Two dimensional NMR spectroscopy
Schram, J.; Bellama, J.M.
1988-01-01
Two dimensional NMR represents a significant achievement in the continuing effort to increase solution in NMR spectroscopy. This book explains the fundamentals of this new technique and its analytical applications. It presents the necessary information, in pictorial form, for reading the ''2D NMR,'' and enables the practicing chemist to solve problems and run experiments on a commercial spectrometer by using the software provided by the manufacturer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
Information on the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory two dimensional transonic wind tunnel, completed at the end of 1979 is presented. Its construction is discussed in detail, and the wind tunnel structure, operation, test results, and future plans are presented.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1997-11-18
QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization
Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2005-12-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.
Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry
Farrar, T.C.
1987-06-01
This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t/sub 0/; an evolution period, t/sub 1/; and a detection period, t/sub 2/.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.
Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S
2011-03-25
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 μm diameter) and small (1 μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357
Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.
2011-03-01
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3μm diameter) and small (1μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.
Two-dimensional separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gersten, K.
The state of the art of asymptotic theory is discussed with respect to incompressible two-dimensional separated flows. As an example, the flow over an indented flat plate is considered for two cases: a small separation bubble within the lower part of the boundary layer, and the 'catastrophic' separation of the whole boundary layer with a large recirculating eddy. Separation means failure of Prandtl's boundary layer theory, and alternate theories are required. An example of this is shown in the calculation of circulation in the dent according to triple-deck theory. The free-streamline theory approach is used to examine the indented flat plate and the flow past a circular cylinder. Attention is also given to flow control by continuous injection, combined forced and free convection, unsteady laminar flows, and laminar flows.
Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy
Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.
1987-01-01
Written for chemists and biochemists who are not NMR spectroscopists, but who wish to use the new techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, this book brings together for the first time much of the practical and experimental data needed. It also serves as information source for industrial, academic, and graduate student researchers who already use NMR spectroscopy, but not yet in two dimensions. The authors describe the use of 2-D NMR in a wide variety of chemical and biochemical fields, among them peptides, steroids, oligo- and poly-saccharides, nucleic acids, natural products (including terpenoids, alkaloids, and coal-derived heterocyclics), and organic synthetic intermediates. They consider throughout the book both the advantages and limitations of using 2-D NMR.
Digital Filters for Two-Dimensional Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, T. R.
1983-01-01
Computational efficient filters speed processing of two-dimensional experimental data. Two-dimensional smoothing filter used to attenuate highfrequency noise in two-dimensional numerical data arrays. Filter provides smoothed data values equal to values obtained by fitting surface with secondand third-order terms to 5 by 5 subset of data points centered on points and replacing data at each point by value of surface fitted at point. Especially suited for efficient analysis of two-dimensional experimental data on images.
Measuring Monotony in Two-Dimensional Samples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias
2010-01-01
This note introduces a monotony coefficient as a new measure of the monotone dependence in a two-dimensional sample. Some properties of this measure are derived. In particular, it is shown that the absolute value of the monotony coefficient for a two-dimensional sample is between /"r"/ and 1, where "r" is the Pearson's correlation coefficient for…
Two Dimensional Mechanism for Insect Hovering
Jane Wang, Z.
2000-09-04
Resolved computation of two dimensional insect hovering shows for the first time that a two dimensional hovering motion can generate enough lift to support a typical insect weight. The computation reveals a two dimensional mechanism of creating a downward dipole jet of counterrotating vortices, which are formed from leading and trailing edge vortices. The vortex dynamics further elucidates the role of the phase relation between the wing translation and rotation in lift generation and explains why the instantaneous forces can reach a periodic state after only a few strokes. The model predicts the lower limits in Reynolds number and amplitude above which the averaged forces are sufficient. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields
Belvedere, L. V.
2006-11-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.
Efficient Two-Dimensional-FFT Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miko, J.
1992-01-01
Program computes 64 X 64-point fast Fourier transform in less than 17 microseconds. Optimized 64 X 64 Point Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform combines performance of real- and complex-valued one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) to execute two-dimensional FFT and coefficients of power spectrum. Coefficients used in many applications, including analyzing spectra, convolution, digital filtering, processing images, and compressing data. Source code written in C, 8086 Assembly, and Texas Instruments TMS320C30 Assembly languages.
Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors.
Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras
2015-12-01
The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26585088
Two-dimensional nanolithography using atom interferometry
Gangat, A.; Pradhan, P.; Pati, G.; Shahriar, M.S.
2005-04-01
We propose a scheme for the lithography of arbitrary, two-dimensional nanostructures via matter-wave interference. The required quantum control is provided by a {pi}/2-{pi}-{pi}/2 atom interferometer with an integrated atom lens system. The lens system is developed such that it allows simultaneous control over the atomic wave-packet spatial extent, trajectory, and phase signature. We demonstrate arbitrary pattern formations with two-dimensional {sup 87}Rb wave packets through numerical simulations of the scheme in a practical parameter space. Prospects for experimental realizations of the lithography scheme are also discussed.
Crossflow in two-dimensional asymmetric nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sebacher, D. I.; Lee, L. P.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation of the crossflow effects in three contoured, two-dimensional asymmetric nozzles is described. The data were compared with theoretical predictions of nozzle flow by using an inviscid method of characteristics solution and two-dimensional turbulent boundary-layer calculations. The effect of crossflow as a function of the nozzle maximum expansion angle was studied by use of oil-flow techniques, static wall-pressure measurements, and impact-pressure surveys at the nozzle exit. Reynolds number effects on crossflow were investigated.
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-03-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96 eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications.
Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kendl, A.
2008-01-01
In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…
New two dimensional compounds: beyond graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebegue, Sebastien
2015-03-01
In the field of nanosciences, the quest for materials with reduced dimensionality is only at its beginning. While a lot of effort has been put initially on graphene, the focus has been extended in the last past years to functionalized graphene, boron nitride, silicene, and transition metal dichalcogenides in the form of single layers. Although these two-dimensional compounds offer a larger range of properties than graphene, there is a constant need for new materials presenting equivalent or superior performances to the ones already known. Here I will present an approach that we have used to discover potential new two-dimensional materials. This approach corresponds to perform datamining in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database using simple geometrical criterias, and allowed us to identify nearly 40 new materials that could be exfoliated into two-dimensional sheets. Then, their electronic structure (density of states and bandstructure) was obtained with density functional theory to predict whether the two-dimensional material is metallic or insulating, as well as if it undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures. If time allows, I will also present some of our recent results concerning the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides bilayers.
Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok
2007-01-01
We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-01-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96 eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications. PMID:25744355
Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors
Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang
2014-12-30
Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less
Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors
Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang
2014-12-30
Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.
Magnetization study of two dimensional helium three
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Lei
This dissertation discusses a magnetization study of a two dimensional Fermi system. Our group developed a SQUID NMR system to study the magnetization of two dimensional 3He on both GTA grafoil and ZYX Graphite substrates. Benefiting from SQUID technology, our NMR experiments were performed at very low applied magnetic field thus avoid the masking of ordering by strong external field. Monolayer 3He films adsorbed on crystalline graphite are considered a nearly ideal example of a two dimensional system of highly correlated fermions. By controlling the 3He areal density, adsorbed films exhibit a wide range of structures with different temperature- dependent magnetic properties and heat capacities. Our recent experiments on two dimensional 3He adsorbed on ZYX graphite focused on the anti-ferromagnetic 4/7 phase and the ferromagnetic incommensurate solid state of a second 3He monolayer. Ferromagnetic order was observed in two dimensional 3He films on both Grafoil and highly oriented ZYX grade exfoliated graphite. The dipolar field plays an important role in magnetic ordering in two dimensional spin systems. The dipole-dipole interaction leads to a frequency shift of the NMR absorption line. The resulting 3He NMR lineshape on Grafoil was a broad peak shifted towards lower frequency with a background from the randomly oriented regions extending to positive frequencies. Compared to Grafoil, ZYX graphite has a much greater structural coherence and is more highly oriented. When studying magnetism of 3He films on ZYX substrate we found that the features we observed in our original Grafoil experiment were much more pronounced on ZYX graphite. In addition, we observed some multi-peak structure on the 3He NMR lineshape, which suggest a series of spin wave resonances. We also studied the magnetic properties of the second layer of 3He films on ZYX substrate at density around 4/7 phase. To eliminate the paramagnetic signal of the first layer solid, we pre-plated a 4He layer on the
Toward two-dimensional search engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors
Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee
2014-01-01
A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472
Kirigami for Two-Dimensional Electronic Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, Dario; Campbell, David; Park, Harold
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional materials have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their unique properties. In this work, we introduce the notion of two-dimensional kirigami, where concepts that have been used almost exclusively for macroscale structures are applied to dramatically enhance their stretchability. Specifically, we show using classical molecular dynamics simulations that the yield and fracture strains of graphene and MoS2 can be enhanced by about a factor of three using kirigami as compared to standard monolayers. Finally, using graphene as an example, we demonstrate that the kirigami structure may open up interesting opportunities in coupling to the electronic behavior of 2D materials. Authors acknowledge Mechanical Engineering and Physics departments at Boston University, and Mackgrafe at Mackenzie Presbyterian University.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-01-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis.
Waudby, Christopher A; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John
2016-01-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776
Deeply subrecoil two-dimensional Raman cooling
Boyer, V.; Phillips, W.D.; Lising, L.J.; Rolston, S.L.
2004-10-01
We report the implementation of a two-dimensional Raman cooling scheme using sequential excitations along the orthogonal axes. Using square pulses, we have cooled a cloud of ultracold cesium atoms down to an rms velocity spread of 0.39(5) recoil velocities, corresponding to an effective transverse temperature of 30 nK (0.15T{sub rec}). This technique can be useful to improve cold-atom atomic clocks and is particularly relevant for clocks in microgravity.
Two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowire networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y. M.; Li, Y. H.; Ahmad, I.; McCartney, D. G.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Hu, W. B.
2006-09-01
The authors report the synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional (2D) single crystalline nanonetworks consisting of tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters of ca. 20nm. The 2D networks are believed to result from the nanowire growth along the four crystallographic equivalent directions of ⟨110⟩ in the tetragonal WO2.9 structure. These 2D tungsten oxide networks may be potential precursors for creating 2D networks comprising WS2 nanotubes.
Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons
Yang Jianke
2010-11-15
We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.
Two-dimensional resonators for local oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, K.-c.; Jenkins, A.; Edwards, D.; Dew-Hughes, D.
1999-11-01
The expedited globalization of satellite technology has brought about a rapid boost in satellite competition and increased utilization of wireless communications remote data devices. In space communications receivers, there is an expanding demand for higher performance from local oscillators. The determining conditions are high Q values, high circulating power and low amplifier noise figures. In spite of their low insertion loss, conventional one-dimensional high-temperature superconducting (HTS) resonator-feedback oscillators suffer from high peak current densities inside the resonator and thus have a limited power-handling characteristics. To achieve higher-power oscillators, it is possible to introduce a two-dimensional microstrip resonator to balance the internal current distribution. To this end, 3 GHz two-dimensional resonators have been fabricated from TBCCO 2212 thin films deposited by RF sputtering onto 2 cm square LaAlO3 substrates. This paper demonstrates the frequency stabilizer role and the frequency response of the two-dimensional resonator. The considerable improvement for the performance of resonator-feedback oscillators constructed using such HTS resonators will also be presented.
Two-dimensional structured illumination microscopy.
Schropp, M; Uhl, R
2014-10-01
In widefield fluorescence microscopy, images from all but very flat samples suffer from fluorescence emission from layers above or below the focal plane of the objective lens. Structured illumination microscopy provides an elegant approach to eliminate this unwanted image contribution. To this end a line grid is projected onto the sample and phase images are taken at different positions of the line grid. Using suitable algorithms 'quasi-confocal images' can be derived from a given number of such phase-images. Here, we present an alternative structured illumination microscopy approach, which employs two-dimensional patterns instead of a one-dimensional one. While in one-dimensional structured illumination microscopy the patterns are shifted orthogonally to the pattern orientation, in our two-dimensional approach it is shifted at a single, pattern-dependent angle, yet it already achieves an isotropic power spectral density with this unidirectional shift, which otherwise would require a combination of pattern-shift and -rotation. Moreover, our two-dimensional approach also yields a better signal-to-noise ratio in the evaluated image. PMID:25113075
Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LeVine, David M.
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate
Two dimensional thick center vortex model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Ahmadi, Alireza
2016-01-01
The potential between static color source is calculated in the SU (3) gauge group by introducing a two dimensional vortex flux. To generalize the model, the length of the Wilson loop is equal to R oriented along the x axis, and the vortex flux is considered as a function of x and y. The comparison between the generalized model and the original one shows that the intermediate linear regime is increased significantly and better agreement with Casimir scaling is achieved. Furthermore, the model is applied to calculate the potential between baryons.
Superconductivity in two-dimensional boron allotropes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun
2016-01-01
We use ab initio evolutionary algorithm and first-principles calculations to investigate structural, electronic, vibrational, and superconducting properties of two-dimensional (2 D ) boron allotropes. Remarkably, we show that conventional BCS superconductivity in the stable 2 D boron structures is ubiquitous with the critical temperature Tc above the liquid hydrogen temperature for certain configurations. Due to the electronic states of the Fermi surface originating from both σ and π electrons, the superconductivity of the 2 D structures arises from multiple phonon modes. Our results support that 2 D boron structure may be a pure single-element material with the highest Tc on conditions without high pressure and external strain.
Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?
Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2016-04-13
Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K. PMID:27003635
Two-dimensional meniscus in a wedge
Kagan, M.; Pinczewski, W.V.; Oren, P.E.
1995-03-15
This paper presents a closed-form analytical solution of the augmented Young-Laplace equation for the meniscus profile in a two-dimensional wedge-shaped capillary. The solution is valid for monotonic forms of disjoining pressure which are repulsive in nature. In the limit of negligible disjoining pressure, it is shown to reduce to the classical solution of constant curvature. The character of the solution is examined and examples of practical interest which demonstrate the application of the solution to the computation of the meniscus profile in a wedge-shaped capillary are discussed.
Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de
2016-06-01
A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas.
Fractures in heterogeneous two-dimensional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politi, Antonio; Zei, Maria
2001-05-01
A two-dimensional triangular lattice with bond disorder is used as a testing ground for fracture behavior in heterogeneous materials in strain-controlled conditions. Simulations are performed with two interaction potentials (harmonic and Lennard-Jones types) and different breaking thresholds. We study the strain range where the fracture progressively develops from the first to the last breakdown. Scaling properties with the lattice size are investigated: no qualitative difference is found between the two interaction potentials. Clustering properties of the broken bonds are also studied by grouping them into disjoint sets of connected bonds. Finally, the role of kinetic energy is analyzed by comparing overdamped with dissipationless dynamics.
Couette flow of two-dimensional foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katgert, G.; Tighe, B. P.; Möbius, M. E.; van Hecke, M.
2010-06-01
We experimentally investigate flow of quasi-two-dimensional disordered foams in Couette geometries, both for foams squeezed below a top plate and for freely floating foams (bubble rafts). With the top plate, the flows are strongly localized and rate dependent. For the bubble rafts the flow profiles become essentially rate independent, the local and global rheology do not match, and in particular the foam flows in regions where the stress is below the global yield stress. We attribute this to nonlocal effects and show that the "fluidity" model recently introduced by Goyon et al. (Nature, 454 (2008) 84) captures the essential features of flow both with and without a top plate.
Program For Two-Dimensional Thermoplastic Deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orient, George E.
1993-01-01
SOLAS contains number of utility programs for use with finite-element simulations. Designed to handle two-dimensional problems of quasi-static thermoplastic deformation. Includes optional postprocessing software, independent of solution codes, generating unified element-by-element list of quantitative results of computation, plus file containing signed equivalent stresses, equivalent strains, and multiaxiality factor parameter. Signs of equivalent quantities expressed either with respect to maximum principal quantities or with respect to directions defined by user. Written in UNIX shell script and FORTRAN 77.
Transport in two-dimensional paper networks
Fu, Elain; Ramsey, Stephen A.; Kauffman, Peter; Lutz, Barry; Yager, Paul
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional paper networks (2DPNs) hold great potential for transcending the capabilities and performance of today's paper-based analytical devices. Specifically, 2DPNs enable sophisticated multi-step chemical processing sequences for sample pretreatment and analysis at a cost and ease-of-use that make them appropriate for use in settings with low resources. A quantitative understanding of flow in paper networks is essential to realizing the potential of these networks. In this report, we provide a framework for understanding flow in simple 2DPNs using experiments, analytical expressions, and computational simulations. PMID:22140373
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional QED
Carson, S.R.; Kenway, R.D.
1986-02-01
We describe the computer simulation of two-dimensional QED on a 64 x 64 Euclidean space-time lattice using the Susskind lattice fermion action. Theorder parameter for chiral symmetry breaking and the low-lying meson masses are calculated for both the model with two continuum flavours, which arises naturally in this formulation, and the model with one continuum falvour obtained by including a nonsymmetric mass term and setting one fermion mass equal to the cut-off. Results are compared with those obtined using the quenched approximation, and with analytic predictions.
Quasicondensation in Two-Dimensional Fermi Gases.
Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K
2015-12-11
In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. A key signature of quasi-condensation, which contains aspects of Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, is a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, this peak emerges at a reasonably well defined onset temperature. The resulting phase diagram, pair momentum distribution, and algebraic power law decay are compatible with recent experiments throughout the continuum from BEC to BCS. PMID:26705613
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-01-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices. PMID:27325441
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide.
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-01-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices. PMID:27325441
Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1938-01-01
Construction of the wood frame for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the
Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1937-01-01
Construction of the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the shell to provide a
Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1938-01-01
Manometer for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the shell to provide a space
Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-03-05
FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng
2015-10-01
Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.
Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim
2005-02-01
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623
Two-dimensional dipolar nematic colloidal crystals.
Skarabot, M; Ravnik, M; Zumer, S; Tkalec, U; Poberaj, I; Babic, D; Osterman, N; Musevic, I
2007-11-01
We study the interactions and directed assembly of dipolar nematic colloidal particles in planar nematic cells using laser tweezers. The binding energies for two stable configurations of a colloidal pair with homeotropic surface alignment are determined. It is shown that the orientation of the dipolar colloidal particle can efficiently be controlled and changed by locally quenching the nematic liquid crystal from the laser-induced isotropic phase. The interaction of a single colloidal particle with a single colloidal chain is determined and the interactions between pairs of colloidal chains are studied. We demonstrate that dipolar colloidal chains self-assemble into the two-dimensional (2D) dipolar nematic colloidal crystals. An odd-even effect is observed with increasing number of colloidal chains forming the 2D colloidal crystal. PMID:18233658
Structural Modelling of Two Dimensional Amorphous Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avishek
The continuous random network (CRN) model of network glasses is widely accepted as a model for materials such as vitreous silica and amorphous silicon. Although it has been more than eighty years since the proposal of the CRN, there has not been conclusive experimental evidence of the structure of glasses and amorphous materials. This has now changed with the advent of two-dimensional amorphous materials. Now, not only the distribution of rings but the actual atomic ring structure can be imaged in real space, allowing for greater charicterization of these types of networks. This dissertation reports the first work done on the modelling of amorphous graphene and vitreous silica bilayers. Models of amorphous graphene have been created using a Monte Carlo bond-switching method and MD method. Vitreous silica bilayers have been constructed using models of amorphous graphene and the ring statistics of silica bilayers has been studied.
Atomic Defects in Two Dimensional Materials.
Rasool, Haider I; Ophus, Colin; Zettl, Alex
2015-10-14
Atomic defects in crystalline structures have pronounced affects on their bulk properties. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy has proved to be a powerful characterization tool for understanding the bonding structure of defects in materials. In this article, recent results on the characterization of defect structures in two dimensional materials are discussed. The dynamic behavior of defects in graphene shows the stability of zigzag edges of the material and gives insights into the dislocation motion. Polycrystalline graphene is characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques, revealing the global crystal structure of the material, as well as atomic-resolution observation of the carbon atom positions between neighboring crystal grains. Studies of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are also visited, highlighting the interlayer bonding, which occurs upon defect formation, and characterization of grain boundary structures. Lastly, defect structures in monolayer polycrystalline transition metal dichalcogenides grown by CVD are discussed. PMID:25946075
Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.
1998-01-01
We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.
Two-dimensional swimming behavior of bacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel; Wu, Yilin
Many bacteria swim by flagella motility which is essential for bacterial dispersal, chemotaxis, and pathogenesis. Here we combined single-cell tracking, theoretical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate two-dimensional swimming behavior of a well-characterized flagellated bacterium Bacillus subtilis at the single-cell level. We quantified the 2D motion pattern of B. subtilis in confined space and studied how cells interact with each other. Our findings shed light on bacterial colonization in confined environments, and will serve as the ground for building more accurate models to understand bacterial collective motion. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: ylwu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk.
Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons.
Barth, E; Zetzsche, C; Rentschler, I
1998-07-01
We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features. PMID:9656473
Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colson, John W.; Dichtel, William R.
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Multiplet-separated heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levitt, Malcolm H.; Sørensen, O. W.; Ernst, R. R.
1983-02-01
Techniques are described for the identification and separation of peaks of different multiplicity in heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The methods are applied to the two-dimensional 13C- 1H shift correlation spectrum of menthol.
Two-dimensional vortices and accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauta, Michiel Doede
2000-01-01
Observations show that there are disks around certain stars that slowly rain down on the central (compact) object: accretion disks. The rate of depletion of the disk might be slow but is still larger than was expected on theoretical grounds. That is why it has been suggested that the disks are turbulent. Because the disk is thin and rotating this turbulence might be related to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence which is characterized by energy transfers towards small wave numbers and the formation of 2D-vortices. This hypothesis is investigated in this thesis by numerical simulations. After an introduction, the numerical algorithm that was inplemented is discussed together with its relation to an accretion disk. It performs well under the absence of discontinuities. The code is used to study 2D-turbulence under the influence of background rotation with compressibility and a shearing background flow. The first is found to be of little consequence but the shear flow alters 2D-turbulence siginificantly. Only prograde vortices of enough strength are able to withstand the shear flow. The size of the vortices in the cross stream direction is also found to be smaller than the equivalent of the thickness of an accretion disk. These circulstances imply that the assumption of two-dimensionality is questionable so that 2D-vortices might not abound in accretion disks. However, the existence of such vortices is not ruled out and one such a cortex is studied in detail in chapter 4. The internal structure of the vortex is well described by a balance between Coriolis, centrifugal and pressure forces. The vortex is also accompanied by two spiral compressible waves. These are not responsible for the azimuthal drift of the vortex, which results from secondary vortices, but they might be related to the small radial drift that is observed. Radial drift leads to accretion but it is not very efficient. Multiple vortex interactions are the topic of tha last chapter and though interesting the
Implementations of two-dimensional liquid chromatography
Guiochon, Georges A; Marchetti, Nicola; Mriziq, Khaled S; Shalliker, R. Andrew
2008-01-01
Today scientists must deal with complex samples that either cannot be adequately separated using one-dimensional chromatography or that require an inordinate amount of time for separation. For these cases we need two-dimensional chromatography because it takes far less time to generate a peak capacity n{sub c} twice in a row than to generate a peak capacity n{sub c}{sup 2} once. Liquid chromatography has been carried out successfully on thin layers of adsorbents and along tubes filled with various adsorbents. The first type of separation sorts out the sample components in a physical separation space that is the layer of packing material. The analysis time is the same for all the components of the sample while their migration distance increases with decreasing retention. The resolution between two components having a certain separation factor (a) increases with increasing migration distance, i.e., from the strongly to the weakly retained compounds. In the second type of separation, the sample components are eluted from the column and separated in the time space, their migration distances are all the same while their retention times increase from the unretained to the strongly retained compounds. Separation efficiency varies little with retention, as long as the components are eluted from the column. We call these two types of separation the chromatographic separations in space (LC{sup x}) and the chromatographic separations in time (LC{sup t}), respectively. In principle, there are four ways to combine these two modes and do two-dimensional chromatographic separations, LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup x} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup t} x LC{sup x}, and LC{sup x} x LC{sup x}. We review, discuss and compare the potential performance of these combinations, their advantages, drawbacks, problems, perspectives and results. Currently, column-based combinations (LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}) are the most actively pursued. We suggest that the combination LC{sup x} x LC{sup t} shows exceptional
Implementations of two-dimensional liquid chromatography.
Guiochon, Georges; Marchetti, Nicola; Mriziq, Khaled; Shalliker, R Andrew
2008-05-01
Today scientists must deal with complex samples that either cannot be adequately separated using one-dimensional chromatography or that require an inordinate amount of time for separation. For these cases we need two-dimensional chromatography because it takes far less time to generate a peak capacity n(c) twice in a row than to generate a peak capacity n(c)(2) once. Liquid chromatography has been carried out successfully on thin layers of adsorbents and along tubes filled with various adsorbents. The first type of separation sorts out the sample components in a physical separation space that is the layer of packing material. The analysis time is the same for all the components of the sample while their migration distance increases with decreasing retention. The resolution between two components having a certain separation factor (alpha) increases with increasing migration distance, i.e., from the strongly to the weakly retained compounds. In the second type of separation, the sample components are eluted from the column and separated in the time space, their migration distances are all the same while their retention times increase from the unretained to the strongly retained compounds. Separation efficiency varies little with retention, as long as the components are eluted from the column. We call these two types of separation the chromatographic separations in space (LC(x)) and the chromatographic separations in time (LC(t)), respectively. In principle, there are four ways to combine these two modes and do two-dimensional chromatographic separations, LC(t)xLC(t), LC(x)xLC(t), LC(t)xLC(x), and LC(x)xLC(x). We review, discuss and compare the potential performance of these combinations, their advantages, drawbacks, problems, perspectives and results. Currently, column-based combinations (LC(t)xLC(t)) are the most actively pursued. We suggest that the combination LC(x)xLC(t) shows exceptional promise because it permits the simultaneous second-dimension separations of
An atlas of two-dimensional materials.
Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas
2014-09-21
The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls. PMID:24825454
Order Parameters for Two-Dimensional Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi
2007-10-01
We derive methods that explain how to quantify the amount of order in ``ordered'' and ``highly ordered'' porous arrays. Ordered arrays from bee honeycomb and several from the general field of nanoscience are compared. Accurate measures of the order in porous arrays are made using the discrete pair distribution function (PDF) and the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) from 2-D discrete Fourier transforms calculated from the real-space data using MATLAB routines. An order parameter, OP3, is defined from the PDF to evaluate the total order in a given array such that an ideal network has the value of 1. When we compare PDFs of man-made arrays with that of our honeycomb we find OP3=0.399 for the honeycomb and OP3=0.572 for man's best hexagonal array. The DWF also scales with this order parameter with the least disorder from a computer-generated hexagonal array and the most disorder from a random array. An ideal hexagonal array normalizes a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller parameter is derived which describes the disorder in the arrays. An order parameter S, defined by the DWF, takes values from [0, 1] and for the analyzed man-made array is 0.90, while for the honeycomb it is 0.65. This presentation describes methods to quantify the order found in these arrays.
Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence
Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael
2015-01-01
The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data. PMID:26689261
Two-dimensional magnetic colloids under shear.
Mohorič, Tomaž; Dobnikar, Jure; Horbach, Jürgen
2016-04-01
Complex rheological properties of soft disordered solids, such as colloidal gels or glasses, inspire a range of novel applications. However, the microscopic mechanisms of their response to mechanical loading are not well understood. Here, we elucidate some aspects of these mechanisms by studying a versatile model system, i.e. two-dimensional superparamagnetic colloids in a precessing magnetic field, whose structure can be tuned from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered gel network by varying the external field opening angle θ. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations subjecting these structures to a constant shear rate and observe three qualitatively different types of material response. In hexagonal crystals (θ = 0°), at a sufficiently low shear rate, plastic flow occurs via successive stress drops at which the stress releases due to the formation of dislocation defects. The gel network at θ = 48°, on the contrary, via bond rearrangement and transient shear banding evolves into a homogeneously stretched network at large strains. The latter structure remains metastable after switching off of the shear. At θ = 50°, the external shear makes the system unstable against phase separation and causes a failure of the network structure leading to the formation of hexagonal close packed clusters interconnected by particle chains. At a microcopic level, our simulations provide insight into some of the mechanisms by which strain localization as well as material failure occur in a simple gel-like network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new stretched network structures can be generated by the application of shear. PMID:26877059
Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Stanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Jinfeng
Ultrathin semiconductors present various novel electronic properties. The first experimental realized two-dimensional (2D) material is graphene. Searching 2D materials with heavy elements bring the attention to Si, Ge and Sn. 2D buckled Si-based silicene was realized by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Ge-based germanene was realized by mechanical exfoliation. Sn-based stanene has its unique properties. Stanene and its derivatives can be 2D topological insulators (TI) with a very large band gap as proposed by first-principles calculations, or can support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. For the first time, in this work, we report a successful fabrication of 2D stanene by MBE. The atomic and electronic structures were determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in combination with first-principles calculations. This work will stimulate the experimental study and exploring the future application of stanene. In cooperation with Fengfeng Zhu, Wei-jiong Chen, Yong Xu, Chun-lei Gao, Dan-dan Guan, Canhua Liu, Dong Qian, Shou-Cheng Zhang.
Two-dimensional cyanates: stabilization through hydrogenation.
Tsetseris, Leonidas
2016-06-01
According to first-principles calculations, it should be possible to grow two-dimensional (2D) forms of copper thio-cyanate (CuSCN) and copper seleno-cyanate (CuSeCN) since their energies are only marginally higher than those of their most stable three-dimensional (3D) wurtzite structures. Here we show using the same theoretical approach that chemisorption reactions of hydrogen molecules with the above-mentioned 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN systems enhance their stability as they decrease the energy difference with respect to the corresponding hydrogenated forms of the wurtzite crystals. Hydrogenation causes a sizeable decrease in the energy band gap by 0.56 eV and 0.65 eV for hydrogenated 2D-CuSCN (CuSCNH2) and 2D-CuSeCN (CuSeCNH2), respectively. Finally, we describe the stability of hydrogen vacancies in CuSCNH2 and CuSeCNH2 and show that the presence of isolated single H vacancies or di-vacancies does not affect significantly the electronic properties of the host systems close to the valence and conduction band edges. PMID:27183226
Two-dimensional Dirac signature of germanene
Zhang, L.; Bampoulis, P.; Houselt, A. van; Zandvliet, H. J. W.
2015-09-14
The structural and electronic properties of germanene coated Ge{sub 2}Pt clusters have been determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at room temperature. The interior of the germanene sheet exhibits a buckled honeycomb structure with a lattice constant of 4.3 Å and a buckling of 0.2 Å. The zigzag edges of germanene are reconstructed and display a 4× periodicity. The differential conductivity of the interior of the germanene sheet has a V-shape, which is reminiscent of the density of states of a two-dimensional Dirac system. The minimum of the differential conductivity is located close to the Fermi level and has a non-zero value, which we ascribe to the metallic character of the underlying Ge{sub 2}Pt substrate. Near the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges the shape of the differential conductivity changes from a V-shape to a more parabolic-like shape, revealing that the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges do not exhibit a pronounced metallic edge state.
Redox options in two-dimensional electrophoresis.
Wait, R; Begum, S; Brambilla, D; Carabelli, A M; Conserva, F; Rocco Guerini, A; Eberini, I; Ballerio, R; Gemeiner, M; Miller, I; Gianazza, E
2005-05-01
Two-dimensional electrophoresis is usually run on fully reduced samples. Under these conditions even covalently bound oligomers are dissociated and individual polypeptide chains may be fully unfolded by both, urea and SDS, which maximizes the number of resolved components and allows their pI and M(r) to be most accurately evaluated. However, various electrophoretic protocols for protein structure investigation require a combination of steps under varying redox conditions. We review here some of the applications of these procedures. We also present some original data about a few related samples -- serum from four species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus -- which we run under fully unreduced and fully reduced conditions as well as with reduction between first and second dimension. We demonstrate that in many cases the unreduced proteins migrate with a better resolution than reduced proteins, mostly in the crowded 'alpha-globulin' area of pI 4.5-6 and M(r) 50-70 kDa. PMID:15744479
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:26394207
Parallel Stitching of Two-Dimensional Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Department of Electrical Engineering; Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Team
Large scale integration of atomically thin metals (e.g. graphene), semiconductors (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)), and insulators (e.g. hexagonal boron nitride) is critical for constructing the building blocks for future nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. However, the construction of in-plane heterostructures, especially between two atomic layers with large lattice mismatch, could be extremely difficult due to the strict requirement of spatial precision and the lack of a selective etching method. Here, we developed a general synthesis methodology to achieve both vertical and in-plane ``parallel stitched'' heterostructures between a two-dimensional (2D) and TMD materials, which enables both multifunctional electronic/optoelectronic devices and their large scale integration. This is achieved via selective ``sowing'' of aromatic molecule seeds during the chemical vapor deposition growth. MoS2 is used as a model system to form heterostructures with diverse other 2D materials. Direct and controllable synthesis of large-scale parallel stitched graphene-MoS2 heterostructures was further investigated. Unique nanometer overlapped junctions were obtained at the parallel stitched interface, which are highly desirable both as metal-semiconductor contact and functional devices/systems, such as for use in logical integrated circuits (ICs) and broadband photodetectors.
Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Hartmann, Peter; Donko, Zoltan
2010-09-15
Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the {phi}{sub D}(r)={mu}{sup 2}/r{sup 3} repulsive interaction potential; {mu} is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{sup 3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid {sup 4}He. The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in {sup 4}He.
Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection
Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.
1995-07-25
Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits.
Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations
Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.
2014-07-28
Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.
Two-dimensional laser interferometry analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehr, Leo; Concepcion, Ricky; Duggan, Robert; Moore, Hannah; Novick, Asher; Ransohoff, Lauren; Gourdain, Pierre-Alexandre; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce
2013-10-01
The objective of our research was to create a two-dimensional interferometer which we will use to measure plasma densities at the Cornell Research Beam Accelerator (COBRA). We built two shearing interferometers and mounted them on an optics table. They intercept the probe laser beam which travels directly through the plasma and is captured by a 16-bit CCD camera. In comparing the interferometer images before the shot and during the plasma shot, we observed both lateral and vertical shifts in the interference pattern caused by the change of the refractive index due to the plasma electrons. We developed a computer program using Matlab to map a vector field depicting the shift between the two images. This shift is proportional to the line integral of electron density through the plasma chamber. We show this method provides a reliable way to determine the plasma electron density profile. Additionally, we hope this method can improve upon the diagnostic capabilities and efficiency of data collection used with standard one-dimensional interferometry. Undergraduate.
Internal representation of two-dimensional shape.
Makioka, S; Inui, T; Yamashita, H
1996-01-01
The psychological space of shapes has been studied in many experiments. However, how shapes are represented in the brain has not been a major issue in psychological literature. Here, the characteristics of internal representation and how it was formed have been considered and an attempt has been made to explain the results of experiments in a unified manner. First, the data of similarity of alphabetic characters and random-dot patterns were reexamined. Multivariate analysis suggested that those patterns were represented by the combination of global features. Second, three-layer neural networks were trained to perform categorization or identity transformation of the same sets of patterns as used in psychological experiments, and activation patterns of the hidden units were analyzed. When the network learned categorization of the patterns, its internal representation was not similar to the representation suggested by psychological experiments. But a network which learned identity transformation of the patterns could acquire such an internal representation. The transformation performed by this kind of network is similar to principal-component analysis in that it projects the input image onto a lower-dimensional space. From these results it is proposed that two-dimensional shapes are represented in human brain by a process like principal-component analysis. This idea is compatible with the findings in neurophysiological studies about higher visual areas. PMID:8938008
Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.
Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2016-09-14
The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder. PMID:27580163
Two-dimensional dynamic fluid bowtie attenuators.
Hermus, James R; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P
2016-01-01
Fluence field modulated (FFM) CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only one-dimensional modulators have been proposed, as the extension to two-dimensional (2-D) modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based fluence field modulated designs. This work proposes to use liquid and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam, as unlike solids, these materials can be arranged allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Liquid iodine, zinc chloride, cerium chloride, erbium oxide, iron oxide, and gadolinium chloride were studied. Gaseous xenon, uranium hexafluoride, tungsten hexafluoride, and nickel tetracarbonyl were also studied. Additionally, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment using a 96 cell array in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with erbium oxide allowing for the smallest thickness. For the gases, tungsten hexaflouride required the smallest pressure to compensate for 30 cm of soft tissue. The 96 cell iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter-to-primary ratio. For both liquids and gases, when k-edges were located within the diagnostic energy range used for imaging, the mean beam energy exhibited the smallest change with compensation amount. The thickness of liquids and the gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the space constraints of C-arm-based cone beam CT (CBCT) and diagnostic CT systems. The gas pressures also seem logistically implementable within the space and tube loading constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems. PMID:26835499
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles.
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps. PMID:26172798
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided. PMID:25898786
Thermopower in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chickering, William Elbridge
The subject of this thesis is the measurement and interpretation of thermopower in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). These 2DESs are realized within state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures that are cooled to temperatures as low as T = 20 mK. Much of this work takes place within strong magnetic fields where the single-particle density of states quantizes into discrete Landau levels (LLs), a regime best known for the quantum Hall effect (QHE). In addition, we review a novel hot-electron technique for measuring thermopower of 2DESs that dramatically reduces the influence of phonon drag. Early chapters concentrate on experimental materials and methods. A brief overview of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and device fabrication is followed by details of our cryogenic setup. Next, we provide a primer on thermopower that focuses on 2DESs at low temperatures. We then review our experimental devices, temperature calibration methods, as well as measurement circuits and protocols. Latter chapters focus on the physics and thermopower results in the QHE regime. After reviewing the basic phenomena associated with the QHE, we discuss thermopower in this regime. Emphasis is given to the relationship between diffusion thermopower and entropy. Experimental results demonstrate this relationship persists well into the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Several experimental results are reviewed. Unprecedented observations of the diffusion thermopower of a high-mobility 2DES at temperatures as high as T = 2 K are achieved using our hot-electron technique. The composite fermion (CF) effective mass is extracted from measurements of thermopower at LL filling factor nu = 3/2. The thermopower versus magnetic field in the FQH regime is shown to be qualitatively consistent with a simple entropic model of CFs. The thermopower at nu = 5/2 is shown to be quantitatively consistent with the presence of non-Abelian anyons. An abrupt collapse of thermopower is observed at
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-21
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of the 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
New two-dimensional quantum models with shape invariance
Cannata, F.; Ioffe, M. V.; Nishnianidze, D. N.
2011-02-15
Two-dimensional quantum models which obey the property of shape invariance are built in the framework of polynomial two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics. They are obtained using the expressions for known one-dimensional shape invariant potentials. The constructed Hamiltonians are integrable with symmetry operators of fourth order in momenta, and they are not amenable to the conventional separation of variables.
Two-dimensional discrete Ginzburg-Landau solitons
Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos
2007-10-15
We study the two-dimensional discrete Ginzburg-Landau equation. In the linear limit, the dispersion and gain curves as well as the diffraction pattern are determined analytically. In the nonlinear case, families of two-dimensional discrete solitons are found numerically as well as approximately in the high-confinement limit. The instability dynamics are analyzed by direct simulations.
Terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma
Popov, V. V.
2013-06-24
The physics of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma is discussed. Two different effects yielding terahertz rectification are studied: the plasmonic drag and plasmonic ratchet. Ultrahigh responsivity of terahertz rectification by periodic two-dimensional electron plasma in semiconductor heterostructures and graphene is predicted.
The Development of Two-Dimensional Structure in Cavitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggleston, Dennis Lee
Experimental observations of the space and time evolution of resonantly enhanced electric fields and plasma density in cylindrical geometry demonstrate the development of two-dimensional caviton structure when an initial density perturbation is imposed on the plasma in the direction perpendicular to the driver field. This two-dimensional structure is observed after the development of profile modification and grows on the ion time scale. The existence of a large azimuthal electric field component is an observational signature of two-dimensional structure. Enhanced electric field maxima are found to be azimuthally correlated with the density minima. Both the density cavities and electric field peaks exhibit increased azimuthal localization with the growth of two-dimensional structure. The two-dimensional development exhibits a strong dependence on both perturbation wavenumber and driver power. The related theoretical literature is reviewed and numerical and analytical models for a driven, two-dimensional, inhomogeneous plasma are presented. It is shown that the experimental results can be explained in a semi-quanitative manner by a model which combines the results of one-dimensional caviton theory with those of two-dimensional Langmuir collapse.
Detection of left ventricular aneurysm on two dimensional echocardiography.
Baur, H R; Daniel, J A; Nelson, R R
1982-07-01
The differentiation of left ventricular aneurysm from diffuse left ventricular dilation and hypokinesia may have important therapeutic consequences. Thus the diagnostic accuracy of wide angle two dimensional echocardiography for the detection of left ventricular aneurysm was evaluated in a prospective study of 26 consecutive patients with the clinical suspicion of left ventricular aneurysm referred over a 10 month period. Every patients was examined with two dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular cineangiography, and findings were interpreted by two independent observers. A dilated hypokinetic left ventricle without aneurysm formation on cineangiography in nine patients was identified in all with two dimensional echocardiography. A left ventricular aneurysm on cineangiography in 17 patients was correctly identified in 14 with the two dimensional study, as were the site and extent of the lesion (apical in 12, anterior in 1 and inferior in 1). One apical aneurysm was interpreted on the two dimensional study as apical dyskinesia; one anterior and one posterobasal aneurysm were missed with this technique. Mural thrombi were correctly identified with two dimensional echocardiography in seven of seven patients. It is concluded that two dimensional echocardiography is an accurate noninvasive method that allows differentiation of left ventricular aneurysm from diffuse left ventricular dilation in the majority of patients. It provides information regarding the resectability of the aneurysm and may obviate cineangiography in many cases. PMID:7091001
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D.; Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J.; Reno, J. L.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.
Model of a Negatively Curved Two-Dimensional Space.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eckroth, Charles A.
1995-01-01
Describes the construction of models of two-dimensional surfaces with negative curvature that are used to illustrate differences in the triangle sum rule for the various Big Bang Theories of the universe. (JRH)
String & Sticky Tape Experiments: Two-Dimensional Collisions Using Pendulums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edge, R. D.
1989-01-01
Introduces a method for two-dimensional kinematics measurements by hanging marbles with long strings. Describes experimental procedures for conservation of momentum and obtaining the coefficient of restitution. Provides diagrams and mathematical expressions for the activities. (YP)
Difficulties that Students Face with Two-Dimensional Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mihas, P.; Gemousakakis, T.
2007-01-01
Some difficulties that students face with two-dimensional motion are addressed. The difficulties addressed are the vectorial representation of velocity, acceleration and force, the force-energy theorem and the understanding of the radius of curvature.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE EDDY DIFFUSION INOFFICE SPACE
The paper discusses the development of a two-dimensional turbulentkinetic energy - dissipation rate (k-epsilon) turbulence model inthe form of vorticity and stream functions. his turbulence modelprovides the distribution of turbulent kinematic viscosity, used tocalculate the effe...
Power distribution in two-dimensional optical network channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Xue; Karim, Mohammad A.
1996-04-01
The power distribution in two-dimensional optical network channels is analyzed. The maximum number of allowable channels as determined by the characteristics of optical detector is identified, in particular, for neural-network and wavelet-transform applications.
Two-dimensional signal processing with application to image restoration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assefi, T.
1974-01-01
A recursive technique for modeling and estimating a two-dimensional signal contaminated by noise is presented. A two-dimensional signal is assumed to be an undistorted picture, where the noise introduces the distortion. Both the signal and the noise are assumed to be wide-sense stationary processes with known statistics. Thus, to estimate the two-dimensional signal is to enhance the picture. The picture representing the two-dimensional signal is converted to one dimension by scanning the image horizontally one line at a time. The scanner output becomes a nonstationary random process due to the periodic nature of the scanner operation. Procedures to obtain a dynamical model corresponding to the autocorrelation function of the scanner output are derived. Utilizing the model, a discrete Kalman estimator is designed to enhance the image.
Numerical modeling of two-dimensional confined flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greywall, M. S.
1979-01-01
A numerical model of two-dimensional confined flows is presented. The flow in the duct is partitioned into finite streams. The difference equations are then obtained by applying conservation principles directly to the individual streams. A listing of a computer code based on this approach in FORTRAN 4 language is presented. The code computes two dimensional compressible turbulent flows in ducts when the duct area along the flow is specified and the pressure gradient is unknown.
Two-Dimensional Systolic Array For Kalman-Filter Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Jaw John; Yeh, Hen-Geul
1988-01-01
Two-dimensional, systolic-array, parallel data processor performs Kalman filtering in real time. Algorithm rearranged to be Faddeev algorithm for generalized signal processing. Algorithm mapped onto very-large-scale integrated-circuit (VLSI) chip in two-dimensional, regular, simple, expandable array of concurrent processing cells. Processor does matrix/vector-based algebraic computations. Applications include adaptive control of robots, remote manipulators and flexible structures and processing radar signals to track targets.
Topological delocalization of two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions.
Nomura, Kentaro; Koshino, Mikito; Ryu, Shinsei
2007-10-01
The beta function of a two-dimensional massless Dirac Hamiltonian subject to a random scalar potential, which, e.g., underlies theoretical descriptions of graphene, is computed numerically. Although it belongs to, from a symmetry standpoint, the two-dimensional symplectic class, the beta function monotonically increases with decreasing conductance. We also provide an argument based on the spectral flows under twisting boundary conditions, which shows that none of the states of the massless Dirac Hamiltonian can be localized. PMID:17930701
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.
Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2013-07-25
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities. PMID:23176195
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Complexity and efficient approximability of two dimensional periodically specified problems
Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.
1996-09-01
The authors consider the two dimensional periodic specifications: a method to specify succinctly objects with highly regular repetitive structure. These specifications arise naturally when processing engineering designs including VLSI designs. These specifications can specify objects whose sizes are exponentially larger than the sizes of the specification themselves. Consequently solving a periodically specified problem by explicitly expanding the instance is prohibitively expensive in terms of computational resources. This leads one to investigate the complexity and efficient approximability of solving graph theoretic and combinatorial problems when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications. They prove the following results: (1) several classical NP-hard optimization problems become NEXPTIME-hard, when instances are specified using two dimensional periodic specifications; (2) in contrast, several of these NEXPTIME-hard problems have polynomial time approximation algorithms with guaranteed worst case performance.
Two-dimensional charge-control model for MODFET's
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young Min; Roblin, Patrick
1986-11-01
A dc model for MODFET's accounting for two-dimensional effects is proposed. In this model, charge control is realized by solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation in the depleted AlGaAs region. The transport picture used for the two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction relies on the quasi-Fermi level together with a field-dependent mobility and therefore includes 2-DEG diffusion effects. The approach reduces the analysis to a single integral equation. I-V curves, which provide a good fitting to the reported experimental data, are obtained using a smooth velocity-field curve. The channel voltage, 2-DEG concentration, parallel electric-field, and drift velocity along the channel are given in this study and provide a clear picture of current saturation. The model is consistent with the approximate two-region saturation picture but provides a smoother transition.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Strano, Michael S.
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Young's modulus of a solid two-dimensional Langmuir monolayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bercegol, H.; Meunier, J.
1992-03-01
LANGMUIR monolayers-films of amphiphilic molecules at the surface of water-exhibit many phases1,2. Some of these behave like two-dimensional solids on experimental timescales, but previous measurements of the shear modulus of these 'solid' monolayers3-5 have yielded a value too small to be compatible with a two-dimensional crystal. The interpretation of these is complicated, however, by the likelihood of inhomogeneities in the films, which are probably assemblies of microscopic crystalline domains. Here we describe measurements of the Young's modulus of an isolated "solid' domain of NBD-stearic acid monolayers. We obtain a value large enough to be compatible with the modulus of a two-dimensional crystal6-8. This suggests that Langmuir monolayers should provide model systems for studies of melting in two dimensions6-8.
Two-dimensional convolute integers for analytical instrumentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, T. R.
1982-01-01
As new analytical instruments and techniques emerge with increased dimensionality, a corresponding need is seen for data processing logic which can appropriately address the data. Two-dimensional measurements reveal enhanced unknown mixture analysis capability as a result of the greater spectral information content over two one-dimensional methods taken separately. It is noted that two-dimensional convolute integers are merely an extension of the work by Savitzky and Golay (1964). It is shown that these low-pass, high-pass and band-pass digital filters are truly two-dimensional and that they can be applied in a manner identical with their one-dimensional counterpart, that is, a weighted nearest-neighbor, moving average with zero phase shifting, convoluted integer (universal number) weighting coefficients.
Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Érica de Mello
2015-10-01
A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.
Two-dimensional photoelastic stress analysis of traumatized incisor.
Topbasi, B; Gunday, M; Bas, M; Turkmen, C
2001-01-01
In this study, stress of traumatized incisor and the effect of stress on tooth and alveolar bone was studied with two-dimensional photoelasticity. Two homogeneous two-dimensional maxillary central incisor models were prepared. Loads were applied to the labial side of incisal edge and middle third of the crown at angles of 45 degrees and 90 degrees. It was observed that stress was increased on teeth and alveolar bone when load was applied 90 degrees on labial side of incisal edge. PMID:11445918
Spectral analysis of two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, David; Hoffmann, Darius; Wimberger, Sandro
2016-04-01
One-dimensional Bose-Hubbard models are well known to obey a transition from regular to quantum-chaotic spectral statistics. We are extending this concept to relatively simple two-dimensional many-body models. Also in two dimensions a transition from regular to chaotic spectral statistics is found and discussed. In particular, we analyze the dependence of the spectral properties on the bond number of the two-dimensional lattices and the applied boundary conditions. For maximal connectivity, the systems behave most regularly in agreement with the applicability of mean-field approaches in the limit of many nearest-neighbor couplings at each site.
Conduction-electron spin resonance in two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelstein, Victor M.
2016-09-01
The influence of the conduction-electron spin magnetization density, induced in a two-dimensional electron layer by a microwave electromagnetic field, on the reflection and transmission of the field is considered. Because of the induced magnetization and electric current, both the electric and magnetic components of the field should have jumps on the layer. A way to match the waves on two sides of the layer, valid when the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas is in the one-mode state, is proposed. By following this way, the amplitudes of transmitted and reflected waves as well as the absorption coefficient are evaluated.
Two-dimensional SCFTs from D3-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay; Crichigno, P. Marcos
2016-07-01
We find a large class of two-dimensional N = (0, 2) SCFTs obtained by compactifying four-dimensional N = 1 quiver gauge theories on a Riemann surface. We study these theories using anomalies and c-extremization. The gravitational duals to these fixed points are new AdS3 solutions of IIB supergravity which we exhibit explicitly. Along the way we uncover a universal relation between the conformal anomaly coefficients of fourdimensional and two-dimensional SCFTs connected by an RG flow across dimensions. We also observe an interesting novel phenomenon in which the superconformal R-symmetry mixes with baryonic symmetries along the RG flow.
Equilibrium state of a trapped two-dimensional Bose gas
Rath, Steffen P.; Yefsah, Tarik; Guenter, Kenneth J.; Cheneau, Marc; Desbuquois, Remi; Dalibard, Jean; Holzmann, Markus; Krauth, Werner
2010-07-15
We study experimentally and numerically the equilibrium density profiles of a trapped two-dimensional {sup 87}Rb Bose gas and investigate the equation of state of the homogeneous system using the local density approximation. We find a clear discrepancy between in situ measurements and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, which we attribute to a nonlinear variation of the optical density of the atomic cloud with its spatial density. However, good agreement between experiment and theory is recovered for the density profiles measured after time of flight, taking advantage of their self-similarity in a two-dimensional expansion.
Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy at Big Bear Solar Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denker, Carsten; Deng, N.; Tritschler, A.
2006-06-01
Two-dimensional spectroscopy is an important tool to measure the physical parameters related to solar activity in both the photosphere and chromosphere. We present a description of the visible-light post-focus instrumentation at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) including adaptive optics and image restoration. We report the first science observations obtained with two-dimensional spectroscopy during the 2005 observing season. In particular we discuss the properties of flows associated with a small delta-spot in solar active region NOAA 10756.
Singularity confinement and chaos in two-dimensional discrete systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanki, Masataka; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2016-06-01
We present a quasi-integrable two-dimensional lattice equation: i.e., a partial difference equation which satisfies a test for integrability, singularity confinement, although it has a chaotic aspect in the sense that the degrees of its iterates exhibit exponential growth. By systematic reduction to one-dimensional systems, it gives a hierarchy of ordinary difference equations with confined singularities, but with positive algebraic entropy including a generalized form of the Hietarinta–Viallet mapping. We believe that this is the first example of such quasi-integrable equations defined over a two-dimensional lattice.
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-01-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations. PMID:27452107
A note on two-dimensional asymptotic magnetotail equilibria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voigt, Gerd-Hannes; Moore, Brian D.
1994-01-01
In order to understand, on the fluid level, the structure, the time evolution, and the stability of current sheets, such as the magnetotail plasma sheet in Earth's magnetosphere, one has to consider magnetic field configurations that are in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force equilibrium. Any reasonable MHD current sheet model has to be two-dimensional, at least in an asymptotic sense (B(sub z)/B (sub x)) = epsilon much less than 1. The necessary two-dimensionality is described by a rather arbitrary function f(x). We utilize the free function f(x) to construct two-dimensional magnetotail equilibria are 'equivalent' to current sheets in empirical three-dimensional models. We obtain a class of asymptotic magnetotail equilibria ordered with respect to the magnetic disturbance index Kp. For low Kp values the two-dimensional MHD equilibria reflect some of the realistic, observation-based, aspects of three-dimensional models. For high Kp values the three-dimensional models do not fit the asymptotic MHD equlibria, which is indicative of their inconsistency with the assumed pressure function. This, in turn, implies that high magnetic activity levels of the real magnetosphere might be ruled by thermodynamic conditions different from local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Two-Dimensional Grids About Airfoils and Other Shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorenson, R.
1982-01-01
GRAPE computer program generates two-dimensional finite-difference grids about airfoils and other shapes by use of Poisson differential equation. GRAPE can be used with any boundary shape, even one specified by tabulated points and including limited number of sharp corners. Numerically stable and computationally fast, GRAPE provides aerodynamic analyst with efficient and consistant means of grid generation.
Dynamic two-dimensional beam-pattern steering technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Shaomin; Yeh, Pochi; Liu, Hua-Kuang
1993-01-01
A dynamic two-dimensional laser-beam-pattern steering technique using photorefractive holograms in conjunction with electrically addressed spatial light modulators is proposed and investigated. The experimental results demonstrate the dynamic steering of random combinations of basis beam patterns. The proposed method has the advantages of random beam-pattern combination, good beam intensity uniformity, and higher diffraction efficiency compared with conventional methods.
Two-dimensional vortex motion and 'negative temperatures.'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.
1972-01-01
Explanation of the novel phenomenon, tentatively identified as the 'ergodic boundary' in a space of initial conditions for turbulent flow, suggested by the recent numerical integration of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds numbers reported by Deem and Zabusky (1971). The proposed explanation is presented in terms of negative temperatures for a point vortex model.
Two-dimensional Aerodynamic Characteristics of 34 Miscellaneous Airfoil Sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loftin, Laurence K , Jr; Smith, Hamilton A
1949-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of 34 miscellaneous airfoils tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels are presented. The data include lift, drag, and in some cases, pitching-moment characteristics, for Reynolds numbers between 3.0 x 10 (exp 6) and 9.0 x 10 (exp 6).
New directions in science and technology: two-dimensional crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro Neto, A. H.; Novoselov, K.
2011-08-01
Graphene is possibly one of the largest and fastest growing fields in condensed matter research. However, graphene is only one example in a large class of two-dimensional crystals with unusual properties. In this paper we briefly review the properties of graphene and look at the exciting possibilities that lie ahead.
Thickness identification of two-dimensional materials by optical imaging.
Wang, Ying Ying; Gao, Ren Xi; Ni, Zhen Hua; He, Hui; Guo, Shu Peng; Yang, Huan Ping; Cong, Chun Xiao; Yu, Ting
2012-12-14
Two-dimensional materials, e.g. graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)), have attracted great interest in recent years. Identification of the thickness of two-dimensional materials will improve our understanding of their thickness-dependent properties, and also help with scientific research and applications. In this paper, we propose to use optical imaging as a simple, quantitative and universal way to identify the thickness of two-dimensional materials, i.e. mechanically exfoliated graphene, nitrogen-doped chemical vapor deposition grown graphene, graphene oxide and mechanically exfoliated MoS(2). The contrast value can easily be obtained by reading the red (R), green (G) and blue (B) values at each pixel of the optical images of the sample and substrate, and this value increases linearly with sample thickness, in agreement with our calculation based on the Fresnel equation. This method is fast, easily performed and no expensive equipment is needed, which will be an important factor for large-scale sample production. The identification of the thickness of two-dimensional materials will greatly help in fundamental research and future applications. PMID:23154446
Least squares approximation of two-dimensional FIR digital filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alliney, S.; Sgallari, F.
1980-02-01
In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of two-dimensional FIR digital filters is presented. The method is based on a least-squares approximation of the ideal frequency response; an orthogonality property of certain functions, related to the frequency sampling design, improves the computational efficiency.
Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, A. H.
1974-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Applied to Helicopter Flyover Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Santa Maria, Odilyn L.
1999-01-01
A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary, but possibly harmonizable. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to show helicopter noise as harmonizable. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.
1999-01-01
A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.
Two-dimensional Manifold with Point-like Defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gani, V. A.; Dmitriev, A. E.; Rubin, S. G.
We study a class of two-dimensional compact extra spaces isomorphic to the sphere S 2 in the framework of multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.
Adiabatic single scan two-dimensional NMR spectrocopy.
Pelupessy, Philippe
2003-10-01
New excitation schemes, based on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 15 858-15 862) are introduced. The advantages are discussed. Applications in homo- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. PMID:14519020
Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence.
Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong
2014-08-01
The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k(-3) in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k(-2); however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k(-5/3) energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow. PMID:25215817
Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong
2014-08-01
The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k-3 in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k-2; however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k-5/3 energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow.
Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs
Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.
1982-05-04
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs
Prosnitz, Donald; Haas, Roger A.
1985-01-01
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Smoothed Two-Dimensional Edges for Laminar Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, B. J.; Liu, C. H.; Martin, G. L.; Domack, C. S.; Obara, C. J.; Hassan, A.; Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.
1986-01-01
New concept allows passive method for installing flaps, slats, iceprotection equipment, and other leading-edge devices on natural-laminar-flow (NLF) wings without causing loss of laminar flow. Two-dimensional roughness elements in laminar boundary layers strategically shaped to increase critical (allowable) height of roughness. Facilitates installation of leading-edge devices by practical manufacturing methods.
Potential flow in two-dimensional deflected nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hawk, J. D.; Stockman, N. O.
1981-01-01
Three programs analyze flow: SCIRCL, geometry definition program; 24Y, incompressible two-dimensional potential-flow program; and NOZZLEC, program combining incompressible potential-flow solutions into solutions of interest after compressibility correction. Program group is written in FORTRAN IV for implementation on UNIVAC 1100/42.
Two-dimensional probe absorption in coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ningwu; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Chengxian; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2016-07-01
We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption in coupled quantum dots. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference effect, the 2D optical absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state quantum communication.
Toward the Accurate Simulation of Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giussani, Angelo; Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional pump-probe electronic spectroscopy is a powerful technique able to provide both high spectral and temporal resolution, allowing the analysis of ultrafast complex reactions occurring via complementary pathways by the identification of decay-specific fingerprints. [1-2] The understanding of the origin of the experimentally recorded signals in a two-dimensional electronic spectrum requires the characterization of the electronic states involved in the electronic transitions photoinduced by the pump/probe pulses in the experiment. Such a goal constitutes a considerable computational challenge, since up to 100 states need to be described, for which state-of-the-art methods as RASSCF and RASPT2 have to be wisely employed. [3] With the present contribution, the main features and potentialities of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy are presented, together with the machinery in continuous development in our groups in order to compute two-dimensional electronic spectra. The results obtained using different level of theory and simulations are shown, bringing as examples the computed two-dimensional electronic spectra for some specific cases studied. [2-4] [1] Rivalta I, Nenov A, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 2014, 114, 85 [2] Nenov A, Segarra-Martí J, Giussani A, Conti I, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Jaiswal V K, Altavilla S, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Faraday Discuss. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00175C [3] Nenov A, Giussani A, Segarra-Martí J, Jaiswal V K, Rivalta I, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, J. Chem. Phys. submitted [4] Nenov A, Giussani A, Fingerhut B P, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Submitted [5] Krebs N, Pugliesi I, Hauer J, Riedle E, New J. Phys., 2013,15, 08501
Unshielded fetal magnetocardiography system using two-dimensional gradiometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Ishii, Tetsuko; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Horigome, Hitoshi; Chiba, Toshio
2008-03-01
We developed a fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) system that uses a pair of two-dimensional gradiometers to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio. The gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device, detects the gradient of a magnetic field in two orthogonal directions. Gradiometer position is easy to adjust by operating the gantry to drive the cryostat in both the swinging and axial directions. As a result, a fMCG waveform for 25weeks' gestation was measured under an unshielded environment in real time. Moreover, the P and T waves for 25 and 34weeks' gestation, respectively, were obtained by averaging. These results indicate that this two-dimensional gradiometer is one of the most promising techniques for measuring fetal heart rate and diagnosing fetal arrhythmia.
Dipolar Fermions in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Square Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chen-Yen; Tsai, Shan-Wen
2013-03-01
Motivated by recent experimental realization of quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gas, we study a system of ultralcold single- and two-species polar fermions in a double layer two-dimensional square lattice. The long-range anisotropic nature of dipole-dipole interaction has shown a rich phase diagram on a two dimensional square lattice*. We investigate how the interlayer coupling affects the monolayer system. Our study focuses on the regime where the fermions are closed to half-filling, which is when lattice effects play an important role. We find several correlated phases by using a functional renormalization group technique, which also provides estimates for the critical temperature of each phase. [*] S. G. Bhongale et. al. arXiv:1209.2671 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 145301 (2012).
Local properties of the two-dimensional Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drewes, Jan; Miller, Luke; Cocchi, Eugenio; Chan, Chun Fai; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael
2016-05-01
Quantum gases of interacting fermionic atoms in optical lattices promise to shed new light on the low-temperature phases of the Hubbard model such as spin-ordered phases, or in particular, on possible d-wave superconductivity. In this context it remains challenging to further reduce the temperature of the trapped gas. We experimentally realize the two-dimensional Hubbard model by loading a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of 40K atoms into a three-dimensional optical lattice geometry. By tuning the interaction between the two lowest hyperfine states to strong repulsion the two-dimensional Mott-insulator is created. High resolution absorption imaging in combination with radio-frequency spectroscopy is applied to spatially resolve the atomic distribution in a single layer in the vertical direction. This measurement scheme gives direct access to the local properties of the trapped gas and we present most recent data on the distribution of entropy and density-density fluctuations.
The line tension of two-dimensional ionic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eustaquio-Armenta, María del Rosario; Méndez-Maldonado, Gloria Arlette; González-Melchor, Minerva
2016-04-01
Pressure tensor components are very useful in the calculation of the tension associated with a liquid-vapor interface. In this work, we present expressions for the pressure tensor components of two-dimensional ionic fluids, modeled at the level of the primitive model. As an application, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-vapor interfaces to calculate the line tension of the 1:1 two-dimensional ionic fluid, whose liquid-vapor coexistence curve had already been obtained in a previous work. The pressure tensor components were validated by simulating states of one phase and reproducing the scalar pressure, previously obtained from bulk simulations and reported in the literature. The effects on the line tension and the coexisting densities, originated by the choice of the Ewald parameters, the cutoff radius, and the interfacial length were also evaluated.
Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz spectroscopy of water
Savolainen, Janne; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is presented as a multidimensional spectroscopy directly in the far-IR regime. The method is used to explore the dynamics of the collective intermolecular modes of liquid water at ambient temperatures that emerge from the hydrogen-bond networks water forming. Two-dimensional Raman-THz spectroscopy interrogates these modes twice and as such can elucidate couplings and inhomogeneities of the various degrees of freedoms. An echo in the 2D Raman-THz response is indeed identified, indicating that a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen-bond networks exists, albeit only on a very short 100-fs timescale. This timescale appears to be too short to be compatible with more extended, persistent structures assumed within a two-state model of water. PMID:24297930
Object tracking based on two-dimensional PCA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Fuyuan; Gu, Guohua; Kong, Xiaofang; Wang, Pengcheng; Ren, Kan
2016-04-01
In this paper, we present a novel object tracking method based on two-dimensional PCA. The low quality of images and the changes of the object appearance are very challenging for the object tracking. The representation of the training features is usually used to solve these challenges. Two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) based on the image covariance matrix is constructed directly using the original image matrices. An appearance model is presented and its likelihood estimation has been established based on 2DPCA representation in this paper. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, our method has higher reliability and real-time property. The performances of the proposed tracking method are quantitatively and qualitatively shown in experiments.
Adaptive rezoner in a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code
Pyun, J.J.; Saltzman, J.S.; Scannapieco, A.J.; Carroll, D.
1985-01-01
In an effort to increase spatial resolution without adding additional meshes, an adaptive mesh was incorporated into a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics code along with two-dimensional flux corrected (FCT) remapper. The adaptive mesh automatically generates a mesh based on smoothness and orthogonality, and at the same time also tracks physical conditions of interest by focusing mesh points in regions that exhibit those conditions; this is done by defining a weighting function associated with the physical conditions to be tracked. The FCT remapper calculates the net transportive fluxes based on a weighted average of two fluxes computed by a low-order scheme and a high-order scheme. This averaging procedure produces solutions which are conservative and nondiffusive, and maintains positivity. 10 refs., 12 figs.
Evaluation of non-separable two-dimensional
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Vicente; Uzer, T.
In the treatment of reactive collisions by approximate methods such as the Distorted Wave Born Approximation, two-dimensional non-separable integrals are frequently encountered. In this article, we introduce the use of a two-dimensional canonical integral, the hyperbolic umbilic canonical diffraction function, on a model problem which leads to non-separable twodimensional Franck-Condon integrals. The identification of the parameters of the canonical function in terms of the physical parameters of the model is immediate in this case, and we find that the use of this function reproduces numerical quadrature results accurately with substantial savings in computing time. Extensions of the procedure to more general problems, anticipated by Child and Shapiro, are also discussed.
Persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence.
Perlekar, Prasad; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul
2011-02-01
We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter Λ to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with an exponent θ=2.9±0.2. PMID:21405401
On two-dimensional water waves in a canal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Nikolay
2003-07-01
This Note deals with an eigenvalue problem that contains a spectral parameter in a boundary condition. The problem for the two-dimensional Laplace equation describes free, time-harmonic water waves in a canal having uniform cross-section and bounded from above by a horizontal free surface. It is shown that there exists a domain for which at least one of eigenfunctions has a nodal line with both ends on the free surface. Since Kuttler essentially used the non-existence of such nodal lines in his proof of simplicity of the fundamental sloshing eigenvalue in the two-dimensional case, we propose a new variational principle for demonstrating this latter fact. To cite this article: V. Kozlov, N. Kuznetsov, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.
Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A
2015-09-18
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space. PMID:26430982
Molecular structure by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, R.
Two examples are presented of the use of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to solve molecular structure problems. The first is called correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and it allows us to disentangle a complex network of spin-spin couplings. By dispersing the NMR information in two frequency dimensions, it facilitates the analysis of very complex spectra of organic and biochemical molecules, normally too crowded to be tractable. The second application exploits the special properties of multiple-quantum coherence to explore the molecular framework one CC linkage at a time. The natural product panamine is used as a test example; with some supplementary evidence, the structure of this six-ringed heterocyclic molecule is elucidated from the double-quantum filtered two-dimensional spectrum.
Two dimensional disorder in black phosphorus and layered monochalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Mehboudi, Mehrshad; Kumar, Pradeep; Harriss, Edmund O.; Churchill, Hugh O. H.; Dorio, Alex M.; Zhu, Wenjuan; van der Zande, Arend; Pacheco Sanjuan, Alejandro A.
The degeneracies of the structural ground state of materials with a layered orthorhombic structure such as black phosphorus and layered monochalcogenides GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe, lead to an order/disorder transition in two dimensions at finite temperature. This transition has consequences on applications based on these materials requiring a crystalline two-dimensional structure. Details including a Potts model that explains the two-dimensional transition, among other results, will be given in this talk. References: M. Mehboudi, A.M. Dorio, W. Zhu, A. van der Zande, H.O.H. Churchill, A.A. Pacheco Sanjuan, E.O.H. Harris, P. Kumar, and S. Barraza-Lopez. arXiv:1510.09153.
Persistence Problem in Two-Dimensional Fluid Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perlekar, Prasad; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul
2011-02-01
We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter Λ to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with an exponent θ=2.9±0.2.
Coordination Programming of Two-Dimensional Metal Complex Frameworks.
Maeda, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Ryota; Nishihara, Hiroshi
2016-03-22
Since the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional materials with atomic thickness have attracted much attention because of their characteristic physical and chemical properties. Recently, coordination nanosheets (CONASHs) came into the world as new series of two-dimensional frameworks, which can show various functions based on metal complexes formed by numerous combinations of metal ions and ligands. This Feature Article provides an overview of recent progress in synthesizing CONASHs and in elucidating their intriguing electrical, sensing, and catalytic properties. We also review recent theoretical studies on the prediction of the unique electronic structures, magnetism, and catalytic ability of materials based on CONASHs. Future prospects for applying CONASHs to novel applications are also discussed. PMID:26915925
Modeling and Experimentation on a Two-dimensional Synthetic jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yunfei; Mohseni, Kamran
2007-11-01
Hotwire anemometry is employed in order to investigate the spatial development of a two-dimensional synthetic jet. Flow velocity at various locations downstream from a slit is measured. A self similar behavior in the measured velocity is observed. An analytical model for a steady synthetic jet is developed that accurately matches the experimental data. As observed by other groups, the two-dimensional synthetic jet spreads at a rate higher than a continuous jet. This rate is accurately predicted by our model. It is identified that the main difference between a continuous jet and a synthetic jet is the higher value of the virtual viscosity (eddy viscosity) in a synthetic jet. This is attributed to the pulsate nature of a synthetic jet that makes it more susceptible to turbulence.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2014-11-14
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Electron fractionalization in two-dimensional graphenelike structures.
Hou, Chang-Yu; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2007-05-01
Electron fractionalization is intimately related to topology. In one-dimensional systems, fractionally charged states exist at domain walls between degenerate vacua. In two-dimensional systems, fractionalization exists in quantum Hall fluids, where time-reversal symmetry is broken by a large external magnetic field. Recently, there has been a tremendous effort in the search for examples of fractionalization in two-dimensional systems with time-reversal symmetry. In this Letter, we show that fractionally charged topological excitations exist on graphenelike structures, where quasiparticles are described by two flavors of Dirac fermions and time-reversal symmetry is respected. The topological zero modes are mathematically similar to fractional vortices in p-wave superconductors. They correspond to a twist in the phase in the mass of the Dirac fermions, akin to cosmic strings in particle physics. PMID:17501599
Enstrophy inertial range dynamics in generalized two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwayama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi
2016-07-01
We show that the transition to a k-1 spectrum in the enstrophy inertial range of generalized two-dimensional turbulence can be derived analytically using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovianized (EDQNM) closure. The governing equation for the generalized two-dimensional fluid system includes a nonlinear term with a real parameter α . This parameter controls the relationship between the stream function and generalized vorticity and the nonlocality of the dynamics. An asymptotic analysis accounting for the overwhelming dominance of nonlocal triads allows the k-1 spectrum to be derived based upon a scaling analysis. We thereby provide a detailed analytical explanation for the scaling transition that occurs in the enstrophy inertial range at α =2 in terms of the spectral dynamics of the EDQNM closure, which extends and enhances the usual phenomenological explanations.
On two-dimensional flows of compressible fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, Stefan
1945-01-01
This report is devoted to the study of two-dimensional steady motion of a compressible fluid. It is shown that the complete flow pattern around a closed obstacle cannot be obtained by the method of Chaplygin. In order to overcome this difficulty, a formula for the stream-function of a two-dimensional subsonic flow is derived. The formula involves an arbitrary function of a complex variable and yields all possible subsonic flow patterns of certain types. Conditions are given so that the flow pattern in the physical plane will represent a flow around a closed curve. The formula obtained can be employed for the approximate determination of a subsonic flow around an obstacle. The method can be extended to partially supersonic flows.
Two-Dimensional Computational Model for Wave Rotor Flow Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A two-dimensional (theta,z) Navier-Stokes solver for multi-port wave rotor flow simulation is described. The finite-volume form of the unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time on multi-block grids that represent the stationary inlet and outlet ports and the moving rotor passages of the wave rotor. Computed results are compared with three-port wave rotor experimental data. The model is applied to predict the performance of a planned four-port wave rotor experiment. Two-dimensional flow features that reduce machine performance and influence rotor blade and duct wall thermal loads are identified. The performance impact of rounding the inlet port wall, to inhibit separation during passage gradual opening, is assessed.
Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-09-01
In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.
Improved Absolute Approximation Ratios for Two-Dimensional Packing Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harren, Rolf; van Stee, Rob
We consider the two-dimensional bin packing and strip packing problem, where a list of rectangles has to be packed into a minimal number of rectangular bins or a strip of minimal height, respectively. All packings have to be non-overlapping and orthogonal, i.e., axis-parallel. Our algorithm for strip packing has an absolute approximation ratio of 1.9396 and is the first algorithm to break the approximation ratio of 2 which was established more than a decade ago. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme (mathcal{PTAS}) for strip packing where rotations by 90 degrees are permitted and an algorithm for two-dimensional bin packing with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided mathcal{P} not= mathcal{NP}.
A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model
Hromadka, T.V., II; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.
1985-01-01
A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.
Note: Percolation in two-dimensional flexible chains systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawłowska, Monika; Żerko, Szymon; Sikorski, Andrzej
2012-01-01
The structure of a two-dimensional film formed by adsorbed polymer chains was studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The polymer chains were represented by linear sequences of lattice beads and positions of these beads were restricted to vertices of a two-dimensional square lattice. Two different Monte Carlo methods were employed to determine the properties of the model system. The first was the random sequential adsorption (RSA) and the second one was based on Monte Carlo simulations with a Verdier-Stockmayer sampling algorithm. The methodology concerning the determination of the percolation thresholds for an infinite chain system was discussed. The influence of the chain length on both thresholds was presented and discussed. It was shown that the RSA method gave considerably lower thresholds for longer chains. This behavior can be explained by a different pool of chain conformations used in the calculations in both methods under consideration.
Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing; Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Larcher, Luca; Wu, Ernest; Lanza, Mario
2016-01-01
Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO2, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.
Collective effects in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinokour, Valerii; Sadovskyy, Ivan; Galda, Alexey
2013-03-01
We study collective quantum effects in the two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays (JJA) in the vicinity of the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). We find the contribution of the quantum coherent phase slips (QCPS) into the formation of thermodynamic properties of the JJA, including critical current, as a function of the magnetic field. We investigate the response of the 2D JJA to the external bias and the contribution from QCPS to this response.
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study
Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee
2015-01-01
This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286
Equations for the design of two-dimensional supersonic nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinkel, I Irving
1948-01-01
Equations are presented for obtaining the wall coordinates of two-dimensional supersonic nozzles. The equations are based on the application of the method of characteristics to irrotational flow of perfect gases in channels. Curves and tables are included for obtaining the parameters required by the equations for the wall coordinates. A brief discussion of characteristics as applied to nozzle design is given to assist in understanding and using the nozzle-design method of this report. A sample design is shown.
Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.
Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M
2013-07-01
A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers. PMID:23842256
In vivo two-dimensional NMR correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraft, Robert A.
1999-10-01
The poor resolution of in-vivo one- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has limited its clinical potential. Currently, only the large singlet methyl resonances arising from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine are quantitated in a clinical setting. Other metabolites such as myo- inositol, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, and γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) are of clinical interest but quantitation is difficult due to the overlapping resonances and limited spectral resolution. To improve the spectral resolution and distinguish between overlapping resonances, a series of two- dimensional chemical shift correlation spectroscopy experiments were developed for a 1.5 Tesla clinical imaging magnet. Two-dimensional methods are attractive for in vivo spectroscopy due to their ability to unravel overlapping resonances with the second dimension, simplifying the interpretation and quantitation of low field NMR spectra. Two-dimensional experiments acquired with mix-mode line shape negate the advantages of the second dimension. For this reason, a new experiment, REVOLT, was developed to achieve absorptive mode line shape in both dimensions. Absorptive mode experiments were compared to mixed mode experiments with respect to sensitivity, resolution, and water suppression. Detailed theoretical and experimental calculations of the optimum spin lock and radio frequency power deposition were performed. Two-dimensional spectra were acquired from human bone marrow and human brain tissue. The human brain tissue spectra clearly reveal correlations among the coupled spins of NAA, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, GABA, aspartate and myo-inositol obtained from a single experiment of 23 minutes from a volume of 59 mL. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Generating partitions for two-dimensional hyperbolic maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bäcker, A.; Chernov, N.
1998-01-01
For a class of two-dimensional hyperbolic maps (which includes certain billiard systems) we construct finite generating partitions. Thus, trajectories of the map can be labelled uniquely by doubly infinite symbol sequences, where the symbols correspond to the atoms of the partition. It is shown that the corresponding conditions are fulfilled in the case of the cardioid billiard, the stadium billiard (and other Bunimovich billiards), planar dispersing and semidispersing billiards.
Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases
Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U.; Bourgeois, O.; Antoni, T.
2013-12-04
We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.
Dirac Points in Two-Dimensional Inverse Opals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, G. D.
2013-10-01
The electron energy states and energy bands are calculated for a two-dimensional inverse opal structure. Assume that the opal structure is closed-packed circles, the inverse opal has the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb lattice in two dimensions has a Dirac point. Its properties can be manipulated by altering the structure of the inverse opal: the radius of the circle, and the small gap between circles.
Two-dimensional hexagonal smectic structure formed by topological defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolganov, P. V.; Shuravin, N. S.; Fukuda, Atsuo
2016-03-01
A two-dimensional hexagonal smectic structure formed by point topological defects and intersecting defect walls was discovered. This unique structure was predicted theoretically about 30 years ago but not observed. For a long time the hexagonal structure was a challenge for experimentalists. A different type of self-organization in smectic films was found and used to form the hexagonal structure. Methods applied for building the hexagonal phase can be used for the formation of complicated liquid-crystal structures.
Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves
Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.
1997-07-01
We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy{close_quote}s pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith{close_quote}s model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
The scaling state in two-dimensional grain growth
Mulheran, P.A. . Dept. of Physics)
1994-11-01
A new model of normal grain growth in two-dimensional systems is derived from considerations of Potts model simulations. This Randomly Connected Bubble model is based on Hillert's theory and combines the essential topological features of the grain boundary network with the action of capillarity. It successfully predicts what the scaling state of the network should be and explains why the system evolves into this state. The implications for grain growth in real materials are also discussed.
Two-Dimensional Laser-Speckle Surface-Strain Gauge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barranger, John P.; Lant, Christian
1992-01-01
Extension of Yamaguchi's laser-speckle surface-strain-gauge method yields data on two-dimensional surface strains in times as short as fractions of second. Laser beams probe rough spot on surface of specimen before and after processing. Changes in speckle pattern of laser light reflected from spot indicative of changes in surface strains during processing. Used to monitor strains and changes in strains induced by hot-forming and subsequent cooling of steel.
Scaling relations in two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan; Lehner, Luis; Oz, Yaron
2015-12-01
We derive exact scaling relations for two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic turbulence in the inertial range of scales. We consider both the energy cascade towards large scales and the enstrophy cascade towards small scales. We illustrate these relations by numerical simulations of turbulent weakly compressible flows. Intriguingly, the fluid-gravity correspondence implies that the gravitational field in black hole/black brane spacetimes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics should exhibit similar scaling relations.
Self-propelled two dimensional polymer multilayer plate micromotors.
Gai, Meiyu; Frueh, Johannes; Hu, Narisu; Si, Tieyan; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; He, Qiang
2016-02-01
This communication sheds light on the production method and motion patterns of autonomous moving bubble propelled two dimensional micro-plate motors. The plate motors are produced by the well-known layer-by-layer self-assembly process in combination with micro-contact printing. The motion analysis covers instances of oscillating bubble development on one or more nucleation sites, which influence the motion speed and direction. PMID:26780851
Glassy behavior of two-dimensional stripe-forming systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro Teixeira, Ana C.; Stariolo, Daniel A.; Barci, Daniel G.
2013-06-01
We study two-dimensional frustrated but nondisordered systems applying a replica approach to a stripe-forming model with competing interactions. The phenomenology of the model is representative of several well-known systems, like high-Tc superconductors and ultrathin ferromagnetic films, which have been the subject of intense research. We establish the existence of a glass transition to a nonergodic regime accompanied by an exponential number of long-lived metastable states, responsible for slow dynamics and nonequilibrium effects.
Colloquium: Transport in strongly correlated two dimensional electron fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spivak, B.; Kravchenko, S. V.; Kivelson, S. A.; Gao, X. P. A.
2010-04-01
An overview of the measured transport properties of the two dimensional electron fluids in high mobility semiconductor devices with low electron densities is presented as well as some of the theories that have been proposed to account for them. Many features of the observations are not easily reconciled with a description based on the well understood physics of weakly interacting quasiparticles in a disordered medium. Rather, they reflect new physics associated with strong correlation effects, which warrant further study.
Itinerant ferromagnetism in a two-dimensional atomic gas
Conduit, G. J.
2010-10-15
Motivated by the first experimental evidence of ferromagnetic behavior in a three-dimensional ultracold atomic gas, we explore the possibility of itinerant ferromagnetism in a trapped two-dimensional atomic gas. Firstly, we develop a formalism that demonstrates how quantum fluctuations drive the ferromagnetic reconstruction first order, and consider the consequences of an imposed population imbalance. Secondly, we adapt this formalism to elucidate the key experimental signatures of ferromagnetism in a realistic trapped geometry.
CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code
Dreyer, K.A.
1985-05-01
CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.
Two-dimensional high temperature strain measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lant, Christian T.; Barranger, John P.
1989-01-01
Two-dimensional optical strain measurements on high temperature test specimens are presented. This two-dimensional capability is implemented through a rotatable sensitive strain axis. Three components of surface strain can be measured automatically, from which the first and second principal strains are calculated. One- and two-dimensional strain measurements at temperatures beyond 750 C with a resolution of 15 microstrain are demonstrated. The system is based on a one-dimensional speckle shift technique. The speckle shift technique makes use of the linear relationship between surface strain and the differential shift of laser speckle patterns in the diffraction plane. Laser speckle is a phase effect that occurs when spatially coherent light interacts with an optically rough surface. Since speckle is generated by any diffusely reflecting surface, no specimen preparation is needed to obtain a good signal. Testing was done at room temperature on a flat specimen of Inconel 600 mounted in a fatigue testing machine. A load cell measured the stress on the specimen before and after acquiring the speckle data. Strain components were measured at 0 C (parallel to the load axis) and at plus or minus 45 C, and plots indicate the calculated values of the first and second principal strains. The measured values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are in good agreement with handbook values. Good linearity of the principal strain moduli at high temperatures indicate precision and stability of the system. However, a systematic error in the high-temperature test setup introduced a scale factor in the slopes of the two-dimensional stress-strain curves. No high temperature effects, however, have been observed to degrade speckle correlation.
Two dimensional thermal and charge mapping of power thyristors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, S. P.; Rabinovici, B. M.
1975-01-01
The two dimensional static and dynamic current density distributions within the junction of semiconductor power switching devices and in particular the thyristors were obtained. A method for mapping the thermal profile of the device junctions with fine resolution using an infrared beam and measuring the attenuation through the device as a function of temperature were developed. The results obtained are useful in the design and quality control of high power semiconductor switching devices.
Statistical Properties of Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Kenshi; Takahashi, Takehiro; Nakano, Tohru
1993-04-01
We investigate the temporal development of the statistical properties of two-dimensional incompressible turbulence simulated for a long time. First, we obtain information on the evolving microscopic vortical structure by inspecting the time variation of qth order fractal dimensions of the enstrophy dissipation rate. The conclusion drawn from such an inspection is consistent with a picture given by Kida (J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 54 (1985) 2840); in the first stage the \
Two-dimensional flow through a turbine cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, J. F.
1987-06-01
The application of the general PHOENICS computer code to the prediction of the problem in the field of turbomachinery using body-fitted coordinates is demonstrated. The problem can be easily specified by PHOENICS-input-language settings made in a Q1 file, together with a grid generation program specially written for the problem of a two-dimensional blade-to-blade flow on a surface of revolution. The computer memory and time needed to give numerically accurate results are modest.
Harmonic Lattice Behavior of Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keim, P.; Maret, G.; Herz, U.; von Grünberg, H. H.
2004-05-01
Using positional data from videomicroscopy and applying the equipartition theorem for harmonic Hamiltonians, we determine the wave-vector-dependent normal mode spring constants of a two-dimensional colloidal model crystal and compare the measured band structure to predictions of the harmonic lattice theory. We find good agreement for both the transversal and the longitudinal modes. For q→0, the measured spring constants are consistent with the elastic moduli of the crystal.
Electrophoresis of DNA on a disordered two-dimensional substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Reichhardt, Charles
2006-03-01
We propose a new method for electrophoretic separation of DNA in which adsorbed polymers are driven over a disordreed two-dimensional substrate which contains attractive sites for the polymers. Using simulations of a model for long polymer chains, we show that the mobility increases with polymer length, in contrast to gel electrophoresis techniques, and that separation can be achieved for a range of length scales. We demonstrate that the separation mechanism relies on excluded volume interactions between polymer segments.
Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui
2016-06-01
A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp2 hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future.
Two-dimensional map for impact oscillator with drift.
Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian; Grebogi, Celso
2004-09-01
An impact oscillator with drift is considered. The model accounts for viscoelastic impacts and is capable of mimicking the dynamics of progressive motion, which is important in many applications. To simplify the analysis of this system, a transformation decoupling the original coordinates is introduced. As a result, the bounded oscillations are separated from the drift motion. To study the bounded dynamics, a two-dimensional analytical map is developed and analyzed. In general, the dynamic state of the system is fully described by four variables: time tau , relative displacement p and velocity y of the mass, and relative displacement q of the slider top. However, this number can be reduced to two if the beginning of the progression phase is being monitored. The lower and upper bounds of the map domain are approximated. A graphical method of iteration of the two-dimensional map, similar to the cobweb method used in the one-dimensional case, is proposed. The results of numerical iterations of this two-dimensional map are presented, and a comparison is given between bifurcation diagrams calculated for this map and for the original system of differential equations. PMID:15524606
Two-dimensional map for impact oscillator with drift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian; Grebogi, Celso
2004-09-01
An impact oscillator with drift is considered. The model accounts for viscoelastic impacts and is capable of mimicking the dynamics of progressive motion, which is important in many applications. To simplify the analysis of this system, a transformation decoupling the original coordinates is introduced. As a result, the bounded oscillations are separated from the drift motion. To study the bounded dynamics, a two-dimensional analytical map is developed and analyzed. In general, the dynamic state of the system is fully described by four variables: time τ , relative displacement p and velocity y of the mass, and relative displacement q of the slider top. However, this number can be reduced to two if the beginning of the progression phase is being monitored. The lower and upper bounds of the map domain are approximated. A graphical method of iteration of the two-dimensional map, similar to the cobweb method used in the one-dimensional case, is proposed. The results of numerical iterations of this two-dimensional map are presented, and a comparison is given between bifurcation diagrams calculated for this map and for the original system of differential equations.
Two dimensional liquid crystal devices and their computer simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin
The main focus of the dissertation is design and optimization two dimensional liquid crystal devices, which means the liquid crystal director configurations vary in two dimensions. Several optimized and designed devices are discussed in the dissertation. They include long-term bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display (BTN LCD), which is very low power consumption LCD and suitable for E-book application; wavelength tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is one of the key components in fiber optic telecommunications; high speed refractive index variable devices, which can be used in infrared beam steering and telecommunications; high density polymer wall diffractive liquid crystal on silicon (PWD-LCoS) light valve, which is a promising candidate for larger screen projection display and also can be used in other display applications. Two dimensional liquid crystal director simulation program (relaxation method) and two dimensional optical propagation simulation program (finite-difference time-domain, FDTD method) are developed. The algorithms of these programs are provided. It has been proved that they are the very efficient tools that used in design and optimization the devices described above.
Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.
1978-01-01
In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.
A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.
2016-02-01
In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.
Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins
Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.
1996-10-01
High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.
Two-dimensional DNA fingerprinting of human individuals
Uitterlinden, A.G.; Slagboom, P.E.; Knook, D.L.; Vijg, J. )
1989-04-01
The limiting factor in the presently available techniques for the detection of DNA sequence variation in the human genome is the low resolution of Southern blot analysis. To increase the analytical power of this technique, the authors applied size fractionation of genomic DNA restriction fragments in conjunction with their sequence-dependent separation in denaturing gradient gels; the two-dimensional separation patterns obtained were subsequently transferred to nylon membranes. Hybridization analysis using minisatellite core sequences as probes resulted in two-dimensional genomic DNA fingerprints with a resolution of up to 625 separated spots per probe per human individual; by conventional Southern blot analysis, only 20-30 bands can be resolved. Using the two-dimensional DNA fingerprinting technique, they demonstrate in a small human pedigree the simultaneous transmission of 37 polymorphic fragments (out of 365 spots) for probe 33.15 and 105 polymorphic fragments (out of 625 spots) for probe 33.6. In addition, a mutation was detected in this pedigree by probe 33.6. They anticipate that this method will be of great use in studies aimed at (i) measuring human mutation frequencies, (ii) associating genetic variation with disease, (iii) analyzing genomic instability in relation to cancer and aging, and (iv) linkage analysis and mapping of disease genes.
Two-dimensional potential double layers and discrete auroras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kan, J. R.; Lee, L. C.; Akasofu, S.-I.
1979-01-01
This paper is concerned with the formation of the acceleration region for electrons which produce the visible auroral arc and with the formation of the inverted V precipitation region. The former is embedded in the latter, and both are associated with field-aligned current sheets carried by plasma sheet electrons. It is shown that an electron current sheet driven from the plasma sheet into the ionosphere leads to the formation of a two-dimensional potential double layer. For a current sheet of a thickness less than the proton gyrodiameter solutions are obtained in which the field-aligned potential drop is distributed over a length much greater than the Debye length. For a current sheet of a thickness much greater than the proton gyrodiameter solutions are obtained in which the potential drop is confined to a distance on the order of the Debye length. The electric field in the two-dimensional double-layer model is the zeroth-order field inherent to the current sheet configuration, in contrast to those models in which the electric field is attributed to the first-order field due to current instabilities or turbulences. The maximum potential in the two-dimensional double-layer models is on the order of the thermal energy of plasma sheet protons, which ranges from 1 to 10 keV.
Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets.
Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui
2016-06-01
A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp(2) hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future. PMID:27219700
Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics and Interstellar Plasma Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spangler, Steven R.
1999-09-01
This paper is concerned with a physical understanding of the main features of interstellar plasma turbulence. Our observational knowledge of this turbulence is provided by radio-wave propagation observations, generically referred to as interstellar scintillations. Distinctive features of the observations are the nearly omnipresent anisotropy of scattering, revealed by elliptical rather than circular scattering disks, drastic differences in the magnitude of scattering between closely spaced lines of sight through the interstellar medium, evidence from Faraday rotation observations that the interstellar vector magnetic field changes markedly on small spatial scales, and the existence of a power-law spectrum of density irregularities over a wide range of spatial scales. This power-law density spectrum strongly suggests the existence of similar spatial power spectra for the other magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) variables such as flow velocity and magnetic field. In this paper, it is pointed out that the aforementioned features arise or may naturally be explained by an approximate theory of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. In this theory, the plasma turbulence is described by two scalar functions (a velocity stream function and one component of the magnetic vector potential) that are coupled by nonlinear partial differential equations. These equations are physically transparent, possess some relevant analytic results, and are easily solved numerically. Arguments for the relevance of this reduced plasma description are presented. Although obviously an incomplete description of the interstellar plasma, these equations provide plausible explanations for the observational features described above. Anisotropy of scattering arises as an obvious consequence of the conditions for validity of the two-dimensional MHD description, i.e., that spatial gradients along a large-scale magnetic field are much smaller than those perpendicular to the field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Watson, V. R.; Shimazaki, T.; Woodward, H. T.; Riegel, C. A.; Capone, L. A.; Becker, T.
1977-01-01
The two-dimensional model of stratospheric constituents is presented in detail. The derivation of pertinent transport parameters and the numerical solution of the species continuity equations, including a technique for treating the stiff differential equations that represent the chemical kinetic terms, and appropriate methods for simulating the diurnal variations of the solar zenith angle and species concentrations are discussed. Predicted distributions of tracer constituents (ozone, carbon 14, nitric acid) are compared with observed distributions.
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine
2012-06-01
The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.
Biological and environmental interactions of emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials.
Wang, Zhongying; Zhu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Yang; Yi, Xin; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kane, Agnes; Gao, Huajian; Koski, Kristie; Hurt, Robert
2016-03-21
Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the "bio-nanosheet" interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26923057
Two-dimensional chiral topological superconductivity in Shiba lattices.
Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Wang, Zhijun; MacDonald, A H; Yazdani, A; Bernevig, B Andrei
2016-01-01
The chiral p-wave superconductor is the archetypal example of a state of matter that supports non-Abelian anyons, a highly desired type of exotic quasiparticle. With this, it is foundational for the distant goal of building a topological quantum computer. While some candidate materials for bulk chiral superconductors exist, they are subject of an ongoing debate about their actual paring state. Here we propose an alternative route to chiral superconductivity, consisting of the surface of an ordinary superconductor decorated with a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic impurities. We furthermore identify a promising experimental platform to realize this proposal. PMID:27465127
Highly directional thermal emission from two-dimensional silicon structures.
Ribaudo, Troy; Peters, David W; Ellis, A Robert; Davids, Paul S; Shaner, Eric A
2013-03-25
We simulate, fabricate, and characterize near perfectly absorbing two-dimensional grating structures in the thermal infrared using heavily doped silicon (HdSi) that supports long wave infrared surface plasmon polaritons (LWIR SPP's). The devices were designed and optimized using both finite difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation techniques to satisfy stringent requirements for thermal management applications requiring high thermal radiation absorption over a narrow angular range and low visible radiation absorption over a broad angular range. After optimization and fabrication, characterization was performed using reflection spectroscopy and normal incidence emissivity measurements. Excellent agreement between simulation and experiment was obtained. PMID:23546065
Topological phases in two-dimensional materials: a review.
Ren, Yafei; Qiao, Zhenhua; Niu, Qian
2016-06-01
Topological phases with insulating bulk and gapless surface or edge modes have attracted intensive attention because of their fundamental physics implications and potential applications in dissipationless electronics and spintronics. In this review, we mainly focus on recent progress in the engineering of topologically nontrivial phases (such as [Formula: see text] topological insulators, quantum anomalous Hall effects, quantum valley Hall effects etc) in two-dimensional systems, including quantum wells, atomic crystal layers of elements from group III to group VII, and the transition metal compounds. PMID:27176924
Longitudinal viscosity of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin
2013-01-01
The longitudinal viscosity ηl is obtained for a two-dimensional (2D) liquid using a Green-Kubo method with a molecular dynamics simulation. The interparticle potential used has the Debye-Hückel or Yukawa form, which models a 2D dusty plasma. The longitudinal ηl and shear ηs viscosities are found to have values that match very closely, with only negligible differences for the entire range of temperatures that is considered. For a 2D Yukawa liquid, the bulk viscosity ηb is determined to be either negligibly small or not a meaningful transport coefficient.
Symmetry and topology of two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samokhin, K. V.
2015-11-01
We present a detailed study of the gap symmetry and the quasiparticle wave function topology in two-dimensional superconductors without inversion center. The strong spin-orbit coupling of electrons with the crystal lattice makes it necessary to describe superconductivity in terms of one or more nondegenerate bands characterized by helicity. We develop a topological classification of the superconducting states using the integer-valued Maurer-Cartan invariants and the Bogoliubov Wilson loops, and also calculate the spectrum of fermionic boundary modes.
Condensate fraction of a two-dimensional attractive Fermi gas
Salasnich, Luca
2007-07-15
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in a two-dimensional uniform two-component Fermi superfluid obtaining an explicit formula for the condensate density as a function of the chemical potential and the energy gap. By using the mean-field extended Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, we analyze, as a function of the bound-state energy, the off-diagonal long-range order in the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer state of weakly bound Cooper pairs to the Bose-Einstein condensate of strongly-bound molecular dimers.
Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites
Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M.; Polcar, T.; Llorca, J.
2013-11-01
High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.
Basics and recent advances of two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
2014-01-01
Gel- based proteomics is one of the most versatile methods for fractionating protein complexes. Among these methods, two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) represents a mainstay orthogonal approach, which is popularly used to simultaneously fractionate, identify, and quantify proteins when coupled with mass spectrometric identification or other immunological tests. Although 2-DE was first introduced more than three decades ago, several challenges and limitations to its utility still exist. This review discusses the principles of 2-DE as well as both recent methodological advances and new applications. PMID:24735559
Hydrometeor classification from two-dimensional video disdrometer data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grazioli, J.; Tuia, D.; Monhart, S.; Schneebeli, M.; Raupach, T.; Berne, A.
2014-09-01
The first hydrometeor classification technique based on two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) data is presented. The method provides an estimate of the dominant hydrometeor type falling over time intervals of 60 s during precipitation, using the statistical behavior of a set of particle descriptors as input, calculated for each particle image. The employed supervised algorithm is a support vector machine (SVM), trained over 60 s precipitation time steps labeled by visual inspection. In this way, eight dominant hydrometeor classes can be discriminated. The algorithm achieved high classification performances, with median overall accuracies (Cohen's K) of 90% (0.88), and with accuracies higher than 84% for each hydrometeor class.
Electrostatic properties of two-dimensional WSe2 nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Guolin; Kou, Liangzhi; Lu, Donglin; Peng, Jie; Li, Jin; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin
2016-01-01
Recently, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have intrigued much attention due to their promising applications in optoelectronics. The electrostatic property investigation of WSe2 nanostructures is essential for device application. Here, the interlayer screening effects of WSe2 nanoplates with different thicknesses were investigated by measuring surface potential employing Kelvin probe force microscopy. Simultaneously, charges can be injected into WSe2 nanoplate by means of conducting atomic force microscopy to tune the electrostatic properties of WSe2 nanostructures. Our experimental results have some important implications for improving performance of WSe2-based optoelectronic devices through interface or surface engineering.
Creating arbitrary arrays of two-dimensional topological defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, Bryce S.; Pelcovits, Robert A.; Rosenblatt, Charles
2014-11-01
An atomic force microscope was used to scribe a polyimide-coated substrate with complex patterns that serve as an alignment template for a nematic liquid crystal. By employing a sufficiently large density of scribe lines, two-dimensional topological defect arrays of arbitrary defect strength were patterned on the substrate. When used as the master surface of a liquid crystal cell, in which the opposing slave surface is treated for planar degenerate alignment, the liquid crystal adopts the pattern's alignment with a disclination line emanating at the defect core on one surface and terminating at the other surface.
Creating arbitrary arrays of two-dimensional topological defects.
Murray, Bryce S; Pelcovits, Robert A; Rosenblatt, Charles
2014-11-01
An atomic force microscope was used to scribe a polyimide-coated substrate with complex patterns that serve as an alignment template for a nematic liquid crystal. By employing a sufficiently large density of scribe lines, two-dimensional topological defect arrays of arbitrary defect strength were patterned on the substrate. When used as the master surface of a liquid crystal cell, in which the opposing slave surface is treated for planar degenerate alignment, the liquid crystal adopts the pattern's alignment with a disclination line emanating at the defect core on one surface and terminating at the other surface. PMID:25493804
Superconductivity in the two-dimensional generalized Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, L. S.
2016-08-01
We have used the Green's functions method at finite temperature and the Kubo's formalism, to calculate the electron conductivity σ(ω) in the generalized two-dimensional Hubbard model. We have obtained a behavior superconductor for the system to T > T0. The AC conductivity falls to zero in ω =ω0 , where ω0 depends on Δ, which is the gap of the system. The behavior gotten is according of with the behavior of the superconductors of high Tc where there is a changes abruptly from a Mott's insulator state to superconductor.
Aharonov-Bohm detection of two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Askarpour, Amir Nader; Alù, Andrea
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks, even when perfectly designed to mitigate the magnetic field disturbance of a scatterer, may be still detectable with Aharonov-Bohm (AB) measurements, and therefore may affect quantum interactions and experiments with elongated objects. We explore a multilayered cylindrical cloak whose permeability profile is tailored to nullify the magnetic-flux perturbation of the system, neutralizing its effect on AB measurements, and simultaneously optimally suppress the overall scattering. In this way, our improved magnetostatic cloak combines substantial mitigation of the magnetostatic scattering response with zero detectability by AB experiments.
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence - Cylindrical, non-dissipative model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.; Vahala, G.
1979-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is treated in the presence of cylindrical boundaries which are perfectly conducting and rigidly smooth. The model treated is non-dissipative and two-dimensional, the variation of all quantities in the axial direction being ignored. Equilibrium Gibbs ensemble predictions are explored assuming the constraint of constant axial current (appropriate to tokamak operation). No small-amplitude approximations are made. The expectation value of the turbulent kinetic energy is found to approach zero for the state of maximum mean-square vector potential to energy ratio. These are the only states for which large velocity fluctuations are not expected.
Spatial correlation of two-dimensional bosonic multimode condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitsche, Wolfgang H.; Kim, Na Young; Roumpos, Georgios; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2016-05-01
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theorem predicts that two-dimensional bosonic condensates exhibit quasi-long-range order which is characterized by a slow decay of the spatial coherence. However previous measurements on exciton-polariton condensates revealed that their spatial coherence can decay faster than allowed under the BKT theory, and different theoretical explanations have already been proposed. Through theoretical and experimental study of exciton-polariton condensates, we show that the fast decay of the coherence can be explained through the simultaneous presence of multiple modes in the condensate.
Vibronic modulation of lineshapes in two-dimensional electronic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemeth, Alexandra; Milota, Franz; Mančal, Tomáš; Lukeš, Vladimír; Kauffmann, Harald F.; Sperling, Jaroslaw
2008-06-01
We report and analyze oscillatory behavior of lineshapes in two-dimensional photon-echo relaxation spectra of a perylene-based dye molecule, whose four-wave-mixing signals are strongly modulated by coupling to low-frequency vibrational modes. Vibrational wavepacket motion is found to induce a pronounced beating of the anti-diagonal absorptive peak width, accompanied by orientational changes in the dispersive signal part. The effects are reproduced well by simulations based on a Brownian oscillator model, and can be assigned to periodic alternations in the relative amplitudes of rephasing and non-rephasing contributions to the spectrum.
Solving time-dependent two-dimensional eddy current problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Min Eig; Hariharan, S. I.; Ida, Nathan
1990-01-01
Transient eddy current calculations are presented for an EM wave-scattering and field-penetrating case in which a two-dimensional transverse magnetic field is incident on a good (i.e., not perfect) and infinitely long conductor. The problem thus posed is of initial boundary-value interface type, where the boundary of the conductor constitutes the interface. A potential function is used for time-domain modeling of the situation, and finite difference-time domain techniques are used to march the potential function explicitly in time. Attention is given to the case of LF radiation conditions.
Interacting bosons in two-dimensional flat band systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudleiner, Petra; Mielke, Andreas
2015-08-01
The Hubbard model of bosons on two dimensional lattices with a lowest flat band is discussed. In these systems there is a critical density, where the ground state is known exactly and can be represented as a charge density wave. Above this critical filling, depending on the lattice structure and the interaction strength, the additional particles are either delocalised and condensate in the ground state, or they form pairs. Pairs occur at strong interactions, e.g., on the chequerboard lattice. The general mechanism behind this phenomenon is discussed.
Numerical calculations of two dimensional, unsteady transonic flows with circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.
1974-01-01
The feasibility of obtaining two-dimensional, unsteady transonic aerodynamic data by numerically integrating the Euler equations is investigated. An explicit, third-order-accurate, noncentered, finite-difference scheme is used to compute unsteady flows about airfoils. Solutions for lifting and nonlifting airfoils are presented and compared with subsonic linear theory. The applicability and efficiency of the numerical indicial function method are outlined. Numerically computed subsonic and transonic oscillatory aerodynamic coefficients are presented and compared with those obtained from subsonic linear theory and transonic wind-tunnel data.
Wake-induced bending of two-dimensional plasma crystals
Röcker, T. B. Ivlev, A. V. Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Couëdel, L.
2014-07-15
It is shown that the wake-mediated interactions between microparticles in a two-dimensional plasma crystal affect the shape of the monolayer, making it non-flat. The equilibrium shape is calculated for various distributions of the particle number density in the monolayer. For typical experimental conditions, the levitation height of particles in the center of the crystal can be noticeably smaller than at the periphery. It is suggested that the effect of wake-induced bending can be utilized in experiments, to deduce important characteristics of the interparticle interaction.
Two-dimensional modulation transfer function: a new perspective.
Marom, Emanuel; Milgrom, Benjamin; Konforti, Naim
2010-12-10
One-dimensional templates, such as the U.S. Air Force resolution target or the circular spoke target, are commonly used for the characterization of imaging systems via the modulation transfer function response. It is shown in this paper that one needs a new family of templates for a true characterization of imaging systems that acquire two-dimensional (2D) high-density images or handle 2D information, such as 2D bar code detection and identification. The contrast provided by the newly defined 2D templates is the "true" contrast of the acquired image that the electronic processors are challenged with. PMID:21151231
A fractal transition in the two dimensional shear layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jimenez, Javier; Martel, Carlos
1990-01-01
The dependence of product generation with the Peclet and Reynolds number in a numerically simulated, reacting, two dimensional, temporally growing mixing layer is used to compute the fractal dimension of passive scalar interfaces. A transition from a low dimension of 4/3 to a higher one of 5/3 is identified and shown to be associated to the kinematic distortion on the flow field during the first pairing interaction. It is suggested that the structures responsible for this transition are non-deterministic, non-random, inhomogeneous fractals. Only the large scales are involved. No further transition is found for Reynolds numbers up to 20,000.
Antiferromagnetic Spinor Condensates in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice.
Zhao, L; Jiang, J; Tang, T; Webb, M; Liu, Y
2015-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate that spin dynamics and the phase diagram of spinor condensates can be conveniently tuned by a two-dimensional optical lattice. Spin population oscillations and a lattice-tuned separatrix in phase space are observed in every lattice where a substantial superfluid fraction exists. In a sufficiently deep lattice, we observe a phase transition from a longitudinal polar phase to a broken-axisymmetry phase in steady states of lattice-confined spinor condensates. The steady states are found to depend sigmoidally on the lattice depth and exponentially on the magnetic field. We also introduce a phenomenological model that semiquantitatively describes our data without adjustable parameters. PMID:26196625
Carbon dioxide separation with a two-dimensional polymer membrane.
Schrier, Joshua
2012-07-25
Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. The CO2 permeance is 3 × 10(5) gas permeation units (GPU). The CO2/N2 selectivity is 60, and the CO2/CH4 selectivity exceeds 500. The combination of high CO2 permeance and selectivity surpasses all known materials, enabling low-cost postcombustion CO2 capture, utilization of landfill gas, and horticulture applications. PMID:22734516
Two-Dimensional Heterojunctions from Nonlocal Manipulations of the Interactions.
Rösner, M; Steinke, C; Lorke, M; Gies, C; Jahnke, F; Wehling, T O
2016-04-13
We propose to create lateral heterojunctions in two-dimensional materials based on nonlocal manipulations of the Coulomb interaction using structured dielectric environments. By means of ab initio calculations for MoS2 as well as generic semiconductor models, we show that the Coulomb interaction-induced self-energy corrections in real space are sufficiently nonlocal to be manipulated externally, but still local enough to induce spatially sharp interfaces within a single homogeneous monolayer to form heterojunctions. We find a type-II heterojunction band scheme promoted by a laterally structured dielectric environment, which exhibits a sharp band gap crossover within less than 5 unit cells. PMID:26918626
Two-dimensional chiral topological superconductivity in Shiba lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Wang, Zhijun; MacDonald, A. H.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2016-07-01
The chiral p-wave superconductor is the archetypal example of a state of matter that supports non-Abelian anyons, a highly desired type of exotic quasiparticle. With this, it is foundational for the distant goal of building a topological quantum computer. While some candidate materials for bulk chiral superconductors exist, they are subject of an ongoing debate about their actual paring state. Here we propose an alternative route to chiral superconductivity, consisting of the surface of an ordinary superconductor decorated with a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic impurities. We furthermore identify a promising experimental platform to realize this proposal.
Synthesis of two-dimensional materials for beyond graphene devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kehao; Eichfeld, Sarah; Leach, Jacob; Metzger, Bob; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Evans, Keith; Robinson, Joshua A.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present an overview of the currently employed techniques to synthesize two-dimensional materials, focusing on MoS2 and WSe2, and summarize the progress reported to-date. Here we discuss the importance of controlling reactor geometries to improve film uniformity and quality for MoS2 through a combination of modeling and experimental design. In addition, development of processes scalable to provide wafer scale uniformity is explored using synthesis of WSe2 via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Finally, we discuss the impact of each of these processes for TMD synthesis on epitaxial graphene.
Seabed disposal project two-dimensional axisymmetric penetrometer simulations
Chavez, P.F.; Dawson, P.R.; Schuler, K.W.
1980-03-01
Preliminary two-dimensional, one-constituent hole closure analyses of an experimental apparatus and the flow of in situ ocean sediments following a penetrometer explacement have been performed. Boundary conditions associated with the experimental apparatus were found to greatly affect cavity response. Difficulties were encountered in modelling penetrometer-sediment interfaces and in obtaining smooth stress histories. The use of a different computer code in later analyses led to more realistic penetrometer-sediment interface models and to improved success in obtaining stress histories. These results along with some recommendations for future work are presented.
Magnus force in discrete and continuous two-dimensional superfluids
Gecse, Z.; Khlebnikov, S.
2005-08-01
Motion of vortices in two-dimensional superfluids in the classical limit is studied by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically on a uniform lattice. We find that, in the presence of a superflow directed along one of the main lattice periods, vortices move with the superflow on fine lattices but perpendicular to it on coarse ones. We interpret this result as a transition from the full Magnus force in a Galilean-invariant limit to vanishing effective Magnus force in a discrete system, in agreement with the existing experiments on vortex motion in Josephson junction arrays.
Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment
Schoellhamer, David H.
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.
Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics.
Eda, Goki; Maier, Stefan A
2013-07-23
Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as MoS2 and WSe2 exhibit unusual optical properties that can be exploited for novel optoelectronics ranging from flexible photovoltaic cells to harmonic generation and electro-optical modulation devices. Rapid progress of the field, particularly in the growth area, is beginning to enable ways to implement 2D crystals into devices with tailored functionalities. For practical device performance, a key challenge is to maximize light-matter interactions in the material, which is inherently weak due to its atomically thin nature. Light management around the 2D layers with the use of plasmonic nanostructures can provide a compelling solution. PMID:23834654
Two-Dimensional Optoelectronic Graphene Nanoprobes for Neural Nerwork
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Tu; Kitko, Kristina; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Yaqiong
2014-03-01
Brain is the most complex network created by nature, with billions of neurons connected by trillions of synapses through sophisticated wiring patterns and countless modulatory mechanisms. Current methods to study the neuronal process, either by electrophysiology or optical imaging, have significant limitations on throughput and sensitivity. Here, we use graphene, a monolayer of carbon atoms, as a two-dimensional nanoprobe for neural network. Scanning photocurrent measurement is applied to detect the local integration of electrical and chemical signals in mammalian neurons. Such interface between nanoscale electronic device and biological system provides not only ultra-high sensitivity, but also sub-millisecond temporal resolution, owing to the high carrier mobility of graphene.
Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penton, Steven V.; Sahnow, D.; France, K.
2011-05-01
The circular aperture of HSTs' Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is 2.5" in diameter, but transmission extends out to a 4" diameter. The NUV MAMA and the FUV microchannel plates image the sky over the full extent of the transmission. The cross-dispersion plate scale of the NUV channel is 0.02" and is 0.1" for the FUV channel. In this presentation we will discuss the capabilities and limitations of performing two-dimensional spectroscopy, in the cross-dispersion direction, with COS. In particular, we will discuss FUV detector effects, such as fixed pattern noise, gain sag, and Y walk, and the latest techniques for their correction.
High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Wei
1993-01-01
In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.