexane without any pretreatments and the results using the present culture conditions indicate the potential for hydrocarbon milking. Highlights Seawater was used for efficient hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii. The alga was cultured in media prepared with seawater or NaCl. Hydrocarbon recovery rate exceeding 90% was obtained without any pretreatment. PMID:23799107

Furuhashi, Kenichi; Saga, Kiyotaka; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

2013-01-01

5

Structure-function mapping of key determinants for hydrocarbon biosynthesis by squalene and squalene synthase-like enzymes from the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B.  

PubMed

Squalene and botryococcene are branched-chain, triterpene compounds that arise from the head-to-head condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to yield 1'-1 and 1'-3 linkages, respectively. The enzymes that catalyze their formation have attracted considerable interest from the medical field as potential drug targets and the renewable energy sector for metabolic engineering efforts. Recently, the enzymes responsible for botryococcene and squalene biosynthesis in the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B were characterized. To better understand how the specificity for the 1'-1 and 1'-3 linkages was controlled, we attempted to identify the functional residues and/or domains responsible for this step in the catalytic cascade. Existing crystal structures for the mammalian squalene synthase and Staphylococcus dehydrosqualene synthase enzymes were exploited to develop molecular models for the B. braunii botryococcene and squalene synthase enzymes. Residues within the active sites that could mediate catalytic specificity were identified, and reciprocal mutants were created in an attempt to interconvert the reaction product specificity of the enzymes. We report here the identification of several amino acid positions contributing to the rearrangement of the cyclopropyl intermediate to squalene, but these same positions do not appear to be sufficient to account for the cyclopropyl rearrangement to give botryococcene. PMID:25393512

Bell, Stephen A; Niehaus, Thomas D; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joseph

2014-12-01

6

Wavelength specificity of growth, photosynthesis, and hydrocarbon production in the oil-producing green alga Botryococcus braunii.  

PubMed

The effect of monochromatic light on growth, photosynthesis, and hydrocarbon production was tested in Botryococcus braunii Bot-144 (race B), which produces triterpenoid hydrocarbons. The growth was higher in order of red, blue, and green light. The color of red light-grown cells became more orange-yellow and their shape dominantly changed to grape-like with long branches. Photosynthetic carbon fixation activity was higher in order of blue, red, and green light-grown cells, but photosystem activities showed no difference. In the pulse-chase experiments with (14)CO(2), no major difference was observed in the production of lipids, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, or proteins among the three kinds of cells, although hydrocarbon production was slightly lower in green light-grown cells. These results indicate that blue and red light were more effective for growth, photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, and hydrocarbon production than green light, and that red light is the most efficient light source when calculated based on photoenergy supplied. PMID:21683581

Baba, Masato; Kikuta, Fumie; Suzuki, Iwane; Watanabe, Makoto M; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

2012-04-01

7

Functional Identification of Triterpene Methyltransferases from Botryococcus braunii Race B*  

PubMed Central

Botryococcus braunii race B is a colony-forming, green algae that accumulates triterpene oils in excess of 30% of its dry weight. The composition of the triterpene oils is dominated by dimethylated to tetramethylated forms of botryococcene and squalene. Although unusual mechanisms for the biosynthesis of botryococcene and squalene were recently described, the enzyme(s) responsible for decorating these triterpene scaffolds with methyl substituents were unknown. A transcriptome of B. braunii was screened computationally assuming that the triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) might resemble the S-adenosyl methionine-dependent enzymes described for methylating the side chain of sterols. Six sterol methyltransferase-like genes were isolated and functionally characterized. Three of these genes when co-expressed in yeast with complementary squalene synthase or botryococcene synthase expression cassettes resulted in the accumulation of mono- and dimethylated forms of both triterpene scaffolds. Surprisingly, TMT-1 and TMT-2 exhibited preference for squalene as the methyl acceptor substrate, whereas TMT-3 showed a striking preference for botryococcene as its methyl acceptor substrate. These in vivo preferences were confirmed with in vitro assays utilizing microsomal preparations from yeast overexpressing the respective genes, which encode for membrane-associated enzymes. Structural examination of the in vivo yeast generated mono- and dimethylated products by NMR identified terminal carbons, C-3 and C-22/C-20, as the atomic acceptor sites for the methyl additions to squalene and botryococcene, respectively. These sites are identical to those previously reported for the triterpenes extracted from the algae. The availability of closely related triterpene methyltransferases exhibiting distinct substrate selectivity and successive catalytic activities provides important tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the specificities exhibited by these unique enzymes. PMID:22241476

Niehaus, Tom D.; Kinison, Scott; Okada, Shigeru; Yeo, Yun-soo; Bell, Stephen A.; Cui, Ping; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Chappell, Joe

2012-01-01

8

Radiation characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorococcum littorale, and Chlorella sp. used for CO 2 fixation and biofuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of green algae used for carbon dioxide fixation via photosynthesis. The generated biomass can be used to produce not only biofuels but also feed for animal and food supplements for human consumptions. Particular attention was paid to three widely used species namely Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale. Their extinction

Halil Berberoglu; Pedro S. Gomez; Laurent Pilon

2009-01-01

9

Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*  

PubMed Central

Background Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy. Results A de novo assembly of 1,334,609 next-generation pyrosequencing reads form the Showa strain of the B race of B. braunii yielded a transcriptomic database of 46,422 contigs with an average length of 756 bp. Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of pathways that produce terpenoid liquid hydrocarbons from primary metabolites, and pathways that divert photosynthetic carbon into tetraterpenoid carotenoids, diterpenoids, and the prenyl chains of meroterpenoid quinones and chlorophyll. Inventories of machine-assembled contigs are also presented for reconstructed pathways for the biosynthesis of competing storage compounds including triacylglycerol and starch. Regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, and the extracellular localization of the hydrocarbon oils by active transport and possibly autophagy are also investigated. Conclusions The construction of an annotated transcriptomic database, publicly available in a web-based data depository and annotation tool, provides a foundation for metabolic pathway and network reconstruction, and facilitates further omics studies in the absence of a genome sequence for the Showa strain of B. braunii, race B. Further, the transcriptome database empowers future biosynthetic engineering approaches for strain improvement and the transfer of desirable traits to heterologous hosts. PMID:23110428

2012-01-01

10

Identification of unique mechanisms for triterpene biosynthesis in Botryococcus braunii  

PubMed Central

Botryococcene biosynthesis is thought to resemble that of squalene, a metabolite essential for sterol metabolism in all eukaryotes. Squalene arises from an initial condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form presqualene diphosphate (PSPP), which then undergoes a reductive rearrangement to form squalene. In principle, botryococcene could arise from an alternative rearrangement of the presqualene intermediate. Because of these proposed similarities, we predicted that a botryococcene synthase would resemble squalene synthase and hence isolated squalene synthase-like genes from Botryococcus braunii race B. While B. braunii does harbor at least one typical squalene synthase, none of the other three squalene synthase-like (SSL) genes encodes for botryococcene biosynthesis directly. SSL-1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of PSPP and SSL-2 the biosynthesis of bisfarnesyl ether, while SSL-3 does not appear able to directly utilize FPP as a substrate. However, when combinations of the synthase-like enzymes were mixed together, in vivo and in vitro, robust botryococcene (SSL-1+SSL-3) or squalene biosynthesis (SSL1+SSL-2) was observed. These findings were unexpected because squalene synthase, an ancient and likely progenitor to the other Botryococcus triterpene synthases, catalyzes a two-step reaction within a single enzyme unit without intermediate release, yet in B. braunii, these activities appear to have separated and evolved interdependently for specialized triterpene oil production greater than 500 MYA. Coexpression of the SSL-1 and SSL-3 genes in different configurations, as independent genes, as gene fusions, or targeted to intracellular membranes, also demonstrate the potential for engineering even greater efficiencies of botryococcene biosynthesis. PMID:21746901

Niehaus, Tom D.; Okada, Shigeru; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Watt, David S.; Sviripa, Vitaliy; Chappell, Joe

2011-01-01

11

Biofilm formation and lipid accumulation of attached culture of Botryococcus braunii.  

PubMed

The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that forms their immediate environment. The objective of this paper was to investigate the relationships between culture conditions, EPS, microalgal biofilms growth and lipid accumulation. Fresh water alga Botryococcus braunii was attached culture in multi-layers photobioreactors with different culture media and substrates. The results indicated that the production of EPS was affected by culture period, nutrient, and substrate. Increasing the production of EPS may enhance the biofilm growth. However, the EPS components, namely proteins and polysaccharide had a more profound effect on biofilm formation compared to total EPS, with protein being more significant than polysaccharide. Nitrogen-free and EPS strategies were conducted to increase the lipid content of B. braunii biofilm from 11.6 to 42.3 % and 51.3 %, respectively. Compared to suspended culture, the lipid quality was enhanced. The dominant component of hexadecanoic acid (16:0) was enhanced from 21.78 to 48.17 % and 55.44 %, respectively. PMID:25224882

Shen, Y; Zhang, H; Xu, X; Lin, X

2015-03-01

12

Mechanism of lipid extraction from Botryococcus braunii FACHB 357 in a biphasic bioreactor.  

PubMed

Algal lipid of Botryococcus braunii could be produced continuously and in situ extracted in an aqueous-organic bioreactor. In this study, the cell ultra-structure and cell membrane permeability of B. braunii FACHB 357 were investigated to understand the mechanism of lipid extraction within the biphasic system. The results showed that biocompatible solvent of tetradecane could induce algal lipid accumulation, enable the cell membrane more active and the cell wall much looser. The exocytosis process was observed to be one of the mechanisms for lipid cross-membrane extraction in the presence of organic solvent. PMID:21640768

Zhang, Fang; Cheng, Li-Hua; Gao, Wang-Lei; Xu, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Huan-Lin

2011-07-20

13

Isolation and Characterization of Two Squalene Epoxidase Genes from Botryococcus braunii, Race B  

PubMed Central

The B race of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii produces triterpene hydrocarbons, botryococcenes and methylsqualenes that can be processed into jet fuels with high heating values. In this alga, squalene is also converted into membrane sterols after 2,3-epoxidation. In the present study, cDNA clones of two distinct squalene epoxidases (BbSQE-I and -II) were isolated. Predicted amino acid sequences encoded on these genes are 45% identical with each other. Introduction of BbSQE-I or -II into Saccharomyces cerevisie erg1 mutants resulted in the complementation of ergosterol auxotrophy. The relative expression level of SQE-II increased 3.5-fold from the early stage to the middle phase of a culture period of 42 days, while that of SQE-I was almost constant throughout the culture period. Southern blot analyses suggested that these genes are single-copied genes. This is the first report on the isolation of functional SQEs that are encoded in duplicated loci in the algal genome. PMID:25830359

Uchida, Hidenobu; Sumimoto, Koremitsu; Ferriols, Victor Marco Emmanuel; Imou, Kenji; Saga, Kiyotaka; Furuhashi, Kenichi; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Okada, Shigeru

2015-01-01

14

Extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbon extraction and quantitation from the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii var. Showa.  

PubMed

Mechanical fractionation and aqueous or aqueous/organic two-phase partition approaches were applied for extraction and separation of extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbons from Botryococcus braunii var. Showa. A direct spectrophotometric method was devised for the quantitation of botryococcene and associated carotenoid hydrocarbons extracted by this method. Separation of extracellular botryococcene hydrocarbons from the Botryococcus was achieved upon vortexing of the micro-colonies with glass beads, either in water followed by buoyant density equilibrium to separate hydrocarbons from biomass, or in the presence of heptane as a solvent, followed by aqueous/organic two-phase separation of the heptane-solubilized hydrocarbons (upper phase) from the biomass (lower aqueous phase). Spectral analysis of the upper heptane phase revealed the presence of two distinct compounds, one absorbing in the UV-C, attributed to botryococcene(s), the other in the blue region of the spectrum, attributed to a carotenoid. Specific extinction coefficients were developed for the absorbance of triterpenes at 190nm (epsilon = 90 +/- 5 mM(-1) cm(-1)) and carotenoids at 450 nm (epsilon=165+/-5mM(-1) cm(-1)) in heptane. This enabled application of a direct spectrophotometric method for the quantitation of water- or heptane-extractable botryococcenes and carotenoids. B. braunii var. Showa constitutively accumulates approximately 30% of the dry biomass as extractable (extracellular) botryococcenes, and approximately 0.2% of the dry biomass in the form of a carotenoid. It was further demonstrated that heat-treatment of the Botryococcus biomass substantially accelerates the rate and yield of the extraction process. Advances in this work serve as foundation for a cyclic Botryococcus growth, non-toxic extraction of extracellular hydrocarbons, and return of the hydrocarbon-depleted biomass to growth conditions for further product generation. PMID:20005092

Eroglu, Ela; Melis, Anastasios

2010-04-01

15

Structure and chemistry of a new chemical race of Botryococcus braunii (chlorophyceae) that produces lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

New strains of the hydrocarbon rich alga Botryococcus braunii Kuetzing were isolated from water samples collected in three tropical freshwater lakes. These strains synthesize lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid metabolite, as their sole hydrocarbon. The morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of these algae are similar to those reported for previously described strains which produce either alkadienes or botryococcenes. The pyriform shaped cells are embedded in a colonial matrix formed by layers of closely appressed external walls; this dense matrix is impregnated by the hydrocarbon and some other lipids. We believe the new strains synthesizing lycopadiene form a third chemical race in B. braunii, besides the alkadiene and botryococcene races, rather than a different species. Like the other two types of hydrocarbons, lycopadiene was produced primarily during the exponential and linear growth phases. The major fatty acid in the three races was oleic acid. This fatty acid was predominant in the alkadiene race; palmitic and octacosenoic acid also were present in appreciable amounts in the three races. Cholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol, 24-methylcholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol occurred in the three races; three unidentified sterols also were detected in the lycopadiene race. Moreover, the presence of very long chain alkenyl-phenols in the lipids of algae of the alkadiene race was not observed in the botryococcene and lycopadiene races. Of the polysaccharides released in the medium, galactose appeared as a primary component: it predominated in the botryococcene race. The other major constituents were fucose for the alkadiene race and glucose and fucose for the lycopadiene race.

Metzger, P.; Allard, B.; Casadevall, E. (UA CNRS, Paris (France)); Berkaloff, C.; Coute, A. (LA CNRS, Paris (France))

1990-06-01

16

Raman spectroscopy analysis of botryococcene hydrocarbons from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii.  

PubMed

Botryococcus braunii, B race is a unique green microalga that produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons known as botryococcenes that can be used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. The simplest botryococcene (C(30)) is metabolized by methylation to give intermediates of C(31), C(32), C(33), and C(34), with C(34) being the predominant botryococcene in some strains. In the present work we have used Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of botryococcenes in an attempt to identify and localize botryococcenes within B. braunii cells. The spectral region from 1600-1700 cm(-1) showed ?(C=C) stretching bands specific for botryococcenes. Distinct botryococcene Raman bands at 1640 and 1647 cm(-1) were assigned to the stretching of the C=C bond in the botryococcene branch and the exomethylene C=C bonds produced by the methylations, respectively. A Raman band at 1670 cm(-1) was assigned to the backbone C=C bond stretching. Density function theory calculations were used to determine the Raman spectra of all botryococcenes to compare computed theoretical values with those observed. The analysis showed that the ?(C=C) stretching bands at 1647 and 1670 cm(-1) are actually composed of several closely spaced bands arising from the six individual C=C bonds in the molecule. We also used confocal Raman microspectroscopy to map the presence and location of methylated botryococcenes within a colony of B. braunii cells based on the methylation-specific 1647 cm(-1) botryococcene Raman shift. PMID:20705610

Weiss, Taylor L; Chun, Hye Jin; Okada, Shigeru; Vitha, Stanislav; Holzenburg, Andreas; Laane, Jaan; Devarenne, Timothy P

2010-10-15

17

Biodiesel synthesis by direct transesterification of microalga Botryococcus braunii with continuous methanol reflux.  

PubMed

Direct transesterification of Botryococcus braunii with continuous acyl acceptor reflux was evaluated. This method combines in one step lipid extraction and esterification/transesterification. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) synthesis by direct conversion of microalgal biomass was carried out using sulfuric acid as catalyst and methanol as acyl acceptor. In this system, once lipids are extracted, they are contacted with the catalyst and methanol reaching 82%wt of FAME yield. To optimize the reaction conditions, a factorial design using surface response methodology was applied. The effects of catalyst concentration and co-solvent concentration were studied. Hexane was used as co-solvent for increasing lipid extraction performance. The incorporation of hexane in the reaction provoked an increase in FAME yield from 82% (pure methanol) to 95% when a 47%v/v of hexane was incorporated in the reaction. However, the selectivity towards non-saponifiable lipids such as sterols was increased, negatively affecting biodiesel quality. PMID:25625464

Hidalgo, Pamela; Ciudad, Gustavo; Schober, Sigurd; Mittelbach, Martin; Navia, Rodrigo

2015-04-01

18

Application of memberane dispersion for enhanced lipid milking from Botryococcus braunii FACHB 357.  

PubMed

To improve the mixing efficiency in an aqueous-tetradecane system and thus to increase the lipid milking efficiency, poly (ether sulfones) hollow fiber membrane was applied as dispersion medium to establish an in situ lipid extraction process from Botryococcus braunii FACHB 357. The lipid location of this microalga was characterized by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed that B. braunii excreted lipids into the outer matrix, which allowed it possible to extract algal lipids in situ by organic solvent. Within an aqueous-organic biphasic system, the lipid extraction ratio of tetradecane increased from 38.05% to 50.15% by introducing a microporous membrane as the dispersion medium, mainly because smaller solvent droplets were produced. Under this experimental condition (the volume ratio of tetradecane: 10%, the flow rate: 10 ml min(-1)), solvent toxicity and shearing stress had not shown significant impact on algal cells viability in 96 h. Within the same time period, the lipid amount extracted by solvent was enhanced with the increase of the solvent flow rate and the initial biomass concentration. These results suggested membrane dispersion was a good choice to improve mixing effect in the algal lipid milking process or other similar cell products extracted processes. PMID:23466999

Zhang, Fang; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Huan-Lin

2013-05-10

19

Unusual distribution of monomethylalkanes in Botryococcus braunii-rich samples: origin and significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique distribution of four homologous series of monomethylalkanes (MMAs) ranging from C 23 to C 31+ in the extractable organic matter and the hydrous pyrolysate of Permian torbanites has been observed for the first time. These components have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and cochromatography of authentic standards. Each of the series begins with the 2-methylalkane. Each member of a particular homologous series has a common alkyl group, each series differing to the next by two carbon atoms. The members within each homologous series differ by the number of carbon atoms in the second alkyl group. These pronounced homologous series of MMAs are superimposed over the series of lower abundance, partially resolved, more commonly occurring MMAs. This distinct contrast in the distributions of the novel MMAs series and the more commonly occurring MMAs suggests two distinct sources of MMAs in the torbanites. This visual observation is borne out by compound specific carbon isotopic data. A detailed molecular carbon isotopic study in combination with structural data suggests that the unusual MMA series are either derived directly from Botryococcus braunii race A or are novel biomarkers indicative of intense heterotrophic reworking of the algal biomass.

Audino, Michiele; Grice, Kliti; Alexander, Robert; Boreham, Christopher J.; Kagi, Robert I.

2001-06-01

20

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species  

E-print Network

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species Zhaohui Abstract Five species of freshwater green algae, including three strains of Botryococcus braunii (two in the algae, including alkadienes, botryococcenes, heptadecenes, fatty acids, and phytadiene, were measured

Sachs, Julian P.

21

Effect of cobalt enrichment on growth and hydrocarbon accumulation of Botryococcus braunii with immobilized biofilm attached cultivation.  

PubMed

The effects of cobalt enrichment on the growth and hydrocarbon accumulation were studied with biofilm attached cultivation. Under biofilm attached cultivation conditions, the microalga Botryococcus braunii survived high concentration of cobalt (50× normal level). The crude hydrocarbon content as well as the long C chain component (C31) increased under Co enrichment treatment indicating the activity of key enzyme that catalyze hydrocarbon synthesis might be enhanced by Co enrichment. The reduced carbohydrate and protein contents accompanied by increased hydrocarbon content for Co enrichment treatment indicating the Co was also an effective factor that controls the carbon flow of B. braunii. Under Co enrichment treatment, totally 1473.9 ?mol of Co element was consumed to produce one gram of algal biomass, indicating this attached cultivation method is high efficient in heavy metal elements removal. PMID:25496939

Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong

2015-02-01

22

Removal of COâ from flue gases by algae. Final technical report, September 1, 1992August 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas COâ to hydrocarbons. Free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii were grown in aqueous medium supplemented with nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral nutrients. Air and COâ enriched air [10% to 15% (V\\/V) COâ] in the

C. Akin; A. Maka; S. Patel; J. Conrad; J. Benemann

1993-01-01

23

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Hydrocarbon Production in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii  

E-print Network

. braunii has a genome size of 166.0 +/- 0.4 Mb, which is similar to the B race, Berkeley strain, with a genome size of 166 +/- 2.2 Mb, while the L race, Songkla Nakarin strain, has a substantially larger genome size at 211.3 +/- 1.7 Mb. Phylogenetic...

Weiss, Taylor Leigh

2012-10-19

24

Low-cost production of green microalga Botryococcus braunii biomass with high lipid content through mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation.  

PubMed

Botryococcus braunii is a microalga that is regarded as a potential source of renewable fuel because of its ability to produce large amounts of lipid that can be converted into biodiesel. Agro-industrial by-products and wastes are of great interest as cultivation medium for microorganisms because of their low cost, renewable nature, and abundance. In this study, two strategies for low-cost production of B. braunii biomass with high lipid content were performed: (i) the mixotrophic cultivation using molasses, a cheap by-product from the sugar cane plant as a carbon source, and (ii) the photoautotrophic cultivation using nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with CO2 as a carbon source. The mixotrophic cultivation added with 15 g L(-1) molasses produced a high amount of biomass of 3.05 g L(-1) with a high lipid content of 36.9 %. The photoautotrophic cultivation in nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with 2.0 % CO2 produced a biomass of 2.26 g L(-1) and a lipid content of 30.3 %. The benefits of this photoautotrophic cultivation are that this cultivation would help to reduce accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and more than 90 % of the nitrate could be removed from the wastewater. When this cultivation was scaled up in a stirred tank photobioreactor and run with semi-continuous cultivation regime, the highest microalgal biomass of 5.16 g L(-1) with a comparable lipid content of 32.2 % was achieved. These two strategies could be promising ways for producing cheap lipid-rich microalgal biomass that can be used as biofuel feedstocks and animal feeds. PMID:24989454

Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

2014-09-01

25

Biomass production from the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus braunii cultured heterotrophically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankistrodesmus braunii and Chlorella vulgaris were cultured heterotrophically under various operating conditions. The maximum rate of biomass production was 900 and 900 mg L-1 d-1 by C. vulgaris and 1000 and 700 mg L-1 d-1 by A. braunii in the light and dark, respectively. This indicates that these algae could produce in excess of 1530 dry weight tonnes ha-1 y-1

Robert E. Burrell; Colin I. Mayfield; William E. Inniss

1984-01-01

26

Assimilatory nitrate reductase from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

Assimilatory nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H-nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.2) from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii can be purified to homogeneity by dye-ligand chromatography on blue-Sepharose. The purified enzyme, whose turnover number is 623 s-1, presents an optimum pH of 7.5 and Km values of 13 microM, 23 microM and 0.15 mM for NADH, NADPH and nitrate, respectively. The NADH-nitrate reductase activity exhibits an iso ping pong bi bi kinetic mechanism. The molecular weight of the native nitrate reductase is 467 400, while that of its subunits is 58 750. These values suggest an octameric structure for the enzyme, which has been confirmed by electron microscopy. As deduced from spectrophotometric and fluorimetric studies, the enzyme contains FAD and cytochrome b-557 as prosthetic groups. FAD is not covalently bound to the protein and is easily dissociated in diluted solutions from the enzyme. Its apparent Km value is 4 nM, indicative of a high affinity of the enzyme for FAD. The results of the quantitative analyses of prosthetic groups indicate that nitrate reductase contains four molecules of flavin, four heme irons, and two atoms of molybdenum. The three components act sequentially transferring electrons from reduced pyridine nucleotides to nitrate, thus forming a short electron transport chain along the protein. A mechanism is proposed for the redox interconversion of the nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation seems to occur by formation of a stable complex of reduced enzyme with cyanide or superoxide, while reactivation is a consequence of reoxidation of the inactive enzyme. Both reactions imply the transfer of only one electron. PMID:6682479

De la Rosa, M A

1983-01-01

27

Pilon's Lab UCLA www.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp. and  

E-print Network

braunii, Chlorella sp. and Chlorococcum littorale Source: Euntaek Lee, Ri-Liang Heng, Laurent Pilon,n Wavelength, (nm) B. braunii Chlorella sp. C. littorale 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 0.0000 0.0005 0.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Chlorella sp. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0

Pilon, Laurent

28

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The research program involves the determination of the biocatalytic characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale studies, and the feasibility study and economic analysis of the Botryococcus braunii culture systems for the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The objective of the third quarter of this research program was to determine the growth and hydrogen formation characteristics of free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale photobioreactors. Raceway and inclined surface type bioreactors were used for free cell and immobilized cell studies respectively. The free cell studies with air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% (v/v) CO{sub 2} in air] in media with and without NaHCO{sub 3} were conducted.

Akin, C.; Pradhan, S. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-09-01

29

Occurrence of Only One Form of Glutamine Synthetase in the Green Alga Monoraphidium braunii.  

PubMed Central

Anion-exchange chromatography of crude extracts from the green alga Monoraphidium braunii yielded two glutamine synthetase (GS) activities. The ratio of activities was markedly different when crude extracts were subjected to various processing conditions but was not influenced by environmental factors of cell cultures. However, high performance liquid chromatography anion-exchange chromatograms showed only one GS if the crude extracts were processed immediately after cell disruption. Moreover, standard chromatography of crude extracts obtained in the absence of dithioerythritol, a reductant generally used in disruption buffers, yielded a single activity peak. Enzyme samples from the two activities obtained in the presence of dithioerythritol were purified for physicochemical characterization and antibody production. Both enzyme samples exhibited similar reactions to different inactivating agents and were undistinguishable by size-exclusion chromatography and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Additionally, the two GS preparations showed absolute antigenic identity as demonstrated by immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments. Immunocytochemistry of M. braunii cryosections evidenced a chloroplast-specific distribution of the enzyme, which rules out the existence of a cytoplasmic counterpart. All these results support the proposal that M. braunii possesses only one form of GS. PMID:12232093

Garcia-Fernandez, J. M.; Lopez-Ruiz, A.; Toribio, F.; Roldan, J. M.; Diez, J.

1994-01-01

30

Reclaimed Water and Secondary Wastewater as Alternative Growing Media for Green Algae for Biofuel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microalga Botryococcus braunii is one of many photosynthtic algae species being investigated as renewable feedstocks for production of biofuels. One key advantage of algae as biofuel feedstock, in view of the growing scarcity of fresh water worldwide, is the potential of algae to grow in low-quality water, including in the nutrient-containing effluents from wastewater-treatment plants. Indeed, algae could also

Sara S. Kuwahara; Joel L. Cuello

31

Biotransformation of sinapic acid by the green algae Stichococcus bacillaris 155LTAP and Ankistrodesmus braunii C202.7a  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapic acid was bioconverted by the green alga Stichococcus bacillaris into 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylic alcohol. Incubation of sinapic acid in a culture of the alga Ankistrodesmus braunii gave 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-7H-benzocyclohepten-7-one, a new compound formed by bioconversion of thomasidioic acid, the primary oxidative product of sinapic acid.

Marina DellaGreca; Gabriele Pinto; Antonino Pollio; Lucio Previtera; Fabio Temussi

2003-01-01

32

Removal of bisphenol A by the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium braunii and the role of natural organic matter.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation of waters by aquatic organisms such as algae has been recently explored for the removal of organic pollutants possessing endocrine disrupting capacity. Monoraphidium braunii, a green alga known for rapid growth and good tolerance to different natural organic matter (NOM) qualities, was tested in this study for the ability to tolerate and remove the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10mgL(-1), either in NOM-free or NOM-containing media. NOM at concentrations of 2, 5 and 20mgL(-1) of DOC, was added because it may interfere with xenobiotics and modify their effects, modulate algal growth performances or produce a trade-off of both effects. After 2 and 4 days of algal growth, the cell number and size, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II in the dark or light adapted state, and the chlorophyll a content were recorded in order to evaluate the algal response to bisphenol A. Moreover, the residual bisphenol A was measured in the algal cultures by chromatographic technique. Results indicated that after 2 and 4 days bisphenol A at the lower concentrations was not toxic for alga, whereas at the highest concentration it reduced algal growth and photosynthetic efficiency. The sole NOM and its combinations with bisphenol A at the lower concentrations increased the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of algae. After 4-day growth, good removal efficiency was exerted by M. braunii at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10mgL(-1) removing, respectively, 39%, 48% and 35% of the initial bisphenol A. Lower removal percentages were found after 2-day growth in the different treatments. NOM at any concentration scarcely influenced the bisphenol A removal. On the basis of data obtained, the use of M. braunii could be reasonably recommended for the phytoremediation of aquatic environments from bisphenol A. PMID:22209372

Gattullo, C Eliana; Bährs, Hanno; Steinberg, Christian E W; Loffredo, Elisabetta

2012-02-01

33

Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex and its regulator from the green alga Chara braunii expands the evolutionary breadth of plant G-protein signaling.  

PubMed

The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the G?, G?, and G? subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbG? and CbG?, CbG? and CbG?, and CbG? and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

2013-12-01

34

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. Free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii were grown in aqueous medium supplemented with nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral nutrients. Air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% to 15% (V/V) CO{sub 2}] in the gas phase and 0.2% to 2% NaHCO{sub 3} in the liquid medium served as the carbon source. Growth and hydrocarbon formation characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii were determined in bench-scale photobioreactors. Technical and economic feasibility of the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons by Botryococcus braunii culture systems was evaluated. In free cell systems, the hexane extractable oil productivity was about 15 to 37 grams of oil per 100 grams of cell dry weight. In immobilized cell systems, the oil production ranged between 5% and 47% at different immobilization systems and immobilized surface locations, with an average of 19% of cell biomass dry weight. The feasibility and economic evaluation estimated the cost of oil produced from flue gas CO{sub 2} by algae to range between $45 and $75 per barrel assuming that a hydrocarbon yield of about 50% of the biomass weight is achievable and a credit of $60 per ton of carbon removed is available. A future research program leading to development of a multistage process, consisting of closed systems for heavy inoculum buildup followed by lower cost open systems for oil production is recommended.

Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Patel, S.; Conrad, J. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Benemann, J.

1993-12-31

35

Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.  

PubMed

This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup. PMID:22503193

Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

2012-06-01

36

Association of oil source algae in some Tertiary basins, northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coal petrographic study of sediments, including coals, oil shale, and oil source rocks, in the fossil fuel deposits of northern Thailand revealed changes in alginite associations. In the Lower part of these Tertiary deposits, especially in the Fang oilfield, alginite A (a Botryococcus sp.) was the only type of alga found. Later, the association of Botryococcus braunii, Pila algae, thick-walled alginite B, and temperate palynomorphs were recognized in many coalfields, as well as in the middle part of the deposits in the Fang Basin. Their ages were Late Oligocene (?) to Early Miocene. In the upper part of the fossil fuel deposits, alginite B is dominant in many basins, together with Botryococcus-related taxa such as Pila algae, Reinschia and fresh-water-dwelling ferns. In the Mae Sod Basins Reinschia was found to be dominant in the northern part, whereas lamaginite dominated in the south, showing different environmental conditions in different parts of the basin during deposition. These different associations indicate changes in depositional environments in northern Thailand, resulting from climatic and/or sea level changes during Tertiary time.

Ratanasthien, Benjavun

1999-04-01

37

Characterization of the Heterotrimeric G-Protein Complex and Its Regulator from the Green Alga Chara braunii Expands the Evolutionary Breadth of Plant G-Protein Signaling1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the G?, G?, and G? subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbG? and CbG?, CbG? and CbG?, and CbG? and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

2013-01-01

38

Substrataufnahme und Phosphatstoffwechsel bei Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Like other photosynthesizing organisms which have been investigated, Ankistrodesmus braunii absorbs more glucose from the surrounding medium in the light than in the dark.2.When the algae are incubated with glucose and 32P-labelled orthophosphate in short-time-experiments, the TCA-soluble organic phosphate fraction is markedly increased. No such effect is seen when 2-desoxy-glucose is administered to the algae instead of glucose.3.In pre-labelled algae

G. Lysek; W. Simonis

1968-01-01

39

Effects of nitrogen source and nitrogen supply model on the growth and hydrocarbon accumulation of immobilized biofilm cultivation of B. braunii.  

PubMed

The immobilized biofilm cultivation was a promising method to greatly improve the biomass productivity of microalga Botryococcus braunii, which was considered as an feedstock of renewable biofuel. In this research, the effects of different nitrogen sources and supply methods on growth and hydrocarbon production of B. braunii under immobilized biofilm cultivation (attached cultivation) were studied. Of the total 5 different nitrogen sources, NaNO? was selected as the best one with which the high biomass productivity and hydrocarbon productivity of 6.45 gm(-2)d(-1) and 2.79 gm(-2)d(-1) were obtained respectively. The optimized nitrogen concentration was 0.99 mM for non-circulating medium supply model, while for the circulating model, the optimized nitrogen concentration as well as medium volume was 1.49 mM and 1.2L, respectively. Furthermore, nitrogen inputs based on growth of 1 kg dry algae biomass was only 28.92 g with circulating model. Attached cultivation was high efficient in light, nutrient and water utilization. PMID:24951939

Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong

2014-08-01

40

Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes  

SciTech Connect

The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in the same photobioreactor system should be similar at light limited growth conditions based on photon flux. It is how the algae 'allocate' this energy captured that will vary: Data will be presented that shows that Botryococcus invests greater energy in oil production than Chlorella under these growth conditions. In essence, the Chlorella can grow 'fast and lean' or can be slowed to grow 'slow and fat'. The overall energy potential between the Chlorella and Botryococcus, then, becomes much more equivalent on a per-photon basis. This work will indicate an interesting relationship between two very different algae species, in terms of growth rate, lipid content and composition, and energy efficiency of the overall process. The presentation will indicate that in light-limited growth, it cannot be assumed that either rapid growth rate or lipid production rate can be used as stand-alone indicators of which species-lipid relationships will truly be more effective in algae-to-fuels scenarios.

Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

2011-01-01

41

Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The studies reported here confirmed our preliminary observations that Botryococcus braunii can tolerate and grow well in flue gas CO{sub 2} concentrations of 10 to 15%, and produce oil. The highest extracted oil was observed in 10% CO{sub 2} enriched air. Initial pH of the medium at or near 10 pH is favorable to cell growth probably by stimulating the CO{sub 2} solubilization in the medium. This is also indicated in Botryococcus braunii growth and oil formation in NaHCO{sub 3} added medium. The lack of growth in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} containing media was probably due to high pH. The CaCO{sub 3} precipitation from the CA{sup ++} gelled alginate beads indicate the need for alternative immobilization systems. But the attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors may eliminate the need for gel entrapment systems as the immobilization matrices. Attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors, rather than remaining in the suspension, reduces the significance of self shadowing and related liquid height (thickness) effect. The capability of Botryococcus braunii to grow in NaHCO{sub 3} solutions is very encouraging toward development of an alkaline scrubbing system for the flue gas followed by removal of the CO{sub 2} from the alkaline solution. In such a system the pH 10 is the currently observed upper limit.

Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Pradhan, S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Banerjee, D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01

42

[Diurnal progress of NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase in synchronous culture of unicellular green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii and its susceptibility to X-irradiation and inhibitiors of protein synthesis].  

PubMed

1. The daily progress of NADP-linked GPD-activity rise in synchronous culture of Ankistrodesmus braunii was investigated in respect to short time increase of activity by light. After various exposure times cells were temporarily deprived of light and subsequently the so-called dark value as well as the light value (dark value plus light-induced part) of the enzyme activity was determined. 2. The increase of dark and light values per cell number is greater in the first half of the day than in the second. The minor activity rise in the second half seems to be caused by culture conditions since the activity of the light and dark values-after reduction of cell density to half in the early afternoon-shows a greater increase again. With regard to chlorophyll, around noon the enzymes activity reaches a maximum which corresponds to numerous other physiological maxima in synchronous algae cultures. 3. The absolute value of the light-induced part of NADP-linked GPD-activity per cell number also increases with increasing exposure time in the first half of the day more than in the second. 4. X-irradiation retards the rise of the dark value of the NADP-GPD. This is particularly evident if the cells are exposed to light for 4 hrs after X-irradiation: 10-25 krad is enough to completely arrest the rise of the dark value. 5. The light-induced part of GDP-activity is hardly affected by high X-ray doses (424 krad), either immediately following the X-irradiation altered the effect of the irradiation: the rise of the dark value was not as great as the control; the light-induced part of enzyme activity was obviously retarded more than it had been after only 4 hrs exposure time. Thus it can be assumed that with regard to the dark value of GPD-activity there is a recovery from the irradiation damage, whereas the radiation effect on the light-induced part of GDP-activity is possibly increased. 8. The D37 of chlorophyll synthesis of synchronous Ankistrodesmus cultures is approximately 85 krad and is thus, like the rise of the light-induced increase of NADP-linked GPD-activity, substantially more radiation resistent than the rise of the dark value which for a plant organism is extremely sensitive. 9. The high radiation sensitivity of the dark value rise of the GPD-activity in Ankistrodesmus braunii is compared with the relatively radiation resistent rise of this enzyme activity in resting greening Euglena gracilis, which contrary to Ankistrodesmus is not retarded by actinomycine, but only by chloramphenicol. One of the hypotheses under discussion regarding the X-ray effect is that the transcription processes which probably occur additionally for the rise in activity of the dark value of NADP-linked GPD may be the particularly radiation sensitive processes in Ankistrodesmus braunii. PMID:808190

Theiss-Seuberling, H B

1975-06-22

43

Lipids of Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankistrodesmus braunii was grown to stationary phase on a chemically defined medium and its cellular lipids were analyzed. The lipid content was found to vary from 18 to 73 percent of dry weight for cultures of different age and method of analysis. The pigments of the nonsaponifiable fraction were separated by adsorption chromatography and counter-current extraction and tentatively identified. The

Virginia R. Williams; Rosamond McMillan

1961-01-01

44

Einbau von 32 P in verschiedene Phosphatfraktionen, besonders Polyphosphate, bei einzelligen Grünalgen ( Ankistrodesmus braunii ) im Licht und im Dunkeln  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the unicellular green alga, Ankistrodesmus braunii, distribution and turnover of phosphorus in various fractions of cell material were investigated with special reference to the formation of inorganic polyphosphates (Poly-P).

Ryuzi Kanai; Wilhelm Simonis

1968-01-01

45

Das Verhalten von Nitratreductase, Nitritreductase, Hydrogenase und anderen Enzymen von Ankistrodesmus braunii bei Stickstoffmangel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxidation of organic nitrogen compounds leading to an intracellular formation of nitrite and nitrate (heterotrophic nitrification) was found in nitrogen-deficient Ankistrodesmus braunii. This explains the rather high levels of nitrate and nitrite reductases observed in algae after the supply of nitrogen has been exhausted.

Heinz Oesterheld

1971-01-01

46

Änderungen der Ultrastrukturen in den Grünalgen Ankistrodesmus braunii und Chlorella fusca var. rubescens bei Stickstoffmangel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural changes as well as changes in pigment and lipid content induced by nitrogen deficiency in the green algae Ankistrodesmus braunii and Chlorella fusca var. rubescens have been studied. Electron micrographs (freezeetching technique) and analyses show that the content of chlorophylls and the number of thylakoids decrease under these conditions synchronously with the increase of secondary carotenoids (astaxanthin-like type) and

Frank Mayer; Franz-Christian Czygan

1969-01-01

47

Veränderungen der Phosphatfraktionen, besonders des Polyphosphates, bei synchronisierten Ankistrodesmus braunii -Kulturen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unicellular alga Ankistrodesmus braunii was grown by synchronous culture method in a phosphate containing medium of 5 · 10-3 M PO4 and in a phosphate deficient medium of about 1 · 10-7 M PO4 · (14h light to 10h darkness).

Johanna Domanski-Kaden; Wilhelm Simonis

1972-01-01

48

Effects of cadmium and copper on the ultrastructure of Ankistrodesmus braunii and Anabaena 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brief exposure to, or growth in the presence of, lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cu(NO)2 and Cd(NO3) on the ultrastructure of the blue-green algaAnabaena 7120 and the green algaAnkistrodesmus braunii were studied. Exposure to increasing amount of both metal ions led to the appearance of larger proportions of electron-dense cells whose organelles were less well defined than

A. Massalski; V. M. Laube; D. J. Kushner

1981-01-01

49

Algae.  

PubMed

Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

2014-07-01

50

A carbon budget for heterotrophically grown Ankistrodesmus braunii and Chlorella vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Heterotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth of the green algaeChlorella vulgaris andAnkistrodesmus braunii were examined and compared through growth measurements and mass carbon budgets. Using two different estimates of overall efficiency, based upon the ratios of CO2 evolved to substrate taken up and cellular carbon to substrate carbon utilized, it was concluded that both micro-organisms were capable of photoheterotrophy althoughC. vulgaris

R. E. Burrell; C. I. Mayfield; W. E. Inniss

1985-01-01

51

Studies on the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reductase in Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, all the activities associated with the nitrate reductase complex (i.e., NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase and FMNH2-or MVH-nitrate reductase) are nutritionally repressed by ammonia or methylamine. Besides, ammonia or methylamine promote in vivo the reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase, but not of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase. Subsequent removal of the inactivating agent from the medium

J. Diez; A. Chaparro; J. M. Vega; A. Relimpio

1977-01-01

52

Über den Einfluß der Vorbelichtung auf die anschließende Phosphorylierung im Dunkeln bei einzelligen Grünalgen ( Ankistrodesmus braunii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preilluminated unicellular green algae (Ankistrodesmus braunii) were treated in the subsequent darkness with 32PO4. The post-illumination dark incorporation was considerably increased compared with the control in continuous dark. The labeling of the separated phosphate-fractions was similar to that of continuous light. The light-induced dark incorporation depended from the light intensity as well as from the time of preillumination. A preillumination

Ryuzi Kanai; Wilhelm Simonis

1968-01-01

53

Der Einfluß von CO 2 und pH auf die 32 P-Markierung von Polyphosphaten und organischen Phosphaten bei Ankistrodesmus braunii im Licht  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of CO2 on the 32P-labelling of polyphosphates and acid-soluble organic phosphates is studied in synchronously grown cultures of the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, using trichloroacetic acid treatment and acid hydrolysis for the fractionation of the phosphorus compounds.

Wolfram R. Ullrich

1971-01-01

54

Über eine Wirkung von Natrium-Ionen auf die Phosphataufnahme und die lichtabhängige Phosphorylierung von Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of labelled phosphate, especially the incorporation in the organic, in TCA soluble phosphate compounds of the unicellular green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii is markedly stimulated by Na+ more in the light but is stimulated in the dark as well (Na+-effect). This stimulation depends on the phosphate concentration and on the sodium concentration of the medium (optimum 10-3M NaCl) and

W. Simonis; W. Urbach

1963-01-01

55

Performance of an enzymatic extract in Botrycoccus braunii cell wall disruption.  

PubMed

Microalgae can produce and contain lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, which can be extracted and marketed as potential novel added-value bio-products. However, microalgae cell wall disruption is one of the most important challenges involved while processing this type of biomass. In this context, white-rot fungi, responsible for the biodegradation of lignin present in wood due to non-specific extracellular enzymes, could be applied for promoting microalgae cell wall degradation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an enzymatic extract produced by the white-rot fungi Anthracophyllum discolor as a biotechnological tool for Botryococcus braunii cell wall disruption. The fungus was inoculated in wheat grains and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was monitored while obtaining the enzymatic extract. Then, cell wall disruption trials with different MnP activity were evaluated by the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In relation to cell wall disruption, it was observed that the optimal value was obtained with enzymatic concentration of 1000 U/L with a BMP of 521 mL CH4/g VS. Under these conditions almost 90% of biomass biodegradability was observed, increasing in 62% compared to the microalgae without treatment. Therefore, the results indicate that enzymes secreted by A. discolor promoted the attack of the different cell wall components finally weakening it. Therefore, the application of this treatment could be a promissory biotechnological approach to decrease the energetic input required for the cell wall disruption step. PMID:23899898

Ciudad, Gustavo; Rubilar, Olga; Azócar, Laura; Toro, Claudio; Cea, Mara; Torres, Álvaro; Ribera, Alejandra; Navia, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

56

[Affinity chromatography of Ankistrodesmus braunii nitrate reductase using blue dextran-sepharose (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Blue Dextran has been coupled covalently to Sepharose-4B to purify the enzymatic complex NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii by affinity chromatography. The optimum conditions for the accomplishment of the chromatographic process have been determined. The adsorption of nitrate reductase on Blue Dextran Sepharose is optimum when a phosphate buffer of low ionic strength and pH 6.5-7.0 is used. Once the enzyme has been bound to Blue Dextran Sepharose, it can be specifically eluted by addition of NADH and FAD to the washing buffer. However, none of the nucleotides added separately is able to promote the elution of the enzyme from the column. The elution can be also achieved, but not specifically, by increasing the ionic strength of the buffer with KCl. These results have made possible a procedure for the purification of A. braunii nitrate reductase which led to electrophoretic homogeneity, with an overall yield of 70% and a specific activity of 49 units/mg of protein. PMID:6157180

de la Rosa, M A; Díez, J; Vega, J M

1980-06-01

57

Studies on the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reductase in Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

In the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, all the activities associated with the nitrate reductase complex (i.e., NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase and FMNH2-or MVH-nitrate reductase) are nutritionally repressed by ammonia or methylamine. Besides, ammonia or methylamine promote in vivo the reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase, but not of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase. Subsequent removal of the inactivating agent from the medium causes reactivation of the inactive enzyme. Menadione has a striking stimulation on the in vivo reactivation of the inactive enzyme. The nitrate reductase activities, but not the diaphorase activity, can be inactivated in vitro by preincubating a partially purified enzyme preparation with NADH or NADPH. ADP, in the presence of Mg(2+), presents a cooperative effect with NADH in the in vitro inactivation of nitrate reductase. This effect appears to be maximum at a concentration of ADP equimolecular with that of NADH. PMID:24420658

Diez, J; Chaparro, A; Vega, J M; Relimpio, A

1977-01-01

58

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 22, 349-351, 1994.  

E-print Network

of soil n-alkanes increased with time of maize cultivation as the result of maize carbon integration into soil organic matter. With increasing time of cultivation, the increase in isotopic difference between n, the distribution of n-alkenes from the alga Botryococcus Braunii (A race) with a strong predominance of odd- carbon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 22, 1023-1027, 1994.  

E-print Network

. Abstract- A Pliocene oil shale (Pula, Hungary), a C3 plant Triticum aestivum and a C4 plant Zea mays were-alkane, n-alkene, Pula oil shale, Botryococcus braunii, alga, plant, waxes, sediment. INTRODUCTION n-rich, Pliocene deposit from Pula (Hungary). The bulk carbon isotope ratio of this oil shale was also determined

60

Biotechnology DOI 10.1002/biot.201000129 Biotechnol. J. 2010, 5, 660670  

E-print Network

pigments and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),an 3 fatty acid [1].Polysaccharides,sterols, and polyunsaturated on production conditions, Schizochytrium sp. and Botryococcus braunii may yield 50­77% and 25­75% oil by mass, respectively [3]. Algae oils are rich in the triacylglycerols that serve as material for con- version

61

Antilipemic and hypocholesteremic activities of Globimetula braunii in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antilipemic\\/hypocholestermic activities of the methanolic extracts of Globimetula braunii were studied in the tissues of normo and hypercholesteremic rats. Hypercholesteremia was induced in the rats by feeding with dietary cholesterol at a dose of 40mg\\/kg body weight. A significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the body and the visceral organs relative weights in all the groups. There was a significant

Ochuko L. Erukainure; Joseph A. Abovwe; Adeniyi S. Adefegha; Rabiat U. Egwuche; Michael A. Fafunso

2011-01-01

62

Palaeoecological reconstruction of the late Oligocene Maar Lake of Enspel, Germany using lacustrine organic walled algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine laminated black pelites of fossil Lake Enspel (Upper Oligocene, Westerwald, W-Germany) have been analysed using palynological\\u000a methods. With the help of lacustrine organic walled algae it was possible to reconstruct some aspects of the ecology of the\\u000a palaeolake. Two organic walled primary producers have been recognized (Botryococcus and the freshwater dinoflagellate Cleistosphaeridium lacustre). During holomictic periods of the

Mark Herrmann

2010-01-01

63

Strategies of response to copper, cadmium, and lead by a blue-green and a green alga.  

PubMed

The toxic metal ions Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ inhibited growth of the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii and the blue-green alga (Cyanobacterium) Anabaena, strain 7120. Some concentrations of Cu lysed Anabaena 7120 at early, but not late, stages of growth. The other metals inhibited growth without causing lysis. Adding the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) did not reduce, and in some cases increased, metal toxicity to Anabaena 7120. This suggests that these metals do not act on this alga only in the ionic form. When Anabaena 7120 grew in a sublethal concentrations of Cu(NO3)2 (10(-5)M) most of the Cu was found outside the cell, in nonionic form. About half the Cd was found to be cell associated when these algae grew in the presence of 10(-5)M Cd(NO3)2. Ankistrodesmus braunii bound substantial amounts of both Cd and Cu when growing in their presence. At certain Cu levels, the amount bound per cell remained virtually constant during growth. In Cd, the amount bound per cell was highest at the beginning of growth and then fell. Cell-associated metals were found in both wall plus membrane and cytoplasmic fractions of A. braunii after mechanical lysis. When these algae grew over dialysis sacs containing sediment loaded with Cd or Cu, substantial amounts of these metals left the sediment and entered the algal cultures. They were found both cell associated and in the culture medium of A. braunii. In cultures of Anabaena 7120, Cd removed from the sediment was found in both cells and culture medium, but Cu was found almost entirely in the culture medium. The effects that bloom of such algae might have on the mobilization of these metals from sediments in natural waters are discussed. PMID:6783279

Laube, V M; McKenzie, C N; Kushner, D J

1980-11-01

64

[The nitrate- and nitrite-dependent O2-evolution in N 2 by Ankistrodesmus braunii].  

PubMed

O2-evolution in N2 by young cells of synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii was measured manometrically in the presence and in the absence of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate-starved cells produce O2 as a function of nitrate concentration with an optimum at 10 mM nitrate. The optimum rates are strongly dependent upon the pH of the medium culminating at pH 8.0.Nitrite excretion is initially slow and has its optimum at the same nitrate concentration as O2-evolution. It is slower under anaerobic conditions than in the presence of CO2 and slower at pH 5.6 than at pH 8.0. At pH 8.0 in N2 an accumulation of nitrite starts 40 to 100 min after the addition of nitrate to the algae.O2-evolution is faster with nitrite than with nitrate. No optimum curve is observed at pH 8.0 with various concentrations of nitrite in the medium; however, at pH 5.6 a distinct peak is found at 3 mM nitrite. This peak is found for a fast short-time reaction as well as for the following low rates of O2-evolution.The uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) equally inhibits nitrate- and nitrite-dependent O2-evolution and the incorporation of (32)P into cellular phosphate compounds. There is no indication of uncoupling in vivo of nitrite reduction which is completely independent of ATP in vitro. The inhibition of the nitrate-dependent O2-evolution by high concentrations of nitrate cannot be explained by an accumulation of products such as ammonia or nitrite. PMID:24458126

Ullrich, W R

1974-06-01

65

Larvicidal algae.  

PubMed

Although most algae are nutritious food for mosquito larvae, some species kill the larvae when ingested in large quantities. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that kill larvae do so by virtue of toxicity. While blue-green algae toxins may offer possibilities for delivery as larvicides, the toxicity of live blue-green algae does not seem consistent enough for live algae to be useful for mosquito control. Certain species of green algae in the order Chlorococcales kill larvae primarily because they are indigestible. Where these algae are abundant in nature, larvae consume them to the exclusion of other food and then starve. Under the right circumstances, it is possible to introduce indigestible algae into a breeding habitat so they become abundant enough to render it unsuitable for mosquito production. The algae can persist for years, even if the habitat dries periodically. The main limitation of indigestible algae lies in the fact that, under certain conditions, they may not replace all the nutritious algae in the habitat. More research on techniques to ensure complete replacement will be necessary before indigestible algae can go into operational use for mosquito control. PMID:17855939

Marten, Gerald G

2007-01-01

66

Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae.  

PubMed

Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:25764428

Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

2014-04-01

67

Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1–1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

2014-01-01

68

Composition and structure of assimilatory nitrate reductase from Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

Assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) from Ankistrodesmus braunii has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on blue Sepharose. The specific activity of the purified enzyme is in the range of 72 to 80 units/mg of protein. The electronic spectrum of the native enzyme shows absorption maxima at 278, 414 (Soret), 532 (beta), 562 (alpha), and 669 nm and shoulders at 455 and 484 nm, with an A278/A414 ratio of 2.56. The reduced enzyme shows absorption maxima at 424 (Soret), 528 (beta), 557 (alpha),and 669 n. The enzyme complex (Mr = 467,400) is composed of eight similar subunits (Mr = 58,750) and contains 4 molecules of FAD, 4 heme groups, and 2 atoms of molybdenum. Labile sulfide and nonheme iron were not detected. Electron micrographs show the eight subunits arranged alternately in two planes, and an 8-fold rotational symmetry was deduced from highly magnified images processed by optical superposition. PMID:7195400

De la Rosa, M A; Vega, J M; Zumft, W G

1981-06-10

69

The Study of Algae  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

Rushforth, Samuel R.

1977-01-01

70

Intracellular appearance of nitrite and nitrate in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of heterotrophic nitrification in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii was confirmed. The levels of nitrate and nitrite were measured over a period of four weeks. The validity of quantitative determinations in the presence of highly active nitrate and nitrite reductases is discussed. Whereas free hydroxylamine as an intermediate could not be detected, increased hydroxylamine oxidase activity was found

Hartmut Spiller; Elisabeth Dietsch; Erich Kessler

1976-01-01

71

Licht- und Elektronenoptische Untersuchungen Über den Feinbau des Chromatophors von Ankistrodesmus Braunii (Nägeli) Brunnthaler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung In den Kulturen vonAnkistrodesmus braunii treten zwei verschiedene Zelltypen auf: langgestreckte Zellen und kurze, gedrungene Formen. Die Chromatophoren beider Zelltypen zeigen bei Beobachtung im Hellfeld 2 mit gekreuzten Polarisationsfiltern eine Maschenstruktur. Im elektronenoptischen Bild werden in den Chromatophoren als Struktureinheit 280–300 Å dicke Doppellamellen sichtbar. Diese Doppellamellen setzen sich aus zwei Einzellamellen von je 80 Å Dicke, zwischen denen

Kurt Steffen; Friedrich Walter

1955-01-01

72

A comparative study of fossil and extant algaenans using ruthenium tetroxide degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the chemical structure of algaenans isolated from the freshwater algae Tetraedron minimum, Pediastrum boryanum and Botryococcus braunii are compared with their fossil counterparts by means of RuO4 oxidation. The results show that the algaenans investigated are preserved in sediments with only minor structural alterations. However, product mixtures from RuO4 degradation of the fossil algaenans exhibit a broader

Peter Blokker; Stefan Schouten; Jan W. de Leeuw; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Herman van den Ende

2000-01-01

73

The production of hydrocarbons from photoautotrophic growth of Dunaliella salina 1650  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalga,Dunaliella salina 1650 was selected to produce hydrocarbons that may possibly substitute for fossil fuels in the near future. It can produce\\u000a 0.22 (mg\\/L) of hydrocarbons over 20 d batch cultivation, maintaining 1.32 (g-dry wt.\\/L) of cell density. Its productivity\\u000a was similar to that fromBotryococcus braunii, which was known to economically produce liquid fuels. Optimal growth conditions for the alga

Don-Hee Park; Hwa-Won Ruy; Ki-Young Lee; Choon-Hyoung Kang; Tae-Ho Kim; Hyeon-Yong Lee

1998-01-01

74

Algae Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part lesson offers students the opportunity to view two types of algae (freshwater and Great Salt Lake species) and assess the survival of each when placed in altered habitats. Students will make observations and record their observations on a recording sheet where they will describe what they see through drawing and words. They will help prepare slides of algae and will learn to identify different qualities such as cell structure, movement and other behavioristic qualities of the two different types of algae. The resource includes background knowledge, reference to Utah elementary core curriculum standards, prior resource assessment, reproducible handouts, materials list, teaching recommendations, and final assessment strategies.

Kim Duffy

75

Green Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color photomicrographs of several species of green algae with brief descriptions of their chief characteristics and habitat. Scroll to the bottom of the page to links to bacteria, and more protists including diatoms, desmids and rotifers.

Wim van Egmond

2010-01-01

76

Isolation, purification, and properties of thioredoxin from Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of thioredoxin possessing the capacity for reactivating glutamine synthetase have been isolated from the cells of a green alga. Thioredoxins I and II are heat-stable proteins with molecular masses of 12 and 24 kDa, respectively. Analysis of the amino acid compositions of (I) and (II) have shown that they each contain two cysteine residues participating in the reduction

A. S. Rasulov

1990-01-01

77

BROWN ALGAE Colpomenia sinuosa  

E-print Network

BROWN ALGAE Colpomenia sinuosa GREEN ALGAE Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Amphiroa fragilissima Gelidiopsis intricata Botryocladia pyriformis RED ALGAE CYANOBACTERIA Oscillitoria acuminata Schizothrix sp. "ALGAE"­ A DIVERSE ASSORTMENT OF LIFE FORMS Photosynthesis is performed by a taxonomically diverse

Sullivan, Matthew B.

78

Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization  

E-print Network

Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

Tullos, Desiree

79

Die nitrat- und nitritabhängige photosynthetische O 2 -Entwicklung in N 2 bei Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

O2-evolution in N2 by young cells of synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii was measured manometrically in the presence and in the absence of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate-starved cells produce O2 as a function of nitrate concentration with an optimum at 10 mM nitrate. The optimum rates are strongly dependent upon the pH of the medium culminating at pH 8.0.

Wolfram R. Ullrich

1974-01-01

80

The appearance of nitrate reductase activity in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate reductase activity was detectable in ammonium-grown cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii after 50 minutes of nitrogen starvation. The rate of formation of nitrate reductase was stimulated by addition of nitrate and inhibited completely by cycloheximide (20 µg\\/ml). Nitrogen-starved cells assimilated added nitrate or nitrite rapidly and no nitrite or nitrate was detectable in either cells or culture medium from cultures

P. J. Syrett; C. R. Hipkin

1973-01-01

81

Interactions between freshwater bacteria and Ankistrodesmus braunii in batch and continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and continuous cultures ofAnkistrodesmus braunii were established in an inorganic medium with growth rate limited by P. In batch culture, inoculation of lake water bacterial isolates ofPseudomonas sp. andFlavobacterium sp. showed that thePseudomonas isolate was capable of more rapid growth on algal exudates of lytic products than was theFlavobacterium isolate. When inoculated singly into a continuous culture (D=0.267 day?1;

C. I. Mayfield; W. E. Inniss

1977-01-01

82

Nitratabhängige nichtcyclische Photophosphorylierung bei Ankistrodesmus braunii in Abwesenheit von CO 2 und O 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manometric measurements show that oxygen evolution proceeds in synchronised cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii even in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen. In this case the slow oxygen evolution is dependent on the presence of nitrate (Table 1). Light saturation is found at a low light intensity at pH 5.6, at a higher light intensity at pH 8.0 (Fig. 1). The light

WOLFRAM R. ULLRICtt

1971-01-01

83

Untersuchungen über die Nitratreduktion der Grünalge Ankistrodesmus braunii in vivo und in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Phasen maximalen Wachstums und optimaler Aktivität der Nitrat und Nitrit reduzierenden Systeme vonAnkistrodesmus braunii liegen zwischen dem 10. und 14. Tag nach Beginn der Kultur.2.Nitrat- und Nitritreduktion unterliegen einer jahreszeitlichen Rhythmik (Maximum im Juli, Minimum im Oktober).3.Neben spezifischen Enzymen sind an der Gesamtnitrat- und Gesamtnitritreduktion intakter Zellen nichtenzymatisch reduzierende Systeme (unter anderem Ascorbinsäure?) beteiligt, deren Aktivität im sauren ph-Bereich

Franz-Christian Czygan

1963-01-01

84

Stoichiometry between photosynthetic nitrate reduction and alkalinisation by Ankistrodesmus braunii in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of nitrate or nitrite in the light, the release of nitrite and ammonia, and the corresponding alkalinisation of the medium were measured in synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii (Naeg.) Brunnth. The increase in the OH- concentration in the medium reflects a stoichiometric ratio between OH- and NO3- of 1.3–1.8 in air, reaching almost 2.0 in CO2-free air or nitrogen. At

R. Eisele; W. R. Ullrich

1975-01-01

85

[Glutamate dehydrogenases of unicellular green algae: effects of nitrate and ammonium in vivo].  

PubMed

The constitution and control by the inorganic nitrogen source of glutamate dehydrogenases of some unicellular green algae have been studied. The Ankistrodesmus braunii and Scenedesmus obliquus cells contain two different glutamate dehydrogenases, one of which is NADP-specific, the other is active with both NAD and NADP. Their synthesis does not depend on the nitrogen source. The activity of NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase increases sharply during nitrogen starvation. In Chlorella pyrenoidosa 82 and Ch. ellipsoidea only one constitutive double specific glutamate dehydrogenase is observed. Its activity does not change depending on the nitrogen nutrition conditions. In the cells of the thermophylic Chlorella strain Chlorella sp. K. ammomium induces a de novo synthesis of NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase in addition to the constitutive double specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Thus, the algae tested contain constitutive double specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The NADP-specific enzyme is absent in two Chlorella strains, is constitutive in A. braunii and S. obliquus, and is ammonium-inducible in three thermophylic Chlorella strains. PMID:25679

Shatilov, V R; Sofbin, A V; Kasatkina, T I; Zabrodina, T M; Vladimirova, M G; Kretovich, V L

1978-02-01

86

Intracellular appearance of nitrite and nitrate in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

The occurrence of heterotrophic nitrification in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii was confirmed. The levels of nitrate and nitrite were measured over a period of four weeks. The validity of quantitative determinations in the presence of highly active nitrate and nitrite reductases is discussed. Whereas free hydroxylamine as an intermediate could not be detected, increased hydroxylamine oxidase activity was found in nitrogen-starved cultures. Nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine oxidase can be assigned to particles by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The possible involvement of microbodies, which were found to be present in Ankistrodesmus, in metabolic processes during nitrogen starvation is discussed. PMID:24430910

Spiller, H; Dietsch, E; Kessler, E

1976-01-01

87

Some effects of nitrogen-starvation on nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism in Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymic activities have been measured in cell-free extracts from nitrogen-starved cultures ofAnkistrodesmus braunii. During ten hours of nitrogenstarvation the activities of the enzymes nitrite reductase (E.C.1.6.6.4), glutamic dehydrogenase (E.C.1.4.1.4), glutamine synthetase (E.C.6.3.1.2) and urea amidolyase (E.C.3.5.1.5) were derepressed while the activities of the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (E.C.1.1.1.37) and hexokinase (E.C.2.7.1.1) remained more or less unchanged. In contrast, the photosynthetic capacity

C. R. Hipkin; P. J. Syrett

1977-01-01

88

The appearance of nitrate reductase activity in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase activity was detectable in ammonium-grown cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii after 50 minutes of nitrogen starvation. The rate of formation of nitrate reductase was stimulated by addition of nitrate and inhibited completely by cycloheximide (20 ?g/ml). Nitrogen-starved cells assimilated added nitrate or nitrite rapidly and no nitrite or nitrate was detectable in either cells or culture medium from cultures subjected to nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that nitrate is not obligatory for the formation of nitrate reductase. PMID:24469418

Syrett, P J; Hipkin, C R

1973-03-01

89

Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1?261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

2014-01-01

90

Diversity of eukaryotic algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae are ubiquitous. They are the primary producers for all the oceans and seas, an area that covers 71% of the Earth's surface. Algae also occur in freshwater lakes, ponds and streams as well as on and in soil, rocks, ice, snow, plants and animals. In total, 40% of global photosynthesis is contributed by algae. The algae are tremendously diverse.

R. A. Andersen

1992-01-01

91

Purification and properties of assimilatory nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H] from Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

Assimilatory nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H] (EC 1.6.6.2) from Ankistrodesmus braunii has been purified to homogeneity by a simple procedure that utilizes as the main step affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose. The best enzyme preparation has a specific activity of 61.25 units/mg protein. The enzyme has a sedimentation coefficient of 10.9 S by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, and a Stokes radius of 9.8 nm was estimated by gel filtration techniques. Its molecular weight is 460000, but only one single band of 58000 was detected after sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native enzyme seems thus to be composed of eight subunits. The nitrate reductase absorption spectrum shows wavelengths maxima at 280 and 416 nm and a broad shoulder at 450 nm. Reduced enzyme shows maxima at 424 (Soret), 527 (beta) and 557 (alpha) nm, and a bleaching at 450 nm. The reduced extracted heme chromophore, in pyridine and KOH, shows absorption bands at 414, 522 and 552 nm. These properties indicate the presence of a b-type cytochrome and flavin as prosthetic groups of A. braunii nitrate reductase. A minimum of four molecules of heme has been calculated per molecule of the enzyme complex. Redox titration of the enzyme shows a midpoint potential for the heme of -73 mV at pH 7.0. In the presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, which inhibits the NAD(P)H-dependent activities of the complex, the enzyme-bound heme can be reduced with dithionite, but not with NAD(P)H. PMID:7200426

de la Rosa, M A; Diez, J; Vega, J M; Losada, M

1980-05-01

92

Biogeography of Marine Algae  

E-print Network

Biogeography of Marine Algae David J Garbary, St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia and vicariance in establishing distributions and as factors associated with speciation. Since eukaryotic algae. There are many species that are virtually cosmopolitan (e.g. the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis, the red

93

Algae on the move  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the common lot of unattached algae to move with, or through, the surrounding water, and of attached algae to remain attached despite the movement of water over them. Movement of solution also occurs within larger algae. These various movements have important consequences for the acquisition, retention and allocation of resources such as energy (from light) and dissolved solutes

John A. Raven

1988-01-01

94

Effect of nitrite and nitrate on chlorophyll fluorescence in green algae.  

PubMed

The influence of nitrite and nitrate on chlorophyll fluorescence, a very sensitive indicator for the redox state of the primary acceptor of photosystem II of photosynthesis, was studied in green algae (several species of Chlorella, and Ankistrodesmus braunii). In phosphate solution under an atmosphere of nitrogen (i.e., in the absence of O2 and CO2, and without nitrite or nitrate), fluorescence shows a pronounced induction and then rises to a high steady-state level. In the presence of nitrite, however, fluorescence decreases after a rather short induction peak to a much lower steady-state. Nitrate, on the other hand, does not have any influence on either induction or steady-state of fluorescence. These results clearly demonstrate that nitrite reduction in the light is very closely coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport system, whereas nitrate is not reduced photosynthetically in vivo. PMID:24469416

Kessler, E; Zumft, W G

1973-03-01

95

Responses of certain freshwater planktonic algae to fluoride  

SciTech Connect

The effects of dissolved fluoride supplied as NaF at up to 150 p.p.m. F/sup -/ (7.9 mM) on growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration, enolase activity and fluoride uptake were determined for six phytoplankters: Synechococcus leopoliensis (Racib.) Komarek (Cyanophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica Lemmermann (Cyanophyta), Ankistrodesmus braunii Brun (Chlorophyta), Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. (Chlorophyta), Cyclotella meneghiniana Kuetzing (Bacillariophyta) and Stephanodiscus minutus Grun. ex Cleve et Moll (Bacillariophyta). Growth (determined by absorbance at 660 nm or by cell-numbers) was unaffected by fluoride at up to 50 p.p.m. (2.6 mN) in all algae except S. leopoliensis. These effects showed a threshold at ca. 25 p.p.m. (1.3 mM) F/sup -/ and increased with increasing F/sup -/ concentration above this threshold. Photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution in the chlorophytes was unaffected by F/sup -/ at up to 50 p.p.m., whereas in S. leopoliensis F/sup -/ above ca. 25 p.p.m. caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthesis which was most pronounced at saturating irradiance. Dark O/sub 2/ uptake was unaffected at up to 50 p.p.m. in chlorophytes but was stimulated in S. leopoliensis. Enolase in clarified cell-extracts of all six algae was inhibited by F/sup -/, with K/sub i/ values ranging from 27 to 319 ..mu..M. Fluorine (measured by proton-induced gamma-ray emission) could not be detected in chlorophytes exposed during growth to up to 50 p.p.m. F/sup -/, but was detected in S. leopoliensis, O. limnetica and C. meneghiniana. Fluorine associated with cells of these algae increased as the external F/sup -/ concentration increased.

Hekman, W.E.; Budd, K.; Palmer, G.R.; MacArthur, J.D.

1984-06-01

96

Alkaloids in Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

Güven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

2010-01-01

97

Alkaloids in marine algae  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.

Kas?m Cemal Güven; Aline Percot; Ekrem Sezik

98

Green-Algae  

E-print Network

Chloroplasts evolved through multiple endosymbioses Endosymbiosis has been a fundamental process in evolution, giving rise to cell organelles including chloroplasts (the center for photosynthesis in plants and algae). Primary chloroplasts in green algae and land plants resulted from an ancient endosymbiotic association with photosynthetic bacteria. Subsequent secondary endosymbioses spread chloroplasts of green and red algae across the tree of life (Fig. 1) [1]. Some algae have undergone even more recent, tertiary endosymbioses, while others contain klepto-chloroplasts (temporary chloroplasts acquired from prey) [2]. The algae Dinophysis has klepto-chloroplasts stolen from photosynthetic prey

Jennifer H. Wisecaver

99

Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

None

2010-07-01

100

Heterotrimeric G proteins in green algae: an early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.  

PubMed

Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophyaceaen green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

2014-01-01

101

Photosynthesis in Symbiotic Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Symbiosis is an evolutionary strategy that often confers an ecological advantage on the partners. Algae exist in symbiosis\\u000a with a number of hosts and in a range of different anatomical relationships including exosymbiosis (lichens) and endosymbiosis\\u000a (corals). Each of these imposes on the alga a chemical environment significantly different from that of free-living algae\\u000a and this impacts on algal photosynthesis.

David Yellowlees; Mark Warner

102

Stoichiometry between photosynthetic nitrate reduction and alkalinisation by Ankistrodesmus braunii in vivo.  

PubMed

The uptake of nitrate or nitrite in the light, the release of nitrite and ammonia, and the corresponding alkalinisation of the medium were measured in synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii (Naeg.) Brunnth. The increase in the OH(-) concentration in the medium reflects a stoichiometric ratio between OH(-) and NO3 (-) of 1.3-1.8 in air, reaching almost 2.0 in CO2-free air or nitrogen. At low CO2 concentrations a large proportion of the nitrogen taken up as nitrate is released as ammonia, much less as nitrite. The stoichiometry of alkalinisation and NO3 (-) or NO2 (-) uptake can be quantitatively explained by assuming: 1) a counter-transport, at a ratio of 1:1, of OH(-) against NO3 (-) at the plasmalemma and of OH(-) against NO2 (-) at the chloroplast envelope, and 2) a co-transport of 1:1 of OH(-) and NH4 (+) to the medium through both membranes. The first OH(-) required is formed by proton consumption in nitrite reduction, the second OH(-) by proton consumption in the formation of NH4 (+) ions. Transport of K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) is not or only scarcely involved. This proposed transport system could provide charge equilibrium between inside and outside the cells and could enable the cells to avoid nternal pH changes in nitrate and nitrite reduction. PMID:24435078

Eisele, R; Ullrich, W R

1975-01-01

103

Characterization of the Reversible Inactivation of Ankistrodesmus braunii Nitrate Reductase by Hydroxylamine.  

PubMed

The photoreversible nature of the regulation of nitrate reductase is one of the most interesting features of this enzyme. As well as other chemicals, NH(2)OH reversibly inactivates the reduced form of nitrate reductase from Ankistrodesmus braunii. From the partial activities of the enzyme, only terminal nitrate reductase is affected by NH(2)OH. To demonstrate that the terminal activity was readily inactivted by NH(2)OH, the necessary reductants of the terminal part of the enzyme had to be cleared of dithionite since this compound reacts chemically with NH(2)OH. Photoreduced flavins and electrochemically reduced methyl viologen sustain very effective inactivation of terminal nitrate reductase activity, even if the enzyme was previously deprived of its NADH-dehydrogenase activity. The early inhibition of nitrate reductase by NH(2)OH appears to be competitive versus NO(3) (-). Since NO(3) (-), as well as cyanate, carbamyl phosphate and azide (competitive inhibitors of nitrate reductase versus NO(3) (-)), protect the enzyme from NH(2)OH inactivation, it is suggested that NH(2)OH binds to the nitrate active site. The NH(2)OH-inactivated enzyme was photoreactivated in the presence of flavins, although slower than when the enzyme was previously inactivated with CN(-). NH(2)OH and NADH concentrations required for full inactivation of nitrate reductase appear to be low enough to potentially consider this inactivation process of physiological significance. PMID:16665024

Balandin, T; Fernández, V M; Aparicio, P J

1986-09-01

104

Effect of Glucose and CO(2) on Nitrate Uptake and Coupled OH Flux in Ankistrodesmus braunii.  

PubMed

In Ankistrodesmus braunii, in the absence of CO(2), i.e. in CO(2)-free air or N(2), photosynthetic nitrate uptake and nitrate reduction were inhibited, especially at low pH. Under such conditions, glucose stimulated nitrate uptake and reduction to almost the same level in the pH range between 6 and 8.5. CO(2) at 0.03% effected an intermediate pH dependence of nitrate uptake; saturating CO(2) concentration (more than 1%) eliminated the pH dependence, as did glucose, but the rates were enhanced compared with glucose. Glucose and, even more, CO(2), drastically reduced the release of nitrite and ammonia to the medium, the stoichiometry between alkalinization of the medium and nitrate uptake (OH(-)/NO(3) (-)) approached 1.Due to the lack of storage vacuoles in Ankistrodesmus, nitrate uptake and nitrate reduction were closely coupled processes whose experimental separation is difficult. The relieving effect of glucose and CO(2) suggests a carrier-mediated nitrate uptake which is more limiting than nitrate reduction and is sensitive to low pH, but which is stabilized by some intermediate originating from an active carbon metabolism. PMID:16659780

Eisele, R; Ullrich, W R

1977-01-01

105

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

106

AlgaeBase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AlgaeBase is a comprehensive taxonomic database of information on algae that includes terrestrial, marine and freshwater organisms. Users may consult this resource to check taxonomies or nomenclature, obtain information pertaining to geographic distributions, and view or download images. The database can be browsed by taxon or searched by literature, genus, species, images, common names, distribution, and glossary.

Mike Guiry

107

Antitumor activity of marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered tissue from 46 species of air-dried marine algae (four green, 21 brown and 21 red algae) were screened for antitumor activity. Significant activity against Ehrlich carcinoma was found in the brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria (69.8% inhibition), Lessonia nigrescens (60.0%), Laminaria japonica (57.6%), Sargassum ringgoldianum (46.5%), the red algae Porphyra yezoensis (53.2%) and Eucheuma gelatinae (52.1%) and the green alga

Hiroyuki Noda; Hideomi Amano; Koichi Arashima; Kazutosi Nisizawa

1990-01-01

108

Grow Your Own Algae!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover how tiny microscopic plants can remove nutrients from polluted water. They also learn how to engineer a system to remove pollutants faster and faster by changing the environment for the algae.

STARS GK-12 Program,

109

Algae Harvest Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Algae harvest energy conversion to biofuel technology is a promising alternative to fossil fuel that has inherent pollution\\u000a attachment. With present resources available for the microalgae mass production and hence, high oil yield, microalgal can\\u000a sufficiently be a new source of renewable energy to replace the fossil fuels. In this chapter, algae description, composition,\\u000a cultivation, its conversion to biofuel, and

Yung-Tse Hung; O. Sarafadeen Amuda; A. Olanrewaju Alade; I. Adekunle Amoo; Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay; Kathleen Hung Li

110

Harmful Algae Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algae Digital Library contains a collection of Sea Grant documents in digital format (primarily PDF) arranged by subject area: red tide/PSP, brown tide, ciguatera, killer algae, and Pfiesteria. This collection is part of the National Sea Grant Library (NSGL), which maintains over 36,000 searchable records dedicated to environmental stewardship, long-term economic development and responsible use of America's coastal, ocean and Great Lakes resources.

National Sea Grant Library

111

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Relevant sections in this resource include What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an Introduction to Algal Blooms and "Red Tide", Algae Species (which algae are responsible for the harmful effects?), Adverse Impacts, Human Illness (food poisoning associated with harmful algal blooms & information on diagnosis and treatment), HAB Distribution Maps, HAB events in the United States and around the world, HAB related articles as printed in the news media, and a photo gallery of visible algal blooms, photomicrographs, and satellite imagery.

Donald Anderson

2004-06-17

112

Effect of substituted pyridazinone herbicides and of difunone (EMD-IT 5914) on carotenoid biosynthesis in green algae.  

PubMed

The carotenoid biosynthesis of the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii is blocked if these cells are cultured in presence of sublethal doses of pyridazinone herbicides (San 9789, San 6706, BASF 44521) or of the herbicide difunone (EMD-IT 5914). The amount of colored carotenoids normally found in these algae is reduced drastically and the precursors phytoene and phytofluene are accumulated. Furthermore a decrease in the chlorophyll level occurs in the treated cells, but there is a stronger loss of chlorophyll a, resulting in a lowering of the chlorophyll a/b ratio with time. Concerning the activity of substituted pyridazinones leading to inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis this effect can be related to the chemical structure of these compounds: a trifluormethyl substitution of the phenyl ring and a mono- or dimethyl substitution of the amine (San 9789, San 6706) or a methoxy group instead of the substituted amine (BASF 44521) are required both for this effect. Other pyridazinone derivatives with either a trifluoromethyl substitition of the phenyl ring (San 9774) or a dimethyl subsittution of the amine (San 9785) or a methoxy group (BASF 13761) are without any effect on the pigment pattern of these algae. PMID:138285

Urbach, D; Suchanka, M; Urbach, W

1976-01-01

113

Plasmodesmata of brown algae.  

PubMed

Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open. PMID:25516500

Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

2015-01-01

114

Clocks in algae.  

PubMed

As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in other taxa have not been as widely applied to algae. We review results from seven species: the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ostreococcus tauri, and Acetabularia spp.; the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium spp.; the euglenozoa Euglena gracilis; and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The relative simplicity, experimental tractability, and ecological and evolutionary diversity of algal systems may now make them particularly useful in integrating quantitative data from "omic" technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with computational and mathematical methods. PMID:25379817

Noordally, Zeenat B; Millar, Andrew J

2015-01-20

115

Untersuchungen über die Raten der Polyphosphatsynthese durch die Photophosphorylierung bei Ankistrodesmus braunii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-time experiments with 32P-labelled phosphate and chase experiments with equally labelled cells were carried out with synchronized algae under conditions of optimum phosphate uptake. In short-time experiments, in the presence as in the absence of CO2, orthophosphate and organic phosphates are rapidly labelled, but their time curves show saturation behaviour after 10 to 20 min. Labelling of polyphosphates proceeds at

Wolfram R. Ullrich

1972-01-01

116

Algae in Animal Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • In the context of threats to fragile environments, there is a need in animal production to identify alternative feed resources, which are environmentally friendly, but at the same time utilize natural resources efficiently. Algae are autotrophic organisms, which have potentia as food and feed for man and animals. They are rich in protein (50-60%), lipids (2-22%), vitamins and

S. A. Chowdhury; K. S. Huque; M. Khatun

117

Arsoniumphospholipid in algae*  

PubMed Central

A novel phospholipid containing arsenic was formed by all marine algae cultured in [74As]arsenate. Components of the labeled algal extracts readily separated by two-dimensional paper radiochromatography. Base-catalyzed deacylation of the major lipid yielded a phosphodiester identical to one of the two major water-soluble compounds. Acid or enzymic hydrolysis of the phosphodiester produced a product identified as trimethylarsoniumalactic acid. The structure of the phospholipid therefore is O-phosphatidyltrimethylarsoniumlactic acid. Detoxication of arsenate by marine algae leads to accumulation of the arsoniumphospholipid as a major reservoir for arsenic. Its degradation to trimethylarsoniumbetaine, dimethylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, and arsenate in marine food chains and its metabolism in human beings are of considerable interest. Images PMID:16592562

Cooney, Robert V.; Mumma, R. O.; Benson, A. A.

1978-01-01

118

Genomics of Volvocine Algae  

PubMed Central

Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics.

Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

2015-01-01

119

The Great Algae Race  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a multi-week experiment, student groups gather data from the photobioreactors that they build to investigate growth conditions that make algae thrive best. Using plastic soda bottles, pond water and fish tank aerators, they vary the amount of carbon dioxide (or nutrients or sunlight, as an extension) available to the microalgae. They compare growth in aerated vs. non-aerated conditions. They measure growth by comparing the color of their algae cultures in the bottles to a color indicator scale. Then they graph and analyze the collected data to see which had the fastest growth. Students learn how plants biorecycle carbon dioxide into organic carbon (part of the carbon cycle) and how engineers apply their understanding of this process to maximize biofuel production.

2014-09-18

120

Sustainable biofuels from algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently great interest in microalgae as sources of renewable energy and biofuels. Many algae species have a high\\u000a lipid content and can be grown on non-arable land using alternate water sources such as seawater. This paper discusses in\\u000a detail the issue of sustainability of commercial-scale microalgae production of biofuels with particular focus on land, water,\\u000a nutrients (N and

Michael Armin Borowitzka; Navid Reza Moheimani

121

TOXIC ALGAE IN SOUTHEASTERN AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxin-producing algae are common in aquaculture facilities. Three divisions of algae have been identified as producing toxins: cyanobacteria, prymnesiophytes, and euglenoid algae. Cyanobacteria produce the most diverse forms including hepatic and neurologic forms. Prymnesin toxin is confined to ...

122

Miocene Coralline algae  

SciTech Connect

The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

Bosence, D.W.J.

1988-01-01

123

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the National Office of Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms and housed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, this site covers the dark side of the organisms that provide the foundation for almost all marine life. The site focuses on the small number of algae that produce potent neurotoxins that "can be transferred through the food web where they affect and even kill the higher forms of life such as zooplankton, shellfish, fish, birds, marine mammals, and even humans that feed either directly or indirectly on them." The site is divided into the following sections: photos of "Red Tide" blooms, species responsible for harmful effects, adverse impacts at higher trophic levels, human illness associated with algal blooms, and effects in your region. Researchers, educators, and people with interests in such recent headline topics such as the Pfiesteria scare can all find useful information at this site.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. National Office for Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms .

1997-01-01

124

Ecology of Harmful Algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

Roelke, Daniel L.

2007-07-01

125

Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

None

2010-01-15

126

Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens. PMID:25560029

Dey, S; Bhattacharya, D; Roy, S; Nadgir, S D; Patil, A; Kholkute, S D

2015-01-01

127

Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance  

DOEpatents

The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

2014-10-21

128

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow  

E-print Network

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow UNL Extension Educator, Water Quality Algae is a microscopic plant that occurs in all water. However, only certain conditions bring algae to the surface, making it toxic to animals, especially humans and dogs. Toxic algae often are naturally occurring from high

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

129

Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.  

PubMed

Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation. PMID:25549905

Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

2015-03-01

130

Algae fuel clean electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

O'Sullivan, D.

1993-02-08

131

Biological importance of marine algae  

PubMed Central

Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

El Gamal, Ali A.

2009-01-01

132

F-LE Algae Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Algae blooms routinely threaten the health of the Chesapeake Bay. Phosphate compounds supply a rich source of nutrients for the algae, Prorocentrum min...

2012-05-01

133

Energy 101: Algae-to-fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is from the Energy 101 video series. It explains the process for converting micro-algae into fuel and makes the case that algae-based biofuels hold enormous potential for helping reduce our dependence on imported oil.

Erin R. Pierce

134

Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

Foote, Mary Ann

1983-01-01

135

Course Syllabus MARINE ALGAE (Biol 533)  

E-print Network

Course Syllabus MARINE ALGAE (Biol 533) Dr. Thomas F. Mumford Dr. J the biodiversity of marine algae with emphasis on their role in marine ecosystems is not a prerequisite. 4. Methods for cultivation of seaweeds will be investigated for use

Carrington, Emily

136

Blue-green algae Flagellates Rotifers  

E-print Network

Diatoms Blue-green algae Flagellates Rotifers Green algae Calanoids CyclopoidsNative waterflea). Prefers clear open water in lakes and large rivers. Visual feeders, uses sight instead of smell to find

137

Seastars on Algae Covered Cobbles and Boulders  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Digital still photograph from Massachusetts Bay near Cohasset, MA, showing seastars (Asterias sp.), blood stars (Henricia sanguinolenta), blood drop tunicates (Dendrodoa carnea), mussels, and barnacles on cobbles and boulders covered with bubblegum algae and red filamentous algae.  Water d...

138

Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.  

SciTech Connect

This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

2013-01-01

139

A comparative study of fossil and extant algaenans using ruthenium tetroxide degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the chemical structure of algaenans isolated from the freshwater algae Tetraedron minimum, Pediastrum boryanum and Botryococcus braunii are compared with their fossil counterparts by means of RuO 4 oxidation. The results show that the algaenans investigated are preserved in sediments with only minor structural alterations. However, product mixtures from RuO 4 degradation of the fossil algaenans exhibit a broader distribution of oxidation products than freshly isolated algaenans indicating that the fossil biopolymers contain a greater proportion of ether cross-links, which maybe an effect of diagenetic alteration or different algal strains. Despite these differences, fossil algaenans can still be recognised chemically on the basis of the specific RuO 4 oxidation products, even after 50 Ma of sediment burial.

Blokker, Peter; Schouten, Stefan; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van den Ende, Herman

2000-06-01

140

Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2.  

PubMed

The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. PMID:25537138

Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G

2015-05-01

141

School of Engineering and Science Algae Biofuels  

E-print Network

School of Engineering and Science Algae Biofuels BY: Alessandro Faldi, Ph.D. Section Head is algae- based biofuels, which we believe could be a meaningful part of the energy mix in the future. Algae biofuels have potential to be an economically viable, low-net carbon transportation fuel

Fisher, Frank

142

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2014-04-01

143

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2011-04-01

144

Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,  

E-print Network

Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

Bardsley, John

145

RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge Attila Bai & László Stündl & Péter Bársony & Milán- ied an economical method of algae production on pig sludge that can be operated on animal farms in Hungary with modest levels of investment. We analyzed four algae spe- cies, Chlorella vulgaris

Boyer, Edmond

146

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2012-04-01

147

21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

2010-04-01

148

Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the

C. U. Ugwu; H. Aoyagi; H. Uchiyama

2008-01-01

149

Notes from the Iberian Algae Belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore regional innovation in the use of varieties of algae as inputs to industrial processes. It is important to understand that algae are one of nature's most bountiful products, with an almost infinite variety of applications. Algae have received prominence in the research literature because of the strong evidence that they can make a major contribution

Philip Cooke; Julie Porter; Hugo Pinto; Ana Rita Cruz; Fangzhu Zhang

2011-01-01

150

Marine Algae of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reexamination of some previous collections of marine algae from the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), also known as the Leeward Hawaiian Islands, and the addition of more recent collections have resulted in recognition of 48 taxa of Chlorophyta (green algae), with eight new records for the NWHI; 33 taxa of Phaeophyta (brown algae), with seven new records; and 124 species ofRhodophyta

ISABELLA A. ABBOTT

151

Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

Niskern, Diana, Comp.

152

The remote sensing of algae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

Thorne, J. F.

1977-01-01

153

Introduction to the Green Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting site on "Green Algae" (a paraphyletic group excluding Plantae) is maintained by the University of California's Museum of Paleontology, and is a central resource for algal information with links to associated resources. Four sections make up the heart of the site: Fossil Record, Life History & Ecology, Systematics, and More on Morphology. Additionally, this well-designed site contains many links to illustrated definitions and additional facts.

Speer, Brian R.

154

Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt\\/m².day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A

Ryther

1982-01-01

155

Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

2010-01-01

156

Parasites in algae mass culture  

PubMed Central

Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

2014-01-01

157

Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on

Ayhan Demirbas; M. Fatih Demirbas

2011-01-01

158

Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes  

SciTech Connect

We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

2013-01-15

159

The systematics and ecology of soil algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Algae occur in nearly all terrestrial environments on earth and are invariably encountered both on and beneath soil surfaces.\\u000a The algal flora of the soil includes members of the Cyanochloronta, Chlorophycophyta, Euglenophycophyta, Chrysophycophyta,\\u000a and Rhodophycophyta. Thirty-eight genera of prokaryotic and 147 genera of eukaryotic algae include terrestrial species, the\\u000a majority of which are edaphic. Whereas systematic nomenclature of blue-green algae

Blaine Metting

1981-01-01

160

Algae production for energy and foddering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results\\u000a of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics\\u000a of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the\\u000a most promising alternative

Attila Bai; Péter Jobbágy; Emília Durkó

161

Biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic analogs by several green algae and other algal species under gold and white light.  

PubMed

This laboratory has shown that the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), by a freshwater green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, under gold light proceeds through a dioxygenase pathway with subsequent conjugation and excretion. This study was undertaken to determine: (1) the effects of different light sources on the enzymatic or photochemical processes involved in the biotransformation of BaP over a dose range of 5-1200 mg/l; (2) the phototoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs and mutagenic quinones to a green alga; (3) the ability of other algal systems to metabolize BaP. Cultures were exposed to different doses of BaP for 2 days at 23 degrees C under gold, white or UV-A fluorescent light on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark. Under gold light, metabolites of BaP produced by Selenastrum capricornutum were the dihydrodiols of which the 11,12-dihydrodiol was the major metabolite. Under white light, at low doses, the major metabolite was the 9,10-dihydrodiol. With increasing dose, the ratio of dihydrodiols to quinones decreased to less than two. With increasing light energy output, from gold to white to UV-A in the PAH absorbing region, BaP quinone production increased. Of other carcinogenic PAHs studied, only 7H-dibenz[c,g]carbazole was as phototoxic as BaP while 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, dibenz[a,j]acridine and non-carcinogenic PAHs, anthracene and pyrene, were not phototoxic. The 3,6-quinone of BaP was found to be highly phototoxic while quinones that included menadione, danthron, phenanthrene-quinone and hydroquinone were not. The data suggest that the phototoxicity of BaP is due to photochemical production of quinones; the 3,6-quinone of BaP is phototoxic and is probably the result of the production of short lived cyclic reactive intermediates by the interaction of light with the quinone. Lastly, only the green algae, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus acutus and Ankistrodesmus braunii almost completely metabolized BaP to dihydrodiols. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the yellow alga Ochromonas malhamensis, the blue green algae Anabaena flosaquae and euglenoid Euglena gracilis did not metabolize BaP to any extent. The data indicate that algae are important in their ability to degrade PAHs but the degradation is dependent on the dose of light energy emitted and absorbed, the dose of PAHs to which the algae are exposed, the phototoxicity of PAHs and their metabolite(s) and the species and strain of algae involved. All of these factors will be important in assessing the degradation and detoxification pathways of recalcitrant PAHs by algae. PMID:7606812

Warshawsky, D; Cody, T; Radike, M; Reilman, R; Schumann, B; LaDow, K; Schneider, J

1995-07-14

162

Indirect effects of algae on coral: algae-mediated, microbe-induced coral mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in coral cover are generally associated with increases in the abundance of fleshy algae. In many cases, it remains unclear whether algae are responsible, directly or indirectly, for coral death or whether they simply settle on dead coral surfaces. Here, we show that algae can indirectly cause coral mortality by enhancing microbial activity via the release of dissolved compounds.

Jennifer E. Smith; Morrigan Shaw; Rob A. Edwards; David Obura; Olga Pantos; Enric Sala; Stuart A. Sandin; Steven Smriga; Mark Hatay; Forest L. Rohwer

2006-01-01

163

21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and...

2014-04-01

164

21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and...

2012-04-01

165

21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and...

2011-04-01

166

21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and...

2010-04-01

167

FAS4932: ALGAE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Instructor: Professor Edward Phlips  

E-print Network

FAS4932: ALGAE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Instructor: Professor Edward Phlips Main Office: Program algae, including evolution, classification, structure, photosynthesis, growth, and reproduction. Emphasis on the ecological role of algae in different aquatic ecosystems (e.g. open ocean, estuaries, coral

Watson, Craig A.

168

BOTANICAL BRIEFING Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes  

E-print Network

BOTANICAL BRIEFING Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes Burkhard Becker* and Birger March 2009 Background Land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte green algae, a small group of freshwater algae ranging from scaly, unicellular flagellates (Mesostigma) to complex, filamentous thalli

169

21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and...

2013-04-01

170

F-BF Lake Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: On June 1, a fast growing species of algae is accidentally introduced into a lake in a city park. It starts to grow and cover the surface of the lake i...

171

pH dependence of 13C-15N coupling constants of highly 14N-enriched amino acids isolated from mass cultivation of algae.  

PubMed

The alga Ankistrodesmus braunii was grown with [14N]nitrate under optimized conditions of a large-scale mass cultivation. 19.7% of the dried algae were isolated as a mixture of amino acids. The 15N-labelled amino acids (15N content up to 98%) were separated by ion exchange chromatography using pyridine acetate gradients. The 15N cotent of the analytically pure amino acid was determined by combined gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the trifluoroacetylated methylesters and by emission spectroscopy in the 15N analysator. Using pulse Fourier transform 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, the pH dependence of the 13C-15N coupling constants of Asp, Pro, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Val, Ile and Leu was determined in aqueous solutions. Increasing coupling constants were found with pH and decreasing electron density, respectively. The relation of Binsch et al. (Binsch, G., Lambert, J.B., Roberts, B.W. and Roberts, J.D. (1964) J.Am. Chem. Soc. 86,5564-5570) between the coupling constant and the product of the S-part of the 13C and 15N hybridization SC - SN = 80 - J (13C-45X) fits best in acidic medium. The magnitude of coupling constants correlates well with the electron densities calculated by Del Re et al. (Del Re, G., Pullman, B. and Yonezawa, T. (1963) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 75, 153-182). The recording of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra over the entire pH range revealed no change in the sign of the 13C-15N coupling constants of the amino acids. PMID:7313

Severge, A; Jüttner, F; Breitmaier, E; Jung, G

1976-06-23

172

FACTORS INFLUENCING METAL ACCUMULATION BY ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Shallow beds of algae (algal meanders) have proved to be highly effective at removing heavy metals and organometallics from lead-zinc mine and mill wastes. A research program was initiated (1) to determine conditions under which algae were most effective at concentrating signific...

173

Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

James, Daniel E.

1983-01-01

174

SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

Hedgepeth, David J.

1995-01-01

175

Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

1992-01-01

176

ALGAE REMOVAL BY THE OVERLAND FLOW PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of algae production will be necessary when lagoons are utilized as a preapplication treatment process for overland flow. The overland flow process has a surface discharge and must meet secondary treatment limitations to be viable. Brief summaries of other algae removal in...

177

Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability  

SciTech Connect

Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

Harvey, R.S.

2003-02-21

178

Use of algae as biofuel sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the algae production technologies such as open, closed and hybrid systems, production costs, and algal energy conversions. Liquid biofuels are alternative fuels promoted with potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Biofuels production costs can vary widely by feedstock, conversion process, scale of production and region. Algae will become the most

Ayhan Demirbas

2010-01-01

179

Accumulation of Po by benthic marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of polonium Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brasil), showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliens is followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the

R. C. Gouvea; M. E. Castelo Branco; P. L. Santos; V. A. Gouvea

1988-01-01

180

Application of intact algae to the biophotolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of intact algae for the simultaneous light-activated production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen is discussed. Experimental data on the long-term stability and endurance of hydrogen and oxygen photoproduction by anaerobically adapted Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is presented. The general conclusion that can be derived from this work is that Chlamydomonas (and probably other microscopic eukaryotic algae) are extremely rugged organisms

Greenbaum

1982-01-01

181

Composting of waste algae: a review.  

PubMed

Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. PMID:24602833

Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

2014-07-01

182

Flocculation of model algae under shear.  

SciTech Connect

We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

2010-11-01

183

Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report  

PubMed Central

Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

2012-01-01

184

Method and apparatus for processing algae  

SciTech Connect

Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

2012-07-03

185

Commercial aspects of high intensity algae culture  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs for a commercial algae farm and an alcohol plant have been developed and an economic analysis performed. Algae would be grown and harvested continuously; the cells would be degraded by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermented to produce ethanol, concentrated to 190 proof by distillation. The protein recovered from the biomass residue and from the still bottoms would be sold as livestock feed. Waste liquids would be treated, possibly by biologic digestion, and recycled to the algae farm. Yield predictions, capital and operating costs, economic analysis, and technical feasibility are discussed.

Patton, J.T. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces); Phelan, P.F.; Mauldin, G.L.

1981-01-01

186

Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae  

E-print Network

Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae Matthew D. Herron1 , Jeremiah-studied ETIs is the origin of multicellularity in the green alga Volvox, a model system for the evolution occurred dozens of times independently, for example in the red algae, brown algae, land plants, animals

187

CEC-500-2010-FS-001 Algae OMEGA  

E-print Network

CEC-500-2010-FS-001 Algae OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures For Growing Algae) TRANSPORTATION conditions but, to date, there are no algae cultivation methods on land that meet these requirements of scale will demonstrate the feasibility of NASA Ames's Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA) system

188

Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom  

E-print Network

Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom Advisor: Dr. Scott Whiteford Center resources. Often excluded from the typical water- related concerns associated with biofuels as algae as the best location in the world to grow algae, the state of Arizona is now home to several premier algae

Fay, Noah

189

21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

2010-04-01

190

21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

2012-04-01

191

21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

2014-04-01

192

Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae State of Hawaii  

E-print Network

Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared by Mele Chillingworth Scott of Hawaii at Manoa August 2011 #12;i Executive Summary Algae are considered to be a viable crop for biofuel for biofuels has increased interest in growing algae in Hawaii for biofuels. An analysis of algae production

193

21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

2011-04-01

194

21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

2013-04-01

195

Method and apparatus for the synthesis of alga biopolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus are described for the production of alga biopolymer. The method consists of 2 stages. An aqueous culture containing alga cells and nutrients required for the growth of the alga cells is subjected to a first stage of artificial illumination for a period of time such that growth of the alga and synthesis of biopolymer begins, followed

Savins

1978-01-01

196

Conversion of solar energy to liquid fuels via algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual designs for a commercial algae farm and alcohol plant are presented in this paper. The designs envision algae being grown in shallow basins and being harvested continuously. The algae would then be degraded by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermented to produce alcohol which would be concentrated to 190 proof by distillation. Protein from the algae would be a valuable by-product

J. T. Patton; G. L. Mauldin; P. F. Phelan

1980-01-01

197

The Study of Development Using Red Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise can be used to demonstrate developmental processes at the cellular level, environmental control of photosynthesis, and cell enlargement by using red algae, which is well-suited for these types of experiments.

Susan D. Waaland (University of Washington; )

1982-06-21

198

Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

James, Daniel E.

1984-01-01

199

Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... time that the algae -- a species common in rivers and lakes called Desmodesmus armatus -- has been conclusively ... Americans take any special precautions in the nation's rivers and streams, based on these cases? Ford thinks ...

200

The relationship between algae and microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulent phages specific toSalmonella typhimurium lose their activity under the effect ofScenedesmus obliquus and show almost no change in the presence ofChlorella vulgaris. This makes it possible to explain the simultaneous presence of a considerable number of bacteria and algae in the water. Conditions may be created in the water reservoir where algae, depressing the development of the phages corresponding

N. V. Davydova; V. V. Pospelova; M. M. Telitchenko

1963-01-01

201

Developments in Biotechnology of Red Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The red algae are unique and interesting for their ancient eukaryote position, the diversity of their cellular structure and\\u000a biochemical composition, and their high species diversity and commercial value. Red algae contain the largest number of commercially\\u000a valuable species of the three macroalgal groups, and include species cultivated and harvested as a source of food, phycocolloids,\\u000a pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics.

C. R. K. Reddy; Vishal Gupta; Bhavanath Jha

202

CONCENTRATION OF CESIUM137 BY ALGAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption-absorption of Cs¹³⁷ by algae is of interest because ; Cs¹³⁷ of the critical fission products in power reactor wastes and atomic ; weapon fall-out. It is well known that plankton takes up radioactivity in fairly ; high concentrations. The purpose of this investigation was to study the ; accumulation of Cs¹³⁷ by fresh water-algae. (A.C.);

L. G. Williams; H. D. Swanson

1958-01-01

203

Carbohydrate Metabolism and Respiration in Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carbohydrates and their immediate derivatives have a number of roles related to photosynthesis in algae (including Cyanobacteria).\\u000a In the form of phosphorylated sugars, carbohydrates are major intermediates in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle and\\u000a the photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle. Carbohydrates are common energy and carbon storage products in algae, permitting\\u000a imbalances between the rate of reduced carbon production in photosynthesis

John A. Raven; John Beardall

204

Large-scale production of algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot plant studies in a one-million liter plant at Richmond, California indicate that the cost of algae in projected large plants would be from three to ten cents per pound--about 10% of the cost projections made ten years ago for algae in large-scale culture. Reductions in predicted costs, have resulted from the engineering development of a simple growth system which

W. J. Oswald; C. G. Goleuke

1967-01-01

205

Effects of the potential allelochemical ?-asarone on growth, physiology and ultrastructure of two unicellular green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the natural phenylpropanoid ?-asarone on growth pattern, photosynthesis, respiration and cell structure of two microalgae have been investigated. In cultures ofAnkistrodesmus braunii ?-asarone decreases in the medium and induces a lag in growth. Both phenomena were dependent on the number of cells inoculated. By contrast, in cultures ofSelenastrum capricornutum a constant decrease of the growth rate at

Antonino Pollio; Gabriele Pinto; Roberto Ligrone; Giovanni Aliotta

1993-01-01

206

Hydrogenases in green algae: do they save the algae's life and solve our energy problems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green algae are the only known eukaryotes with both oxygenic photosynthesis and a hydrogen metabolism. Recent physiological and genetic discoveries indicate a close connection between these metabolic pathways. The anaerobically inducible hydA genes of algae encode a special type of highly active [Fe]-hydrogenase. Electrons from reducing equivalents generated during fermentation enter the photosynthetic electron transport chain via the plastoquinone pool.

Thomas Happe; Anja Hemschemeier; Martin Winkler; Annette Kaminski

2002-01-01

207

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from microalgae and volatile oils from aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the most interesting results obtained in our laboratories, during the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from microalgae and volatile oils from aromatic plants, was carried out. Concerning the microalgae, the studies on Botryococcus braunii and Chlorella vulgaris were selected. Hydrocarbons from the first microalgae, which are mainly linear alkadienes (C23–C31) with an odd number of carbon

A. M. F. Palavra; J. P. Coelho; J. G. Barroso; A. P. Rauter; J. M. N. A. Fareleira; A. Mainar; J. S. Urieta; B. P. Nobre; L. Gouveia; R. L. Mendes; J. M. S. Cabral; J. M. Novais

208

PPR proteins of green algae  

PubMed Central

Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

2013-01-01

209

Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

210

Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?  

PubMed

A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population. PMID:19544699

Rhodes, Christopher J

2009-01-01

211

Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

2013-07-29

212

Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.  

PubMed

The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

2013-01-01

213

Algae control problems and practices workshop  

SciTech Connect

Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

Pryfogle, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, G. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

214

Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico  

ScienceCinema

Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

2014-06-24

215

Application of intact algae to the biophotolysis  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of intact algae for the simultaneous light-activated production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen is discussed. Experimental data on the long-term stability and endurance of hydrogen and oxygen photoproduction by anaerobically adapted Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is presented. The general conclusion that can be derived from this work is that Chlamydomonas (and probably other microscopic eukaryotic algae) are extremely rugged organisms with respect to the biophotolysis problem. Working with a sample of wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen was observed for approximately 100 h. The bleached algae were then removed from the reactor and used as the inoculum in fresh growth medium. These second-generation cells regreened and were able to photoproduce hydrogen and oxygen initially at ten times the rate of the first generation cells and had better survivability characteristics as indicated by their chlorophyll content after 200 h. 2 figures.

Greenbaum, E.

1982-01-01

216

WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

217

[Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].  

PubMed

The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

1985-01-01

218

Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

Porter, Lee A.

1985-01-01

219

Microalgae Cultivation using Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA)  

E-print Network

Environmental Life Cycle Comparison of Algae to Otherand Life Cycle Assessment Approach to Identify Technological Innovation Opportunities in Algaeand Life Cycle Assessment Approach to Identify Technological Innovation Opportunities in Algae

Wiley, Patrick Edward

2013-01-01

220

An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

221

ALGAE BLOOMS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN LAKE LOWELL, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae blooms limit recreational use of Lake Lowell, ID (17050114) by reducing water clarity and esthetic qualities. Under bloom conditions, algae have a negative impact on the reservoir fishery because of periodic oxygen depletion associated with respiration and decomposition. ...

222

Life cycle analysis of algae biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Algae biomass has great promise as a sustainable alternative to conventional transportation fuels. In this study, a well-to-pump\\u000a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to investigate the overall sustainability and net energy balance of an algal biodiesel\\u000a process. The goal of this LCA was to provide baseline information for the algae biodiesel process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The functional

Kyle Sander; Ganti S. Murthy

2010-01-01

223

Cognome e nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 14 novembre 2011 Compitino (2 ore)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 14 novembre 2011­ Compitino (2 ore) Giustificare ogni affermazione Salvare il file CoCoA come

Robbiano, Lorenzo

224

Acetylene reduction by nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known nitrogen-fixing species of blue-green algae are capable of reducing acetylene to ethylene, but acetylene is not reduced by Anacystis nidulans, which does not fix nitrogen. Cycad root nodules which contain blue-green algae as endophytes reduce acetylene. Acetylene reduction is inhibited by carbon monoxide. Nitrate or ammonium-nitrogen has no immediate effect on algae reducing acetylene, but algae grown on nitrate-nitrogen

W. D. P. Stewart; G. P. Fitzgerald; R. H. Burris

1968-01-01

225

Cognome e nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 2 febbraio 2012 Compitino (2 ore)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 2 febbraio 2012­ Compitino (2 ore) Giustificare ogni affermazione Salvare il file CoCoA come

Robbiano, Lorenzo

226

Neonatal sepsis caused by Shewanella algae: A case report.  

PubMed

Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality among neonates, especially in developing countries. Most cases of neonatal sepsis are attributed to Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Shewanella algae (S. algae) is a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, commonly associated with the marine environment, which has been isolated from humans. Early onset neonatal sepsis caused by S. algae is uncommon. We report a case of S. algae blood stream infection in a newborn with early onset neonatal sepsis. PMID:25810789

Charles, Marie Victor Pravin; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Kali, Arunava

2015-01-01

227

AQU 04 Portable Algae Flow Cytometer Team Members  

E-print Network

AQU 04 Portable Algae Flow Cytometer Team Members · David Caron, Faculty · Han-Chieh Chang · Yu-Chong Tai, Faculty, PI* * Primary Contact Overview The portable algae flow cytometer is a project that aims to expedite research in algae biology using microfluid-based and state-of-the-art detection

California at Los Angeles, University of

228

FAS6932: ALGAE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Instructor: Professor Edward Phlips  

E-print Network

FAS6932: ALGAE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Instructor: Professor Edward Phlips Main Office: Program-mail: phlips@ufl.edu Office Hours: Mondays 4pm-5pm Course Description: The biology and ecology of aquatic algae on the ecological role of algae in different aquatic ecosystems (e.g. open ocean, estuaries, coral reefs, rocky

Watson, Craig A.

229

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats  

E-print Network

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we

Hsu, Sze-Bi

230

Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae State of Hawaii  

E-print Network

Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared for the U.S. Department agency thereof. #12;Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared by Mele University of Hawaii at Manoa August 2011 #12;i Executive Summary Algae are considered to be a viable crop

231

Update on Genomic Studies of Algae Paths toward Algal Genomics  

E-print Network

Update on Genomic Studies of Algae Paths toward Algal Genomics Arthur R. Grossman* The Carnegie the expression of genes. In this introductory manuscript, I discuss select algae and how genomics is impacting our understanding of these organisms. Four algae for which near-full genome information has become

232

Biosorption of Lead and Nickel by Biomass of Marine Algae  

E-print Network

Biosorption of Lead and Nickel by Biomass of Marine Algae Z.R. Holan and B. Volesky" Department 22, 1993 Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales

Volesky, Bohumil

233

CORALLINE ALGA STANDS THE TEST OF TIME ON SHORELINE  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i CORALLINE ALGA STANDS THE TEST OF TIME ON SHORELINE No one likes getting bashed about, the coralline algae, which have calcified most of their cells and essentially turned themselves into living, and thus most of force, occurring at the small joints (they make up just 15% of the alga), Denny wondered

Martone, Patrick T.

234

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host  

E-print Network

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host Ryan Kerneya,1 , Eunsoo Kimb , Roger P) and green algae ("Oophila amblystomatis" Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutu- alism tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next

235

How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

236

Lab 7: Nitrates and Phosphates and Algae, Oh My!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human-induced nutrient loading of the world's oceans has been linked to increased and prolonged algae blooms, sometimes with potentially deadly consequences. In this investigation, students will create their own algal blooms, analyze satellite images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Sea of CortÃs, and learn about two alarming consequences of excessive algae growth-?dead zones and harmful algae blooms (HABs).

237

Environmental Life Cycle Comparison of Algae to Other Bioenergy  

E-print Network

Environmental Life Cycle Comparison of Algae to Other Bioenergy Feedstocks A N D R E S F . C L A R December 6, 2009. Accepted December 15, 2009. Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from

Clarens, Andres

238

Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1  

E-print Network

Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1 Isabelle Larocque, A distribution of epilimnetic algae on patterns of algal sedimentation was determined in lake enclosures under the mean length of algae in fish-free enclosures and reduced the mean length in the enclosures to which

Mazumder, Asit

239

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress  

E-print Network

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress Researchers at the University of Nebraska of toxic blue-green algae before the bacteria that produce it can grow into a full-scale bloom. Now UNL and monitor in real-time, the water-borne agents that can cause toxic blue- green algae to flourish and become

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

240

The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast structure and genome analyses support the hypothesis that three groups of organisms originated from the primary photosynthetic endosymbiosis between a cyanobacterium and a eukaryotic host: green plants (green algae + land plants), red algae and glaucophytes (for example, Cyanophora). Although phylogenies based on several mitochondrial genes support a specific green plants\\/red algae relationship, the phylogenetic analysis of nucleus-encoded genes

David Moreira; Hervé Le Guyader; Hervé Philippe

2000-01-01

241

Determination of elements in algae by different atomic spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of substances derived from plants has received a great deal of attention in the last several decades. Today, natural products and their synthetic analogs also play an important role in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Several interesting reviews on algae were published in the last 10 years. Algae, especially the red algae, are very helpful in every day

Anna Csikkel-Szolnoki; Mária Báthori; Gerald Blunden

2000-01-01

242

Modeling and control of algae detachment in regulated canal networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae development in open-channel networks induce major disturbances because of clogging issues on hydraulic devices (pipes, weirs, filters,...). An original strategy to manage these algae developments consists in flushing the fixed algae. The flush is carried out by increasing the hydraulic shear conditions using the hydraulic structures of the canal network. In response to the shear stress increase, a part

Ophelie Fovet; Xavier Litrico; Gilles Belaud

2010-01-01

243

Development of suitable photobioreactor for algae production – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgal species are recently in the spotlight for biofuels production like biodiesel, bioethanol and biohydrogen. Algae are also used as a biofertiliser, source of nutrient and for controlling pollution. Algae being a photosynthetic organism are produced in the photo bioreactors. Hence the design and development of photobioreactors for maximum production of algae is very important. Apart from maximum production, other

R. N. Singh; Shaishav Sharma

2012-01-01

244

Analysis of energy conversion characteristics in liquefaction of algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water environment and aquaculture in lakes have recently been influenced by the abnormal appearance of unpleasant water-bloom or eutrophication problems. It is the source reason of producing odors and being obstacles of water purification systems. Physical and chemical methods can remove algae from water and transform it to become algae sludge. Generally such algae sludge could be disposed as

Y. F. Yang; C. P. Feng; Y. Inamori; T. Maekawa

2004-01-01

245

Algae 2011, 26(2): 181-192 DOI: 10.4490/algae.2011.26.2.181  

E-print Network

Algae 2011, 26(2): 181-192 DOI: 10.4490/algae.2011.26.2.181 Open Access Research Article Copyright © The Korean Society of Phycology 181 http://e-algae.kr pISSN: 1226-2617 eISSN: 2093-0860 Methods for sampling, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. #12;Algae 2011, 26

Meyers, Steven D.

246

Marine biomass: Algae as source of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations based on data from laboratory and field measurements indicate that a production of as much as 115 tons of algae (dry matter) per hectare and year could be achieved. Culture of marine algae along the Swedish coast would probably take place in shallow, sheltered waters. Using a succession of naturally occuring species a growing season of 240 days could be achieved. With a production of 115 tons dm.ha/1 year/1 an output of approximately 110 MWhT.ha/1 year/1 of methane gas would be feasible using anaerobic fermentation. The area of the Baltic inside the 5 m depth curve is 19,000 sq km. If 10% of this area were available, a production of around 20 TWhT of gas annually would be the maximum potential of the system. A system is described for growing algae in the shallow marine environment. Energy analysis of the system indicates that approximately 5% of the energy output from an algae based methane plant would be required for growth, harvesting and conversion to methane.

Edler, L.; Vonwachenfeldt, T.; Emmelin, L.

1980-04-01

247

Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

Fox, Ripley D.

1985-01-01

248

Potential of mass algae production in Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

The rationale for efficient light absorption by algae at a production unit is given and design details of an intensive thin-layer technology outdoor (2.11m/sup 2/) unit are presented. Data on productivity under extreme conditions were collected. Maximum productivity data are close to those reported in the literature for similar geographic areas.

Prokop, A.; Fekri, M.

1984-11-01

249

dead biomass of marine algae Fucus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of dead biomass from the marine brown algae Fucus ceranoides, F. vesiculosus and F.serratus were studied for their ability to remove cadmium from aqueous solutions. The metal sorption process is rapid, with 90% of the metal uptake completed within the first 25 min. of contact. The kinetic data was described successfully by a pseudo second order chemical sorption process

R. Herrero; B. Cordero; P. Lodeiro; C. Rey-Castro; M. E. Sastre de Vicente

250

Ultraviolet action and photoreactivation in algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae, like other organisms, are sensitive to the far-uv portion of the spectrum (200 to 300 nm) and are relatively insensitive to near uv (300 to 400 nm). Growth is inhibited and cells die after longer exposure to far-uv radiation. Sensitivity is greater in certain phases of the cell cycle than in others; for example, high sensitivity is found in

P. Halldal; O. Taube

1972-01-01

251

Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

Browell, E. V.

1980-01-01

252

Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.  

PubMed

Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes. PMID:24597605

Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

2014-08-01

253

Biofuels from algae for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global

M. Fatih Demirbas

2011-01-01

254

The economics of producing biodiesel from algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable

Brian J. Gallagher

2011-01-01

255

Golden Alga (Prymnesium parvum) An Emerging Threat  

E-print Network

of salinity Minimum for blooms (0.5-1 psu, 2000 S/cm) · Water takes golden coloration during blooms, foam, TPWD flagella haptonema #12;4 Golden Alga Picture credits: TPWD #12;5 Shoreline Foam Picture credits East: fish ponds China: saline lakes United States: saline reservoirs and streams (> 0.5-1 psu

US Army Corps of Engineers

256

OPTIMAL COST CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ATTACHED ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis for alternative programs intended for the control of the nuisance growth of an attached alga (Cladophora). Such analyses require that changes in water quality be quantitatively related to the cost of implementation for specific manageme...

257

Extracellular Products of Blue Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An examination was made of soluble extracellular materials produced by Anabaena cylindrica and some other species of blue-green algae, to exasmine whether they have any functional importance. Organisms of all the 15 species (representing 10 genera) examined produced extracellular pigment; with at least 10 of these species part of this pigment was not dif- fusible on dialysis, though the

B. A. WHITTON

1965-01-01

258

Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCB<1,2-DCB<1,2,3,4-TeCBalgae was almost in the order: Pyramidomonas sp. < Platymonas subcordiformis < Nannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

1997-12-01

259

Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene in marine algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; and toxicity of TeCB to the marine algae were tested. Values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k 1, elimination rate constant k 2 and bioconcentration factor BCF, were obtained not only from the time course of TeCB uptake by the marine algae by using a bioconcentration model, but also from the acute toxicity test data for percent inhibition PI(%)˜exposure concentration of TeCB-time by using a combined bioconcentration and probability model. The results showed good relationship between k 1(TOXIC) and k 1(UPTAKE) and k 2(TOXIC), k 2(UPTAKE), and BCF D(IOXIC) and BCF D(UPTAKE). Especially, the values of BCF D(TOXIC) were well consistent with those of BCF D(UPTAKE).

Wang, Xiu-Lin; Ma, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun

1997-09-01

260

Algae columns with anodic stripping voltammetric detection  

SciTech Connect

The use of silica-immobilized algal cells for on-line column separation in conjunction with continuous monitoring of trace metals is described. Algae-silica preparations are highly suitable for flow analysis as they couple the unique reactivity patterns and high binding capacity of algal biomass with the hydrodynamic and mechanical features of porous silica. Such advantages are illustrated by using on-line anodic stripping voltammetry and the alga Chlorella pyrenidosa. Selective and exhaustive removal of interfering constituents circumvents common problems such as overlapping peaks and intermetallic effects. Effects of flow rate, pH, operation time, and other variables are reported. The system is characterized by high durability, simplicity, and economy and offers an attractive alternative to prevalent columns used for flow analysis.

Kubiak, W.W.; Wang, J.; Darnall, D.

1989-03-01

261

Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential  

PubMed Central

Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

2011-01-01

262

Studies on polyethers produced by red algae.  

PubMed

Two novel squalene-derived triterpenes, spirodehydrovenustatriol (3) and 14-keto-dehydrothyrsiferol (4) were isolated from the red alga Laurencia viridis, together with two new and unusual C(17) terpenoids, adejen A (5) and B (6). These truncated structures possess structural similarities with other known squalene metabolites and their biogenetic origin has been proposed on the basis of an oxidative process of the squalene skeleton. All the structures were elucidated by extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. PMID:20479973

Cen-Pacheco, Francisco; Nordström, Laurette; Souto, María Luisa; Martín, Manuel Norte; Fernández, José Javier; Daranas, Antonio Hernández

2010-01-01

263

Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae  

PubMed Central

Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

2013-01-01

264

Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

1972-01-01

265

"Vision" in single-celled algae.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic unicellular algae have a unique visual system. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the pigmented eye comprises the optical system and at least five different rhodopsin photoreceptors. Two of them, the channelrhodopsins, are rhodopsin-ion channel hybrids switched between closed and open states by photoisomerization of the attached retinal chromophore. They promise to become a useful tool for noninvasive control of membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations. PMID:15143209

Kateriya, Suneel; Nagel, Georg; Bamberg, Ernst; Hegemann, Peter

2004-06-01

266

Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a prerequisite to potential transmission of these pathogens. PMID:23936086

Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

2013-01-01

267

Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.  

PubMed

Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a prerequisite to potential transmission of these pathogens. PMID:23936086

Sweet, Michael J; Bythell, John C; Nugues, Maggy M

2013-01-01

268

Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

2015-01-01

269

Sequestration of CO2 by halotolerant algae  

PubMed Central

The potential of halotolerant algae isolated from natural resources was used to study CO2 fixation and algal lipid production. Biological fixation of CO2 in photobioreactor in presence of salinity is exploited. The CO2 concentration 1060 ppm gave the highest biomass yield (700 mg dry wt/l), the highest total lipid content (10.33%) with 80% of CO2 removal. PMID:24847439

2014-01-01

270

Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Bioelectricityproductionfromaphytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined,in single chamber,microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris producedmoreenergygeneration per substrate mass (2.5 kWh\\/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more,completely,over,a batch,cycle (73 ? 1% COD). Maximum,power densities obtained using either single

Sharon B. Velasquez-Orta; Tom P. Curtis; Bruce E. Logan

2009-01-01

271

Antiviral carbohydrates from marine red algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible that heparin-like sulfated polysaccharides from red algae, or fractions thereof, might be found to be low-cost, broad-spectrum antiviral agents. The prevailing view among virologists has been that sulfated polysaccharides inhibit viral action by acting only at the surfaces of cells. This perception now is changing with the finding that both the herpes virus (containing DNA) and human

Michael Neushul

1990-01-01

272

Characterization of Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales: Discovery of extremely organic sulphur-rich Type I kerogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kerogens of three Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales were analyzed by light microscopy, flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bulk composition methods (elemental analysis, Rock Eval pyrolysis). Two of the three kerogens (Ribesalbes and Campins) are extremely rich in organic sulphur (atomic S org/C ratio > 0.04) and hydrogen (atomic ratio H/C ratio > 1.5) and are, consequently, classified as Type I-S kerogens. Very characteristic distribution patterns of flash pyrolysis products (e.g., alkan-9- and -10-ones, alkadienes) of the Ribesalbes kerogen revealed that it is predominantly composed of fossilized organic matter of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii. These two findings demonstrate that sulphurization of organic matter may also occur in lacustrine sediments provided that sulphate is supplied by external sources. Data on the third kerogen sample (Cerdanya) suggest that the freshwater alga Pediastrum may contain a (partly) aromatic biomacromolecule that is selectively preserved upon diagenesis. These findings testify to the large variability in palaeodepositional conditions in lacustrine environments. A comparison of the biomarker composition of the extract of the Ribesalbes oil shale with the kerogen composition indicate that biomarkers often cannot be used to assess the major sources of organic matter in such settings. A similar conclusion can be drawn from a comparison of literature data concerning the Messel Oil Shale.

Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de las Heras, F. Xavier C.; van Bergen, Pim F.; de Leeuw, Jan W.

1993-01-01

273

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key? Sabina (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms

274

Sustainability assessment of algae cofiring in a coal-fired power plant: A hybrid LCA model  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE environmental performance of various algae cofiring scenarios in a 300 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated using an ecologically based hybrid LCA model. Scenarios included cofiring options utilizing 100% Coal, 75% Coal & 25% Algae, 50% Coal & 50% Algae, 25% Coal & 75% Algae, and 100% Algae. These percentage values represent the share of energy production (MJ) by

M. Kucukvar; O. Tatari

2011-01-01

275

Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo-West Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: On coral reefs, damselfish defend their territories from invading herbivores and maintain algal turfs, from which they harvest filamentous algae. In southern Japan, intensive weeding of indigestible algae by Stegastes nigricans results in overgrowth by one filamentous alga, Polysiphonia sp. 1. Because this alga is highly susceptible to grazing and is competitively inferior to other algae, it survives only

Hiroki Hata; Katsutoshi Watanabe; Makoto Kato

2010-01-01

276

Microplate Technique for Determining Accumulation of Metals by Algae  

PubMed Central

A microplate technique was developed to determine the conditions under which pure cultures of algae removed heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Variables investigated included algal species and strain, culture age (11 and 44 days), metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and zinc), pH, effects of different buffer solutions, and time of exposure. Plastic, U-bottomed microtiter plates were used in conjunction with heavy metal radionuclides to determine concentration factors for metal-alga combinations. The technique developed was rapid, statistically reliable, and economical of materials and cells. Results (expressed as concentration factors) were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. All species of algae studied removed mercury from solution. Green algae proved better at accumulating cadmium than did blue-green algae. No alga studied removed zinc, perhaps because cells were maintained in the dark during the labeling period. Chlamydomonas sp. proved superior in ability to remove lead from solution. PMID:16345764

Hassett, James M.; Jennett, J. Charles; Smith, James E.

1981-01-01

277

Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships’ ballast water, experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships’ ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.) is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

Dang, Kun; Sun, Pei-Ting; Xiao, Jing-Kun; Song, Yong-Xin

2006-12-01

278

Microplate technique for determining accumulation of metals by algae  

SciTech Connect

A microplate technique was developed to determine the conditions under which pure cultures of algae removed heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Variables investigated included algal species and strain, culture age (11 and 44 days), metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and zinc), pH, effects of different buffer solutions, and time of exposure. Plastic, U-bottomed microtiter plates were used in conjunction with heavy metal radionuclides to determine concentration factors for metal-alga combinations. The technique developed was rapid, statistically reliable, and economical of materials and cells. All species of algae studied removed mercury from solution. Green algae proved better at accumulating cadmium than did blue-green algae. No alga studied removed zinc, perhaps because cells were maintained in the dark during the labeling period. Chlamydomonas sp. proved superior in ability to remove lead from solution.

Hassett, J.M.; Jennett, J.C.; Smith, J.E.

1981-05-01

279

Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae  

DOEpatents

Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

Greenbaum, E.

1982-06-16

280

Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae  

DOEpatents

Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

281

Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes  

SciTech Connect

Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

Elliott, Doug

2013-12-17

282

Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, ?-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

2012-12-01

283

Alga-lysing bioreactor and dominant bacteria strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alga-lysing bacteria have been paid much attention to in recent years. In this study, the alga-lysing strain P05 which was isolated from an immobilizing biosystem was immobilized by coke and elastic filler, forming two biological reactors. The removal efficiencies of algae, NH4+-N and organic matter using the two reactors were studied. The results showed that strain P05 was an ideal

Hai-yan PEI; Wen-rong HU; Rui-min MU; Xiao-cai LI

2007-01-01

284

Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes  

ScienceCinema

Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

Elliott, Doug

2014-06-02

285

Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

2013-01-01

286

Indirect effects of algae on coral: algae-mediated, microbe-induced coral mortality  

E-print Network

algal growth. Keywords Algae, bacteria, coral disease, coral reef, dissolved organic carbon, macroalgae several decades there has been an alarming decline in coral reefs around the world (McCook 1999; Aronson change, overfish- ing, eutrophication and coral disease. The loss of live coral cover is often associated

Smith, Jennifer E.

287

A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

288

The production of antimicrobial compounds by British marine algae I. Antibiotic-producing marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using five species of bacteria as the test organisms, 151 species of British marine algae have been screened for the production of antibiotics. Of these, Asparagopsis armata, Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Chondrus crispus, Dilsea carnosa, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Sphondylothamnion multifidum, Desmarestia aculeata, Desmarestia ligulata, Laminaria digitata, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotoma, Halidrys siliquosa and most members of the family Rhodomelaceae appear to

I. S. Hornsey; D. Hide

1974-01-01

289

Change in biomass of benthic and planktonic algae along a disturbance gradient for 24 Great  

E-print Network

Change in biomass of benthic and planktonic algae along a disturbance gradient for 24 Great Lakes a content of planktonic algae and benthic algae in periphyton on acrylic rods and in epiphyton growing

McMaster University

290

Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae in  

E-print Network

Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosys- tems- mon species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plu- mosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum

Martone, Patrick T.

291

CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL ALGAE OF TWO ABANDONED INDUSTRIAL  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL ALGAE OF TWO ABANDONED INDUSTRIAL SEDIMENTATION BASINS Sixty three species of soil algae and Cyanoprocaryota were recovered from eight investigated sites sites in Chvaletice suggests soil toxicity of these biotopes. Keywords Soil algae, Chlorophyta

292

Parachloroidium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel genus of coccoid green algae from subaerial corticolous biofilms  

E-print Network

Parachloroidium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel genus of coccoid green algae. Parachloroidium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel genus of coccoid green algae from subaerial the Parachloroidium strains from other similar green algae. However, ultrastructural characteristics and molecular

293

Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae  

SciTech Connect

Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

Bhadauria, S. (Raja Balwant Singh College, Agra (India)); Sengar, R.M.S. (Agra College (India)); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. (IARI, New Delhi (India))

1992-01-01

294

Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

1995-03-01

295

Plastid Genomes of Higher Plants and Algae: Structure and Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on the structure and gene composition in completely sequenced plastid (predominantly chloroplast) genomes of higher plants and algae are reviewed. In higher plants, genome structure and gene composition are highly conserved. Plastid genomes of algae are less conserved and contain several unique genes, which are not found in chloroplast DNAs of higher plants. Plastid genomes encode proteins involved

M. S. Odintsova; N. P. Yurina

2003-01-01

296

Introduction slide 2 Biofuels and Algae Markets, Systems,  

E-print Network

Markets · Traditional use of waste vegetable oil · Plans for bigger plants using non-food sources Markets and Biocrude for Biogasoline USA BIOFUEL MARKET GROWTH TRENDS SOURCE - ALGAE 2020 AND BIODIESEL 2020 STUDIES #12;USA BIODIESEL MARKET OVERVIEW SOURCE - ALGAE 2020 STUDY #12;USA BIODIESEL MARKET

297

Metabolism of monocrotophos and quinalphos by algae isolated from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

but selective with concentrations,enhancement in the growth of soll algae has been reported (Megharaj et al. 1986). The capabilities of five algal species, isolated from a vertisol, to degrade monoerotophos and quinalphos, the most effective insecticides in controlling cotton bollworms, were determined in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS To determine the role of soil algae in the degradation of

M. Megharaj; K. Venkateswarlu; A. S. Rao

1987-01-01

298

Blue-Green Algae: Why They Become Dominant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injection of carbon dioxide and the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus to a lake population dominated by blue-green algae results in a rapid shift to dominance by green algae. The basis for the change and its implications are discussed.

Joseph Shapiro

1973-01-01

299

Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into

F. T. Varani; S. Schellenbach; M. Veatch; P. Grover; J. Benemann

1980-01-01

300

Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current

Martin Lohr; Jörg Schwender; Jürgen E. W. Polle

2012-01-01

301

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON BLUE-GREEN ALGAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of blue-green algae were studied in thin sections with the electron microscope. Our electron micrographs confirm the view that the cell of blue-green algae is different and simpler in organization than the typical plant or animal cell. On the other hand, the general pattern of ultrastructure is the same as that found in bacteria and Streptomyces. The cell

HANS RIS; R. N. SINGH

1961-01-01

302

Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

303

Fatty Acid Distribution in the Lipoid Extracts of Various Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of the lipoid extracts of four marine alga species, Halopteris scoparia (L.) Sauvagau, Scinaia furcellata L., Sargassum natans (L.) J. Meyer, Padina vickersiae Hoyt, and the sea grass Posidonia oceanica L. as well as six freshwater alga species, namely Cladophora fracta (Dilw.) Kutz, C. glomerata (Dilw.) Kutz, Zygnema pectinatum (Vauch.) C. A. Agardh, Maugeotia sp. (C.

I. Orhan; B. Sener; T. Atici

2003-01-01

304

Phenolic-based Adhesives of Marine Brown Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown algae, such as kelps and fucoids, occur over large areas of the subtidal and intertidal rocky shores, including tropical reef habitats, producing high biomass and determining the structure of the ecosystem (i.e. kelp forests). Brown algae live firmly attached to the substratum and are often exposed to high gradients of turbulence. Therefore, they experience drag and lift forces of

Philippe Potin; Catherine Leblanc

305

Application of intact algae to the biophotolysis problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of intact algae for the simultaneous light-activated production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen is discussed. Experimental data on the long-term stability and endurance of hydrogen and oxygen photoproduction by anaerobically adapted Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is presented. The general conclusion that can be derived from this work is that Chlamydomonas (and probably other microscopic eukaryotic algae) are extremely rugged organisms

Greenbaum

1982-01-01

306

Analysis of cell elongation in red algae by fluorescent labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of cell elongation in five red algae, Griffithsia pacifica Kylin, G. tenuis C. Agardh, G. globulifera Harvey, Antithamnion kylinii Gardner, and Callithamnion sp. was studied using Calcofluor White ST as a vital, fluorescent cell-wall stain. In each alga elongation of intercalary shoot cells occurs primarily by the localized addition of new cell-wall material rather than by extension of

Susan Drury Waaland; J. Robert Waaland

1975-01-01

307

Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.  

PubMed

Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

2014-01-01

308

Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines  

PubMed Central

Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

309

Iron acquisition and allocation in stramenopile algae.  

PubMed

The essential element iron has a low biological availability in the surface ocean where photosynthetic organisms live. Recent advances in our understanding of iron acquisition mechanisms in brown algae and diatoms (stramenopile algae) show the importance of the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron prior to, or during, transport in the uptake process. The uses of iron in photosynthetic stramenopiles resembles that in other oxygenic organisms, although (with the exception of the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica from an iron-deficient part of the ocean) they lack plastocyanin, instead using cytochrome c 6, This same diatom further economizes genotypically on the use of iron in photosynthesis by decreasing the expression of photosystem I, cytochrome c 6, and the cytochrome b 6 f complex per cell and per photosystem II relative to the coastal Thalassiosira pseudonana; similar changes occur phenotypically in response to iron deficiency in other diatoms such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In some diatoms grown under iron-limiting conditions, essentially all of the iron in the cells can be accounted for by the iron occurring in catalytic proteins. However, stramenopiles can store iron. Genomic studies show that pennate, but not centric, diatoms have the iron storage protein ferritin. While Mössbauer and X-ray analysis of (57)Fe-labelled Ectocarpus siliculosus shows iron in an amorphous mineral phase resembling the core of ferritin, the genome shows no protein with significant sequence similarity to ferritin. PMID:23658428

Raven, John A

2013-05-01

310

Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Bioelectricity production from a phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73 +/- 1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m(2) (277 W/m(3)) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m(2) (215 W/m(3)) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. PMID:19418564

Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Curtis, Tom P; Logan, Bruce E

2009-08-15

311

Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppM (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppM NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppM NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx. 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppM of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

1980-01-01

312

Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppm (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppm NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppm NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

1980-01-01

313

[Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].  

PubMed

The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

2002-12-01

314

The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of

Julius Oben; Ebangha Enonchong; Dieudonne Kuate; Dora Mbanya; Tiffany C Thomas; DeWall J Hildreth; Thomas D Ingolia; Michael S Tempesta

2007-01-01

315

Seasonal occurrences of epiphytic algae on the commercially cultivated red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common problems faced in farming of the red algal genus Kappaphycus\\/Eucheuma are “ice-ice disease” and the occurrence of epiphytes. Considerable work has been documented on “ice-ice disease” and it’s\\u000a mode of infection but limited information is available on the emergence of epiphytes. The present study addresses the phenomenon\\u000a of epiphyte infection, its prevalence in commercially cultivated red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii,

Charles S. Vairappan

316

Seasonal Occurrences of Epiphytic Algae on the Commercially Cultivated Red Alga Kappaphycus Alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common problems faced in farming of the red algal genus Kappaphycus\\/Eucheuma are “ice-ice disease” and the occurrence of epiphytes. Considerable work has been documented on “ice-ice disease” and it's mode of infection but limited information is available on the emergence of epiphytes. The present study addresses the phenomenon of epiphyte infection, its prevalence in commercially cultivated red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii,

Charles S. Vairappan

2006-01-01

317

Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia  

PubMed Central

Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia. PMID:23097503

Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.

2013-01-01

318

An algae-covered alligator rests warily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

319

Granular activated algae for wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The study used activated algae granules for low-strength wastewater treatment in sequential batch mode. Each treatment cycle was conducted within 24 h in a bioreactor exposed to 235 ?mol/m(2)/s light intensity. Wastewater treatment was performed mostly in aerobic conditions, oxygen being provided by microalgae. High removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved (86-98%) in the first hours of the reaction phase, during which the indicator's removal rate was 17.4 ± 3.9 mg O2/g h; NH4(+) was removed during organic matter degradation processes with a rate of 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/g h. After almost complete COD removal, the NH4(+) remaining in the liquor was removed through nitrification processes promoted by the increase of the liquor's oxygen saturation (O2%), the transformation rate of NH4(+) into NO3(-) increasing from 0.14 ± 0.05 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mg NH4(+)/g h, along with an O2% increase. A wide removal efficiency was achieved in the case of PO4(3-) (11-85%), with the indicator's removal rate being 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/g h. In the provided optimum conditions, the occurrence of the denitrifying activity was also noticed. A large pH variation was registered (5-8.5) during treatment cycles. The granular activated algae system proved to be a promising alternative for wastewater treatment as it also sustains cost-efficient microalgae harvesting, with microalgae recovery efficiency ranging between 99.85 and 99.99% after granules settling with a velocity of 19 ± 3.6 m/h. PMID:25812091

Tiron, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, I V; Badescu, V R; Postolache, C

2015-01-01

320

Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae  

SciTech Connect

Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

2012-04-01

321

Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium.  

PubMed

Algae are the dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Since algae are highly varied group organisms, which have important functions in ecosystem, and their biomass is an essential biological resource. Currently, algae have been applied increasingly to diverse range of biomass applications. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the ecological algae features of microalgal production by natural medium, ecological function by lab scale of the symbiotic reactor which is imitated nature ecosystem, and atmospheric CO2 absorption that was related the algal growth of biomass to understand algae in natural water body better. Consequently, this study took advantages of using the unsupplemented freshwater natural medium to produce microalgae. Algal biomass by direct measurement of total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) resulted as 0.14g/L and 0.08g/L respectively. The biomass measurements of TSS and VSS are the sensible biomass index for algae production. The laboratory results obtained in the present study proved the production of algae by the natural water medium is potentially feasible. PMID:25531025

Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Tsai, David Dah-Wei; Chen, Paris Honglay

2015-01-01

322

The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts.  

PubMed

Chloroplast structure and genome analyses support the hypothesis that three groups of organisms originated from the primary photosynthetic endosymbiosis between a cyanobacterium and a eukaryotic host: green plants (green algae + land plants), red algae and glaucophytes (for example, Cyanophora). Although phylogenies based on several mitochondrial genes support a specific green plants/red algae relationship, the phylogenetic analysis of nucleus-encoded genes yields inconclusive, sometimes contradictory results. To address this problem, we have analysed an alternative nuclear marker, elongation factor 2, and included new red algae and protist sequences. Here we provide significant support for a sisterhood of green plants and red algae. This sisterhood is also significantly supported by a multi-gene analysis of a fusion of 13 nuclear markers (5,171 amino acids). In addition, the analysis of an alternative fusion of 6 nuclear markers (1,938 amino acids) indicates that glaucophytes may be the closest relatives to the green plants/red algae group. Thus, our study provides evidence from nuclear markers for a single primary endosymbiosis at the origin of these groups, and supports a kingdom Plantae comprising green plants, red algae and glaucophytes. PMID:10811219

Moreira, D; Le Guyader, H; Philippe, H

2000-05-01

323

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF FUNGISTATIC PROPERTIES OF MARINE ALGAE  

PubMed Central

Welch, Ann Marie (U. S. Veterans Administration Hospital, Durham, N. C.). Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae. J. Bacteriol. 83:97–99. 1962—Homogenized preparations of 35 marine algae were tested for inhibitory activity against 6 pathogenic or opportunistically pathogenic fungi with saturated filter-paper discs on seeded Sabouraud agar plates; 11 of these preparations produced wide zones of inhibition against 1 or more test organisms, and at least 4 of the 11 are considered to be worthy of further study. The results indicated that further search should be made for antifungal substances from marine algae. PMID:14005960

Welch, Ann Marie

1962-01-01

324

Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae  

DOEpatents

A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

Lee, James Weifu

2014-02-18

325

University of Texas-Austin: The Culture Collection of Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the University of Texas-Austin, The Culture Collection of Algae "includes over 2,300 different strains of living algae, representing most major algal taxa. The primary function of UTEX is to provide algal cultures at modest cost to a user community." The cultures are generally utilized for teaching, research, and biotechnology development. Site visitors will find an online catalogue of cultures organized alphabetically by class and by genus. UTEX provides an order form, as well as ordering and purchasing information. The site also provides a six-page list of literature references; links to other online algae collections; an image gallery; and notes on culture maintenance and growth media.

326

A golden opportunity: Researchers making progress in understanding toxic algae  

E-print Network

. Understanding this competition could lead them closer to controlling this harmful algae, the researchers said. ?Our biggest finding so far,? said Dr. Daniel Roelke of Texas AgriLife Research and one of the investigators, ?is that there appears to be a... throughout Texas. Although it can exist in waters without being harmful, the algae has caused major fish kills in five of the state?s river systems. When this algae has explosive increases in its population, called ?blooms,? it secretes toxic chemicals...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

327

LIFETIME OF THE EXCITED STATE IN VIVO I. CHLOROPHYLL a IN ALGAE, AT ROOM  

E-print Network

LIFETIME OF THE EXCITED STATE IN VIVO I. CHLOROPHYLL a IN ALGAE, AT ROOM AND AT LIQUID NITROGEN decay of chloro- phyll (Chl) a in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the red alga Porphyridium cruentum, and the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans was measured by the phase- shift method under

Govindjee

328

SEN 02 Portable Algae Flow Cytometer SEN 02.1 Overview  

E-print Network

SEN 02 Portable Algae Flow Cytometer SEN 02.1 Overview The portable algae flow cytometer is a project that aims to expedite research in algae biology using microfluid-based and state is to develop a portable flow cytometer that is suitable for on-field monitoring of algae population and reduce

California at Los Angeles, University of

329

Plant & CellPhysiol. 14: 1081-1097 (1973) Photophosphorylation in intact algae: Effects of  

E-print Network

Plant & CellPhysiol. 14: 1081-1097 (1973) Photophosphorylation in intact algae: Effects alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and of the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans. A few measurements in extracts from intact cells of the green alga Chlorella in the early 1950's (3, 4), few workers measured

Govindjee

1973-01-01

330

THE POTENTIAL FOR MICRO-ALGAE AND OTHER "MICRO-CROPS" TO PRODUCE  

E-print Network

THE POTENTIAL FOR MICRO-ALGAE AND OTHER "MICRO-CROPS" TO PRODUCE SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS A REVIEW INTRODUCTION Biofuel derived from algae and other micro-crops has been proposed as an environmentally benign transportation fuel. Algae can be cultivated on low productivity lands using low quality water. Interest in algae

Edwards, Paul N.

331

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA  

E-print Network

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA QI FENG,1 YI-MING GONG,1 contain microfossils generally regarded as calcified algae and cyanobacteria. These are present in 61 out with differing degrees of confidence, and placed in algae, cyanobacteria or microproblematica. Algae: Halysis

Riding, Robert

332

Cultivation of algae with indigenous species – Potentials for regional biofuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive need for sustainable energy has led to an increased interest in new energy resources, such as production of algae, for use as biofuel. There are advantages to using algae, for example, land use is much less than in terrestrial biofuel production, and several algae species can double their mass in 1day under optimized conditions. Most algae are phototrophs

M. Odlare; E. Nehrenheim; E. Thorin; M. Gavare; M. Grube

2011-01-01

333

Development of an Integrated Process Model for Algae Growth in a Photobioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

While understanding the kinetics of algae growth plays an important role in improving algae cultivation technology, none of the existing kinetic models are able to describe algae growth when more than three growth limiting factors are involved. A model was developed in this study to describe algae growth in a photobioreactor. Two expressions were proposed based on the Monod model

Mehregan Jalalizadeh

2012-01-01

334

The fauna associated with drift algae captured with a plankton-mesh purse seine net1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plankton-mesh purse seine used to encircle drift algae in open coastal waters was compared with seines in open water and conventional ichthyoplankton hauls. Densities of small fish and invertebrates were higher in association with drift algae than in open water. Most fish that occurred with drift algae were well pigmented. The fauna of drift algae differed from that of

M. J. Kingsford; J. H. Choat

1985-01-01

335

Biomechanical properties and holdfast morphology of coenocytic algae (Halimedales, Chlorophyta) in Bocas del Toro, Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

For attached marine organisms, specific biomechanical properties may result in detachment or in tissue loss, when sufficient tensile force is applied. Algae experience such forces through water movement, which may thus act to limit size, abundance, and species composition, of populations of algae.Coenocytic construction is uncommon in the algae, but it occurs relatively more frequently in green algae found in

Kim Anderson; Lisa Close; Robert E. DeWreede; Brandon J. Lynch; Carlos Ormond; Matt Walker

2006-01-01

336

Light and Electron Microscope Study of Cell Walls of Brown and Red Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the structure of the cell walls of green, brown, and red algae, as seen under light and electron microscopes is in progress. In this report a comparison of the cell wall structure of a brown alga, Dictyota flabellata, and a red alga, Helminthocladia californica, is presented. In Dictyota, typical of the brown algae, the microfibrillar pattern in

Clinton J. Dawes; Flora Murray Scott; Edwin Bowler

1960-01-01

337

Lateral Transfer and Recompartmentalization of Calvin Cycle Enzymes of Plants and Algae  

E-print Network

uptake of a cyanobacterium. Primary plastids, found in glauco- phytes, red algae, green algae, and plantsLateral Transfer and Recompartmentalization of Calvin Cycle Enzymes of Plants and Algae Matthew are not always found in algae with secondary plastids: there is evidence for multiple events of both lateral gene

Keeling, Patrick

338

Stable carbon isotopic analysis of pyrolysis products of kerogens  

SciTech Connect

The origin of insoluble organic matter in sediments is still a matter of debate. The application of isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (irm-CYC-MS) in combination with pyrolytic and chemolytic methods allows the determination of the 13C-content of products released from the kerogen and provides a tool to determine the structure and origin of kerogen. Analysis of the pyrolysis products of several marine kerogens revealed that the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the n-alkanes (C10-C25) are quite similar to those of the n-alkenes. This suggests that they have a common origin such as algal biopolymers. The isoprenoid alkanes (C13-C20) also have similar isotopic compositions but differ from the values of the n-alkanes and n-alkenes. These isoprenoids could be derived from an isoprenoid algaenan similar to that biosynthesised by the freshwater algae Botryococcus braunii race L. The analysis of products in the aromatic fraction of the pyrolysates, showed a wide range of isotopic values, which suggest multiple origins.

Hoeld, I.M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S. [NIOZ, Texel (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

339

Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the spectral complex index of refraction of biofuel producing photosynthetic microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. They were retrieved from their experimentally measured average absorption and scattering cross-sections. The microalgae were treated as homogeneous polydisperse spheres with equivalent diameter such that their surface area was identical to that of their actual spheroidal shape. An inverse method was developed combining Lorentz-Mie theory as the forward method and genetic algorithm. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125 and its truncated chlorophyll antenna transformants tla1, tlaX, and tla1-CW+ as well as Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale were investigated. These species were selected for their ability to produce either hydrogen gas or lipids for liquid fuel production. Their retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction were continuous functions of wavelength with absorption peaks corresponding to those of in vivo Chlorophylls a and b. The T-matrix method was also found to accurately predict the experimental measurements by treating the microalgae as axisymmetric spheroids with the experimentally measured major and minor diameter distributions and the retrieved spectral complex index of refraction. Finally, pigment mass fractions were also estimated from the retrieved absorption index. The method and/or the reported optical properties can be used in various applications from ocean remote sensing, carbon cycle study, as well as photobiological carbon dioxide mitigation and biofuel production.

Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

2013-01-01

340

Signal and Nutrient Exchange in the Interactions Between Soil Algae and Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microbial consortia of soil algae and prokaryotes have important functions in terrestrial ecosystems. Recent studies helped\\u000a delineate phylogenetic diversity of microbiota associated with soil algae. Some signals and nutrients exchanged between algae\\u000a and the associated bacteria were also identified. Both algae and bacteria appear to benefit from the interactions: algae derive\\u000a fixed nitrogen, vitamins, and hormones from their bacterial associates.

Max Teplitski; Sathish Rajamani

341

Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.  

PubMed

Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system. PMID:21775005

Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

2011-11-01

342

Marine algae: natural product source for gastrointestinal cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Among marine organisms, marine algae are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds with various biological activities. In order to survive in a highly competitive environment, freshwater or marine algae have to develop defense strategies that result in a tremendous diversity of compounds from different metabolic pathways. Recently, their importance as a source of novel bioactive substances is growing rapidly and many reports have been published about isolated compounds from algae with biological activities. Many researchers reported anticancer activity of the compounds isolated from marine algae. Gastrointestinal tract cancer is one of the most frequent death causes of cancer in men and women. Especially stomach cancer and colon cancer are the second and third common cancer type in the world after lung cancer. Hence investigation of bioactive compounds against gastrointestinal cancer cells has recently become an important field for researchers. PMID:22054950

Kim, Se-Kwon; Karagozlu, Mustafa Zafer

2011-01-01

343

Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO(2) and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed. PMID:23049529

Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

2012-01-01

344

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

345

CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM GROUNDWATER IMMOBILIZED ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to adsorb mercury from contamina...

346

Smallest Algae Thrive As the Arctic Ocean Freshens  

E-print Network

Smallest Algae Thrive As the Arctic Ocean Freshens William K. W. Li,1 * Fiona A. McLaughlin,2 presumably differs. Here, we show that, in the changing Arctic Ocean, the smallest phytoplankton cells thrive

Shull, David H.

347

ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

348

Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.  

PubMed

This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported. PMID:22728180

Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

2012-09-01

349

Sodium, Potassium-ATPases in Algae and Oomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the presence of K+-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na+,K+-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could

Javier Barrero-Gil; Blanca Garciadeblás; Begoña Benito

2005-01-01

350

Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

1990-01-01

351

Effect of Epiphytic Algae on Photosynthetic Function of Potamogeton crispus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of blooming epiphytic algae on the leaf traits and photosynthetic function of the submersed macrophyte Potamogeton crispus was investigated under different epiphytic conditions and nutrition levels. Epiphytic algae growth was promoted at a rate of 0.16 chl a ?g.cm.d on leaf surface area under eutrophic conditions (N: 1 mg.L; P: 0.1 mg-L) and at a rate of 0.004

Can Chen; Daqiang Yin; Bin Yu; Hankai Zhu

2007-01-01

352

Algae That Cause Red Tide Found Off Maine Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Bangor Daily News article provides general information about red tide in Maine and efforts being done to track the harmful algal bloom (HAB) events. There are four major red tide causing algae in Maine: Alexandrium, Dinophysis, Prorocentrum and Pseudonitzschia. These algae can cause serious health problems in humans and other marine animals. The &quot;first alert system&quot; now in place now monitors for sunlight and nutrient concentrations that may lead to red tide events.

Misty Edgecomb

353

Hydrocarbons in green and blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography were used to determine the total content of hydrocarbons and gas\\u000a chromatography was used to evaluate composition of hydrocarbons in green algae (Chlorella kessleri, C. vulgaris, Chlorella sp.,Scenedesmus acutus, S. acuminatus, S. obliquus) and the blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) cultivated under autotrophic or heterotrophic conditions. InC. kessleri cultivated under heterotrophic conditions the content of

T. ?ezanka; J. Zahradník; M. Podojil

1982-01-01

354

Algae biodiesel has potential despite inconclusive results to date  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of several published life cycle assessments of algae-to-energy systems was developed to better understand the environmental implications of deploying this technology at large scales. Taken together, results from these six studies seemed largely inconclusive because of differences in modeling assumptions and system boundaries. To overcome this, the models were normalized using a generic pathway for cultivating algae in

Xiaowei Liu; Andres F. Clarens; Lisa M. Colosi

355

The relative sensitivity of algae to decomposing barley straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposing barley straw has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of a limited number of algae under both laboratory\\u000a and field conditions. Bioassays were conducted on a range of algae to evaluate their relative sensitivities to straw-derived\\u000a inhibitor(s). A range of sensitivities was found, including some species that were resistant to the straw-derived inhibitor(s).\\u000a A microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis

Derek Martin; Irene Ridge

1999-01-01

356

Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into a fuel gas. The biogas produced would power the electrical generation plant already in service. Previous studies have established techniques of digester operation and the nutritional value for effluent solids as fed to cattle. The inclusion of a single-strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenidosa in the process was evaluated here for its capability (1) to be grown in both open and closed ponds of the discharge water from the solids separation part of the process, (2) to purify the discharge water, and (3) to act as a growth stimulant for cattle feed consumption and conversion when fed at a rate of 6 grams per head per day. Although it was found that the algae could be cultured and grown on the discharge water in the laboratory, the study was unable to show that algae could accomplish the other objectives successfully. However, the study yielded supplementary information useful to the overall process design of the utility plant. This was (1) measurement of undried digester solids fed to cattle in a silage finishing ration (without algae) at an economic value of $74.99 per dry ton based on nutritional qualities, (2) development of a centrate treatment system to decolorize and disinfect centrate to allow optimum algae growth, and (3) information on ionic and mass balances for the digestion system. It is the recommendation of this study that algae not be used in the process in the Lamar bioconversion plant.

Varani, F.T.; Schellenbach, S.; Veatch, M.; Grover, P.; Benemann, J.

1980-05-16

357

Studies on nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The unicellular blue-green alga Chlorogloea fritschii Mitra has been isolated in pure bacteria-free culture.2.Evidence showing that this alga is able to fix elementary nitrogen has been obtained by determinations by the micro-Kjeldahl method of increases in total combined nitrogen in culture and also by demonstration of the uptake of elementary nitrogen in a closed culture system by measurement of nitrogen\\/argon

P. Fay; G. E. Fogg

1962-01-01

358

New Ninhydrin-Reactive Substance from Red Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING an investigation on the free amino-acids in marine algae, I isolated a new ninhydrin-reactive substance from three species of red algae Chondrus ocellatus, Neodelsea yendoana and Iridaea cornucopiae by the use of anionic ion-exchange resin `Amberlite IR-45' and `Dowex 2'. This substance gave an empirical formula C5H11O5NS and melted at 258° C. Optical rotation gave a value [alpha]13D =

Mitsuo Kuriyama

1961-01-01

359

A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the\\u000a advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial\\u000a water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and\\u000a then slow chemical adsorption. pH

Jin-Fen Pan; Rong-Gen Lin; Li Ma

2000-01-01

360

Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were

Ali Benhra; Claudemir Marcos Radetski; J. F. Ferard

1997-01-01

361

Photobiological hydrogen production in green algae and photosynthetic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We have shown that, under appropriate physiological conditions, certain freshwater and marine green algae are capable of splitting water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen in a sustained steady-state reaction. In these algae, the gaseous-fuel-producing reaction can be driven by light throughout the visible portion of the solar emission spectrum, including the long wavelength (red) 700-nm region. No external energy sources are required.

Greenbaum, E.

1986-01-01

362

Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.  

PubMed

Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers. PMID:25499055

Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie

2015-03-01

363

Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa  

SciTech Connect

The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on â??green fuelsâ? which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PIâ??s have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

2012-12-03

364

Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae  

PubMed Central

While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

2011-01-01

365

[Simulation of algae bloom under different flow velocity].  

PubMed

The construction of a river-type reservoir will normally cause a change of hydrodynamic condition and a decrease of flow velocity in branch bays, leading to the formation of algae bloom when appropriate environmental conditions and sufficient nutrient supply are encountered, and thereby, causing the deterioration of fluvial ecosystem therein. To investigate the effects of hydrodynamic conditions on algae bloom, flow velocity was taken as the characteristic parameter, and controlled differently in the closed and recurrent models under identical environmental and nutrient conditions. The results showed that the increase of the flow velocity in a range of < 0. 4 m x s(-1) would accelerate the growth of algae and the occurrence of bloom. Under the conditions of different flow velocity, the growth of algae was similar to the common process of other microorganisms, namely, lag phase firstly, exponential phase secondly, stationary phase thirdly, and decline phase lastly. Accordingly, the outbreak peak and regression floor of the algae bloom would occur. Therefore, the increase of flow velocity in a range of < 0. 4 m x s(-1) would not inhibit the growth of algae and the occurrence of bloom. The effective characteristic parameter of the hydrodynamic conditions would be studied in depth in future. PMID:19123369

Huang, Yu-Ling; Liu, De-Fu; Chen, Ming-Xi

2008-10-01

366

An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.  

PubMed

Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

Menetrez, Marc Y

2012-07-01

367

LIGHT-INDUCED EFFICIENCY AND PIGMENT ALTERATIONS IN RED ALGAE*  

E-print Network

The low photosynthetic efficiency of chlorophyll in freshly collected red algae, can, in the case of Porphyra perforata, P. nereocystis, and Porpkyridium cruentum, be inercased by growing the algae for 10 days in red or blue light. Exposure to darkness or to green light maintains the algae in their originally low efficiency with respect to chlorophyll, while retaining the high efficiency of phycobilins. Red- or blue-adapted algae are rapidly reversed by exposure to green light, the chlorophyll efficiency dropping to low values again in a few hours. This is assumed to account for the action spectrum of freshly gathered plants. Some pigment changes were observed, but not in the direction of "chromatic adaptation; " and the carotenoid pigments were not activated, even by blue light, but remained as photosynthetically inactive shading filters. The higher red algae (Florideae) did not show activation of chlorophyll by red or blue light. Chlorophyll a of freshly collected marine red algae sensitizes photosynthesis with an efficiency of about 0.04 molecule oxygen liberated per absorbed quantum.

C. S. Yocum; L. R. Blinks

1957-01-01

368

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Four Prymnesiophyte Algae  

PubMed Central

Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657

Koid, Amy E.; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C.; Caron, David A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.

2014-01-01

369

Mixotrophy in red tide algae raphidophytes.  

PubMed

Marine raphidophytes are common red tide organisms that are distributed worldwide. They are known to be harmful to other plankton and fish and have often caused large-scale fish mortality in many countries. Thus, the population dynamics of raphidophytes is a critical concern for scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government officers from many countries. Raphidophyte growth and mortality should be investigated to understand bloom dynamics. Raphidophytes were thought to be exclusively autotrophic organisms. However, several recent studies have revealed that raphidophytes are able to feed on heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria, i.e. raphidophytes are mixotrophic algae. Further, high-resolution video microscopy has revealed the mechanism by which raphidophytes feed on bacteria, which involves capturing prey cells in the mucus excreted by mucocysts and engulfing the cells through mucocysts. These discoveries may influence the conventional view on both raphidophyte bloom dynamics and plankton energy flow and carbon cycling. In the present study, I review prey, feeding mechanisms, and ingestion rates of mixotrophic marine raphidophytes. In addition, I examine the ecological significance of raphidophyte mixotrophy. PMID:21518079

Jeong, Hae Jin

2011-01-01

370

Coccolithophorid algae culture in closed photobioreactors.  

PubMed

The feasibility of growth, calcium carbonate and lipid production of the coccolithophorid algae (Prymnesiophyceae), Pleurochrysis carterae, Emiliania huxleyi, and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, was investigated in plate, carboy, airlift, and tubular photobioreactors. The plate photobioreactor was the most promising closed cultivation system. All species could be grown in the carboy photobioreactor. However, P. carterae was the only species which grew in an airlift photobioreactor. Despite several attempts to grow these coccolithophorid species in the tubular photobioreactor (Biocoil), including modification of the airlift and sparger design, no net growth could be achieved. The shear produced by turbulence and bubble effects are the most likely reasons for this failure to grow in the Biocoil. The highest total dry weight, lipid and calcium carbonate productivities achieved by P. carterae in the plate photobioreactors were 0.54, 0.12, and 0.06 g L(-1) day(-1) respectively. Irrespective of the type of photobioreactor, the productivities were P. carterae > E. huxleyi?> G. oceanica. Pleurochrysis carterae lipid (20-25% of dry weight) and calcium carbonate (11-12% of dry weight) contents were also the highest of all species tested. PMID:21495012

Moheimani, Navid R; Isdepsky, Andreas; Lisec, Jan; Raes, Eric; Borowitzka, Michael A

2011-09-01

371

Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.  

PubMed

Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657

Koid, Amy E; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C; Caron, David A; Heidelberg, Karla B

2014-01-01

372

Effect of naturally occurring apatites on growth and morphology of algae.  

PubMed

Crystals (30--100 micrometer) of selected naturally occurring apatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH, F)2) samples were added to P-free (less than 0.001 microgram/ml total P) Bristol's medium (1-1000 microgram/ml of apatite) as the sole source of ortho-PO43-. The media were inoculated with washed, non-axenic cells of three chlorophycean algal species cultivated under PO43--deficient conditions. Phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed that at low slurry densities (1-10 microgram/ml of apatite), Ankistrodesmus braunii (ATCC 2744) cells were morphologically distorted. At concentrations of 100 and 1000 microgram/ml of apatite, more than 85% of the cells had undergone autospore formation within 7--10 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. Most autospores formed failed to germinate under high nutrient conditions. Scenedesmus longus (No. 1236) formed colonies when cultivated in Bristol's medium but daughter cells displayed a Chodatella-like unicellular morphology when grown in apatite media. Test algal species (Chlamydomonas dysosmos, S. longus, A. braunii) showed a marked preference for growth on apatite crystals over non-nutritive surfaces. Unialgal and mixed-algal cultures produced an extensive matrix of extracellular fibrous material in response to growth on crystals at concentrations greater than 10 microgram/ml of apatite. PMID:907915

Smith, E A; Mayfield, C I; Wong, P T; Silverberg, B A

1977-09-01

373

Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga  

PubMed Central

Under global change, populations have four possible responses: ‘migrate, acclimate, adapt or die’ (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167–178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298–230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells. PMID:25209938

Schaum, C. Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

2014-01-01

374

Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.  

PubMed

Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells. PMID:25209938

Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

2014-10-22

375

Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae  

PubMed Central

Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1) and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1) conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones. PMID:23882443

Smith, Jennifer E.; Abieri, Maria L.; Hatay, Mark; Rohwer, Forest

2013-01-01

376

Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

Dunahay, Terri Goodman (2710 Arbor Glen Pl., Boulder, CO 80304); Roessler, Paul G. (15905 Ellsworth Pl., Golden, CO 80401); Jarvis, Eric E. (3720 Smuggler Pl., Boulder, CO 80303)

1997-01-01

377

Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

1997-08-26

378

Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.  

PubMed

A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term. PMID:20933402

Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

2011-01-01

379

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator for Ag Contamination in Tropical Coastal Waters  

E-print Network

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator determined in the brown alga Lobophora variegata, using radiotracer techniques. Results indicate that this widely distributed alga could be a useful bioindicator species for surveying silver contamination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Dasycladalean green algae and some problematic algae from the Upper Triassic of the Nayband Formation (northeast Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the dasycladales green algae from two sections of the Rhaetian Howz-e Khan Member of the Nayband Formation, northwest of the Dig-e Rostam motorway service area (south of the type locality of the Formation near the town Naybandan). Both sections are composed of bedded fine-grained limestones containing partly abundant dasycladales algae associated with foraminifers, which are mainly aulotortid types. Additionally scattered samples were collected from several beds of the Howz-e Khan Member in this area. The following dasycladalean taxa are described: Chinianella carpatica (Bystrický), Griphoporella curvata (Gümbel), Griphoporella lutensis nov. sp., some undetermined dasycladacean taxa, problematic algae like Lithocodium aggregatum Elliott, Bacinella irregularis Radoicic, and Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera (Raineri). While Chinianella carpatica is not numerous and the other described algae are rare, Griphoporella curvata is extremely abundant in the investigated material. This paper describes Ch. carpatica for the first time from the Triassic of Iran and also includes a discussion of the strong variability of G. curvata. Additionally we include an informal description of a problematic fossil (animal: shell fragment?; plant: alga?).

Senowbari-Daryan, Baba; Rashidi, Koorosh; Saberzadeh, Behnam

2011-12-01

381

Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production  

DOEpatents

A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

2011-04-26

382

The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses  

PubMed Central

Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

Stiller, John W.; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

2014-01-01

383

Application of intact algae to the biophotolysis problem  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of intact algae for the simultaneous light-activated production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen is discussed. Experimental data on the long-term stability and endurance of hydrogen and oxygen photoproduction by anaerobically adapted Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is presented. The general conclusion that can be derived from this work is that Chlamydomonas (and probably other microscopic eukaryotic algae) are extremely rugged organisms with respect to the biophotolysis problem. Working with a sample of wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen was observed for approximately 100 h. The bleached algae were then removed from the reactor and used as the inoculum in fresh growth medium. These second-generation cells regreened and were able to photoproduce hydrogen and oxygen initially at ten times the rate of the first generation cells and had better survivability characteristics as indicated by their chlorophyll content after 200 h.

Greenbaum, E.

1982-01-01

384

Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.  

PubMed

Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier. PMID:24632439

Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

2014-05-01

385

Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.  

PubMed

Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel. PMID:25535720

Singh, A K; Singh, M P

2014-01-01

386

The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses.  

PubMed

Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

Stiller, John W; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

2014-01-01

387

Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.  

PubMed

In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

2013-04-01

388

Aragonitic Pennsylvanian phylloid algae from New Mexico: The missing link  

SciTech Connect

Remarkably well-preserved codiacean algae (Eugonophyllum and Anchicodium) retaining original aragonite are present in the Virgilian Holder Formation, Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico. The algae are preserved in a 20-cm-thick packstone between two thick (> 5m) shale beds. Aragonite is preserved as a felt-like mesh of needles in the algal skeletons, in the shell fragments of molluscs, in the walls of sponges, and in botryoidal and isopachous marine cements. The aragonite is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, by visual inspection of pristine aragonite needles with SEM, and by a high content of Sr as revealed by microprobe analysis. The average Sr content of the algae (9,091 ppm, n = 21) is comparable to modern codiaceans. Preservation of internal structure in Eugonophyllum was previously unknown. The medullary (interior) region of the Eugonophyllum thallus is composed of an aragonite felt punctuated by small (20 {mu}m diameter), parallel utricles. As in modern codiaceans, the utricles in the cortical (exterior) region of the thallus increase in diameter and their bulbous tips coalesce to form the outer cortex of the plant. This occurrence provides a key piece of evidence in support of hypotheses concerning the nature and origin of phylloid algal bioherms. Because the internal structure of most fossil phylloid algae is replaced by sparry mosaic calcite, taxonomic classification has been difficult even at the fundamental level of division (phylum). The authors discovery confirms that at least some ancient phylloid algae resembled the modern green algae Halimeda or Udotea, and lends credibility to the suggestion that ancient phylloid algal mounds are analogous to modern Halimeda mounds of the South Pacific.

Kirkland, B.L.; Moore, C.H. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States)); Dickson, J.A.D. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1991-03-01

389

Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

Meyer, C.

1979-01-01

390

Application of Hedonic Price Modeling to Estimate the Value of Algae Meal  

E-print Network

as Post Extracted Algae Residue (PEAR) are decomposed into their chemical constituents in order to calculate the market value of each characteristic. Calculated prices of these characteristics are then used to estimate the price of algae meal and compare...

Gogichaishvili, Ilia

2012-10-19

391

Demonstration of the feasibility of milking lipids from algae for biodiesel production  

E-print Network

A major challenge to the development of industrial-scale biodiesel production from cultured algae is the identification of energy efficient and cost effective methods of harvesting/dewatering algal cells. Producing 1 gallon of biodiesel from algae...

Coiner, Ryan Lee

2011-12-31

392

Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox carteri  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism

Goldstein, Raymond E.

393

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,  

E-print Network

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae to the physiological level, including photosynthesis, heat shock, neurobiology, sensory networks (vision, olfaction the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

Basu, Amar S.

394

Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast  

SciTech Connect

Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait)

1996-12-31

395

Choline and Inositol Distribution in Algae and Fungi1  

PubMed Central

Inositol and choline were present in varying amounts among the species of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Euglenophyta examined. However, in the two members of the order Fucales (division Phaeophyta) examined, no detectable amounts of choline were found. In contrast, the species of Cyanophyta examined contained no detectable amounts of either choline or inositol. All species of the fungal classes Phycomyceteae, Ascomyceteae, and Basidiomyceteae collected contained both inositol and choline in varying amounts. The red, brown, and blue-green algae usually contained much less inositol and choline than do plant and animals sources, but the fungi and the algae Chlorella and Euglena contained amounts comparable to those present in plant sources. PMID:5647522

Ikawa, Miyoshi; Borowski, Paul T.; Chakravarti, Ashima

1968-01-01

396

l-Threonine deaminase in marine planktonic algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The “biosynthetic” l-threonine (deaminating) dehydratase activity of 7 marine planktonic species from 5 classes of algae showed high substrate specificity toward l-threonine, with the exception of one alga. The algal extracts deaminated l-serine and l-allothreonine at rates which were 20–25 and 5–10%, respectively, of that of l-threonine, and these reaction were inhibited by l-isoleucine. d-Threonine, d-serine, l-homoserine, and l-O-methylthreonine were

Naval J. Antia; Robert S. Kripps

1973-01-01

397

Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury  

E-print Network

in the coves of these lakes, systemwide blooms can be avoided,? Roelke said. ?It may also be possible to create areas of refuge for fish, accelerating the recovery of fish populations.? The control strategies involve the manipulation of hydrology, pH... universities are investigating golden algae?s txH2O | pg. 10 Story by Kathy Wythe txH2O | pg. 11 explosive growth and deadly toxins. In research started at Lake Possum Kingdom and continuing at Lakes Whitney, Granbury, and Waco, the scientists have...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

398

Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury  

E-print Network

in the coves of these lakes, systemwide blooms can be avoided,? Roelke said. ?It may also be possible to create areas of refuge for fish, accelerating the recovery of fish populations.? The control strategies involve the manipulation of hydrology, pH... universities are investigating golden algae?s txH2O | pg. 10 Story by Kathy Wythe txH2O | pg. 11 explosive growth and deadly toxins. In research started at Lake Possum Kingdom and continuing at Lakes Whitney, Granbury, and Waco, the scientists have...

Wythe, Kathy

2010-01-01

399

Algae as promising organisms for environment and health  

PubMed Central

Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

2011-01-01

400

Battling golden algae: Results suggest preventative lake managment approaches  

E-print Network

three university researchers from Texas provide potential methods to prevent these harmful algal blooms. Dr. Daniel Roelke with Texas AgriLife Research at Texas A&M University, Dr. James Grover with the University of Texas at Arlington, and Dr... in #23;#19;#18;#21; in the Pecos River, golden algae has since appeared in most of the #25;#21; major river systems throughout the state. Although it can exist in waters without being harmful, the algae caused major #28;sh kills in #28;ve of the state...

Supercinski, Danielle

2011-01-01

401

Battling Golden Algae: Results suggest preventative lake management approaches  

E-print Network

three university researchers from Texas provide potential methods to prevent these harmful algal blooms. Dr. Daniel Roelke with Texas AgriLife Research at Texas A&M University, Dr. James Grover with the University of Texas at Arlington, and Dr... in #23;#19;#18;#21; in the Pecos River, golden algae has since appeared in most of the #25;#21; major river systems throughout the state. Although it can exist in waters without being harmful, the algae caused major #28;sh kills in #28;ve of the state...

Supercinski, Danielle

2011-01-01

402

Chemical control of eucaryotic and blue-green algae in anaerobic photoreactors culturing Rhodospirillaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To control the growth of eurocaryotic and blue-green algae in anaerobic reactors of photosynthetically grown Rhodospirillaceae, the effect of algae inhibitors with different modes of action was examined. Tests were performed with mixed populations of green algae and blue-green algae, besides strains of the purple nonsulphur bacteriaRhodopseudomonas capsulata, Rhodospirillum rubrum andRhodomicrobium vannielii. Chloroxuron, a urea-derivative, was found to inhibit

L. Segers; W. Verstraete

1985-01-01

403

Where Have All the Algae Gone, or, How Many Kingdoms Are There?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 10 introductory college-level, general biology survey textbooks for the coverage of algae to assess the efficacy of coverage. Describes a proposal of seven kingdoms and discusses the disposition of algae among five of these kingdoms. Contends that textbooks should highlight the concept of algae across the five kingdoms. Contains 59…

Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

1995-01-01

404

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited growth rate effects  

E-print Network

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and spe- cies. Organic Geochemistry. Two species of freshwater green algae, Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were grown in batch

Sachs, Julian P.

405

Photosynthetic and growth responses of three freshwater algae to phosphorus limitation and daylength  

E-print Network

Photosynthetic and growth responses of three freshwater algae to phosphorus limitation., green alga Sphaerocystis schroeteri and cyanobacterium Phormidium luridum, were grown under contrasting of the green alga S. schroeteri decreased the most (ca. sixfold) under P limitation compared with the other two

Bossard, Peter

406

FL47CH15-Goldstein ARI 25 November 2014 9:45 Green Algae as Model  

E-print Network

FL47CH15-Goldstein ARI 25 November 2014 9:45 Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range

Goldstein, Raymond E.

407

Climate implications of algae-based bioenergy systems Andres Clarens, PhD  

E-print Network

Climate implications of algae-based bioenergy systems Andres Clarens, PhD Assistant Professor Civil of algae and other nonconventional feedstocks, are being developed. This talk will explore several systems priorities. This is an especially challenging problem for algae-based biofuels because production pathways

Walter, M.Todd

408

DESICCATION PROTECTION AND DISRUPTION: A TRADE-OFF FOR AN INTERTIDAL MARINE ALGA1  

E-print Network

DESICCATION PROTECTION AND DISRUPTION: A TRADE-OFF FOR AN INTERTIDAL MARINE ALGA1 Luke J. H. Hunt2, California 93950, USA For marine algae, the benefits of drying out are often overshadowed by the stresses of desiccation in the intertidal turf alga Endocladia muricata (Endlichter) J. Agardh. Laboratory experiments

Denny, Mark

409

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background Behavior  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background performed using Stokes Raman scattering for compositional analysis of algae. Two algal species, Chlorella while acquiring Raman signals from the algae. The time dependence of fluorescence background is char

410

One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake  

E-print Network

One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake Final Report Fremont Lake #20 Water-two-three punch to knockout toxic algae and restore water quality in Nebraska's numerous sandpit lakes. "It seems to help rid the too-often toxic algae prone Fremont State Lakes of the oily green scum that can close them

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

411

Energy From Algae Using Microbial Fuel Cells Sharon B. Velasquez-Orta,1  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Energy From Algae Using Microbial Fuel Cells Sharon B. Velasquez-Orta,1 Tom P. Curtis,1 with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable

412

HoustonChronicle.com -Tiny honor a big deal for algae scientist HoustonChronicle.  

E-print Network

HoustonChronicle.com - Tiny honor a big deal for algae scientist HoustonChronicle. com Section-mail this story June 18, 2005, 5:48PM Tiny honor a big deal for algae scientist By DAVID A. FAHRENTHOLD Washington Post Sometimes, algae can be the highest form of flattery. ADVERTISEMENTSo it was for Diane K. Stoecker

Jeong, Hae Jin

413

A Framework to Report the Production of Renewable Diesel from Algae  

E-print Network

A Framework to Report the Production of Renewable Diesel from Algae Colin M. Beal & Colin H. Smith(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Recently, algae have algae are a viable source for renewable diesel, three questions that must be answered are (1) how much

414

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore Environment  

E-print Network

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore,2 Catherine Boyen,1,2 and Anne Siegel4,5 Abstract Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Effect of non-ageing and ageing ceria nanoparticles suspensions on fresh water micro-algae  

E-print Network

Effect of non-ageing and ageing ceria nanoparticles suspensions on fresh water micro-algae Manier nanoparticle (nCeO2) suspensions, towards freshwater micro-algae assessing the effect nCeO2 suspensions microscopy (TEM). In addition, the interaction between NPs and algae were investigated using flow

Boyer, Edmond

416

1128 volume 27 number 12 december 2009 nature biotechnology square meter per day of algae containing  

E-print Network

1128 volume 27 number 12 december 2009 nature biotechnology square meter per day of algae, such as triglycerides from algae or cellulosic biomass from higher plants, as feedstocks for biofuel production. The algal program sought to develop high-oil-content algae that grow at very fast rates. In our report

Cai, Long

417

Are Algae Relevant to the Detritus-Based Food Web in Tank-Bromeliads?  

E-print Network

Are Algae Relevant to the Detritus-Based Food Web in Tank-Bromeliads? Olivier Brouard1 , Anne, Universite´ Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5245, Toulouse, France Abstract We assessed the occurrence of algae and with regard to the structure of other aquatic microbial communities held in the tanks. Algae were retrieved

Boyer, Edmond

418

Optimal engineered algae composition for the integrated simultaneous production of bioethanol  

E-print Network

1 Optimal engineered algae composition for the integrated simultaneous production of bioethanol of the algae for the simultaneous production of bioethanol and biodiesel. We consider two alternative technologies for the biodiesel synthesis from algae oil, enzymatic or homogeneous alkali catalyzed, the most

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

419

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness, and Strength  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness algae that is mainly composed of amorphous silica, which features a hierarchical structure that ranges in diatom algae as a basis to study a bioinspired nanoporous material implemented in crystalline silica. We

Buehler, Markus J.

420

428 BIOCHIMICAET BIOPHYSICAACTA pH CONTROL OF THE CHLOROPHYLL a FLUORESCENCE IN ALGAE  

E-print Network

428 BIOCHIMICAET BIOPHYSICAACTA BBA 46126 pH CONTROL OF THE CHLOROPHYLL a FLUORESCENCE IN ALGAE on the "slow" (min) time course of Chlorophyll a fluorescence yield in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans. In Chlorella, the decay of fluorescence yield, in the I- to 5-rain

Govindjee

421

INTRODUCTION Cryptomonad algae are postulated to be a chimaera of two  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Cryptomonad algae are postulated to be a chimaera of two different eukaryotic cells incorporating cryptomonad endosymbiont gene sequences ally them loosely with red algae (Douglas et al., 1991a that the endosymbiont was an early evolutionary intermediate that pre-dates the red algae (Cavalier-Smith, 1992

McFadden, Geoff

422

Observations on the measurement of total antimony and antimony species in algae, plant and animal tissuesw  

E-print Network

Observations on the measurement of total antimony and antimony species in algae, plant and animal of total antimony and antimony speciation in algae, plant and animal tissues. Digestion with nitric acid.g. some plants and algae, the addition of tetrafluorboric acid is required to dissolve silica as some

Canberra, University of

423

Xylochloris irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga  

E-print Network

green alga JIR I´ NEUSTUPA 1 *, MAREK ELIA´ S1 , PAVEL SKALOUD 1 , YVONNE NE MCOVA´ 1 AND LENKA irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga. Phycologia 50: 57­66. DOI: 10.2216/08-64.1 The phylogenetic diversity of subaerial coccoid green algae remains

424

ACARYOCHLORIS EXPLAINING THE RIDDLE OF CHLOROPHYLL D IN RED ALGAE AND EXPANDING PAR FOR OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

ACARYOCHLORIS ­ EXPLAINING THE RIDDLE OF CHLOROPHYLL D IN RED ALGAE AND EXPANDING PAR FOR OXYGENIC strain is shown to live epi- phytically on the red alga Gelidium caulacantheum, which itself is harvested by the red alga. Availability of far red light, however, is relatively unaffected by DOM or red

Oregon, University of

425

Kalinella bambusicola gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel coccoid Chlorella-like subaerial alga  

E-print Network

-like subaerial alga from Southeast Asiapre_534 159..169 Jirí Neustupa,* Yvonne Nemcová, Marek Eliás and Pavel, Czech Republic SUMMARY The traditional green algal genus Chlorella, which com- prised coccoid algae lineage of the trebouxiophycean Watanabea clade, dissimilar from other members of this group. The alga has

426

The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Algae gives professor a taste of immortality Home delivery  

E-print Network

The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Algae gives professor a taste of immortality Home delivery, 2005 - Page updated at 12:00 AM Algae gives professor a taste of immortality By David A. Fahrenthold The Washington Post E-mail article Print view Search Most e-mailed Most read RSS Sometimes, algae can

Jeong, Hae Jin

427

Phylogeny and Nucleomorph Karyotype Diversity of Chlorarachniophyte Algae TIA D. SILVER,a,1  

E-print Network

Phylogeny and Nucleomorph Karyotype Diversity of Chlorarachniophyte Algae TIA D. SILVER,a,1 SAYAKA/or reticulopod-forming marine algae with chlorophyll a- and b-containing plastids of secondary endosymbiotic. THE chlorarachniophytes are an enigmatic group of unicellular marine algae with diverse morphologies and a widespread

Archibald, John

428

PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF INTERTIDAL CORALLINE ALGAE DURING A SIMULATED TIDAL CYCLE1  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF INTERTIDAL CORALLINE ALGAE DURING A SIMULATED TIDAL CYCLE1 Rebecca J, Lobban and Harrison 1997, Helmuth and Hofmann 2001). During high tide, intertidal algae are underwater algae may be emerged and exposed to increased light stress, elevated air tem- peratures, and increased

Martone, Patrick T.

429

HOLARCTIC ECOLOGY 4: 201-207. Copenhagen 1981 Microcommunities of algae on a Sphagnum mat  

E-print Network

HOLARCTIC ECOLOGY 4: 201-207. Copenhagen 1981 Microcommunities of algae on a Sphagnum mat Celia A. Hooper Hooper, C, A, 1981, Microcommunities of algae on a Sphagnum mat, - Holarct, Ecol, 4: 201 and nutrient parameters, with lower, moister plots having more algae, higher algal diver- sity, and lower

Notre Dame, University of

430

Red Algae Lose Key Mitochondrial Genes in Response to Becoming Parasitic  

E-print Network

Red Algae Lose Key Mitochondrial Genes in Response to Becoming Parasitic Lillian Hancock1 , Lynda independently evolved hundreds of times among the floridiophyte red algae. Much is known about the life history class of red algae, Plocamiocolax puvinata, has lost the atp8 gene entirely, indicating that this gene

Lane, Chris

431

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production  

E-print Network

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research that both reduce oil dependency and reduce climate change. While algae fuels will minimize land use

432

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation  

E-print Network

Investigation of Flow Characteristics in an Airlift-Driven Raceway Reactor for Algae Cultivation are the most common choice for outdoor algae cultivation due to their low cost relative to enclosed. Algae require adequate mixing in order to maximize exposure to essential nutrients for growth

433

Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical-water platform  

E-print Network

Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical of benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae in order to establish a precise, combined benthic biozonation species of calcareous algae, distributed among 11 genera, were recovered from the Lower Cretaceous shallow

Husinec, Antun

434

Red Algae Respond to Waves: Morphological and Mechanical Variation in Mastocarpus papillatus Along  

E-print Network

Red Algae Respond to Waves: Morphological and Mechanical Variation in Mastocarpus papillatus Along Grove, California, 93950 Abstract. Intertidal algae are exposed to the potentially severe drag forces generated by crashing waves, and several species of brown algae respond, in part, by varying the strength

Denny, Mark

435

PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF TRENTEPOHLIALEAN ALGAE ASSOCIATED WITH LICHEN-FORMING FUNGI1  

E-print Network

PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF TRENTEPOHLIALEAN ALGAE ASSOCIATED WITH LICHEN-FORMING FUNGI1 Matthew P 60605-2496, USA Nearly one-fourth of the lichen-forming fungi asso- ciate with trentepohlialean algae algae has provided a phy- logenetic context within which questions regarding the lichenization

436

The central role of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in revealing the mechanism of state transitions  

E-print Network

The central role of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in revealing the mechanism of state Abstract This review focuses on the essential role played by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of the two photo- systems with changes in the spectral composition of light. In plants and green algae, state

437

MONITORING CHLOROPHYLL-A AS A MEASURE OF ALGAE IN LAKE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are an important quality component in water bodies. They are photosynthesizing organisms and are the foundation of most aquatic food webs; however, some algae (e.g. blue-green algae) can produce algal toxins. The presence of algal toxins in water bodies has important ...

438

ORIGINAL ARTICLE tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was employed to isolate tla1, a stable transformant having conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity of the mass culture. Green algae growing under full

Polle, Jürgen

439

Facts about Cyanobacteria (Blue-green Algae) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

#12;1 Facts about Cyanobacteria (Blue-green Algae) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria are bacteria and how they form Cyanobacterial blooms occur when algae that are normally present grow exuberantly

440

The ultrasmall green alga Ostreococcus unveils a unique regulation of the Calvin cycle  

E-print Network

The ultrasmall green alga Ostreococcus unveils a unique regulation of the Calvin cycle Steven: nuclear encoded GapA: cyanobacterial (plastid) ancestor transition from green algae to land plants Origin:1109-1118, (2006)) Ostreococcus tauri is a unicellular green alga, belonging to the Prasinophyceae. With a size

Gent, Universiteit

441

YSI Blue-Green Algae (BGA) Sensors Spatial Water Quality Mapping of the Potomac River Estuary  

E-print Network

YSI Blue-Green Algae (BGA) Sensors Spatial Water Quality Mapping of the Potomac River Estuary Visit integrated Yellow Spring Instruments (YSI) blue- green algae (BGA) sensors into our system to evaluate of blue-green algae ·Observed phycocyanin containing organisms were mainly colony forming (e

Boynton, Walter R.

442

Manipulating RuBisCO accumulation in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

E-print Network

Manipulating RuBisCO accumulation in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Xenie Johnson between green algae (Chlamydomonas X. Johnson (&) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite predicted PPR repeats in green algae and land plants, and the other, ``C-domain'' , is similarly composed

443

Photocatalytic Inhibition of Algae Growth Using TiO2, WO3, and  

E-print Network

species of algae that are affixed to a surface for most of their life cycle, propagating themselvesPhotocatalytic Inhibition of Algae Growth Using TiO2, WO3, and Cocatalyst Modifications C L O V I as photocatalytic surfacing agents to inhibit the attachment and growth of Oedogonium, a sessile, filamentous algae

Ouellette, Anthony J. A.

444

Algae as a sustainable energy source for biofuel production in Iran: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae can be converted directly into energy, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethanol and therefore can be a source of renewable energy. There is a growing interest for biodiesel production from algae because of its higher yield non-edible oil production and its fast growth that does not compete for land with food production. About 50% of algae weight is oil

Gholamhassan Najafi; Barat Ghobadian; Talal F. Yusaf

2011-01-01

445

Nutritional value of algae: a critical control on the stability of Daphnia-algal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Daphnia-algal systems, the effect of nutrient enrichment on stability is an important ecological issue. Here I consider a system of Daphnia and two potential prey; one prey termed primary algae, which are preferentially consumed, and the other secondary algae, which yield less nutrition and are more resistant to the grazer. The presence of secondary algae is a key to

MOTOMI GENKAI-KATO

2004-01-01

446

A Lack of Parasitic Reduction in the Obligate Parasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium  

E-print Network

by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and CoccomyxaA Lack of Parasitic Reduction in the Obligate Parasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium Jean-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae

Keeling, Patrick

447

Photoprotection in the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera: Evolutionary implications Ernesto Garcia-Mendoza a,  

E-print Network

Photoprotection in the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera: Evolutionary implications Ernesto Garcia xxxx Keywords: Brown algae Evolution Macrocystis pyrifera Non-photochemical quenching Photoprotection-photochemical quenching, NPQ) in the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera with that of Ficus sp., a higher plant to examine

Govindjee

448

BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA 213 ACTION OF HYDROXYLAMINE IN THE RED ALGA PORPHYRIDIUM  

E-print Network

BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA 213 BBA 46182 ACTION OF HYDROXYLAMINE IN THE RED ALGA PORPHYRIDIUM CR and fluorescence transient studies, made with the intact cells of red alga Porphyridium cruentum, suggest earlier with spinach chloroplasts and green alga Chlorella by other workers. Fluorescence transient data

Govindjee

449

Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov., a new autosporic subaerial green alga (Scenedesmaceae,  

E-print Network

Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov., a new autosporic subaerial green alga (Scenedesmaceae characterization of an autosporic coccoid green alga isolated from decaying wood in a natural forest in Singapore. Depending on culture conditions, this alga formed globular to irregularly oval solitary cells

450

CLOSING THE CARBON LOOP: GROWING ALGAE USING SUSTAINABLE CO2 FROM BIO-WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Record oil prices, poor air quality, and the threat of global warming have resulted in renewed interest in micro algae for its great potential as a biofuels feedstock. However, research is predominantly focused on growing algae with coal flue gas, and extracting the algae oils...

451

Effect of Bacteria Associated with the Green Alga Ulva reticulata on Marine Micro and Macrofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green alga Ulva reticulata (Forsskal) is often free from biofouling in Hong Kong waters. An early study indicated that bioactive substances from this alga inhibit settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell). It is also predicted that epibiotic bacteria protect this alga from micro- and macrofouling. In this study, bacterial strains from the surface of U. reticulata were isolated

Sergey V Dobretsov; Pei-Yuan Qian

2002-01-01

452

Effectiveness of algae in the treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ability of algae to treat a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in batch reactors seeded with a mixed culture of algae. Under different lighting and initial wastewater strength conditions, changes in COD, AOX and color contents of reactors were followed with time. Algae were found to remove up to 58%

Esra Tarlan; Filiz B. Dilek; Ulku Yetis

2002-01-01

453

A System for Dynamically Monitoring and Warning Algae Blooms in Taihu Lake Based on Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outbreak of algae blooms in the Taihu Lake, China is more and more frequent in recent years and has become a big threat to ecological environment, aquatic breeding industry and human health. A model to monitor algae blooms based on remote sensing data was developed by analyzing spectral characteristics and content of algae blooms of water samples collected in

Wei Qingyu; Jiang Nan; Lu Heng; Hu Bin

2009-01-01

454

Facultative mutualism between an herbivorous crab and a coralline alga: advantages of eating noxious seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because encrusting coralline algae rely on herbivory or low light levels to prevent being overgrown by competitively superior fleshy algae, corallines are relatively rare in shallow areas with low rates of herbivory. In contrast to this general trend, the branching coralline alga Neogoniolithon strictum occurs primarily in shallow seagrass beds and along the margins of shallow reef flats where herbivory

John J. Stachowicz; Mark E. Hay

1996-01-01

455

Algae utilization in assessment of the large Turawa Lake (Poland) pollution with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was undertaken to determine the applicability of algae for the assessment of contamination level of water reservoirs with heavy metals. The alga Spirogyra sp. collected in the littoral zone of the Large Turawa Lake (artificial lake in Southern Poland) was used for the study. The concentrations of heavy metals accumulated in the alga inhabiting a flow-through water basin

Ma?gorzata Rajfur; Andrzej K?os; Maria Wac?awek

2011-01-01

456

RT-qPCR Normalization Genes in the Red Alga Chondrus Nathalie Kowalczyk1,2  

E-print Network

RT-qPCR Normalization Genes in the Red Alga Chondrus crispus Nathalie Kowalczyk1,2 , Sylvie it as a model for red algae, its genome has been sequenced, allowing the development of molecular tools, Colle´n J (2014) RT-qPCR Normalization Genes in the Red Alga Chondrus crispus. PLoS ONE 9(2): e86574

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

Fall 2012 / LAKELINE 33 Golden Algae & the Health of Okla. Lakes  

E-print Network

the ecology and toxicology of golden algae in Lake Texoma, an impoundment of the Red and Washita RiversFall 2012 / LAKELINE 33 Golden Algae & the Health of Okla. Lakes David Hambright HABs Introduction T he golden alga Prymnesium parvum is a toxigenic marine haptophyte that now occurs in and is prevalent

Hambright, K. David

458

Effect of tetramethyl lead on freshwater green algae.  

PubMed

The toxicity of tetramethyl lead (Me4Pb) towards freshwater algae was studied by bubbling biologically generated Me4Pb from one flask containing 5 mg of Pb 1-1 as Me3PbOAc into the culture medium in another flask where a test alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was grown. As Me4Pb is not soluble in water and is volatile, the exposure of an alga to this lead compound was only momentary. It was estimated that less than 0.5 mg of Pb(Me4Pb) had passed through the culture medium. The primary productivity and cell growth (determined by dry weight), however, decreased by 85% and 32% respectively, as compared with the controls without exposure to Me4Pb. Furthermore, cells exposed to Me4Pb tended to clump together and striking alterations in cell fine-structure were observed. An electron microscopic analysis by an energy dispersive spectrometer revealed that Pb ions had penetrated the cell and were deposited within concretion bodies. Similar results were obtained with the green algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. PMID:869587

Silverberg, B A; Wong, P T; Chau, Y K

1977-01-01

459

Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

Brand, J. J.

1982-04-01

460

DYNAMICS OF STOICHIOMETRIC BACTERIA-ALGAE INTERACTIONS IN THE EPILIMNION  

E-print Network

constraints on the growth of bacterial groups with higher nucleic acid (HNA) contents, which allows low and bacterial growth. Lake Biwa is a large (surface area, 674km2 ) and deep (maximum depth, 104m) lake located-Algae Model Fig. 1.1. The cartoon lake system for our mathematical modeling. growth of bacterial groups

Smith, Hal

461

Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to combat toxic algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some arts of toxic algae dominate the flora. We describe an experiment employing a bubble curtain to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone and provide an environment in which useful algae can survive. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region in which mussels can be cleansed from the effects of toxic algae. Three 100-m long, perforated pipes were suspended at 40 m depth in the Arnafjord, a side arm of the Sognefjord. Large amounts of compressed air were supplied during a period of three weeks. The deeper water mixed with the surface water and flowed from the mixing region at 5 to 15 m depth. Within a few days, the mixture of nutrient-rich water covered most of the inner portion of Arnafjord. Within 10 days, the plankton samples showed that the artificial upwelling produced the desired type of algae and excluded the toxic blooms that were occurring outside the manipulated fjord arm. The project (DETOX) is supported by the Norwegian ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture and Public Administration.

McClimans, T. A.; Hansen, A. H.; Fredheim, A.; Lien, E.; Reitan, K. I.

2003-04-01

462

INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT  

E-print Network

INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT GOVINDJEE, EUGENE RABINOWITCH, and JAN B. THOMAS From the Photosynthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University photosynthesis produced by "far red" light (up to 720 m,u). From the action spectrum of this phenomenon

Govindjee

463

TOXICITY AND UPTAKE OF KEPONE IN MARINE UNICELLULAR ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Four species of marine unicellular algae were exposed to Kepone in laboratory bioassays. EC50 values after seven days' growth, in micrograms/liter (ppm), were--Chlorococcum sp., 0.35; Dunaliella tertiolecta, 0.58; Nitzschia sp., 0.60; Thalassiosira pseudonana, 0.60. When exposed ...

464

A green Paramecium strain with abnormal growth of symbiotic algae.  

PubMed

Some hundred cells of Chlorella-like green algae are naturally enclosed within the cytoplasm of a single cell of green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria). Therefore, P. bursaria serves as an experimental model for studying the nature of endo-symbiosis made up through chemical communication between the symbiotic partners. For studying the mechanism of symbiotic regulations, the materials showing successful symbiosis are widely used. Apart from such successful model materials, some models for symbiotic distortion would be of great interest in order to understand the nature of successful symbiosis. Here, we describe a case of unsuccessful symbiosis causing unregulated growth of algae inside the hosting ciliates. Recently, we have screened some cell lines, from the mass of P. bursaria cells survived after paraquat treatment. The resultant cell lines (designated as KMZ series) show novel and unusual morphological features with heavily darker green colour distinguishable from the original pale green-coloured paramecia. In this type of isolates, endo-symbiotic algae are restricted within one or two dense spherical structures located at the center of the host cells' cytoplasm. Interestingly, this isolate maintains the host cells' circadian mating response which is known as an alga-dependent behaviour in the host cells. In contrast, we discuss that KMZ lacks the host-dependent regulation of algal growth, thus the algal complex often over-grows obviously exceeding the original size of the normal hosting ciliates. Additionally, possible use of this isolate as a novel model for symbiotic cell-to-cell communication is discussed. PMID:21319710

Irie, Kanami; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Kadono, Takashi; Kawano, Tomonori

2010-01-01

465

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host  

PubMed Central

The association between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and green algae (“Oophila amblystomatis” Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutualism. We show here, however, that this symbiosis is more intimate than previously reported. A combination of imaging and algal 18S rDNA amplification reveals algal invasion of embryonic salamander tissues and cells during development. Algal cells are detectable from embryonic and larval Stages 26–44 through chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal 18S rDNA amplification. Algal cell ultrastructure indicates both degradation and putative encystment during the process of tissue and cellular invasion. Fewer algal cells were detected in later-stage larvae through FISH, suggesting that the decline in autofluorescent cells is primarily due to algal cell death within the host. However, early embryonic egg capsules also contained encysted algal cells on the inner capsule wall, and algal 18S rDNA was amplified from adult reproductive tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next. The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cell–cell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures. PMID:21464324

Kerney, Ryan; Kim, Eunsoo; Hangarter, Roger P.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Bishop, Cory D.; Hall, Brian K.

2011-01-01

466

Biodegradation of phenols by the alga Ochromonas danica.  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic alga Ochromonas danica, a nutritionally versatile, mixotrophic chrysophyte, grew on phenol as the sole carbon source in axenic culture and removed the phenol carbon from the growth medium. Respirometric studies confirmed that the enzymes involved in phenol catabolism were inducible and that the alga oxidized phenol; the amount of oxygen consumed per mole of oxidized substrate was approximately 65% of the theoretical value. [U-14C]phenol was completely mineralized, with 65% of the 14C label appearing as 14CO2, approximately 15% remaining in the aqueous medium, and the rest accounted for in the biomass. Analysis of the biomass showed that 14C label had been incorporated into the protein, nucleic acid, and lipid fractions; phenol carbon is thus unequivocally assimilated by the alga. Phenol-grown cultures of O. danica converted phenols to the corresponding catechols, which were further metabolized by the meta-cleavage pathway. This surprising result was rigorously confirmed by taking the working stock culture through a variety of procedures to check that it was axenic and repeating the experiments with algal extracts. This is, as far as is known, the first definitive identification of the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic ring degradation in a eukaryotic alga, though its incidence in other eukaryotes has been (infrequently) suggested. PMID:8919787

Semple, K T; Cain, R B

1996-01-01

467

A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production  

E-print Network

A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production T of microalgae biofuels production through an analysis of five production scenarios. These scenarios, or cases microalgae biofuel technologies for both oil and biogas production, provides an initial assessment of the US

Quinn, Nigel

468

The use of antibiotics to obtain axenic cultures of algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to obtain undamaged axenic cultures of six algae by means of short-term exposure to various antibiotic mixtures were successful in four cases. Apparently pure cultures of the two diatoms, Nitzschia capitellata Hust. and Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla (Grun.) Cleve were obtained after short exposure to penicillin + Ceporin + aureomycin, followed by mechanical separation. No changes in cytology or

A. K. Jones; Muriel E. Rhodes; Susan C. Evans

1973-01-01

469

Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green lineage (Viridiplantae) comprises the green algae and their descendants the land plants, and is one of the major groups of oxygenic photosynthetic eukaryotes. Current hypotheses posit the early divergence of two discrete clades from an ancestral green flagellate. One clade, the Chlorophyta, comprises the early diverging prasinophytes, which gave rise to the core chlorophytes. The other clade, the

Frederik Leliaert; David R. Smith; Hervé Moreau; Matthew D. Herron; Heroen Verbruggen; Charles F. Delwiche; Olivier De Clerck

2012-01-01

470

A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

Jin-Fen, Pan; Rong-Gen, Lin; Li, Ma

2000-09-01

471

LAKE PEND OREILLE, IDAHO - ATTACHED BENTHIC ALGAE (PERIPHYTON), 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Attached algae in the littoral zone of Pend Oreille Lake, a large deep meso-oligotrophic lake in northern Idaho (17010214) was studied for comparison to estimates of pelagic productivity. The study monitored periphyton growth rates during July and August 1986 on both artificial ...

472

Characterization of the alginates from five madagascan brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influence of the conditions of bleaching on initial ground algae is discussed; it is demonstrated that it favours the yield of extraction of purified alginates but that it causes chain degradation and a decrease of the M\\/G ratio. These events are attributed to the sensitivity to hydrolysis of MM and MG osidic linkages. Nevertheless, from all

Hanta Andriamanantoanina; Marguerite Rinaudo

2010-01-01

473

Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective.

E. Greenbaum; J. W. Lee

1997-01-01

474

The development of artificial media for marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culturing of marine algae has proceeded slowly since MIQV~L (1890 93) succeeded in growing a few diatoms in the laboratory. Until recently most media were composed of sea water or sea water-like artificial solutions which are prone to precipitate because of the presence of several salts in concentration near saturation. In order to avoid precipitates such media must be

L. Provasoli; J. J. A. McLaughlin; M. R. Droop

1957-01-01

475

Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

1989-09-01

476

Biosorption of reactive dyes on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of three vinyl sulphone type reactive dyes (Remazol Black B (RB), Remazol Red RR (RR) and Remazol Golden Yellow RNL (RGY)) onto dried Chlorella vulgaris, a green alga was investigated in a batch system. The algal biomass exhibited the highest dye uptake capacity at the initial pH value of 2.0 for all dyes. The effect of temperature on equilibrium

Zümriye Aksu; Sevilay Tezer

2005-01-01

477

Metabolism of glucose by unicellular blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultative photo- and chemoheterotroph, the unicellular bluegreen alga Aphanocapsa 6714, dissimilates glucose with formation of CO2 as the only major product. A substantial fraction of the glucose consumed is assimilated and stored as polyglucose (probably glycogen). The oxidation of glucose proceeds through the pentose phosphate pathway. The first enzyme of this pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, is partly inducible. In addition,

R. A. Pelroy; R. Rippka; R. Y. Stanier

1972-01-01

478

INFLUENCE OF ALGAE ON PHOTOLYSIS RATES OF CHEMICALS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sunlight-induced algal transformations of 22 nonionic organic chemicals were studied in order to provide kinetic results and equations concerning the influence of algae on the behavior of pollutants in freshwater environments. Screening studies indicated that green and blue-green...

479

Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and the Enolase Enzyme  

PubMed Central

The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae. PMID:25093929

Polle, Jürgen E. W.; Neofotis, Peter; Huang, Andy; Chang, William; Sury, Kiran; Wiech, Eliza M.

2014-01-01

480

Algae biodiesel has potential despite inconclusive results to date.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis of several published life cycle assessments of algae-to-energy systems was developed to better understand the environmental implications of deploying this technology at large scales. Taken together, results from these six studies seemed largely inconclusive because of differences in modeling assumptions and system boundaries. To overcome this, the models were normalized using a generic pathway for cultivating algae in open ponds, converting it into biodiesel, and processing the nonlipid fraction using anaerobic digestion. Meta-analysis results suggest that algae-based biodiesel would result in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on par with terrestrial alternatives such as corn ethanol and soy biodiesel. Net energy ratio and normalized greenhouse gas emissions were 1.4 MJ produced/MJ consumed and 0.19 kg CO(2)-equivalent/km traveled, respectively. A scenario analysis underscores the extent to which breakthroughs in key technologies are needed before algae-derived fuels become an attractive alternative to conventional biofuels. PMID:22104101

Liu, Xiaowei; Clarens, Andres F; Colosi, Lisa M

2012-01-01

481

Research on the life cycles of harmful algae: A commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the life cycles of harmful algae has advanced substantially in the last decade, in part through increased support of major research programs such as the SEED and the ECOHAB – Gulf of Maine projects. As with most research, the new knowledge answers some questions but raises more that require further inquiry, particularly since life-cycle strategies appear to

Karen A. Steidinger

2010-01-01

482

Spectral shifting by dyes to enhance algae growth.  

PubMed

The photosynthetic growth action spectrum of a green alga at three bands of visible light (blue, orange, and red) at fixed quanta input and under light-limiting conditions was measured in a batch cultivation system. Quantum efficiencies (biomass dry weight increment per quanta absorbed) were better in the yellow-red region than in the blue region. Results served as a basis for the design and optimization of a dye system that would shift the energy of solar radiation to the required wavelength range by absorbing ultraviolet to blue radiation and emitting in the yellow-red, thus enhancing algae growth. Direct incorporation of dyes into the growth medium, although theoretically expected to enhance growth, in fact resulted in dye decomposition, toxicity to algae and consequently in growth inhibition. Indirect application of dyes in a double tubular reactor (algae inside and dye solution outside) demonstrated growth enhancement for certain dyes with high quantum yields and stability, which had suitable absorption/emission spectra for artificial light sources used. The maximum indirect growth enhancement was obtained using rhodamine 6G at a concentration of 3x10(-5)M with tungsten filament lamp sources. PMID:18551655

Prokop, A; Quinn, M F; Fekri, M; Murad, M; Ahmed, S A

1984-11-01

483

Spectral shifting by dyes to enhance algae growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic growth action spectrum of a green alga at three bands of visible light (blue, orange, and red) at fixed quanta input and under light-limiting conditions was measured in a batch cultivation system. Quantum efficiencies (biomass dry weight increment per quanta absorbed) were better in the yellow-red region than in the blue region. Results served as a basis for

A. Prokop; S. A. Ahmed; M. Fekri; M. Murad; M. F. Quinn

1984-01-01

484

Spectral shifting by dyes to enhance algae growth  

SciTech Connect

The photosynthetic growth action spectrum of a green alga at three bands of visible light (blue, orange, and red) at fixed quanta input and under light-limiting conditions was measured in a batch cultivation system. Quantum efficiencies (biomass dry weight increment per quanta absorbed) were better in the yellow-red region than in the blue region. Results served as a basis for the design and optimization of a dye system that would shift the energy of solar radiation to the required wavelength range by absorbing ultraviolet to blue radiation and emitting in the yellow-red, thus enhancing algae growth. Direct incorporation of dyes into the growth medium, although theoretically expected to enhance growth, in fact resulted in dye decomposition, toxicity to algae and consequently in growth inhibition. Indirect application of dyes in a double tubular reactor (algae inside and dye solution outside) demonstrated growth enhancement for certain dyes with high quantum yields and stability, which had suitable absorption/emission spectra for artificial light sources used. The maximum indirect growth enhancement was obtained using rhodamine 6G at a concentration of 3 X 10/sup -5/M with tungsten filament lamp sources.

Prokop, A.; Ahmed, S.A.; Fekri, M.; Murad, M.; Quinn, M.F.

1984-11-01

485

Operational forecasts of algae blooms in the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fall of 2007 a project was initiated with the main aim to set up a test system for algae forecasts. Secondly the project was to, within its scope, perform a crude validation of the results. The final task for the project, which lasted until the end of December, was to present the results on the internal web. The

Iréne Lake; Lennart Funkquist

2008-01-01

486

Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. KNOLL states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. TEYSSÈDRE's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some \\

Bernard TEYSSÈDRE

2006-01-01

487

Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of

Ann C. Wilkie; Walter W. Mulbry

2002-01-01

488

A simple classification of the volvocine algae by formal languages.  

PubMed

There are several explanations of why certain primitive multicellular organisms aggregate in particular forms and why their constituent cells cooperate with one another to a particular degree. Utilizing the framework of formal language theory, we have derived one possible simple classification of the volvocine algae-one of the primitive multicells-for some forms of aggregation and some degrees of cooperation among cells. The volvocine algae range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox globator, which has thousands of cells. The classification we use in this paper is based on the complexity of Parikh sets of families on Chomsky hierarchy in formal language theory. We show that an alga with almost no space closed to the environment, e.g., Gonium pectorale, can be characterized by PsFIN, one with a closed space and no cooperation, e.g., Eudorina elegans, by PsCF, and one with a closed space and cooperation, e.g., Volvox globator, by PslambdauSC. This classification should provide new insights into the necessity for specific forms and degrees of cooperation in the volvocine algae. PMID:16005503

Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yokomori, Takashi; Suyama, Akira

2005-11-01

489

Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on growth of freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of PCBs (Aroclor 1242) to freshwater algae was analyzed. In two closely related species of Chlorella, one was found to be extremely resistant and the other sensitive. Chlamydomonas reinhardi strains showed temporary sensitivity, which was overcome after 3 days of culture. Results from abiotic preculture indicated that in all cases enzymatic degradation or adsorption of PCBs by cells

H. K. Mahanty; P. M. Gresshoff

1978-01-01

490

Marine Algae Of Tobruk And Ain Ghazala Coasts, Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was mainly intended to collect and identify the marine algae of eastern Libyan coast closed to the Egyptian border lines. Two sampling stations were selected in the coasts of Tobruk and Ain Ghazala to cover the study area. Forty six marine algal species were collected and identified. Eighteen species of them were belonging to Chlorophyta (39.13%), twelve

M. M. Godeh; F. O. El-Menifi

491

Toxins of a Blue-Green Alga: Similarity to Saxitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxins were isolated from the freshwater blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. The toxic fractions were characterized by paper and thin-layer chromatography, isolation characteristics, infrared spectra, physiological activity, and reactivity with specific color reagents. The toxic fractions appear to be similar, if not identical, to saxitoxin (paralytic shellfish toxin), which is produced by the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella.

Eugene Jackim; John Gentile

1968-01-01

492

Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN  

E-print Network

7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN OPEN-CHANNEL NETWORKS channels which are specific eco-systems for many reasons. Firstly, they have to fulfill hydraulic, artificial channels have a relatively simple geometry and their hydraulic variables are easier to monitor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

493

The first eukaryotic cells — Acid hot-spring algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyanidiophyceae members (PreRhodophyta) may serve as a transitional algal group bridging the cyanobacteria and the unicellular Rhodophyta. This thermoacidic algal group is composed of three genera containing several species. We suggested placing these algae in progressively evolutionary steps: (Cyanidioschyzon ? Cyanidium ? Galdieria). This evolutional ladder is based upon various areas of research like biochemistry, amount of nuclear genome

Joseph Seckbach

1995-01-01

494

Ocean Planet: There Are Algae in Your House!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this activity, students look in their own homes for foods that contain ingredients derived from seaweed . The activity points out that seaweeds are not really weeds but large forms of marine algae, and that seaweed derivatives are used in a large variety of foods and household products. Objectives, a list of materials, instructions, and a take-home worksheet are included.

495

Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku`Ulei S.; MacKenzie, Fred T.

2008-02-01

496

ASPECTS OF PHOSPHATE UTILIZATION BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of various external phosphate concentrations on physiological and cytological aspects of Plectonema boryanum have been studied. P. boryanum was found to tolerate a wide range of phosphate concentrations, from 1 to 1000 mg of phosphate per liter. Growth of the alga in ...

497

THE OCCURRENCE OF HORMESIS IN PLANTS AND ALGAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one fung...

498

Basis for the Resistance of Several Algae to Microbial Decomposition  

PubMed Central

The basis for the resistance of certain algae to microbial decomposition in natural waters was investigated using Pediastrum duplex, Staurastrum sp., and Fischerella muscicola as test organisms. Enzyme preparations previously found to convert susceptible algae into spheroplasts had no such effect on the resistant species, although glucose and galacturonic acid were released from P. duplex walls. Little protein or lipid but considerable carbohydrate was found in the walls of the refractory organisms, but resistance was not correlated with the presence of a unique sugar monomer. A substance present in Staurastrum sp. walls was characterized as lignin or lignin-like on the basis of its extraction characteristics, infrared spectrum, pyrolysis pattern, and content of an aromatic building block. Sporopollenin was found in P. duplex, and cellulose in Staurastrum sp. Cell walls of the algae were fractionated, and the fractions least susceptible to microbial degradation were the sporopollenin of P. duplex, the polyaromatic component of Staurastrum sp., and two F. muscicola fractions containing several sugar monomers. The sporopollenin content of P. duplex, the content of lignin or a related constituent of Staurastrum sp., and the resistance of the algae to microbial attack increased with age. It is suggested that resistance results from the presence of sporopollenin in P. duplex, a lignin-like material in Staurastrum sp., and possibly heteropolysaccharides in F. muscicola. PMID:808166

Gunnison, Douglas; Alexander, Martin

1975-01-01

499

Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Primitive Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanidioschyzon merolae is considered to be one of the most primitive of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. To obtain insights into the origin and evolution of the pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic plants, the carotenoid content of C. merolae was ascertained, genes encoding enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis in this unicellular red alga were identified, and the activities of two candidate pathway

Francis X. Cunningham; Hansel Lee; Elisabeth Gantt

2007-01-01

500

Energy-water nexus for mass cultivation of algae.  

PubMed

Microalgae are currently considered a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. This work addresses the energy needed to manage the water used in the mass cultivation of saline, eukaryotic algae grown in open pond systems. Estimates of both direct and upstream energy requirements for obtaining, containing, and circulating water within algae cultivation systems are developed. Potential productivities are calculated for each of the 48 states within the continental U.S. based on theoretical photosynthetic efficiencies, growing season, and total available land area. Energy output in the form of algal biodiesel and the total energy content of algal biomass are compared to energy inputs required for water management. The analysis indicates that, for current technologies, energy required for water management alone is approximately seven times greater than energy output in the form of biodiesel and more than double that contained within the entire algal biomass. While this analysis addresses only currently identified species grown in an open-pond system, the water management requirements of any algae system will be substantial; therefore, it is critical that an energy assessment of water management requirements be performed for any cultivation technology and algal type in order to fully understand the energy balance of algae-derived biofuels. PMID:21671675

Murphy, Cynthia Folsom; Allen, David T

2011-07-01