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Sample records for algae spirulina platensis

  1. Isolation of plasmid from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Tong, Shun; Zhang, Peijun; Tseng, C. K.

    1993-09-01

    CCC plasmid was isolated from an economically important blue-green algaSpirulina platensis (1.7×106 dalton from the S6 strain and 1.2×106 dalton from the F3 strain) using a rapid method based on ultrasonic disruption of algal cells and alkaline removal of chromosomal DNA. The difference in the molecular weight of the CCC DNAs from the two strains differing in form suggests that plasmid may be related with the differentiation of algal form. This modified method, which does not use any lysozyme, is a quick and effective method of plasmid isolation, especially for filamentous blue-green algae.

  2. Kinetics of methane production from the codigestion of switchgrass and Spirulina platensis algae.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M

    2013-03-01

    Anaerobic batch digestion of four feedstocks was conducted at 35 and 50 °C: switchgrass; Spirulina platensis algae; and two mixtures of both switchgrass and S. platensis. Mixture 1 was composed of 87% switchgrass (based on volatile solids) and 13% S. platensis. Mixture 2 was composed of 67% switchgrass and 33% S. platensis. The kinetics of methane production from these feedstocks was studied using four first order models: exponential, Gompertz, Fitzhugh, and Cone. The methane yields after 40days of digestion at 35 °C were 355, 127, 143 and 198 ml/g VS, respectively for S. platensis, switchgrass, and Mixtures 1 and 2, while the yields at 50 °C were 358, 167, 198, and 236 ml/g VS, respectively. Based on Akaike's information criterion, the Cone model best described the experimental data. The Cone model was validated with experimental data collected from the digestion of a third mixture that was composed of 83% switchgrass and 17% S. platensis. PMID:23416617

  3. Studies on the proteins of mass-cultivated, blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis)

    SciTech Connect

    Annusuyadevi, M.; Subbulakshmi, G.; Madhair'devi, K.; Venkalaramein, L.V.

    1981-05-01

    The characteristics of the protein of fresh-water, mass-cultured Spirulina platensis have been studied. The solubility of this algal protein in water and various aqueous solvents has been estimated. The total protein content of the blue-green algae was approximately 50-55% of which nearly 9.9% was nonprotein nitrogen. About 80% of the total protein nitrogen can be extracted by three successive extractions with water. Ths isoelectric point of this algal protein is found to be 3.0. The total proteins were characterized physicochemically by standard techniques. In the ultracentrifuge total proteins resolve into two major components with S20w values of 2.6 and 4.7 S. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of the total protein showed seven bands including three prominent ones. The in vitro digestibility of the total protein of fresh algae was found to be 85% when assayed with a pepsin-pancreatin system.

  4. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Koníčková, Renata; Vaňková, Kateřina; Vaníková, Jana; Váňová, Kateřina; Muchová, Lucie; Subhanová, Iva; Zadinová, Marie; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, Silvie; Ruml, Tomáš; J Wong, Ronald; Vítek, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome. PMID:24552870

  5. Effect of germanium dioxide on growth of Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang

    1996-12-01

    This study on the effect of different concentrations of germanium dioxide (GeO2) on the specific growth rate (SGR), pigment contents, protein content and amino acid composition of Spirulina platensis showed that Ge was not the essential element of this alga; that GeO2 could speed up growth and raise protein content of S. platensis, and could possibly influence the photosynthesis system. The concentration range of GeO2 beneficial to growth of S. platensis is from 5 100mg/l. GeO2 is proposed to be utilized to remove contamination by Chlorella spp. usually occurring in the cultivation of Spirulina.

  6. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  7. Lead removal by Spirulina platensis biomass.

    PubMed

    Al-Homaidan, Ali A; Al-Abbad, Aljawharah F; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Al-Ghanayem, Abdullah A; Alabdullatif, Jamila A

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, we report on the biosorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions by the nonliving biomass of the micro-alga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis. Propagation of the micro-alga was carried out in outside oblong raceway ponds. The biomass was cleaned, dried and used for the investigation. The effects of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, initial concentration of Pb (II), and contact time on the adsorption of lead by the dry biomass were studied. The experiments were carried out in 250 ml conical flasks containing 100 ml of test solutions using an orbital incubator at 150 rpm. Concentrations of the metal before and after the experiments were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Very high levels of Pb (II) removal (>91%) were obtained. The optimum conditions for maximal adsorption by S. platensis were found to be pH 3; 2 g of adsorbent dose; incubation at 26°C; 100 mg/l of lead initial concentration and 60 minutes of contact time. The experimental data fitted well with Freundlich isotherm equation with R(2) values greater than 0.97. Based on our results, we recommend the utilization of S. platensis biomass for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26280392

  8. Gelation of edible blue-green algae protein isolate (Spirulina platensis Strain Pacifica): thermal transitions, rheological properties, and molecular forces involved.

    PubMed

    Chronakis, I S

    2001-02-01

    Proteins isolated from blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica were characterized by visible absorption, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscometry, and dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements. Unique thermal unfolding, denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of the algal protein isolate are presented. DSC analysis showed that thermal transitions occur at about 67 and 109 degrees C at neutral pH. Calcium chloride stabilized the quaternary structure against denaturation and shifted the transitions at higher temperatures. Viscometric studies of Spirulina protein isolate as a function of temperature showed that the onset of the viscosity increase is closely related to the dissociation-denaturation process. Lower viscosities were observed for the protein solutions dissolved at pH 9 due to an increased protein solubility. Solutions of Spirulina protein isolate form elastic gels during heating to 90 degrees C. Subsequent cooling at ambient temperatures caused a further pronounced increase in the elastic moduli and network elasticity. Spirulina protein isolate has good gelling properties with fairly low minimum critical gelling concentrations of about 1.5 and 2.5 wt % in 0.1 M Tris buffer, pH 7, and with 0.02 M CaCl(2) in the same buffer, respectively. It is suggested that mainly the interactions of exposed hydrophobic regions generate the molecular association, initial aggregation, and gelation of the protein isolate during the thermal treatment. Hydrogen bonds reinforce the network rigidity of the protein on cooling and further stabilize the structure of Spirulina protein gels but alone are not sufficient to form a network structure. Intermolecular sulfhydryl and disulfide bonds were found to play a minor role for the network strength of Spirulina protein gels but affect the elasticity of the structures formed. Both time and temperature at isothermal heat-induced gelation within 40-80 degrees C affect substantially the network formation and

  9. Effect of cobalt on the primary productivity of Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.M.; Panigrahi, S.; Azeez, P.A.

    1987-10-01

    Cobalt, a micronutrient for biological organisms, is a metal of wide use. Main sources of Co to the environment are combustion of fossil fuels, smelters, cobalt processing facilities, sewage and industrial wastes. Atomic power plants and nuclear weapon detonations form an important source of radioisotopes of this metal to the environment. Cobalt has been included in the 14 toxic trace elements of critical importance from the point of view of environmental pollution and health hazards. Cobalt deficiency leads to diseases like stunted growth. At toxic level, Co inhibits heme biosynthesis and enzyme activities. The present study reports the effect of cobalt on biomass productivity of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.

  10. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

    2005-10-01

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  11. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  12. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  13. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  14. The Production of High Purity Phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis Using Light-Emitting Diodes Based Two-Stage Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Yoori; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and red algae. In general, production of phycocyanin depends mainly on the light conditions during the cultivation period, and purification of phycocyanin requires expensive and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a new two-stage cultivation method to maximize the quantitative content and purity of phycocyanin obtained from Spirulina platensis using red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under different light intensities. In the first stage, Spirulina was cultured under a combination of red and blue LEDs to obtain the fast growth rate until reaching an absorbance of 1.4-1.6 at 680 nm. Next, blue LEDs were used to enhance the concentration and purity of the phycocyanin in Spirulina. Two weeks of the two-stage cultivation of Spirulina yielded 1.28 mg mL(-1) phycocyanin with the purity of 2.7 (OD620/OD280). PMID:26433600

  15. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  16. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties of Spirulina platensis and Spirulina lonar: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Mohamed, Nor Azura; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Shamsuddin, Lokman; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian; Kadir, Arifah Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Spirulina spp. is a blue-green algae belongs to the family of Oscillatoriaceae, which having diverse biological activity. The aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Spirulina platensis/SP and Spirulina lonar/SL extracts. In the anti-pyretic study, the ability to reduce the rectal temperature of rats induced pyrexia with 2g/kg Brewer's Yeast (BY) was performed. Rats were dosed either 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. Rectal temperature was taken every hour for 8 hours. Results shown that there were significant dose-dependent (p<0.05) reduction of both treatments. However, SP treatment revealed faster reduction in rectal temperature. For anti-inflammatory activity, the reduction in the volume of paw edema induced by Prostaglandin E2 (100 IU/rat intraplantar) was measured. Rats were dosed orally with 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. The paw edema was measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours using plethysmometer. Results had shown a significant dose dependent reduction in diameter of paw edema (p<0.05). The finding suggests that SP and SL extracts have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, SP was found to be more effective than SL as anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25176383

  17. Degradation of Chlorpyrifos by an alkaline phosphatase from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Thengodkar, Rutwik Ravindra Mandakini; Sivakami, S

    2010-07-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped, multicellular, blue-green microalga. The two most important species are Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis. Spirulina is considered an excellent food, lacking toxicity and having corrective properties against viral attacks, anemia, tumor growth and malnutrition. We have observed that cultures of Spirulina platensis grow in media containing up to 80 ppm of the organophosphorous pesticide, Chlorpyrifos. It was found to be due to an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that was detected in cell free extracts of Spirulina platensis. This activity was purified from the cell free extracts using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration and shown to belong to the class of EC 3.1.3.1 ALP. The purified enzyme degrades 100 ppm Chlorpyrifos to 20 ppm in 1 h transforming it into its primary metabolite 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. This is the first report of degradation of Chlorpyrifos by Spirulina platensis whose enzymic mechanism has been clearly identified. These findings have immense potential for harnessing Spirulina platensis in bioremediation of polluted ecosystems. PMID:20127145

  18. Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, R.; Tam, L. T.; Anh, H. T. L.; Quynh, H. T. H.; Thom, L. T.; Nhat, P. V.; Thu, N. T. H.; Hong, D. D.; Wakisaka, M.

    2016-04-01

    A growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis M135 was investigated. The growth promotion effect was obtained that was 1.27 times greater than that obtained by the control by adding 500 mg L‑1 of steelmaking slag and culturing for 60 days. The lipid content decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag, whereas the carbohydrate content remained constant. The protein content of S. platensis M135 increased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag when cultured at day 45. The superoxide dismutase activity of S. platensis M135 exhibited a decreasing trend in a time-dependent manner and an increasing trend in the control. The superoxide dismutase activity was lower than that of the control at day 1 but was higher at day 30. No genetic damage was observed up to 500 mg L‑1 of steelmaking slag at 30 days of culture. Recovery from genetic damage was observed at 1,000 mg L‑1 of steelmaking slag but not at higher concentrations.

  19. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p < 0.05) apoptotic cell death due to DPPH and ABTS by 4 to 5-fold although the activity was less than vitamin C. Based on the DPPH assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals

  20. Alterations in beta-islets of Langerhans in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by marine Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, P; Senthilkumar, R; Srikumar, K

    2009-12-01

    Marine Spirulina platensis may potentially influence the metabolic process in animal cells, and the effect of marine Spirulina platensis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats was therefore investigated. Normal and diabetic rats (albino Wistar strain) were orally administered marine Spirulina platensis for 30 days and their blood levels of glucose and insulin and body weight changes were determined. Pancreatic histopathology was also noted. Treatment with marine Spirulina platensis caused significant alterations in the content of these indicators and therefore in the antidiabetic capacity of the treated animals compared to control rats. PMID:19912059

  1. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis. PMID:27507509

  2. Antioxidant and Angiostatic Effect of Spirulina platensis Suspension in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Eman A. I.; Barakat, Bassant M.; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. Results We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. Conclusions The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:25853428

  3. Water soluble polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis: extraction and in vitro anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Forouzan; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis algae (SP) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction of SP were determined by response surface methodology. The four parameters were, extraction time (X1), extraction temperature (X2), ultrasonic power (X3) and the ratio of water to raw material (X4), respectively. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation. The optimum conditions were extraction time of 25 min, extraction temperature 85°C, ultrasonic power 90 W and ratio of water to raw material 20 mL/g. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield was 13.583±0.51%, well matched with the predicted models with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9971. Then, we demonstrated that SP polysaccharides had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, SP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. PMID:25583023

  4. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 101±8 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets. PMID:26267095

  5. Adsorptive removal of cadmium ions by Spirulina platensis dry biomass

    PubMed Central

    Al-Homaidan, Ali A.; Alabdullatif, Jamila A.; Al-Hazzani, Amal A.; Al-Ghanayem, Abdullah A.; Alabbad, Aljawharah F.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic substances found in aquatic ecosystems. This metal tends to accumulate in photosynthetic plants and fish and is transferred to humans causing many diseases. It has to be removed from our environment to reduce any health risks. Dry biomass of the microalga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis was used as biosorbent for the removal of cadmium ions (Cd2+) from aqueous solutions. The effects of different levels of pH (3–9), biomass concentration (0.25–2 g), temperature (18–46 °C), metal concentration (40–200 mg/l) and contact time (30–120 min) were tested. Batch cultures were carried out in triplicate in an orbital shaker at 150 rpm. After centrifuging the biomass, the remaining levels of cadmium ions were measured in the supernatant by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Very high levels of removal, reaching up to 87.69% were obtained. The highest percentage of removal was reached at pH 8, 2 g of biosorbent, 26 °C, and 60 mg/l of cadmium concentration after 90 min of contact time. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of the metal ions by S. platensis. Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with experimental data (R2 = 0.92). Results of this study indicated that S. platensis is a very good candidate for the removal of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The process is feasible, reliable and eco-friendly. PMID:26587009

  6. Adsorptive removal of cadmium ions by Spirulina platensis dry biomass.

    PubMed

    Al-Homaidan, Ali A; Alabdullatif, Jamila A; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Al-Ghanayem, Abdullah A; Alabbad, Aljawharah F

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic substances found in aquatic ecosystems. This metal tends to accumulate in photosynthetic plants and fish and is transferred to humans causing many diseases. It has to be removed from our environment to reduce any health risks. Dry biomass of the microalga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis was used as biosorbent for the removal of cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) from aqueous solutions. The effects of different levels of pH (3-9), biomass concentration (0.25-2 g), temperature (18-46 °C), metal concentration (40-200 mg/l) and contact time (30-120 min) were tested. Batch cultures were carried out in triplicate in an orbital shaker at 150 rpm. After centrifuging the biomass, the remaining levels of cadmium ions were measured in the supernatant by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Very high levels of removal, reaching up to 87.69% were obtained. The highest percentage of removal was reached at pH 8, 2 g of biosorbent, 26 °C, and 60 mg/l of cadmium concentration after 90 min of contact time. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of the metal ions by S. platensis. Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with experimental data (R (2) = 0.92). Results of this study indicated that S. platensis is a very good candidate for the removal of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The process is feasible, reliable and eco-friendly. PMID:26587009

  7. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Mostafa Mahmoud Sami; El-Ayouty, Yassin Mahmoud; Piercey-Normore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4mg/g DW, respectively) was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW) was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis. PMID:26991300

  8. Simultaneous cultivation of Spirulina platensis and the toxigenic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque; Dalcanton, Francieli; Reichert, Carolina da Cruz; Durante, Andrei José

    2006-01-01

    Mangueira Lagoon, located in the extreme south of Brazil, has water with physicochemical characteristics such as alkaline pH and carbonate levels propitious for the growth of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Previously published studies have shown that Mangueira Lagoon water supplemented with small quantities of carbon and nitrogen is suitable for S. platensis cultivation and can significantly reduce production costs. We studied mixed cultures of Spirulina platensis and the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa using a 2(3) factorial design in which the three factors were the initial biomass concentration of S. platensis and M. aeruginosa and the type of culture medium (100% Zarrouk's medium or 80% Mangueira Lagoon water plus 20% Zarrouk's medium). The highest S. platensis maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) occurred in the culture with the highest M. aeruginosa biomass concentration and when undiluted culture medium was used (micro(max) = 0.283 d(-1)). The highest M. aeruginosa specific death rate (k) was obtained in the presence of S. platensis (k = 0.555 d(-1)) and was independent of the initial M. aeruginosa biomass concentration and culture medium, demonstrating that S. platensis cultures are not susceptible to contamination by M. aeruginosa. The culture medium had no significant influence (p > 0.05) on S. platensis micro(max) values, indicating that production costs could be reduced by using a medium consisting of 80% Mangueira Lagoon water plus 20% Zarrouk's medium. PMID:16610226

  9. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Terekhova, I.V.; Chernyad'ev, I.I.; Doman, N.G.

    1986-11-20

    The ribulose diphosphate (RDP) carboxylase activity of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is represented by two peaks when a cell homogenate is centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient. In the case of differential centrifugation (40,000 g, 1 h), the activity of the enzyme was distributed between the supernatant liquid (soluble form) and the precipitate (carboxysomal form). From the soluble fraction, in which 80-95% of the total activity of the enzyme is concentrated, electrophoretically homogeneous RDP carboxylase was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The purified enzyme possessed greater electrophoretic mobility in comparison with the RDP carboxylase of beans Vicia faba. The molecular weight of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration, was 450,000. The enzyme consists of monotypic subunits with a molecular weight of 53,000. The small subunits were not detected in electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of SDS after fixation and staining of the gels by various methods.

  10. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products. PMID:27293463

  11. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products. PMID:27293463

  12. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research. PMID:9005517

  13. [Determination of trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. by flame atomic absorption spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse nebulization technique].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cun-Gui; Hong, Qing-Hong; Li, Dan-Ting; Fan, Meng-Hai; Cai, Xiao-Dan

    2006-09-01

    The contents of trace elements Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Pb in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse nebulization technique. The results of the determination show that Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. are rich in the inorganic elements such as Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca and Cu. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 96.58% and 106.12%, and its RSD was lower than 4.26%. The result will provide scientific data for the study on the trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. and on their relativity of efficacy of medicine. PMID:17112058

  14. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Hsieh, Chin-Cheng; Hsu, Jen-Jung; Yang, Yuh-Kuan; Chou, Hong-Nong

    2006-09-01

    The effects of spirulina supplementation on preventing skeletal muscle damage on untrained human beings were examined. Sixteen students volunteered to take Spirulina platensis in addition to their normal diet for 3-weeks. Blood samples were taken after finishing the Bruce incremental treadmill exercise before and after treatment. The results showed that plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased after supplementation with spirulina (P < 0.05). The activity of blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly raised after supplementation with spirulina or soy protein (P < 0.05). Both of the blood glutathione peroxidaes (GPx) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were significantly different between spirulina and soy protein supplementation by an ANCOVA analysis (P < 0.05). In addition, the lactate (LA) concentration was higher and the time to exhaustion (TE) was significantly extended in the spirulina trail (P < 0.05). These results suggest that ingestion of S. platensis showed preventive effect of the skeletal muscle damage and that probably led to postponement of the time of exhaustion during the all-out exercise. PMID:16944194

  15. Cloning and Expression of Beta Subunit Gene of Phycocyanin From Spirulina platensis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shoja, Zahra; Rajabi Memari, Hamid; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammd

    2015-01-01

    Background: C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) from blue-green algae such as Spirulina has been reported to have various pharmacological characteristics, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Recombinant β-subunit of C-PC (C-PC/β) is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an inducer of cancer cell apoptosis. Objectives: Since C-PC/β has a big potential to be used as a promising cancer prevention or therapy agent, the purpose of this study was to clone and express Spirulina platensis cpcB gene in a bacterial expression system. This is a significant step for the production of this compound. Materials and Methods: The cpcB gene was amplified using specific primers and cloned in a bacterial expression vector, namely pET43.1a+. Gene expression of cpcB was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the dot blotting technique. Results: The SDS-PAGE analysis and dot blotting confirmed the production of recombinant C-PC/β in the bacterial expression system. Over-expression of cpcB gene was optimized in induction by 1 mM Isopropyl-β-D-Thiogalactoside (IPTG), after four hours of inoculation at 30°C. Conclusions: Over-expression of the synthetic CPC/β protein in the bacterial system (Escherichia coli BL-21) showed that E. coli can be used as a basis for further research to produce this desired protein in large quantities. PMID:26464761

  16. Phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sasaki, Shuji; Maeda, Yasutaka; McCarty, Mark F; Fujii, Masakazu; Ikeda, Noriko; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-15

    We and other investigators have reported that bilirubin and its precursor biliverdin may have beneficial effects on diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy, via its antioxidant effects. Here, we investigated whether phycocyanin derived from Spirulina platensis, a blue-green algae, and its chromophore phycocyanobilin, which has a chemical structure similar to that of biliverdin, protect against oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in db/db mice, a rodent model for Type 2 diabetes. Oral administration of phycocyanin (300 mg/kg) for 10 wk protected against albuminuria and renal mesangial expansion in db/db mice, and normalized tumor growth factor-β and fibronectin expression. Phycocyanin also normalized urinary and renal oxidative stress markers and the expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components. Similar antioxidant effects were observed following oral administration of phycocyanobilin (15 mg/kg) for 2 wk. Phycocyanobilin, bilirubin, and biliverdin also inhibited NADPH dependent superoxide production in cultured renal mesangial cells. In conclusion, oral administration of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin may offer a novel and feasible therapeutic approach for preventing diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23115122

  17. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

  18. Isolation, purification and characterization of the hydrogen evolution promoting factor of hydrogenase of Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tian-Qing; Zhang, Hui-Miao; Sun, Shi-Hua

    1996-03-01

    A component (s-factor) with obvious promoting effect on hydrogen evolution of hydrogenase has been isolated and extracted from a cell-free preparation of Spirulina platensis. The effect of the s-factor in the reaction system is similar to that of Na2S2O4, but is coupled with light. The s-factor has the maximum absorption peak at 620 nm in the oxidized state, at 590 nm in the reduced state. The partially purified s-factor showed two bands by SDS-PAGE and is distinctly different from phycocyanin, which has no change of oxidized state and reduced state absorption spectra, and also has no promoting effect on hydrogenase of Spirulina platensis under the light.

  19. Optimization of medium components using orthogonal arrays for Linolenic acid production by Spirulina platensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work describes the medium optimization of '-Linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis using one-factor and orthogonal array design methods. In the one-factor experiments, NaHCO3 (9 mg L-1), NaNO3 (13.5 mg L-1) and MgSO4•7H2O (11.85 mg L-1) proved to be the best components for GLA p...

  20. An optical-density-based feedback feeding method for ammonium concentration control in Spirulina platensis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yilu; Wen, Shumei; Cong, Wei; Wu, Xia; Ning, Zhengxiang

    2012-07-01

    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis using ammonium salts or wastewater containing ammonium as alternative nitrogen sources is considered as a commercial way to reduce the production cost. In this research, by analyzing the relationship between biomass production and ammonium- N consumption in the fed-batch culture of Spirulina platensis using ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen nutrient source, an online adaptive control strategy based on optical density (OD) measurements for controlling ammonium feeding was presented. The ammonium concentration was successfully controlled between the cell growth inhibitory and limiting concentrations using this OD-based feedback feeding method. As a result, the maximum biomass concentration (2.98 g/l), productivity (0.237 g/l·d), nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor (7.32 gX/gN), and contents of protein (64.1%) and chlorophyll (13.4 mg/g) obtained by using the OD-based feedback feeding method were higher than those using the constant and variable feeding methods. The OD-based feedback feeding method could be recognized as an applicable way to control ammonium feeding and a benefit for Spirulina platensis cultivations. PMID:22580316

  1. Protective Role of Spirulina platensis against Acute Deltamethrin-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Abuzead, Said M. M.; Halawa, Safaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Deltamethrin is a broad-spectrum synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, its human and animal exposure leads to hepatonephrotoxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the hepatonephroprotective and antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis against deltamethrin toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. Deltamethrin treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum biochemical parameters as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation but caused an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. Spirulina normalized the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Furthermore, it reduced deltamethrin-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, it could be concluded that spirulina administration able to minimize the toxic effects of deltamethrin by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:24039839

  2. Bioremediation of surface water co-contaminated with zinc (II) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Huijuan; Xia, Yunfeng; Chen, Hong

    Potential remediation of surface water contaminated with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and zinc (Zn (II)) by sorption on Spirulina platensis was studied using batch techniques. Results show that LAS can be biodegraded by Spirulina platensis, and its biodegradation rate after 5 days was 87%, 80%, and 70.5% when its initial concentration was 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L, respectively. The maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis was found to be 30.96 mg/g. LAS may enhance the maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis, which can be attributed to an increase in bioavailability due to the presence of LAS. The biodegradation rates of LAS by Spirulina platensis increased with Zn (II) and reached the maximum when Zn (II) was 4 mg/L. The joint toxicity test showed that the combined effect of LAS and Zn (II) was Synergistic. LAS can enhance the biosorption of Zn (II), and reciprocally, Zn (II) can enhance LAS biodegradation.

  3. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  4. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  5. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent. PMID:25944749

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tho X; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27338466

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tho X.; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27338466

  8. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Hind M.; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were done. FMDV titer for each type of treated FMDV was calculated to evaluate the antiviral activity of the Spirulina extract against FMDV. Furthermore, old baby Swiss mice were inoculated with 0.1 ml intraperitonially from the mixture of FMDV different types and different concentration of Spirulina extracts. After 48 h post inoculation, all the baby mice examined to evaluate the antiviral action of Spirulina extract. Results: The result showed that the non-toxic doses of S. platensis (50 ug/ml) revealed 35.7%, 28.5%, and 31% reductions in FMDV titers Type O, A, and SAT2 on BHK cells, respectively. The same non-toxic dose gave 50% of the inhibitory concentration in baby mice without cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: This study confirmed the biological activity of the ethanol extract of S. platensis against FMDV Types O, A, and SAT2. From the results, S. platensis could be useful as antiviral lead to limitation of infection among animals during outbreaks but further studies need to evaluate the S. platensis on experimental or natural infected farm animals to establish the effective dose side affected period of treatment of S. platensis. PMID:27047027

  9. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on growth, protein and chlorophyll-a content of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells.

    PubMed

    Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Okkay, Ozlem

    2008-03-01

    In this study, effect of different 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations (0.0, 9.10(-5), 9.10(-4), 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM) on growth rate, content of protein and chlorophyll-a in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells was investigated. The most stimulatory effect on growth rate, protein and pigment ratio of C. vulgaris and S. platensis was observed at 9.10(-4) mM concentrations of 2,4-D. The results show that low concentrations of 2,4-D have hormonal effect due to being a synthetic auxin. Cell number protein and pigment rates were inhibited at 9.10(-2) mM concentration in C. vulgaris. Such parameters were inhibited in S. platensis, both at 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM 2,4-D concentrations. This is due to herbicidal effect of high concentrations of 2,4-D. S. platensis was found to be more sensitive than S. vulgaris to 2,4-D applications. The use of algae as bio-indicators in herbicide contaminated fresh water habitats, was discussed. PMID:18831369

  10. Growth and biopigment accumulation of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis at different light intensities and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Kulshreshtha, Jyoti; Singh, Gajendra Pal

    2011-01-01

    In order to find out optimum culture condition for algal growth, the effect of light irradiance and temperature on growth rate, biomass composition and pigment production of Spirulina platensis were studied in axenic batch cultures. Growth kinetics of cultures showed a wide range of temperature tolerance from 20 °C to 40 °C. Maximum growth rate, cell production with maximum accumulation of chlorophyll and phycobilliproteins were found at temperature 35 °C and 2,000 lux light intensity. But with further increase in temperature and light intensity, reduction in growth rate was observed. Carotenoid content was found maximum at 3,500 lux. Improvement in the carotenoid content with increase in light intensity is an adaptive mechanism of cyanobacterium S.platensis for photoprotection, could be a good basis for the exploitation of microalgae as a source of biopigments. PMID:24031731

  11. Reflector based chlorophyll production by Spirulina platensis through energy save mode.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, Kayil Veedu; Selvaraju, Muthusamy

    2011-08-01

    The present study suggests that the effect of silver coated polyester film fixed in culture racks serves as a reflector of light intensity on Spirulina platensis cultivation, using of KNO(3) and urea as nitrogen sources. The use of light reflector (LR) gave light intensity of 4.8-6.0klux and the reduction in number of tube light with reflector gave 2.5klux of light intensity and its effect was studied on S. platensis. Total chlorophyll productions were observed for the cultivation at light intensity of two lights with reflector. This improvement is simple, inexpensive and saves 50% electric energy by reducing the number of lights, and thus contributes to energy conservation. PMID:21624833

  12. Extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis (CCC540).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Dhar, Dolly Wattal; Pabbi, Sunil; Kumar, Neeraj; Walia, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    In this study a simple protocol was developed for purifying phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis (CCC540) by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by a single step chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose-11 and acetate buffer. Precipitation with 65 % ammonium sulphate resulted in 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with purity of 1.5 (A620/A280). Thro1ugh chromatography an 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with a purity of 4.5 (A620/A280) was achieved. In SDS_PAGE analysis, the purified PC showed the presence of two subunit α (16 kD) and β (17 kD). PMID:25089058

  13. Production of amino acids by analog-resistant mutants of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, G; Sora, S; Ciferri, O

    1981-01-01

    Mutants of Spirulina platensis resistant to 5-fluorotryptophan, beta-3-thienyl-alanine, ethionine, p-fluorophenylalanine, or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid were isolated. Some of these mutants appeared to be resistant to more than one analog and to overproduce the corresponding amino acids. A second group was composed of mutants that were resistant to one analog only. Of the latter mutants, one resistant to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid was found to overproduce proline only, whereas one resistant to fluorotryptophan and one resistant to ethionine did not overproduce any of the tested amino acids. PMID:6792182

  14. A method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina platensis cultivated on a solid medium

    PubMed Central

    Pelizer, Lúcia Helena; Moraes, Iracema de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth. PMID:25477928

  15. A method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina platensis cultivated on a solid medium.

    PubMed

    Pelizer, Lúcia Helena; Moraes, Iracema de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth. PMID:25477928

  16. iAK692: A genome-scale metabolic model of Spirulina platensis C1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438) genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. Results In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP) analysis. Conclusions This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a predictive metabolic platform

  17. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. PMID:25425155

  18. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods. PMID:25445756

  19. Genomic Structure of an Economically Important Cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Takatomo; Narikawa, Rei; Okamoto, Shinobu; Ehira, Shigeki; Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Suzuki, Iwane; Masuda, Tatsuru; Mochimaru, Mari; Takaichi, Shinichi; Awai, Koichiro; Sekine, Mitsuo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Isao; Omata, Seiha; Takarada, Hiromi; Katano, Yoko; Kosugi, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Ohmori, Kazuko; Sato, Naoki; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    A filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is an important organism for industrial applications and as a food supply. Almost the complete genome of A. platensis NIES-39 was determined in this study. The genome structure of A. platensis is estimated to be a single, circular chromosome of 6.8 Mb, based on optical mapping. Annotation of this 6.7 Mb sequence yielded 6630 protein-coding genes as well as two sets of rRNA genes and 40 tRNA genes. Of the protein-coding genes, 78% are similar to those of other organisms; the remaining 22% are currently unknown. A total 612 kb of the genome comprise group II introns, insertion sequences and some repetitive elements. Group I introns are located in a protein-coding region. Abundant restriction-modification systems were determined. Unique features in the gene composition were noted, particularly in a large number of genes for adenylate cyclase and haemolysin-like Ca2+-binding proteins and in chemotaxis proteins. Filament-specific genes were highlighted by comparative genomic analysis. PMID:20203057

  20. Arsenic-induced genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the role of Spirulina platensis extract.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M; Zahran, Eman

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most relevant environmental global single substance toxicants that have long been regarded as a carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. In this respect, we evaluated the cytogenetic effect of arsenic exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in terms of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phytoantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties supplementation. The protective role of Spirulina as supplementary feeds was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic-induced cytogenotoxicity. Four groups were assigned as control group (no SP or As), As group (exposed to water-born As in the form of NaAsO2 at 7 ppm), SP1 (SP at 7.5% + As at the same level of exposure), and SP2 (SP at 10% + As at the same level of exposure). As-treated group had a significant increase in all cytogenetic analyses including erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei after 2 weeks with continuous increase in response after 3 weeks. The combined treatment of Spirulina at two different concentrations of 7.5 and 10% had significantly declined the induction of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and micronuclei formation induced by arsenic intoxication. PMID:26573688

  1. High value pigment production from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultured in seawater.

    PubMed

    Leema, J T Mary; Kirubagaran, R; Vinithkumar, N V; Dheenan, P S; Karthikayulu, S

    2010-12-01

    The prospects of utilizing pretreated seawater for the culture of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was evaluated under laboratory conditions with three seawater media and a control: (1) Zarrouk media (freshwater-control) (2) seawater media SW 1 (3) seawater media SW2 and (4) seawater media SW 3. The relative performance of these media were investigated with respect to their biomass production, pigment production (phycocyanin, lutein and betacarotene), and biochemical composition. A. platensis grown in media SW 2 had a biomass production (2.99+/-0.145 g L(-1)) comparable to that of control media (3.114+/-0.085 g L(-1)); highest specific growth rate (0.255 d(-1)) and lowest doubling time (2.720 days). Phycocyanin content of the cells grown in seawater media SW 3(81.85%) was closer to that of control. Similarly the purity ratio of phycocyanin produced from cells grown in seawater media SW 3 and control were closer to 4, while the phycocyanin obtained from cells grown in other two media exhibited lower purity ratios due to accumulation of lower molecular weight carbohydrates. The phycocyanin/Chl-a ratio and the betacarotene/Chl-a ratio of the cells grown in seawater media were higher than control. The lutein content of A. platensis cells grown in seawater media SW 2 was higher than that of control. The cells grown in seawater media had a slightly modified biochemical composition than the control with a higher carbohydrate and lower protein content. All the three seawater based media with fewer chemicals than the control (Zarrouk media) supported the growth of A. platensis as good as the control. PMID:20655201

  2. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Lele, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25°C), strong light intensity (6 klux) and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v) induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA) constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria. PMID:24031291

  3. Artificial neural network model for predicting production of Spirulina platensis in outdoor culture.

    PubMed

    Sharon Mano Pappu, J; Vijayakumar, G Karthik; Ramamurthy, V

    2013-02-01

    Process variables contributing to describe the growth of Spirulina platensis in outdoor cultures were evaluated. Mathematical models of the process using inputs which were simple and easy to collect in any operating plant were developed. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling procedures were evaluated. The dataset contributing to the growth prediction model were biomass concentration, nitrate concentration, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration of culture fluid, light intensity and days in culture, measured once a day. Datasets of 12days were sufficient to develop a model to predict the succeeding day's biomass concentration with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.98 under outdoor growth conditions. Insufficient number of datasets resulted in overestimation of the predicted output value. PMID:23313667

  4. Inhibitory effects of small molecular peptides from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis on cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were extracted, hydrolysis with three proteases (trypsin, alcalase and papain) was performed, and gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates. Totally, 15 polypeptides were isolated, which showed anti-proliferation activities on five cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549 and HT-29), with the IC50 values between <31.25 and 336.57 μg mL(-1). Moreover, a new peptide YGFVMPRSGLWFR was identified from papain-digested hydrolysates. It also exhibited inhibitory activities on cancer cells, and the best activity was observed on A549 cancer cells (IC50 values 104.05 μg mL(-1)). In other words, these polypeptides exhibited anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells, and low toxicity or stimulatory activity on normal cells, suggesting that they are promising ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26584028

  5. Impact of natural light on growth and biopigment profile of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Manoj; Ali, Mohammad Irfan; Saran, Suman; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are economically important microorganisms and good source of natural pigments such as chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilliproteins. The present research work showed the optimum combination of photophase and scotophase of Spirulina platensis on biomass and chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, and phycoerythrin contents. The study revealed that among all six light conditions tested, the cultures placed at west facing window, receiving natural day light at temperature 30°C showed extremely significant higher biomass (O.D. 3.46 ± 0.17%) and biopigment accumulation Chlorophyll a 8.94 ± 0.43%, Carotenoid 1.62 ± 0.18%, phycocyanin 2.26 ± 0.14%, allophycocyanin 2.66 ± 0.18% and phycoerythrin 1.32 ± 0.31% as compared to the standard (Full day natural light), which might be beneficial for large scale production of biopigment. PMID:26688978

  6. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  7. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Mingxiong; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumao

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis. A novel antioxidant peptide was obtained by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay used to measure the antioxidant activity, and the sequence was determined to be Pro-Asn-Asn (343.15 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This peptide was synthesized to confirm its antioxidant properties, and it exhibited 81.44 ± 0.43% DPPH scavenging activity at 100 µg/ml, which was similar to that of glutathione (82.63 ± 0.56%). Furthermore, the superoxide anion and hydroxyl free-radical scavenging activities and the SOD activity of the peptide were 47.84 ± 0.49%, 54.01 ± 0.82%, and 12.55 ± 0.75%, respectively, at 10 mg/ml. These results indicate that S. platensis is a good source of antioxidant peptides, and that its hydrolysate may have important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27090190

  8. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high temperature in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis C1.

    PubMed

    Panyakampol, Jaruta; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Sutheeworapong, Sawannee; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Senachak, Jittisak; Siangdung, Wipawan; Jeamton, Wattana; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee

    2015-03-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a well-known commercial cyanobacterium that is used as a food and in feed supplements. In this study, we examined the physiological changes and whole-genome expression in A. platensis C1 exposed to high temperature. We found that photosynthetic activity was significantly decreased after the temperature was shifted from 35°C to 42°C for 2 h. A reduction in biomass production and protein content, concomitant with the accumulation of carbohydrate content, was observed after prolonged exposure to high temperatures for 24 h. Moreover, the results of the expression profiling in response to high temperature at the designated time points (8 h) revealed two distinct phases of the responses. The first was the immediate response phase, in which the transcript levels of genes involved in different mechanisms, including genes for heat shock proteins; genes involved in signal transduction and carbon and nitrogen metabolism; and genes encoding inorganic ion transporters for magnesium, nitrite and nitrate, were either transiently induced or repressed by the high temperature. In the second phase, the long-term response phase, both the induction and repression of the expression of genes with important roles in translation and photosynthesis were observed. Taken together, the results of our physiological and transcriptional studies suggest that dynamic changes in the transcriptional profiles of these thermal-responsive genes might play a role in maintaining cell homeostasis under high temperatures, as reflected in the growth and biochemical composition, particularly the protein and carbohydrate content, of A. platensis C1. PMID:25524069

  9. Potential of Live Spirulina platensis on Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium and Its Conversion to Trivalent Chromium.

    PubMed

    Colla, Luciane Maria; Dal'Magro, Clinei; De Rossi, Andreia; Thomé, Antônio; Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalga biomass has been described worldwide according their capacity to realize biosorption of toxic metals. Chromium is one of the most toxic metals that could contaminate superficial and underground water. Considering the importance of Spirulina biomass in production of supplements for humans and for animal feed we assessed the biosorption of hexavalent chromium by living Spirulina platensis and its capacity to convert hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, less toxic, through its metabolism during growth. The active biomass was grown in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% with distilled water, keeping the experiments under controlled conditions of aeration, temperature of 30°C and lighting of 1,800 lux. Hexavalent chromium was added using a potassium dichromate solution in fed-batch mode with the aim of evaluate the effect of several additions contaminant in the kinetic parameters of the culture. Cell growth was affected by the presence of chromium added at the beginning of cultures, and the best growth rates were obtained at lower metal concentrations in the medium. The biomass removed until 65.2% of hexavalent chromium added to the media, being 90.4% converted into trivalent chromium in the media and 9.6% retained in the biomass as trivalent chromium (0.931 mg.g(-1)). PMID:25436450

  10. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through estimation of P53 level

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahem, Mai D.; Ibrahim, Marwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP) on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus. PMID:25685480

  11. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through estimation of P53 level.

    PubMed

    Ibrahem, Mai D; Ibrahim, Marwa A

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP) on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus. PMID:25685480

  12. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2

  13. Effects of electromagnetic field on the batch cultivation and nutritional composition of Spirulina platensis in an air-lift photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Si-Yuan; Li, Lin; Cai, Miao-Yan

    2007-02-01

    Spirulina platensis was batch cultivated in a novel 3.5l magnetic air-lift photobioreactor with external-loop on which 0-0.55 T electromagnetic field (EMF) was imposed to investigate the EMF effects on the algal growth and nutrition composition. At the same time, the correlative mechanism was discussed mainly based on C, N, P uptake. It was found that, EMF has double-side effects on S. platensis cultivation depend on EMF intensity. 0.25 T EMF stress was found to be suitable for the algal cultivation enhancement increasing the maximum cell dry weight by 22% in a time period two days less than that of the control at 35 degrees C and 252 micromol photonsm(-2)S(-1). In addition, the nutritional composition of S. platensis was improved in both essential amino acids such as histidine and trace elements Ni, Sr, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ca, Co and V. It was suggested it was possible to optimize the cultivation process of S. platensis by imposing suitable weak EMF which may enhance the nutrition assimilation e.g. C, N, P and minerals by S. platensis. PMID:16581244

  14. The Effect of Spirulina platensis versus Soybean on Insulin Resistance in HIV-Infected Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Azabji-Kenfack; Ekali, Loni G.; Eugene, Sobngwi; Arnold, Onana E.; Sandrine, Edie D.; von der Weid, Denis; Gbaguidi, Emmanuel; Ngogang, Jeanne; Mbanya, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected patients develop abnormalities of glucose metabolism due to the virus and antiretroviral drugs. Spirulina and soybean are nutritional supplements that are cheap, accessible in our community and affect glucose metabolism. We carried out a randomized study to assess the effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean as a food supplement on HIV/HAART-associated insulin resistance (IR) in 33 insulin-resistant HIV-infected patients. The study lasted for two months at the National Obesity Centre of Cameroon. Insulin resistance was measured using the short insulin tolerance test. Physical activity and diet did not change over the study duration. On-treatment analysis was used to analyze data. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Students T test and the Chi square test were used as appropriate. Curve gradients were analyzed using ANCOVA. Seventeen subjects were randomized to spirulina and 16 to soybean. Each received 19 g of supplement daily. The follow up rate was 65% vs. 100% for spirulina and soybean groups, respectively, and both groups were comparable at baseline. After eight weeks, insulin sensitivity (IS) increased by 224.7% vs. 60% in the spirulina and soybean groups respectively (p < 0.001). One hundred per cent vs. 69% of subjects on spirulina versus soybean, respectively, improved their IS (p = 0.049) with a 1.45 (1.05–2.02) chance of improving insulin sensitivity on spirulina. This pilot study suggests that insulin sensitivity in HIV patients improves more when spirulina rather than soybean is used as a nutritional supplement. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01141777. PMID:22254118

  15. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months) and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ), Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX) and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3%) had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7%) had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12) and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22) by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group. Conclusions Our

  16. Proteomic Analysis and qRT-PCR Verification of Temperature Response to Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    PubMed Central

    Huili, Wang; Xiaokai, Zhao; Meili, Lin; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Wei, Chen; Jaiopeng, Zhou; Chengyang, Xu; Chunlei, Jin; Yi, Xu; Xuedong, Wang; Li, Ding; Qiyu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (ASP) is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C) using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones), energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport), translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis) and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and translation levels. The

  17. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  18. The Remedial Efficacy of Spirulina platensis versus Chromium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshazly, M. O.; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Spirulina platensis against chromium-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gps). Gp1 served as control, rats of Gps 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to Spirulina platensis (300 mg/kg b.wt per os) and sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) via drinking water at concentration of 520 mg /l respectively. Chromium administration caused alterations in the renal function markers as evidenced by significant increase of blood urea and creatinine levels accompanied with significant increase in kidney’s chromium residues and MDA level as well as decreased catalase activity and glutathion content in kidney tissue. Histologically, Cr provoked deleterious changes including: vascular congestion, wide spread tubular epithelium necrobiotic changes, atrophy of glomerular tuft and proliferative hyperplasia. The latter was accompanied with positive PCNA expression in kidney tissues as well as DNA ploidy interpretation of major cellular population of degenerated cells, appearance of tetraploid cells, high proliferation index and high DNA index. Morphometrical measurements revealed marked glomerular and tubular lumen alterations. On contrary, spirulina co-treatment with Cr significantly restored the histopathological changes, antioxidants and renal function markers and all the previously mentioned changes as well. PMID:26029926

  19. The Remedial Efficacy of Spirulina platensis versus Chromium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, M O; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S; Morgan, Ashraf M; Ali, Merhan E

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Spirulina platensis against chromium-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gps). Gp1 served as control, rats of Gps 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to Spirulina platensis (300 mg/kg b.wt per os) and sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) via drinking water at concentration of 520 mg /l respectively. Chromium administration caused alterations in the renal function markers as evidenced by significant increase of blood urea and creatinine levels accompanied with significant increase in kidney's chromium residues and MDA level as well as decreased catalase activity and glutathion content in kidney tissue. Histologically, Cr provoked deleterious changes including: vascular congestion, wide spread tubular epithelium necrobiotic changes, atrophy of glomerular tuft and proliferative hyperplasia. The latter was accompanied with positive PCNA expression in kidney tissues as well as DNA ploidy interpretation of major cellular population of degenerated cells, appearance of tetraploid cells, high proliferation index and high DNA index. Morphometrical measurements revealed marked glomerular and tubular lumen alterations. On contrary, spirulina co-treatment with Cr significantly restored the histopathological changes, antioxidants and renal function markers and all the previously mentioned changes as well. PMID:26029926

  20. Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes. PMID:23089958

  1. Modulating Effects of Spirulina platensis against Tilmicosin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic used to treat cattle for pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease. However, overdoses of this medication have been reported to induce cardiac damage. Our experimental objective was to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) administration against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Materials and Methods Our experimental in vivo animal study used 40 male albino mice that were divided into five groups of eight mice per group. The first group served as a control group and was injected with saline. The second group received SP at dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for five days. The third group received a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Groups 4 and 5 were given SP at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days just before administration of TIL at the same dose and regimen used for group 3. Results TIL treated animals showed a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, however they had evidence of an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. SP normalized elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB. Furthermore, SP reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Administration of SP minimized the toxic effects of TIL by its free radicalscavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25870843

  2. Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Hall, D.O.; Nouee, J. De La

    1995-07-20

    The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m{sup 2} basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input of photosynthetically active radiation into the photobioreactor was 2,920 kJ per day. An air-lift system incorporating 4% CO{sub 2} was used to circulate the growth medium in the tubing. The maximum productivity achieved in batch culture was 7.18 g dry biomass per day which corresponded to a photosynthetic (PAR) efficiency of 5.45%. The CO{sub 2} was efficiently removed from the gaseous stream; monitoring the CO{sub 2} in the outlet and inlet gas streams showed a 70% removal of CO{sub 2} from the inlet gas over an 8-h period with almost maximum growth rate.

  3. Preventive effect of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on alloxan-injured mice.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Lin, Lin; Pan, Qin; Yang, Xuegan; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    The preventive effect of phycocyanin (obtained from Spirulina platensis) on alloxan-injured mice is investigated. Oral administration of phycocyanin was started two weeks before an alloxan injury and continued until four weeks later. Tests resulted in the following positive results of oral phycocyanin administration on alloxan-injured mice: decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein (GSP); maintain total antioxidative capability (T-AOC); avert malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, kidney, and pancreas; decrease total cholesterol (TC) level and triglycerides (TG) level in serum and liver; increase the levels of hepatic glycogen level; maintain glucokinase (GK) expression in the liver and decrease p53 expression in the pancreas at mRNA level. The histological observations also supported the above results. Acute toxicity study further shows that phycocyanin is relatively safe. These results led to the conclusion that phycocyanin has significant preventive effect on alloxan-injured mice. The inhibition of p53 pathway could be one of the mechanisms that led to the protection of pancreatic islets from alloxan injury. We also proposed that GK expression that functions to promote liver glycogen synthesis could be the reason for reduced blood glucose level. The encouraging results are the first step in studying the potential of phycocyanin as a clinical measure in preventing diabetes. PMID:23121873

  4. Evaluating the ameliorative efficacy of Spirulina platensis on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cadmium-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mayada R; Abd El-Aziz, R M; Ali, H A; Ahmed, Sahar A

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative efficacy of Spirulina platensis (SP) on reproductive dysfunctions induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in male rats. Rats (n = 40) were divided into five groups (eight rats/each). Group 1: served as control without any treatment. Group 2: Rats were administered SP (150 mg/kg body weight (BW)) in drinking water for 10 days. Group 3: Rats were subcutaneously injected with CdCl2 (2 mg/kg BW) daily for 10 days. Group 4: Rats were co-treated with both CdCl2 (2 mg/kg BW) and SP (150 mg/kg BW) daily for 10 days (SP prophylactic group). Group 5: Rats received CdCl2 for 10 days followed by administration of SP alone in drinking water daily for another 30 days with the same mentioned routes and doses (SP treatment group). From our findings, the administration of SP alone or co-administration with Cd significantly attenuated the harmful effects of Cd, suggesting its beneficial role in improving spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis after Cd exposure. PMID:26423278

  5. Aminopyridine modified Spirulina platensis biomass for chromium(VI) adsorption in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modification of Spirulina platensis biomass was realized by sequential treatment of algal surface with epichlorohydrin and aminopyridine. Adsorptive properties of Cr(VI) ions on native and aminopyridine modified algal biomass were investigated by varying pH, contact time, ionic strength, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and temperature. FTIR and analytical analysis indicated that carboxyl and amino groups were the major functional groups for Cr(VI) ions adsorption. The optimum adsorption was observed at pH 3.0 for native and modified algal biomasses. The adsorption capacity was found to be 79.6 and 158.7 mg g(-1), for native and modified algal biomasses, respectively. For continuous system studies, the experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as flow rate and initial concentration of metal ions, and the maximum sorption capacity was observed at a flow rate of 50 mL h(-1), and Cr(VI) ions concentration 200 mg L(-1) with modified biomass. Experimental data fitted a pseudo-second-order equation. The regeneration performance was observed to be 89.6% and 94.3% for native and modified algal biomass, respectively. PMID:27533866

  6. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Bashandy, Samir A E; El Awdan, Sally A; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  8. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of extracts from Spirulina platensis and amnion membrane on inflammation-associated corneal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Qing-Jun; Wang, Yao; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis (PSP) and extract from amnion membrane (AME) on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CorNV). METHODS PSP and AME were extracted from dry powder of Spirulina platensis and human aminion membrane respectively. Murine CorNV was induced by applying 1N sodiumhydroxide (NaOH) solution directly on the mice corneas. PSP and AME extracts were administered topically on the corneas 4 times daily for 7 days. The therapy effects of PSP and AME extracts were evaluated daily using slit-lamp. At the end of the therapy, corneas were harvested for H&E staining, masson trichrome staining, immunohistochemical study, and semi-quantification reverse transcriptive PCR (RT-PCR) was utilized for measurement of inflammation-related molecules. RESULTS Topical application of PSP extract had significant therapeutic effects on CorNV that could be shown in various assays of the corneas. Compared with AME extract, PSP extract treatment was more effective in suppressing CorNV in terms of vessel length and levels of cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) proteins or the angiogenesis related genes like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). PSP also inhibited inflammation more markedly by more effectively inhibiting mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells infiltration into the corneal stroma and reducing levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (MIP3a). In additon, corneas of PSP group had a more regular and compact architecture of collagen with thinner corneal thickness than in the AME group. CONCLUSION Polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis inhibited alkali burn-induced inflammation and CorNV more effectively than AME extract at the studied doses, thus may be used for the therapy of corneal diseases involving neovascularization and

  9. Potential of Spirulina Platensis as a Nutritional Supplement in Malnourished HIV-Infected Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Randomised, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Azabji-Kenfack, M.; Dikosso, S. Edie; Loni, E.G.; Onana, E.A.; Sobngwi, E.; Gbaguidi, E.; Kana, A.L. Ngougni; Nguefack-Tsague, G.; Von der Weid, D.; Njoya, O.; Ngogang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is a major global public health issue and its impact on communities and individuals is more dramatic in Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is compounded by widespread poverty and generalized high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, malnutrition should be addressed through a multisectorial approach, and malnourished individuals should have access to nutritional rehabilitation molecules that are affordable, accessible, rich in nutrient and efficient. We thus assessed the efficacy of two affordable and accessible nutritional supplements, spirulina platensis versus soya beans among malnourished HIV-infected adults. Methods: Undernourished patients, naïve of, but eligible to antiretroviral treatment (ART), aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups. The first group received spirulina (Group A) as food supplement and the second received soya beans (Group B). Patients were initiated ART simultaneously with supplements. Food supplements were auto-administered daily, the quantity being calculated according to weight to provide 1.5 g/kg body weight of proteins with 25% from supplements (spirulina and soya beans). Patients were monitored at baseline and followed-up during twelve weeks for anthropometric parameters, body composition, haemoglobin and serum albumin, CD4 count and viral load. Results: Fifty-two patients were enrolled (Group A: 26 and Group B: 26). The mean age was 26.4 ± 4.9 years (Group A) and 28.7 ± 4.8 (Group B) with no significant difference between groups (P = 0.10). After 12 weeks, weight and BMI significantly improved in both groups (P < 0.001 within each group). The mean gain in weight and BMI in Group A and B were 4.8 vs. 6.5 kg, (P = 0.68) and 1.3 vs. 1.90 Kg/m2, (P = 0.82) respectively. In terms of body composition, fat free mass (FFM) did not significantly increase within each group (40.5 vs. 42.2 Kg, P = 0.56 for Group A; 39.2 vs. 39.0 Kg, P = 0.22 for Group B). But when

  10. Influence of a Spirulina platensis biomass on the microflora of fermented ABT milks during storage (R1).

    PubMed

    Varga, L; Szigeti, J; Kovács, R; Földes, T; Buti, S

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of a cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis) biomass on the microflora of a probiotic fermented dairy product during storage at two temperatures. Spirulina-enriched and control (plain) fermented acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT) milks were produced using a fast fermentation starter culture (ABT-4) as the source of Lactobacillus acidophilus (A), bifidobacteria (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus (T). Incubation took 6 h at 40 degrees C. As for the cyanobacterial product, the S. platensis biomass was added to the process milk during stirring at pH 4.5 to 4.6. Thereafter, the ABT-type fermented milks were cooled to 25 degrees C in ice water, filled into sterile, tightly capped centrifuge tubes, further cooled at 4 degrees C for 24 h, and then stored either at 15 degrees C for 18 d or at 4 degrees C for 42 d. Microbiological analyses and acidity measurements were performed at regular intervals. Our results showed that the counts of the starter organisms were satisfactory during the entire storage period at both temperatures applied in this research. The S. platensis biomass had a beneficial effect on the survival of ABT starter bacteria regardless of storage temperature. Postacidification was observed at 15 degrees C, whereas pH remained stable during refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. The abundance of bioactive substances in S. platensis is of great importance from a nutritional point of view because thus the cyanobacterial biomass provides a new opportunity for the manufacture of functional dairy foods. PMID:12086036

  11. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Ji-guo; Xie, Jun-xia

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson's disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect. PMID:25883632

  12. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Ji-Guo; Xie, Jun-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson's disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect. PMID:25883632

  13. Protective effect of Spirulina platensis against cell damage and apoptosis in hepatic tissue caused by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yigit, F; Gurel-Gurevin, E; Isbilen-Basok, B; Esener, O B B; Bilal, T; Keser, O; Altiner, A; Yilmazer, N; Ikitimur-Armutak, E I

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalga that may be a source of antioxidants that can reduce body fat deposition. Consumption of a high fat diet produces elevated blood lipid levels, inflammation and apoptosis. We investigated the possible effects of S. platensis on the blood lipid profile, and liver inflammation and apoptosis in rats fed a high fat diet. Sixty-four young male rats were divided into eight equal groups. The control group was fed a basic diet. The experimental groups were fed a diet for 60 days that was prepared by mixing variable amounts of 43% vegetable oil and 10% cholesterol with or without 3% S. platensis mixed with the basal diet. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected from each animal. Serum samples were used to analyze lipid parameters, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. iNOS and eNOS were determined by immunohistochemistry. TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis to investigate a possible connection between inflammation and apoptosis in the liver tissue. The relations between fat deposition and liver degeneration were assessed by Sirius red staining and alpha-smooth muscle actin immunostaining. S. platensis reduced serum HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride, increased HDL-C levels in rats fed a high fat diet to near control levels, and reduced iNOS levels and increased eNOS levels in the liver tissue compared to vegetable oil and cholesterol treated groups. The apoptotic index was reduced in the groups that were fed a high fat or a basic diet when supplemented with S. platensis. PMID:26820259

  14. Neuroprotective effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis against kainic acid-neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Juárez, Angélica; Chamorro, Germán; Alva-Sánchez, Claudia; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Pacheco-Rosado, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Context Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (SP) is a cyanobacterium which has attracted attention because of its nutritional value and pharmacological properties. It was previously reported that SP reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus and protects against damaging neurobehavioural effects of systemic kainic acid (KA). It is widely known that the systemic administration of KA induces neuronal damage, specifically in the CA3 hippocampal region. Objective The present study determines if the SP sub-chronic treatment has neuroprotective properties against KA. Materials and methods Male SW mice were treated with SP during 24 d, at doses of 0, 200, and 800 mg/kg, once daily, and with KA (35 mg/kg, ip) as a single dose on day 14. After the treatment, a histological analysis was performed and the number of atrophic neuronal cells in CA3 hippocampal region was quantified. Results Pretreatment with SP does not protect against seizures induced by KA. However, mortality in the SP 200 and the SP 800 groups was of 20%, while for the KA group, it was of 60%. A single KA ip administration produced a considerable neuronal damage, whereas both doses of SP sub-chronic treatment reduced the number of atrophic neurons in CA3 hippocampal region with respect to the KA group. Discussion The SP neurobehaviour improvement after KA systemic administration correlates with the capacity of SP to reduce KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. This neuroprotection may be related to the antioxidant properties of SP. Conclusion SP reduces KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. PMID:26799655

  15. Separation and characterization of antioxidants from Spirulina platensis microalga combining pressurized liquid extraction, TLC, and HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Laura; Mendiola, José A; Herrero, Miguel; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Santoyo, Susana; Señorans, F Javier; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2005-11-01

    A new procedure has been developed to separate and characterize antioxidant compounds from Spirulina platensis microalga based on the combination of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and different chromatographic procedures, such as TLC, at preparative scale, and HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD). Different solvents were tested for PLE extraction of antioxidants from S. platensis microalga. An optimized PLE process using ethanol (generally recognized as safe, GRAS) as extraction solvent has been obtained that provides natural extracts with high yields and good antioxidant properties. TLC analysis of this ethanolic extract obtained at 115 degrees C for 15 min was carried out and the silica layer was stained with a DPPH (diphenyl-pycril-hydrazyl) radical solution to determine the antioxidant activity of different chromatographic bands. Next, these colored bands were collected for their subsequent analysis by HPLC-DAD, revealing that the compounds with the most important antioxidant activity present in Spirulina extracts were carotenoids, as well as phenolic compounds and degradation products of chlorophylls. PMID:16318207

  16. Engineering strategies for simultaneous enhancement of C-phycocyanin production and CO2 fixation with Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Kao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-10-01

    Spirulina platensis produces nutraceutical product C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and simultaneously mitigates CO2 emissions during its growth. Using a designed flat-type photobioreactor, the S. platensis biomass production was markedly enhanced, leading to a CO2 removal rate and a biomass concentration of 0.23 g/L/d and 2.25 g/L, respectively. The cell growth, CO2 fixation rate and C-PC production of S. platensis were investigated when it was cultivated under different irradiation conditions. As the light intensity increased from 100 to 700 μmol/m(2)/s, the overall biomass productivity, CO2 consumption rate and maximal C-PC productivity increased significantly to 0.74, 1.53 and 0.11 g/L/d, respectively. After determining the suitable light intensity, the nitrogen concentration was also adjusted to further enhance the performance of CO2 fixation and C-PC production. The results show that with an optimal nitrogen concentration of 0.045 M, the CO2 consumption rate and maximal C-PC productivity were further increased to 1.58 and 0.13 g/L/d, respectively. PMID:23664178

  17. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries. PMID:26796269

  18. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on Cu(2+) removal by Spirulina platensis strain (FACHB-834).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Zhao, Xiaokai; Fang, Fang; Dahlgren, Randy A; Li, Dong; Yin, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yuna; Wang, Xuedong

    2014-10-01

    The removal efficiency of Cu(2+) by Spirulina platensis (strain FACHB-834), in viable and heat-inactivated forms, was investigated in the presence and absence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). When the initial Cu(2+) concentration was in the range of 0.5-1.5 mg · L(-1) , a slight increase in growth rate of FACHB-834 was observed. In contrast, when Cu(2+) or LAS concentrations were at or higher than 2.0 or 6.0 mg · L(-1) , respectively, the growth of FACHB-834 was inhibited and displayed yellowing and fragmentation of filaments. The presence of LAS improved Cu(2+) removal by ~20%, and accelerated attainment of Cu(2+) retention equilibrium. For the 2- mg · L(-1) Cu(2+) treatments, retention equilibrium occurred within 2 d and showed maximum Cu(2+) removal of 1.83 mg · L(-1) . In the presence of LAS, the ratio of extracellular bound Cu(2+) to intracellular Cu(2+) taken up by the cells was lower (1.05-2.26) than corresponding ratios (2.46-7.85) in the absence of LAS. The percentages of extracellular bound Cu(2+) to total Cu(2+) removal (both bound and taken up by cells) in the presence of LAS ranged from 51.2% to 69.3%, which was lower than their corresponding percentages (71.1%-88.7%) in the absence of LAS. LAS promoted biologically active transport of the extracellular bound form of Cu(2+) into the cell. In contrast, the addition of LAS did not increase the maximum removal efficiency of Cu(2+) (61.4% ± 5.6%) by heat-inactivated cells compared to that of living cells (59.6% ± 6.0%). These results provide a theoretical foundation for designing bioremediation strategies using FACHB-834 for use in surface waters contaminated by both heavy metals and LAS. PMID:26988638

  19. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  20. Fluorescence Quenching Property of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis and its Binding Efficacy with Viable Cell Components.

    PubMed

    Paswan, Meenakshi B; Chudasama, Meghna M; Mitra, Madhusree; Bhayani, Khushbu; George, Basil; Chatterjee, Shruti; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-03-01

    Phycocyanin is a natural brilliant blue colored, fluorescent protein, which is commonly present in cyanobacteria. In this study, C-phycocyanin was extracted and purified from Spirulina platensis, which are multicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria of greater importance because of its various biological and pharmacological potential. It was analyzed for its binding affinity towards blood cells, algal cells, genomic DNA of microalgae, and bacteria at different temperature and incubation time. It showed good binding affinity with these components even at low concentration of 2.5 μM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of C-phycocyanin as a green fluorescent dye substituting carcinogenic chemical dyes. PMID:26678758

  1. Kinetics and bioenergetics of Spirulina platensis cultivation by fed-batch addition of urea as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Sassano, Carlos E N; Carvalho, João C M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Sato, Sunao; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio

    2004-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was cultivated in bench-scale miniponds on bicarbonate/carbonate solutions using urea as nitrogen source. To minimize limitation and inhibition phenomena, urea was supplied semicontinuously using exponentially increasing feeding rates. The average growth rates obtained alternately varying the total mass of urea added per unit reactor volume (275 < mT < 725 mg/L) and the total feeding time (9 < tT < 15 d) clearly evidenced nitrogen limitation for mT< 500 mg/L and excess nitrogen inhibition above this threshold. The time behavior of the specific growth rate at variable urea feeding patterns allowed estimation of the time-dependent Gibbs energy dissipation for cell growth under the actual depletion conditions of fed-batch cultivations. Comparison of the yield of growth on Gibbs energy obtained using either urea or KNO3 pointed to the preference of S. platensis for the former nitrogen source, likely owing to more favorable bioenergetic conditions. PMID:15007182

  2. Bioaccumulation of Pb2+ and its effects on growth, morphology and pigment contents of Spirulina ( Arthrospira) platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng; Song, Xiaojin

    2008-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the bioaccumulation of Pb2+ and its effects on growth, morphology and pigment contents of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The specimen cultured in Zarrouk liquid medium was treated with various initial metal concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 μg mL-1). The growth of S. platensis was adversely affected by Pb2+ at high concentrations (30, 50 and 100 μg mL-1). However, at low concentrations (5 μg mL-1), Pb2+ could stimulate its growth slightly. The pigment contents (chlorophyll α and β carotene) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The highest reductions (67% and 53% respectively in chlorophyll α and β carotene) were observed in 100 μg mL-1 treatment group. The LC50 (96 h) of Pb2+ was measured as 75.34 μg mL-1. Apart from a few cases of filament breakages at elevated concentrations (50 and 100 μg mL-1), morphological abnormalities are not specific. Metal bioaccumulation increased with Pb2+ concentrations, but decreased with exposure time. The maximum accumulated amount was 188 mg g-1 dry weight. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached to a peak at day 2, followed by a gradual reduction for all the exposure concentrations. S. platensis is able to tolerate considerably high Pb2+ concentrations. Consequently it can be used as a potential species to remove heavy metal from contaminated waters.

  3. Detailed study of anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algae biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1986-07-01

    Biomass of the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima was converted to methane using continuous stirred tank digesters with an energy conversion efficiency of 59%. Digesters were operated using once-a-day feeding with a retention time (theta) between 5 and 40 days, volatile solid concentrations (Sto) between 20 and 100 kg VS/cubic m, and temperatures between 15 and 52/sup 0/C. The results indicated a maximum methane yield of 0.35 cubic m (STP)/kg VS added at theta = 30 days and Sto = 20 kg VS/cubic m. Under such conditions, the energy conversion of the algal biomass to methane was 59%. The maximum methane production rate of 0.80 cubic m (STP)/cubic m day was obtained with theta = 20 days and Sto = 100 kg VS/cubic m. The mesophilic condition at 35/sup 0/C produced the maximum methane yield and production rate. The process was stable and characterized by a high production of volatile acids (up to 23,200 mg/l), alkalinity (up to 20,000 mg/l), and ammonia (up to 7000 mg/l), and the high protein content of the biomass produced a well-buffered environment which reduced inhibitory effects. At higher loading rates, the inhibition of methanogenic bacteria was observed, but there was no clear-cut evidence that such a phenomenon was due to nonionized volatile acids or gaseous ammonia. The kinetic analysis using the model proposed by Chen and Hashimoto indicated that the minimum retention time was seven days. The optimum retention time increased gradually from 11 to 16 days with an increase in the initial volatile solid concentration. The kinetic constant K decreased with the improvement in the digester performance and increased in parallel with the ammonia concentration in the culture media. 32 references.

  4. Fed-batch strategy for enhancing cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under phototrophic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Youping; Jin, Yiwen; Zeng, Xianhai; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yinghua; Jing, Keju

    2015-03-01

    The C-phycocyanin generated in blue-green algae Arthrospira platensis is gaining commercial interest due to its nutrition and healthcare value. In this study, the light intensity and initial biomass concentration were manipulated to improve cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis in batch cultivation. The results show that low light intensity and high initial biomass concentration led to increased C-phycocyanin accumulation. The best C-phycocyanin productivity occurred when light intensity and initial biomass concentration were 300μmol/m(2)/s and 0.24g/L, respectively. The fed-batch cultivation proved to be an effective strategy to further enhance C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis. The results indicate that C-phycocyanin accumulation not only requires nitrogen-sufficient condition, but also needs other nutrients. The highest C-phycocyanin content (16.1%), production (1034mg/L) and productivity (94.8mg/L/d) were obtained when using fed-batch strategy with 5mM medium feeding. PMID:25618497

  5. Effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on growth performance, humoral and mucosal immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Sakai, Masahiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis at different levels (0% control, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) was evaluated to find out the effects on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, humoral and skin innate immune responses and disease resistance in the great sturgeon (Huso huso). After 8 weeks of experimental trial, growth parameters, intestinal lactic acid bacteria count, protease and lipase activities were significantly high in 10% S. platensis fed group (P < 0.05). Similarly, in this group, respiratory burst activity of leucocytes and total protein of serum were also significantly high. Furthermore, supplementation of S. platensis at 5 or 10% exhibited higher serum IgM and lysozyme activity than the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). On the contrary, serum triglycerides and number of blood lymphocytes were lower in experimental groups than that of control group. Total proteins, lysozyme, protease and esterase, as well as in vitro bactericidal activity (against Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Lactococcus garviea) were significantly high in skin mucus from fish fed 5% and 10% S. platensis, while, alkaline phosphatase was significantly high in fish fed 10% S. platensis (P < 0.05). Further, fish infected with Streptococcus iniae bacteria increased mortality, but it was alleviated by a diet supplemented with S. platensis. The present results demonstrate that this dietary supplementation with S. platensis (mainly at 10% level) could be useful for maintaining the overall health status of great sturgeon. PMID:27506276

  6. The microalga Spirulina platensis presents anti-inflammatory action as well as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Joventino, Ivan P; Alves, Henrique G R; Neves, Lia C; Pinheiro-Joventino, Francisca; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A M; Neves, Samya A; Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Brito, Gerly Anne C; Viana, Glauce B

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina platensis (Spi) is a microalga presenting high contents of proteins, γ-linolenic acid, vitamins and minerals, and showing many biological activities. It is a promising drug for the treatment of diseases including diabetes. The objectives of this work were to study Spi effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and associate this to its anti-inflammatory activity. The treatment with Spi (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) started 48 h after the alloxan injection, continuing for 5 or 10 days. Biochemical parameters were measured in sera of treated and untreated animals. The anti-inflammatory activity of Spi was assessed by the formalin test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Immunostainings for TNF-alpha were carried out in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, before and after the Spi treatment, and its effect on the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils was also determined. Spi decreased glycemia as well as triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of diabetic rats. Levels of urea and creatinine were also reduced, while liver transaminases were unaltered. Spi also decreased dose-dependently the 1st (neurogenic) and mainly the 2nd phase (inflammatory) of the formalin test, as well as the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of Spi was further confirmed by decreases in TNF-alpha immunostaining in the inflamed paw and in the myeloperoxidase release from human neutrophils. The results showed that the anti-diabetic effect of S. platensis is already manifested after a 5-day treatment. Additionally, considering the relationship between diabetes and inflammation, the microalga anti-inflammatory action may also be involved. PMID:22944720

  7. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  8. Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and forestomach papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, T; Banejee, S; Yadav, P K; Rao, A R

    2001-10-01

    Numerous reports have revealed an inverse association between consumption of some selective natural products and risk of developing cancer. In the present study the effect of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt. of Spirulina was examined on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss albino mice. The implications of these biochemical alterations have been further evaluated adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the 'Monofunctional' nature of Spirulina as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase II enzyme activities associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification. The glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were induced in hepatic and all the extrahepatic organs examined (lung, kidney and forestomach) by Spirulina pretreatment (significance level being from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005) except for the low dose treatment in forestomach. With reference to antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were increased significantly by both the chosen doses of Spirulina from p < 0.01 to p < 0.005. Chemopreventive response was quantitated by the average number of papillomas per effective mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both the tumor model systems studied. In the skin tumor studies tumor burden was reduced from 4.86 to 1.20 and 1.15 by the low and high dose treatment respectively. In stomach tumor studies tumor burden was 2.05 and 1.73 by the low and high doses of Spirulina treatment against 3.73 that of control. PMID:11768236

  9. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Harriet; Imianovsky, Ulisses; Oliveira, Jorge L.B.; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2008-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30°C, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 μmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air) in three different culture media: (1) Paoletti medium (control), (2) Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water) and (3) Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%), while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO. PMID:24031187

  10. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Wong, Ka-Hing; Yang, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Wenjie; Wu, Hualian; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC) and allophycocyanin (Te-APC), two organic tellurium (Te) species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 μg g−1 protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2′-azo(2-asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:25336922

  11. Bacterioplanes sanyensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a PHB-accumulating bacterium isolated from a pool of Spirulina platensis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Jia, Qikun; Li, Tao; Dai, Shikun; Wu, Huanlian; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating rod bacterium, strain GYP-2(T), was isolated from a pool of marine Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China. Growth was observed at 10-45 °C and pH 6-10 in the presence of 1-10 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to Gammaproteobacteria and displayed 93.8-95.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequences similarities to members of the genera Thalassolituus, Oleibacter, and Oceanobacter, but house-keeping gene gyrB (encode DNA gyrase beta subunit) demonstrated that the new isolate was distantly related to Thalassolituus, Oleibacter, and Oceanobacter species (only 77-83 % gene gyrB sequences similarities).The G+C content of genomic DNA was 55 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was Q-9, while that for Oceanobacter kriegii LMG 6238(T) was Q-8. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. On the basis of its physiological, chemotaxonomic, and molecular properties, strain GYP-2(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of a new genus in Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Bacterioplanes sanyensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GYP-2(T) (=CGMCC 1.12392(T)=KCTC 32220(T)). PMID:25038945

  12. Single step aqueous two-phase extraction for downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Chethana, S; Nayak, Chetan A; Madhusudhan, M C; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-04-01

    C-phycocyanin, a natural food colorant, is gaining importance worldwide due to its several medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present study, aqueous two-phase extraction was shown to be an attractive alternative for the downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. By employing differential partitioning, C-phycocyanin selectively partitioned to the polymer rich (top) phase in concentrated form and contaminant proteins to the salt rich (bottom) phase. This resulted in an increase in the product purity (without losing much of the yield) in a single step without the need of multiple processing steps. Effect of process parameters such as molecular weight, tie line length, phase volume ratio, concentration of phase components on the partitioning behavior of C-phycocyanin was studied. The results were explained based on relative free volume of the phase systems. C-phycocyanin with a purity of 4.32 and yield of about 79 % was obtained at the standardized conditions. PMID:25829627

  13. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-01-01

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

  14. Construction of a genomic DNA library with a TA vector and its application in cloning of the phytoene synthase gene from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis M-135

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Hiroyuki, Kojima

    1998-03-01

    An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library using a TA cloning vector is presented. It is based on the sonicative cleavage of genomic DNA and modification of fragment ends with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by ligation using a TA vector. This method was applied for cloning of the phytoene synthase gene crt B from Spirulina platensis. This method is useful when genomic DNA cannot be efficiently digested with restriction enzymes, a problem often encountered during the construction of a genomic DNA library of cyanobacteria.

  15. Kinetic and bioenergetic studies of Spirulina platensis in chemostat and turbidostat culture

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.Y.; Erickson, L.E.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The growth kinetics and bioenergetics of S. platensis were investigated as a function of pH, temperature, light intensity, and HCO/sub 3/ concentration. The effects of pH and temperature on growth rate and bioenergetic yield were examined using turbidostat operation. The Arrhenius activation energy for growth appears to be independent of light intensity for the range of values that were investigated. Under light-limited growth conditions, the values of pH and temperature which provide for the maximum growth rate also correspond to the maximum bioenergetic yield. Chemostat operation was used to investigate C-limited growth.

  16. The hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mazokopakis, Elias E.; Papadomanolaki, Maria G.; Fousteris, Andreas A.; Kotsiris, Dimitrios A.; Lampadakis, Ioannis M.; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background A pilot study was conducted to determine the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on Cretan patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Spirulina is a filamentous cyanobacterium taken as a dietary supplement. Methods Fifteen adult Cretan outpatients (13 men), median age 48 (range: 29-62) years, with NAFLD were orally supplemented with 6 g of Spirulina (Greek production) per day for six months. Anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, waist circumference), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, complete blood count, biochemical assessments, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, health-related quality of life and abdominal sonographic findings were recorded and measured, before and after Spirulina supplementation. Results At the end of the 6-month intervention period, the mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased: 38.5%, 37.5%, 26.7%, 24.8%, 9.6%, 9.1%, and 13.5% respectively, whereas the mean levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and hemoglobin were significantly increased: 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. Spirulina supplementation resulted also in a significant reduction in weight and HOMA-IR index (8.1% and 19.6% respectively) and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life scale. No changes in sonographic findings were observed. Conclusion Spirulina supplementation at a high dosage of 6 g daily in NAFLD patients has strong and multiple beneficial metabolic effects and improves their health-related quality of life. PMID:25331487

  17. Effect of pH on the functional properties of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Benelhadj, Sonda; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Degraeve, Pascal; Attia, Hamadi; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a protein isolate extracted from Arthrospira platensis by isoelectric precipitation was evaluated for its functional properties. The maximum nitrogen solubility was 59.6±0.7% (w/w) at pH 10. The A. platensis protein isolate (API) showed relatively high oil (252.7±0.3g oil/100g API) and water (428.8±15.4g of water/100g of API at pH 10) absorption capacities. The protein zeta potential, the emulsifying capacity, the emulsion ageing stability, the emulsion microstructure and the emulsion opacity as well as the foaming capacity and the foam stability were shown to be greatly affected by pH. Especially, emulsifying and foaming capacities were positively correlated to the protein solubility. Moreover, the API was able to form films when sorbitol (30% (w/w)) was used as plasticizer and to form gels when the API concentration exceeded 12% (w/w). PMID:26471653

  18. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  19. Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov., a hexabromocyclododecane assimilating bacterium from the pool of Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Wu, Hualian; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Xi; Tian, Xinpeng; Li, Jie; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane-assimilating bacterium, designated strain GYP-17(T), was isolated from a pool of marine Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China. Colonies on 1/10 strength of marine Glycerol Enriched Medium plates were circular, dark-brown, 1-2 mm in diameter, and with regular margins. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C, 1-10 % (w/v) NaCl and pH of 7-9. The polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C17:1ω9c/10-methyl-C16:0 (summed feature 9, 20.75 %), iso-C15:0 (17.70 %) and C16:0 (6.40 %). The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G + C content of the type strain was 53.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain GYP-17(T) was a member of the genus Aliidiomarina and closely related to Aliidiomarina haloalkalitolerans with a 16S rDNA sequence similarity of 96.36 %. Results from the polyphasic taxonomy study support the conclusion that strain GYP-17(T) represents a novel Aliidiomarina species, for which the name Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. sanyensis is GYP-17(T) (=KCTC 32218(T) =LMG 27471(T)). PMID:23748897

  20. Characterization via liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry of supercritical fluid antioxidant extracts of Spirulina platensis microalga.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, Jose A; Marín, Francisco R; Hernández, S Francisco; Arredondo, Bertha O; Señoráns, F Javier; Ibañez, Elena; Reglero, Guillermo

    2005-06-01

    Spirulina platensis microalga has been extracted on a pilot scale plant using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) under various extraction conditions. The extraction yield and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated in order to select those extracts with both the highest antioxidant capacity and a good extraction yield. These extracts were characterized using LC coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and LC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) with two different interfaces, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray (ESI) which allowed us to perform tandem MS by using an ion trap analyzer. The best extraction conditions were as follows: CO2 with 10% of modifier (ethanol) as extraction solvent, 55 degrees C (extraction temperature) and 220 bar (extraction pressure). Fractionation was achieved by cascade depressurization providing two extracts with different activity and chemical composition. Several compounds have been identified in the extracts, corresponding to different carotenoids previously identified in Spirulina platensis microalga along with chlorophyll a and some degradation products. Also, the structure of some phenolic compounds could be tentatively identified. The antioxidant activity of the extracts could be attributed to some of the above mentioned compounds. PMID:16013830

  1. Rapid Mutation of Spirulina platensis by a New Mutagenesis System of Atmospheric and Room Temperature Plasmas (ARTP) and Generation of a Mutant Library with Diverse Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chong; Tan, Yinyee; Jiang, Peixia; Ge, Nan; Heping Li; Xing, Xinhui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to improve the carbohydrate productivity of Spirulina platensis by generating mutants with increased carbohydrate content and growth rate. ARTP was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant library of S. platensis with diverse phenotypes. Protocol for rapid mutation of S. platensis by 60 s treatment with helium driven ARTP and high throughput screening method of the mutants using the 96-well microplate and microplate reader was established. A mutant library of 62 mutants was then constructed and ideal mutants were selected out. The characteristics of the mutants after the mutagenesis inclined to be stable after around 9th subculture, where the total mutation frequency and positive mutation frequency in terms of specific growth rate reached 45% and 25%, respectively. The mutants in mutant library showed diverse phenotypes in terms of cell growth rate, carbohydrate content and flocculation intensity. The positive mutation frequency in terms of cellular carbohydrate content with the increase by more than 20% percent than the wild strain was 32.3%. Compared with the wild strain, the representative mutants 3-A10 and 3-B2 showed 40.3% and 78.0% increase in carbohydrate content, respectively, while the mutant 4-B3 showed 10.5% increase in specific growth rate. The carbohydrate contents of the representative mutants were stable during different subcultures, indicating high genetic stability. ARTP was demonstrated to be an effective and non-GMO mutagenesis tool to generate the mutant library for multicellular microalgae. PMID:24319517

  2. Rapid mutation of Spirulina platensis by a new mutagenesis system of atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP) and generation of a mutant library with diverse phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingyue; Jin, Lihua; Zhang, Chong; Tan, Yinyee; Jiang, Peixia; Ge, Nan; Heping Li; Xing, Xinhui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to improve the carbohydrate productivity of Spirulina platensis by generating mutants with increased carbohydrate content and growth rate. ARTP was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant library of S. platensis with diverse phenotypes. Protocol for rapid mutation of S. platensis by 60 s treatment with helium driven ARTP and high throughput screening method of the mutants using the 96-well microplate and microplate reader was established. A mutant library of 62 mutants was then constructed and ideal mutants were selected out. The characteristics of the mutants after the mutagenesis inclined to be stable after around 9(th) subculture, where the total mutation frequency and positive mutation frequency in terms of specific growth rate reached 45% and 25%, respectively. The mutants in mutant library showed diverse phenotypes in terms of cell growth rate, carbohydrate content and flocculation intensity. The positive mutation frequency in terms of cellular carbohydrate content with the increase by more than 20% percent than the wild strain was 32.3%. Compared with the wild strain, the representative mutants 3-A10 and 3-B2 showed 40.3% and 78.0% increase in carbohydrate content, respectively, while the mutant 4-B3 showed 10.5% increase in specific growth rate. The carbohydrate contents of the representative mutants were stable during different subcultures, indicating high genetic stability. ARTP was demonstrated to be an effective and non-GMO mutagenesis tool to generate the mutant library for multicellular microalgae. PMID:24319517

  3. Extraction of nutraceuticals from Spirulina (blue-green alga): A bioorganic chemistry practice using thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together current research, theory, and practice, and always in accordance with pedagogical ideas. PMID:26331489

  4. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  5. Aeration effect on Spirulina platensis growth and γ-Linolenic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Bokka, Chandra Sekhar; Ketineni, Chandrika; Rijal, Binod; Allu, Prasada Rao

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on algal growth and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production in a bubble column photobioreactor was investigated. Studies were performed in a 20-L reactor at different aeration rates (0.2– 2.5 vvm). Static, continuous, and periodic operation of air resulted in 41.9%, 88.4%, and 108% air saturation of dissolved oxygen, for which the corresponding values of GLA were 2.3, 6.5, and 7.5 mg·g-1 dry cell weight, respectively. An increase in the aeration rate from 0.2 to 2.5 vvm enhanced both the specific growth rate and GLA content under periodic sparging in the bicarbonate medium. With a 6-fold increase in the aeration rate, the GLA content of the alga increased by 69.64% (5.6–9.5 mg· g-1 dry cell weight). In addition, the total fatty acid (TFA) content in dry biomass increased from 2.22% to 4.41%, whereas the algae maintained a constant GLA to TFA ratio within the aeration rate tested. The dependence of GLA production on the aeration rate was explained by interrelating the GLA production rate with the specific growth rate using the Luedeking and Piret mixed growth model. PMID:24031799

  6. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirulina extract is prepared by the filtered aqueous extraction of the dried biomass of Arthrospira platensis. The color additive contains phycocyanins as the principal coloring components. (2) Color...

  7. Expression of Antioxidant Genes in the Mouse Cochlea and Brain in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus and Effect of Treatment with Spirulina platensis Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chang, Nian-Cih; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Salicylate increased manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene expression, but decreased catalase (CAT) gene expression in the cochlea and various brain regions of mice with tinnitus. Spirulinaplatensis water extract reduced salicylate-induced overexpression of the Mn-SOD gene, but increased salicylate-induced downregulation of the CAT gene. With the exception of significantly increased SOD activity in the brainstem and inferior colliculus of the Spirulina group, SOD and CAT enzyme activities did not differ among the three groups. The tinnitus group had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than the control group in the temporal and the frontal lobes. S.platensis water extract reduced salicylate-induced elevations of MDA levels in many brain areas. We proposed that altered expression of antioxidant genes may reflect states of oxidative stress associated with tinnitus. PMID:26277928

  8. Long-Term Regulation of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System in the Myocardium of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats by Feeding Bioactive Peptides Derived from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huanglei; She, Xingxing; Wu, Hongli; Ma, Jun; Ren, Difeng; Lu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the long-term (8 weeks) anti-hypertensive effects of 10 mg/kg tripeptides isolated from Spirulina platensis, Ile-Gln-Pro (IQP) and Val-Glu-Pro (VEP), and S. platensis hydrolysates (SH) on spontaneously hypertensive rats. The treatment period was 6 weeks, and observation continued for another 2 weeks. After treatment, weighted systolic blood pressure, weighted diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, and right ventricular mass index of groups treated with IQP, VEP, and SH were significantly lower than those of the group treated with distilled water, even when the treatments had been withdrawn for 2 weeks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting showed the mRNA expression levels and protein/peptide concentrations of the main components of the renin angiotensin system in myocardium were significantly affected by treatment: angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II, and angiotensin type 1 receptor were down-regulated, whereas angiotensin type 2 receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7), and Mas receptor were up-regulated. PMID:26245714

  9. Low energy method of manufacturing high-grade protein using blue-green algae of the genus Spirulina

    SciTech Connect

    Leesley, M.E.; Newsom, T.M.; Burleson, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Algae are well suited to replace many conventional sources of protein because of their efficient use of energy, land, and raw materials. The most promising genus, Spirulina, is compared with conventional protein sources on the bases of energy efficiency, land usage, and production costs.

  10. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 μg/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25231739

  11. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-07-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ∼70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0%, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  12. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A.; Snow, Daniel D.; Rogers, Douglas G.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ~70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  13. Trimeric forms of the photosystem I reaction center complex pre-exist in the membranes of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Shubin, V V; Tsuprun, V L; Bezsmertnaya, I N; Karapetyan, N V

    1993-11-01

    Oligomeric and monomeric forms of chlorophyll-protein complexes of photosystem I (PSI) have been isolated from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Spirulina [(1992) FEBS Lett. 309, 340-342]. Electron microscopic analysis of the complexes showed that the oligomeric form is a trimer of the shape and dimensions similar to those of the trimer from thermophilic cyanobacteria. The chlorophyl ratio in the isolated trimer and monomer was found to be 7:3. The trimeric form of PSI complex in contrast to the monomeric one contains the chlorophyll emitting at 760 nm (77K), which is also found in Spirulina membranes and therefore could be used as an intrinsic probe for the trimeric complex. The 77K circular dichroism spectrum of the trimeric form is much more similar to that of Spirulina membranes than the spectrum of the monomer. Thus, the trimeric PSI complexes exist and dominate in the Spirulina membranes. PMID:8224233

  14. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  15. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Spirulina platensis in Macrophages Is Beneficial for Adipocyte Differentiation and Maturation by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tho X; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-01

    We previously showed that the organic extract of a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis (SPE), had potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. As the interplay between macrophages and adipocytes is critical for adipocyte functions, we investigated the contribution of the anti-inflammatory effects of SPE in macrophages to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 10% conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages (CMC) or LPS-stimulated, but SPE-pretreated, macrophages (CMS) at different stages of adipocyte differentiation. The expression of adipocyte differentiation markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and perilipin, was significantly repressed by CMC when added on day 3, while the repression was attenuated by CMS. Oil Red O staining confirmed that adipocyte maturation in CMS-treated cells, but not in CMC-treated cells, was equivalent to that of control cells. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 was decreased by CMS compared to CMC. In lipid-laden adipocytes, CMC promoted the loss of lipid droplets, while CMS had minimal effects. Histone deacetylase 9 mRNA and protein levels were increased during adipocyte maturation, which were decreased by CMC. In conclusion, by cross-talking with adipocytes, the anti-inflammatory effects of SPE in macrophages promoted adipocyte differentiation/maturation, at least in part, by repressing the activation of NF-κB inflammatory pathways, which otherwise can be compromised in inflammatory conditions. PMID:27206252

  17. A structured model for simulation of cultures of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in photobioreactors: II. Identification of kinetic parameters under light and mineral limitations.

    PubMed

    Cornet, J F; Dussap, C G; Cluzel, P; Dubertret, G

    1992-10-01

    A structured model for the culture of cyanobacteria in photobioreactors is developed on the basis of Schuster's approximations for radiative light transfer. This model is therefore limited to monodimensional geometries and kinetic aspects.Light-harvesting pigments play a crucial role in defining the profile of radiative transfer inside the culture medium and in controlling the metabolism, particularly the metabolic deviations induced by mineral limitations. Modeling therefore requires the biomass to be divided into several compartments, among which the light-harvesting compartment allows a working illuminated volume to be defined within the photobioreactor. This volume may change during batch cultures, largely decreasing as pigment concentration increases during growth but increasing as pigments are consumed during mineral limitation. This approach enables, in photobioreactors of simple parallelepipedic, geometries, kinetic parameters to be determined with high accuracy; this may then be extended to vessels of more complex geometries, such as cylindrical photobioreactors.The model is applied to controlled batch cultures of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in parallelepipedic photobioreactors to assess its ability to predict the behavior of these microorganisms in conditions of light and mineral limitations. Results allowed the study of optimal operating condition for continuous cultures to be approached. PMID:18601186

  18. Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghui; Ling, Qinjie; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yibo; Hoffmann, Peter R; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:27223481

  19. Kinetic and growth parameters of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in tubular photobioreactor under different cell circulation systems.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lívia S; Rodrigues, Mayla S; Converti, Attilio; Sato, Sunao; Carvalho, João C M

    2012-02-01

    Arthrospira platensis was cultivated in tubular photobioreactor in order to evaluate growth and biomass production at variable photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD = 60, 120, and 240 µmol photons m(-2)s(-1)) and employing three different systems for cell circulation, specifically an airlift, a motor-driven pumping and a pressurized system. The influence of these two independents variables on the maximum cell concentration (X(m)), cell productivity (P(x)), nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor (Y(X/N) ), photosynthetic efficiency (PE), and biomass composition (total lipids and proteins), taken as responses, was evaluated by analysis of variance. The statistical analysis revealed that the best combination of responses' mean values (X(m) = 4,055 mg L(-1), P(x) = 406 mg L(-1)day(-1), Y(X/N) = 5.07 mg mg(-1), total lipids = 8.94%, total proteins = 30.3%, PE = 2.04%) was obtained at PPFD = 120 µmol photons m(-2)s(-1); therefore, this light intensity should be considered as the most well-suited for A. platensis cultivation in this photobioreactor configuration. The airlift system did not exert any significant positive statistical influence on the responses, which suggests that this traditional cell circulation system could successfully be substituted by the others tested in this work. PMID:21898367

  20. Photosynthetic efficiency and rate of CO2 assimilation by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis continuously cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Marcelo Chuei; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Sato, Sunao; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2012-11-01

    Similar to other photosynthetic microorganisms, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis can be used to produce pigments, single cell proteins, fatty acids (which can be used for bioenergy), food and feed supplements, and biofixation of CO(2) . Cultivation in a specifically designed tubular photobioreactor is suitable for photosynthetic biomass production, because the cultivation area can be reduced by distributing the microbial cells vertically, thus avoiding loss of ammonia and CO(2) . The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light intensity and dilution rate on the photosynthetic efficiency and CO(2) assimilation efficiency of A. platensis cultured in a tubular photobioreactor in a continuous process. Urea was used as a nitrogen source and CO(2) as carbon source and for pH control. Steady-state conditions were achieved in most of the runs, indicating that continuous cultivation of this cyanobacterium in a tubular photobioreactor could be an interesting alternative for the large-scale fixation of CO(2) to mitigate the greenhouse effect while producing high protein content biomass. PMID:22933335

  1. Culture characteristics of the atmospheric and room temperature plasma-mutated Spirulina platensis mutants in CO2 aeration culture system for biomass production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinyee; Fang, Mingyue; Jin, Lihua; Zhang, Chong; Li, He-Ping; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2015-10-01

    For biomass production of Spirulina platensis as feedstock of fermentation, the culture characteristics of three typical mutants of 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 generated by atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP) mutagenesis were systematically studied by using CO2 aeration culture system and compared with the wild strain. The specific growth rate of wild strain in the pure air aeration culture system exhibited a 76.2% increase compared with static culture, while the specific growth rates of the 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system were increased by 114.4%, 95.9% and 88.2% compared with their static cultures. Compared with static culture, the carbohydrate contents of wild strain, 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system dropped plainly by 51.0%, 79.3%, 85.5% and 26.1%. Increase of CO2 concentration enhanced carbohydrate content and productivity. Based on the carbohydrate productivity, the optimal inlet of CO2 concentration in aeration culture was determined to be 12% (v/v). Under this condition, 3-B2 exhibited the highest carbohydrate content (30.7%), CO2 fixation rate (0.120gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) and higher growth rate (0.093 g L(-1)·d(-1)), while 3-A10 showed the highest growth rate (0.118 g L(-1)·d(-1)) and higher CO2 fixation rate (0.117gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) but low carbohydrate content (24.5%), and 4-B3 showed the highest chlorophyll (Chl) content (3.82 mg·g(-1)). The most outstanding mutant by static culture in terms of growth rate and carbohydrate productivity (3-B2), was also demonstrated by CO2 aeration culture system. This study revealed that the ARTP mutagenesis could generate the S. platensis mutants suitable for CO2 aeration culture aiming at biomass production. PMID:25795571

  2. Effect of protein restriction on (15)N transfer from dietary [(15)N]alanine and [(15)N]Spirulina platensis into urea.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, M J; Hoffer, L J

    2001-08-01

    Six normal men consumed a mixed test meal while adapted to high (1.5 g. kg(-1) x day(-1)) and low (0.3 g. kg(-1) x day(-1)) protein intakes. They completed this protocol twice: when the test meals included 3 mg/kg of [(15)N]alanine ([(15)N]Ala) and when they included 30 mg/kg of intrinsically labeled [(15)N]Spirulina platensis ([(15)N]SPI). Six subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) receiving conventional insulin therapy consumed the test meal with added [(15)N]Ala while adapted to their customary high-protein diet. Protein restriction increased serum alanine, glycine, glutamine, and methionine concentrations and reduced those of leucine. Whether the previous diet was high or low in protein, there was a similar increase in serum alanine, methionine, and branched-chain amino acid concentrations after the test meal and a similar pattern of (15)N enrichment in serum amino acids for a given tracer. When [(15)N]Ala was included in the test meal, (15)N appeared rapidly in serum alanine and glutamine, to a minor degree in leucine and isoleucine, and not at all in other circulating amino acids. With [(15)N]SPI, there was a slow appearance of the label in all serum amino acids analyzed. Despite the different serum amino acid labeling, protein restriction reduced the postmeal transfer of dietary (15)N in [(15)N]Ala or [(15)N]SPI into [(15)N]urea by similar amounts (38 and 43%, respectively, not significant). The response of the subjects with IDDM was similar to that of the normal subjects. Information about adaptive reductions in dietary amino acid catabolism obtained by adding [(15)N]Ala to a test meal appears to be equivalent to that obtained using an intrinsically labeled protein tracer. PMID:11440912

  3. Impact of bubble size on growth and CO2 uptake of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis KMMCC CY-007.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kisok; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Do, Hyungki; Hwang, Cherwon; Lee, Bongju; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    Optimisation of cyanobacterial cell productivity should consider the key factors light cycle and carbon source. We studied the influence of CO2 bubble size on carbon uptake and fixation, on basis of mRNA expression levels in Arthrospira platensis KMMCC CY-007 at 30°C (light intensity: 40μmolm(-2)s(-1); 1% CO2). Growth rate, carbon fixation and lipid accumulation were examined over 7days under fine bubble (FB) (100μm Ø) bulk bubble (BB) (5000μm Ø) and non-CO2 (NB) aeration. The low affinity CO2 uptake mRNA (NDH-I4 complex) was stronger expressed than the high affinity NDH-I3 complex (bicA and sbtA) under 1% CO2 and FB conditions, with no expression of bicA1 and sbtA1 after 4days. The high affinity CO2 uptake mRNA levels corresponded to biomass, carbon content and lipid accumulation, and increase in NDH-I3 complex (9.72-fold), bicA (5.69-fold), and sbtA (10.61-fold), compared to NB, or BB conditions. PMID:25151075

  4. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS EVALUATION OF BISCUITS SUBLIMATED WITH PURE PHYCOCYANIN ISOLATED FROM SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA BIOMASS.

    PubMed

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S; Ibrahem, Eman A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market. PMID:26262722

  5. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  6. Promotive effect of se on the growth and antioxidation of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Gang, Zhou; Zhi-Li, Liu

    1998-12-01

    Cultures of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gard.) Geitler with various concentrations of Se in Zarrouk's medium showed that not higher than 40 mg/L Se could promote its growth. The present experiments showed that S. maxima grown under normal conditions, has an oxidant stress defence system for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, which is the Halliwell-Asada pathway. When 4 to 20 mg/L Se was added to the algal medium, this pathway was replaced by a so-called Sestressed pathway containing GSH peroxidase (GSH-POD). As a result of the occurrence of both higher activity of GSH-POD and lower levels of hydroxyl radical (OH·), the Se-stressed pathway scavenged H2O2 so effectively that the growth of S. maxima was promoted by 4 to 20 mg/L Se. While GSH-POD activity of the alga disappeared at 40 mg/L Se, the recovery of ascorbate peroxidase was observed. The lower levels of ascorbic acid and GSH made the Halliwell-Asada pathway for scavenging H2O2 less effective, while the highest activity of catalase might be responsible in part for the H2O2 removal, causing the level of OH· in S. maxima grown at 40 mg/L Se to be much higher than the OH· level in this alga grown at 4 to 20 mg/L Se, but lower than that in the control. The OH· level changes caused the growth of S. maxima cultured at 40 mg/L Se to increase slightly to close to that of the control.

  7. Dietary Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) supplementation to growing rabbits: effects on raw and cooked meat quality, nutrient true retention and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Cullere, Marco; Sartori, Alberto; Szendrő, Zsolt; Kovàcs, Melinda; Giaccone, Valerio; Dal Bosco, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The study evaluated the effect of Spirulina and Thyme dietary supplementation on rabbit meat quality, nutrient true retention and protection against oxidative stress. Rabbits in the control group (C-C) received a non-supplemented pellet throughout the experiment (5-11weeks of age). In the other groups, the pellet contained 5% Spirulina (S), 3% Thyme (T), or both (ST) for either the entire (groups S-S, T-T, ST-ST) or only the final part of the growing period (8-11weeks: groups C-S, C-T, C-ST). Spirulina supplementation increased the γ-linolenic acid content of rabbit meat, whereas Thyme improved the oxidative stability of raw and freeze-dried meat. PMID:24908377

  8. Comparative analysis of the Spirulina platensis subcellular proteome in response to low- and high-temperature stresses: uncovering cross-talk of signaling components

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on comparative proteome analyses of low- and high-temperature stresses and potential protein-protein interaction networks, constructed by using a bioinformatics approach, in response to both stress conditions. The data revealed two important points: first, the results indicate that low-temperature stress is tightly linked with oxidative stress as well as photosynthesis; however, no specific mechanism is revealed in the case of the high-temperature stress response. Second, temperature stress was revealed to be linked with nitrogen and ammonia assimilation. Moreover, the data also highlighted the cross-talk of signaling pathways. Some of the detected signaling proteins, e.g., Hik14, Hik26 and Hik28, have potential interactions with differentially expressed proteins identified in both temperature stress conditions. Some differentially expressed proteins found in the Spirulina protein-protein interaction network were also examined for their physical interactions by a yeast two hybrid system (Y2H). The Y2H results obtained in this study suggests that the potential PPI network gives quite reliable potential interactions for Spirulina. Therefore, the bioinformatics approach employed in this study helps in the analysis of phenomena where proteome analyses of knockout mutants have not been carried out to directly examine for specificity or cross-talk of signaling components. PMID:21756373

  9. Growth and Content of Spirulina Platensis Biomass Chlorophyll Cultivated at Different Values of Light Intensity and Temperature Using Different Nitrogen Sources

    PubMed Central

    Godoy Danesi, Eliane Dalva; Oliveira Rangel-Yagui, Carlota; Sato, Sunao; Monteiro de Carvalho, João Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m−2 s−1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m−2s−1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L−1 d−1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m−2 s−1. PMID:24031643

  10. A new bioenergetic and thermodynamic approach to batch photoautotrophic growth of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in different photobioreactors and under different light conditions.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Milena Fernandes; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Perego, Patrizia; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Converti, Attilio; Porto, Ana Lucia Figueiredo

    2016-05-01

    Photobioreactor configuration, mode of operation and light intensity are known to strongly impact on cyanobacteria growth. To shed light on these issues, kinetic, bioenergetic and thermodynamic parameters of batch Arthrospira platensis cultures were estimated along the time at photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 70μmolm(-2)s(-1) in different photobioreactors with different surface/volume ratio (S/V), namely open pond (0.25cm(-1)), shaken flask (0.48cm(-1)), horizontal photobioreactor (HoP) (1.94cm(-1)) and helicoidal photobioreactor (HeP) (3.88cm(-1)). Maximum biomass concentration and productivity remarkably increased with S/V up to 1.94cm(-1). HoP was shown to be the best-performing system throughout the whole runs, while HeP behaved better only at the start. Runs carried out in HoP increasing PPFD from 40 to 100μmolm(-2)s(-1) revealed a progressive enhancement of bioenergetics and thermodynamics likely because of favorable light distribution. HoP appeared to be a promising configuration to perform high-yield indoor cyanobacterial cultures. PMID:26890797

  11. Spirulina non-protein components induce BDNF gene transcription via HO-1 activity in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kyoji; Itoh, Mari; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Her, Song; Lee, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green algae are known to contain biologically active proteins and non-protein substances and considered as useful materials for manufacturing the nutritional supplements. Particularly, Spirulina has been reported to contain a variety of antioxidants, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and vitamin C, thereby exerting their protective effects against the oxidative damage to the cells. In addition to their antioxidant actions, polyphenolic compounds have been speculated to cause the protection of neuronal cells and the recovery of neurologic function in the brain through the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in glial cells. Then, the protein-deprived extract was prepared by removing the most part of protein components from aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis, and the effect of this extract on BDNF gene transcription was examined in C6 glioma cells. Consequently, the protein-deprived extract was shown to cause the elevation of BDNF mRNA levels following the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the glioma cells. Therefore, the non-protein components of S. platensis are considered to stimulate BDNF gene transcription through the HO-1 induction in glial cells, thus proposing a potential ability of the algae to indirectly modulate the brain function through the glial cell activity. PMID:25349086

  12. [Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Smolina, T P; Mikheĭskaia, L V; Ovodova, R G

    1979-12-01

    The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum. PMID:117655

  13. Spirulina in health care management.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish J; Jarouliya, Urmila; Bhadauriya, Pratiksha; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2008-10-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped and multicellular edible microbe. It is the nature's richest and most complete source of nutrition. Spirulina has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can offer. The alga contains a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic nutrients that include B-complex vitamins, minerals, proteins, gamma-linolenic acid and the super anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, trace elements and a number of unexplored bioactive compounds. Because of its apparent ability to stimulate whole human physiology, Spirulina exhibits therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic and plethora of beneficial functions. Spirulina consumption appears to promote the growth of intestinal micro flora as well. The review discusses the potential of Spirulina in health care management. PMID:18855693

  14. 78 FR 49117 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of spirulina extract made from the dried biomass of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis), as a color additive in candy and chewing gum. This action is in response to a petition filed by Mars,...

  15. Transposable genetic elements in Spirulina and potential applications for genetic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroyuki, Kojima; Qin, Song; Thankappan, Ajith Kumar; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano

    1998-03-01

    Transposable elements in cyanobacteria are briefly reviewed. Evidence is presented to show that transposable elements in Spirulina platensis is actually reflected on the phenotype change, i e., helical to straight filaments. Transposition intermediates of DNA were isolated from the extrachromosome and the transposition was related to helical variations in Spirulina. Uses of transposable elements for microalgal recombination are discussed based on the transposition mechanism.

  16. Production of Spirulina biomass: maintenance of Monoalgal culture outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Vonshak, A.; Abeliovich, A.; Boussiba, S.; Richmond, A.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration, population density, and temperature on the maintenance of an outdoor monoculture of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied. A clear response by Spirulina to the concentration of bicarbonate was evident, with 0.2M bicarbonate representing the lowest concentration in which a monoculture could be maintained. When the temperatures fell during the winter period to some 20-25/sup 0/C below the optimum for Spirulina. Chlorella sp. gradually increased and became the dominant species in the culture. Raising the temperature by covering the pond with transparent polyethylene resulted in a sharp decline in the population of Chlorella, and a gradual resumption of species dominance by Spirulina. In winter, there was an inverse relationship in the pond between the population density of Spirulina and the extent of contamination by Chlorella sp., but no such effect was observed under field conditions at temperatures higher than 25/sup 0/C.

  17. Effect of simple shear flow on photosynthesis rate and morphology of micro algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuhashi, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Muramatsu, H.; Tanishita, K.

    The convective motion of micro algal suspension gives an advantageous effect on the photosynthetic rate in the bioreactor, however, the nature of convective effect on the photosynthesis has not been fully understood. The propose of this study concerns the nature of photosynthetic rate in a well-defined hydrodynamic shear flow of Spirulina platensis suspension, generated in a double rotating coaxial cylinders. The double rotating coaxial cylinders was installed in the incubator chamber with the controlled illumination intensity and temperature. Two kind of experiments, short and long term experiments, were performed to evaluate the direct effect of shear flow on the photosynthetic rate. The short term experiment indicates that the simple shear flow enables to augment the photosynthesis of Spirulina suspension and simultaneously causes the cell destruction due to the excessive shear stress. The long term experiment for 100 hours reveals that the growth rate and the morphology of Spirulina is sensitive to the external fluid mechanical stimulus. The long term application of mechanical stress on the algae may result in the adaptation of the photosynthetic function and morphology.

  18. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  19. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of algae for hydrogen production: composition of reaction products and potential for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Onwudili, Jude A; Lea-Langton, Amanda R; Ross, Andrew B; Williams, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Saccharina latissima were processed under supercritical water gasification conditions at 500 °C, 36 MPa in an Inconel batch reactor for 30 min in the presence/absence of NaOH and/or Ni-Al(2)O(3). Hydrogen gas yields were more than two times higher in the presence of NaOH than in its absence and tar yields were reduced by up to 71%. Saccharina, a carbohydrate-rich macro-alga, gave the highest hydrogen gas yields of 15.1 mol/kg. The tars from all three algae contained aromatic compounds, including phenols, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Tars from Chlorella and Spirulina contained high yields of pyridines, pyrroles, indoles and pyrimidines. Up to 97% TOC removal were achieved in the process waters from the gasification of the algae. Analyses for specific nutrients in the process waters indicated that the process waters from Saccharina could potentially be used for microalgae cultivation. PMID:23131625

  20. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Suganya, K S Uma; Govindaraju, K; Kumar, V Ganesh; Dhas, T Stalin; Karthick, V; Singaravelu, G; Elanchezhiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ~ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25492207

  1. Cryopreservation of the edible alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Efficient cryopreservation conditions for the edible alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis were investigated using a model strain A. platensis NIES-39. As a result, it was found that more than 60% of cells were viable upon thawing, when they had been frozen at a cooling rate of approximately -1 °C min(-1) in the presence of 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide. Further examination with other Arthrospira strains showed that many of them had strain-dependent optimal conditions for cryopreservation. For example, the best freezing conditions for A. platensis SAG 21.99 were snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen in the presence of 5% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, while they were slow cooling at approximately -1 °C min(-1) in the presence of 10% (v/v) methanol for A. platensis NIES-46, NIES-2308 and UTEX 1926. The variety of successful cryopreservation conditions presented in this study is useful when attempting to cryopreserve various Arthrospira strains. PMID:27240586

  2. CO2 Biofixation by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and the Green Alga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 Grown Using Gas Effluents and Solid Residues of Thermoelectric Origin.

    PubMed

    da Silva Vaz, Bruna; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 400 ppm in the last 10 years, and the coal-fired power plants are responsible for approximately 22 % of these emissions. The burning of fossil fuel also produces a great amount of solid waste that causes serious industrial and environmental problems. The biological processes become interesting alternative in combating pollution and developing new products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO2 biofixation potential of microalgae that were grown using gaseous effluents and solid residues of thermoelectric origin. The microalgae Chlorella fusca LEB 111 presented higher rate of CO2 biofixation (42.8 %) (p < 0.01) than did Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The values for the CO2 biofixation rates and the kinetic parameters of Spirulina and Chlorella cells grown using combustion gas did not differ significantly from those of cells grown using CO2 and a carbon source in the culture media. These microalgae could be grown using ash derived from coal combustion, using the minerals present in this residue as the source of the essential metals required for their growth and the CO2 derived from the combustion gas as their carbon source. PMID:26453033

  3. The design and optimization for light-algae bioreactor controller based on Artificial Neural Network-Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Yang, Chenliang; Hu, Enzhu

    As a subsystem of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), light-algae bioreactor (LABR) has properties of high reaction rate, efficiently synthesizing microalgal biomass, absorbing CO2 and releasing O2, so it is significant for BLSS to provide food and maintain gas balance. In order to manipulate the LABR properly, it has been designed as a closed-loop control system, and technology of Artificial Neural Network-Model Predictive Control (ANN-MPC) is applied to design the controller for LABR in which green microalgae, Spirulina platensis is cultivated continuously. The conclusion is drawn by computer simulation that ANN-MPC controller can intelligently learn the complicated dynamic performances of LABR, and automatically, robustly and self-adaptively regulate the light intensity illuminating on the LABR, hence make the growth of microalgae in the LABR be changed in line with the references, meanwhile provide appropriate damping to improve markedly the transient response performance of LABR.

  4. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

  5. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given. PMID:23544470

  6. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  7. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies. PMID:27259333

  8. Association of heterotrophic bacteria with aggregated Arthrospira platensis exopolysaccharides: implications in the induction of axenic cultures.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Inducing an axenic culture of the edible cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis using differential filtration alone is never successful; thus, it has been thought that, in non-axenic cultures, a portion of contaminating bacteria is strongly associated with Arthrospira cells. However, examination of the behavior of these bacteria during filtration revealed that they were not associated with Arthrospira cells but with aggregates of exopolysaccharides present in the medium away from the Arthrospira cells. Based on this finding, a rapid and reliable method for preparing axenic trichomes of A. platensis was established. After verifying the axenicity of the resulting trichomes on enriched agar plates, they were individually transferred to fresh sterile medium using a handmade tool, a microtrowel, to produce axenic cultures. With this technique, axenic cultures of various A. platensis strains were successfully produced. The technique described in this study is potentially applicable to a wider range of filamentous cyanobacteria. PMID:25333502

  9. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Spirulina and Chlorella water extracts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-chen; Ho, Ja-an Annie; Shieh, Ming-Chen; Lu, In-Wei

    2005-05-18

    Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease that will further develop to cirrhosis if severe damage continues to form. A potential treatment for liver fibrosis is to inhibit activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and, subsequently, to induce HSC apoptosis. It has been reported that antioxidants are able to inhibit the proliferation of HSCs. In this study, the aqueous extract of spirulina was chosen as the source of antioxidant to investigate the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HSC. The growth inhibitory effects of aqueous spirulina and chlorella extract on human liver cancer cells, HepG2, were also studied and compared in pairs. Results indicated that the total phenol content of spirulina was almost five times greater than that of chlorella (6.86 +/- 0.58 vs 1.44 +/- 0.04 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of algae powder, respectively). The antioxidant activity of spirulina determined by the ABTS*+ method was higher than chlorella (EC50: 72.44 +/- 0.24 micromol of trolox equivalent/g of spirulina extract vs 56.09 +/- 1.99 micromol of trolox equivalent/g of chlorella extract). Results of DPPH* assay also showed a similar trend as the ABTS*+ assay (EC50: 19.39 +/- 0.65 micromol of ascorbic acid equivalent/g of spirulina extract vs 14.04 +/- 1.06 micromol of ascorbic acid equivalent/g of chlorella extract). The aqueous extracts of these two algae both showed antiproliferative effects on HSC and HepG2, but spirulina was a stronger inhibitor than chlorella. Annexin-V staining showed that aqueous extract of spirulina induced apoptosis of HSC after 12 h of treatment. In addition, the aqueous extract of spirulina triggered a cell cycle arrest of HSC at the G2/M phase. PMID:15884862

  10. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  11. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  12. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  13. [Pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina plantensis with digested piggery wastewater ].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-qing; Liu, Rui; Luo, Jin-fei; Wang, Gen-rong; Chen, Lii-jun; Liu, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    The swine waste pretreated with coagulation sedimentation was used for the outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina platensis isolated from digested piggery wastewater (DPW) in a raceway pond. The growth of S. platensis and removal of nitrogen/ phosphorus were studied, moreover, the conversion efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) from DPW to S. platensis was calculated. On this basis, the existing problems and countermeasures during outdoor pilot-scale culture were analyzed and summarized combined with the laboratory research. We conducted 6 batches culture experiments, only 3 of which could reach the S. platensis harvest requirements (D560 >0. 8). Meanwhile, the 3 successful batches achieved removal of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN, TP with corresponding 28. 6% -48. 5% , 0.4% -48. 5% , 41. 8% -48. 6% , 14. 3% -94. 5% , and the conversion efficiency of TN or TP from DPW to S. platensis reached 12. 1% -98. 5% , 21.2% -83.7% , respectively. High concentration of ammonia nitrogen and insect attack of remaining egg hatching in the pretreated swine waste were the main factors to cause the slow-growing of the 3 batches of S. platensis. Therefore, it is highly necessary for the removal of ammonia nitrogen with biological treatment technology and insect eggs with membrane to achieve a stable high productivity. PMID:25518669

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the allophycocyanin genes from Spirulina maxima (Cyanophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Hiroyuki, Kojima; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    The genes coding for the α-and β-subunit of allophycocyanin ( apcA and apcB) from the cyanophyte Spirulina maxima were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed 44.4% of nucleotide sequence similarity and 30.4% of similarity of deduced amino acid sequence between them. The amino acid sequence identities between S. maxima and S. platensis are 99.4% for α subunit and 100% for β subunit.

  15. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A(H1N1) virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies indicate that Immulina, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is a potent activator of innate immune cells and that Braun-type lipoproteins (a principal toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand) are the main active components within this product. In the present study, ...

  16. Spirulina cultivation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  17. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  18. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  19. Ecology of beach wrack in northern New England with special reference to Orchestia platensis*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbehani, Manaf I.; Croker, Robert A.

    1982-12-01

    The northern New England beach wrack community with special reference to the cosmopolitan amphipod crustacean, Orchestia platensis, was examined at estuarine and open coastal habitats. Beach wrack was dominated by the plant genera Ascophyllum, Zostera, Spartina and Chondrus, and was most abundant during spring and late summer. Animal community numbers, biomass and frequency in fresh to moderately decomposed wrack were dominated by O. platensis throughout the year at all habitats; oligochaetes and Collembola were also important. The abundance of O. platensis showed high spatial and temporal variability, with low abundance generally associated with decreased amounts of wrack during colder months. An exception was the winter presence of the species at one estuarine habitat, in patchy aggregations within gravel-cobble refuges. The abundance of O. platensis averaged 1280 (0.04 m 2) -1, with a maximum of 7040 (0.04 m 2) -1. The life cycle of O. platensis is bivoltine, with summer-hatched young reaching maturity within 1 month. Laboratory studies indicate females with up to 4 broods (30 days) -1, averaging 18 eggs brood -1. Orchestia platensis is omnivorous, eating fresh plant tissue, live oligochaetes, Limulus eggs and diatom 'fuzz'. The rate of laboratory consumption of algae and Zostera was 0.05 mg plant mg -1 wet body weight day -1. Presumptive predators of O. platensis are juvenile green crab, Carcinus maenus, and the earwig. Anisolabis maritima. The mobility, aggregation and aggressiveness of O. platensis assist the species in establishing and maintaining populations in the rigorous wrack habitat. The general competitive superiority of O. platensis over its congener, O. gammarella, and the co-occurrence of these species on both eastern and western Atlantic shores is discussed.

  20. Modification of algae with zinc, copper and silver ions for usage as natural composite for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Mahltig, B; Soltmann, U; Haase, H

    2013-03-01

    Nanometer sized metal particles are used in many applications as antimicrobial materials. However in public discussion nanoparticular materials are a matter of concern due to potential health risks. Hence there is a certain demand for alternative antimicrobial acting materials. For this, the aim of this work is to realize an antimicrobial active material based on the release of metal ions from a natural depot. By this, the use of elemental metal particles or metal oxide particles in nanometer or micrometer scale is avoided. As natural depot four different algae materials (gained from Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesicolosus, Spirulina platensis and Nannochloropsis) are used and loaded by bioabsorption with metal ions Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). The amount of metal bound by biosorption differs strongly in the range of 0.8 to 5.4 mg/g and depends on type of investigated algae material and type of metal ion. For most samples a smaller release of biosorbed Ag(+) and Cu(2+) is observed compared to a strong release of Zn(2+). The antibacterial activity of the prepared composites is investigated with Escherichia coli. Algae material without biosorbed metal has only a small effect on E. coli. Also by modification of algae with Zn(2+) only a small antibacterial property can be observed. Only with biosorption of Ag(+), the algae materials gain a strong bactericidal effect, even in case of a small amount of released silver ions. These silver modified algae materials can be used as highly effective bactericidal composites which may be used in future applications for the production of antimicrobial textiles, papers or polymer materials. PMID:25427514

  1. Vitmin A, nutrition, and health values of algea: spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro ...

  2. Spirulina acceptability trials in rats. A study for the ``Melissa'' life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquille, N.; Emeis, J. J.; de Chambure, D.; Binot, R.; Tamponnet, C.

    1994-11-01

    Groups of five rats were fed for sixteen weeks a slightly deficient diet, supplemented with 0-40% of a dried preparation of the blue-green alga Spirulina as a protein source. Control groups were fed a normal rat diet. No significant differences between groups were found in food intake, growth rate or carbon dioxide production. All animals remained apparently healthy, and had similar organ weights. The study suggests taht Spirulina may be used as a protein source in rat diets.

  3. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    PubMed

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  4. Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications

    PubMed Central

    Karkos, P. D.; Leong, S. C.; Karkos, C. D.; Sivaji, N.; Assimakopoulos, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms and may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed. PMID:18955364

  5. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    PubMed

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  6. A method for rapid isolation of total RNA of high purity and yield from Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ravi Ramesh; Lochab, Sunila

    2010-07-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is widely used as a food supplement and has been an economically important species for centuries. However, the genetic aspect of studies of this particular organism has always been neglected, mainly because of the nonavailability of suitable methods for isolation of nucleic acids and the difficulties faced during further manipulations. Although total RNA has been isolated using commercially available kits, we present a method optimized to obtain DNA-free total RNA of higher yields and higher purity in less time than is required by other methods (<2 h). It involves hot phenol - chloroform - IAA extraction using an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:2 followed by lithium chloride precipitation and 70% ethanol wash. This method, optimized for the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, eliminates the need for DNase treatment and produces high-quality RNA, as validated by bioanalyzer, RT-PCR, and cloning. With the recent release of the Arthrospira genome, the current method will be of great value for carrying out high-throughput studies like microarray and real-time PCR. PMID:20651857

  7. Evaluation of cyanobacteria: Spirulina maxima for growth, nutrient removal, and quality on waste-effluent media in batch cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, M.G.; Phillips, J. )

    1992-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, a semi-microscopic filamentous blue-green alga, was inoculated in synthetic and waste media of different sources. The alga was evaluated for growth yield, uptake of nutrients and chemical composition. The removal rate of N and P was rapid during the first week of growth. At the end of the second week, more than 90% of the total -P and -N was removed. The mass of alga was high. The quality of the alga obtained in different media did not show much variations, except when the medium was limited in nutrients. Results indicated that Spirulina may be integrated into the effluent treatment system. Recycling waste materials not only minimizes the problem of water pollution but also revitalizes the inherently rich nutrients of waste. The biomass obtained from cultivation of Spirulina in these wastewater media may be used as a pigment-protein supplement in animal feed and as raw material for certain chemicals.

  8. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with Recovered Phosphorus from Wastewater by Means of Zeolite Sorption

    PubMed Central

    Markou, Giorgos; Depraetere, Orily; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P) source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15–1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%–20% (control). Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control. PMID:25690037

  9. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with recovered phosphorus from wastewater by means of zeolite sorption.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Depraetere, Orily; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P) source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15-1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%-20% (control). Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control. PMID:25690037

  10. Adenylate cyclase in Arthrospira platensis responds to light through transcription.

    PubMed

    Kashith, M; Keerthana, B; Sriram, S; Ramamurthy, V

    2016-08-19

    Cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule, but its role in higher plants was in doubt due to its very low concentration. In this study we wanted to look at the flux of cAMP in response to light in algae, considered to be the more primitive form of photosynthetic organisms. While it did not fluctuate very much in the tested green algae, in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis its level was closely linked to exposure to light. The expression from cyaC, the major isoform of adenylate cyclase was strongly influenced by exposure of the cells to light. There was about 300 fold enhancement of cyaC transcripts in cells exposed to light compared to the transcripts in cells in the dark. Although post-translational regulation of adenylate cyclase activity has been widely known, our studies suggest that transcriptional control could also be an important aspect of its regulation in A. platensis. PMID:27311855

  11. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  12. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.

    1988-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for space craft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for two strains of Spirulina: S. maxima and S. plantensis. Fast growth rate and high yield of both strains were obtained under the following conditions: temperature (30 to 35 C), light irradiance (60 to 100 uE/m/s), nitrate (30 mM), phosphate (2 mM), aeration (300 ml/min), and ph (9 to 10). The partitioning of the assimalatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. The experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions (high light 120 uE/m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. Conclusion: The nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions, and therefore usful as a subsystem in CELSS.

  13. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  14. The effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, Carlo; Leung, Patrick SC; Fischer, Laura; German, Bruce; Yang, Chen-Yen; Kenny, Thomas P; Cysewski, Gerry R; Gershwin, M Eric

    2011-01-01

    Anemia and immunological dysfunction (i.e. immunosenescence) are commonly found in older subjects and nutritional approaches are sought to counteract these phenomena. Spirulina is a filamentous and multicellular bule-green alga capable of reducing inflammation and also manifesting antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in senior citizens with a history of anemia. We enrolled 40 volunteers of both sexes with an age of 50 years or older who had no history of major chronic diseases. Participants took a Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks and were administered comprehensive dietary questionnaires to determine their nutritional regimen during the study. Complete cell count (CCC) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity, as a sign of immune function, were determined at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation. Thirty study participants completed the entire study and the data obtained were analyzed. Over the 12-week study period, there was a steady increase in average values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin in subjects of both sexes. In addition, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration also increased in male participants. Older women appeared to benefit more rapidly from Spirulina supplements. Similarly, the majority of subjects manifested increased IDO activity and white blood cell count at 6 and 12 weeks of Spirulina supplementation. Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in older subjects. We encourage large human studies to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in randomized clinical trials. PMID:21278762

  15. A Spirulina-Enhanced Diet Provides Neuroprotection in an α-Synuclein Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pabon, Mibel M.; Jernberg, Jennifer N.; Morganti, Josh; Contreras, Jessika; Hudson, Charles E.; Klein, Ronald L.; Bickford, Paula C.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action. PMID:23028885

  16. A spirulina-enhanced diet provides neuroprotection in an α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pabon, Mibel M; Jernberg, Jennifer N; Morganti, Josh; Contreras, Jessika; Hudson, Charles E; Klein, Ronald L; Bickford, Paula C

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action. PMID:23028885

  17. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  18. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  19. Adsorptive removal of dye using biochar derived from residual algae after in-situ transesterification: Alternate use of waste of biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Piyushi; Subramanian, K A; Dastidar, M G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this present study was to utilize the residual biomass (DB) of Spirulina platensis algae, left after in-situ transesterification, for biochar preparation. This is a solid waste residue of biodiesel industry. The biochar (BC) prepared was examined for its capacity to adsorb congo red dye from the aqueous solution. The results were compared with other adsorbents used in the study such as commercial activated carbon (AC), original algae biomass (AB) and DB. The results of proximate analysis of BC showed the decrease in the percentage of volatile matter and an increase in fixed carbon content compared to DB. The physico-chemical properties of BC were studied using elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The AC and BC adsorbents showed better performance in removing 85.4% and 82.6% of dye respectively from solution compared to AB (76.6%) and DB (78.1%). The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution on the adsorption phenomena was studied by conducting the batch adsorption experiments. The highest specific uptake for biochar was observed at acidic pH of 2 with 0.2 g/100 ml of adsorbent dosage and 90 mg/l of initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to three isotherms, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Freundlich model proved to show the best suited results with value of correlation coefficient of 99.12%. Thus, the application of DB for production of biochar as potential adsorbent supports sustainability of algae biodiesel. PMID:27474901

  20. Clinical Effects of Subgingivally Delivered Spirulina Gel in Chronic Periodontitis Cases: A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Mahendra, Little; Muthu, Jananni; John, Libby; Romanos, Georgios E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of Spirulina in-situ gel as an adjunct to Scaling And Root Planning (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis subjects. Material and Methods: 64 sites were selected with probing pocket depth of ≥5mm and they were divided into 2 groups; 33 sites were treated with SRP along with spirulina gel (Group A) and 31 sites were treated with SRP alone (Group B). Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline before SRP and at 120th day after the treatment therapy. The parameters included Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Results: Both the groups showed significant improvement in the parameters. However, Group A (SRP along with spirulina) showed statistically significant decrease in mean probing pocket depth and gain in the clinical attachment level after 120 days as compared to Group B SRP alone. Conclusion: Locally delivered spirulina gel, along with scaling and root planning, has been shown to cause a beneficial impact. The efficacy of the product as a local drug delivery system in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis without any side effects has been proved. Spirulina appears to be promising. It exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects which are closely connected with its antioxidative activity. This study can have a significant impact on the treatment procedures of periodontitis, with the use of blue green algae in the future. PMID:24298522

  1. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  2. Blue-Green Algae Inhibit the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Wegner, Casey J; Park, Young-Ki; Balunas, Marcy; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia and inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective was to determine antiatherogenic effect of edible blue-green algae (BGA) species, that is, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC, 15% fat and 0.2% cholesterol by wt) control diet or a HF/HC diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of NO or SP powder for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured, and livers were analyzed for histology and gene expression. Morphometric analysis for lesions and immunohistochemical analysis for CD68 were conducted in the aorta and the aortic root. NO supplementation significantly decreased plasma TC and TG, and liver TC, compared to control and SP groups. In the livers of NO-fed mice, less lipid droplets were present with a concomitant decrease in fatty acid synthase protein levels than the other groups. There was a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels in SP-supplemented mice than in control and NO groups. Quantification of aortic lesions by en face analysis demonstrated that both NO and SP decreased aortic lesion development to a similar degree compared with control. While lesions in the aortic root were not significantly different between groups, the CD68-stained area in the aortic root was significantly lowered in BGA-fed mice than controls. In conclusion, both NO and SP supplementation decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that they may be used as a natural product for atheroprotection. PMID:26566121

  3. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  4. Utilization of recovered nitrogen from hydrothermal carbonization process by Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Changhong; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Wu, Peichun; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-07-01

    In the context of sustainable cultivation of microalgae, the present study focused on the use of nitrogen from the hot-water extracted biomass residue of Arthrospira platensis by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and the sequential cultivation of the same alga with the HTC aqueous phase (AP). Nearly 90% of the nitrogen recovered from HTC into AP was in the organic form. Under nitrogen-limited condition with HTCAP as nitrogen source the yield and content of carbohydrate were enhanced by 21% and 15% respectively compared with that under the same nitrogen level provided by NaNO3, which entitled HTCAP for the substitution of conventional nitrate. In the same way pilot-scale cultivation of A. platensis in raceway ponds outdoors demonstrated that carbohydrate content of 43.8% DW and productivity of 10.3g/m(2)/d was achieved. Notably 54% of organic nitrogen in the HTCAP could be recycled by cultivation of pre-nitrogen starved A. platensis as seeds under nitrogen limitation. PMID:27070286

  5. Identification of differentially expressed proteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ under salt-stress conditions by proteomics and qRT-PCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis as a representative species of cyanobacteria has been recognized and used worldwide as a source of protein in the food, which possesses some unusual and valuable physiological characteristics, such as alkali and salt tolerance. Based on complete genome sequencing of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different salt-stress conditions (i.e. 0.02 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively), using 2-D electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting, and retrieved 141 proteins showing significantly differential expression in response to salt-stress. Of the 141 proteins, 114 Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ proteins were found with significant homology to those found in Arthrospira (76 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 38 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The remaining 27 proteins belong to other bacteria. Subsequently, we determined the transcriptional level of 29 genes in vivo in response to NaCl treatments and verified them by qRT-PCR. We found that 12 genes keep consistency at both transcription and protein levels, and transcription of all of them but one were up-regulated. We classified the 141 differentially expressed proteins into 18 types of function categories using COG database, and linked them to their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. These proteins are involved in 31 metabolism pathways, such as photosynthesis, glucose metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, lysine synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism. Additionally, the SRPs, heat shock protein and ABC transporter proteins were identified, which probably render Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis’s resistance against high salt stress. PMID:23363438

  6. Study of Selecting on Light Source Used for Micro-algae Cultivation in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Weidang; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang; Qin, Li-Feng

    To select suitable light source for micro-algae cultivation in future space station, the selected Spirulina plastensis(No.7) were cultured under different lightening qualities, including six light sources that were made up of different combinations of red and blue light-emitting diode(LED). The growth, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the experiments, the red light may promote the cumulation of biomass of the Spirulina, and the cumulating rate was the highest under all red light source, but the syntheses of protein, phycobiliprotein, β-carotene, VE and other nutrients needs a certain portion of blue light; yet, the complete blue light condition is not favorable to the growth of Spirulina, and may bring pollution by chlorella and other kinds of micro-algae. It is concluded that the LEDs can be used as the light resource of micro-algae cultivation. The normal growth and development of microalgae need two light sources of both red and blue LEDs. The comprehensive analyses of the various factors that affect the growth of Spirulina, such as nutrition quality and photosynthetic activities, etc., showed that the combination of 80% red and 20% blue LED is the optimum one among those tested combinations. Key word: light-emitting diode; micro-algae; controlled ecological life support system (CELSS); space cultivation

  7. The influence of obesity on the effects of spirulina supplementation in the human metabolic response of Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immuno-modulation, antioxidant capacity, and lipid-lowering effect of spirulina in obese and non-obese Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 78 elderly aged 60-87 years. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects were fed either placebo or spirulina daily, at 8 g for 12 weeks. Subjects were divided into the non-obese group and the obese group based on body mass index (BMI) criteria for Asians suggested by the International Obesity Task Force: BMI < 25 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (obese). RESULTS In the non-obese group, spirulina supplementation showed a significant lowering effect on plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-2 concentration (P < 0.01) and a significant increment (P < 0.05) in IL-2/IL-6 ratio, and a significant increase in total antioxidant status level and a significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level. However, these effects were not observed in the obese group. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrated that blood lipid lowering and immune and antioxidant improving response for spirulina supplement was affected by obesity in Korean elderly. PMID:27478549

  8. Construction of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 and Metabolic Design for Cyanobacterial Bioproduction

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kojima, Yuta; Toya, Yoshihiro; Furusawa, Chikara; Kondo, Akihiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a promising feedstock and host strain for bioproduction because of its high accumulation of glycogen and superior characteristics for industrial production. Metabolic simulation using a genome-scale metabolic model and flux balance analysis is a powerful method that can be used to design metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of target molecule production. In this study, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of A. platensis NIES-39 including 746 metabolic reactions and 673 metabolites, and developed novel strategies to improve the production of valuable metabolites, such as glycogen and ethanol. The simulation results obtained using the metabolic model showed high consistency with experimental results for growth rates under several trophic conditions and growth capabilities on various organic substrates. The metabolic model was further applied to design a metabolic network to improve the autotrophic production of glycogen and ethanol. Decreased flux of reactions related to the TCA cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate reaction were found to improve glycogen production. Furthermore, in silico knockout simulation indicated that deletion of genes related to the respiratory chain, such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c oxidase, could enhance ethanol production by using ammonium as a nitrogen source. PMID:26640947

  9. Construction of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 and Metabolic Design for Cyanobacterial Bioproduction.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kojima, Yuta; Toya, Yoshihiro; Furusawa, Chikara; Kondo, Akihiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a promising feedstock and host strain for bioproduction because of its high accumulation of glycogen and superior characteristics for industrial production. Metabolic simulation using a genome-scale metabolic model and flux balance analysis is a powerful method that can be used to design metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of target molecule production. In this study, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of A. platensis NIES-39 including 746 metabolic reactions and 673 metabolites, and developed novel strategies to improve the production of valuable metabolites, such as glycogen and ethanol. The simulation results obtained using the metabolic model showed high consistency with experimental results for growth rates under several trophic conditions and growth capabilities on various organic substrates. The metabolic model was further applied to design a metabolic network to improve the autotrophic production of glycogen and ethanol. Decreased flux of reactions related to the TCA cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate reaction were found to improve glycogen production. Furthermore, in silico knockout simulation indicated that deletion of genes related to the respiratory chain, such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c oxidase, could enhance ethanol production by using ammonium as a nitrogen source. PMID:26640947

  10. Edible blue-green algae reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting NF-κB pathway in macrophages and splenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Park, Youngki; Kim, Bohkyung; Shin, Min; Kang, Insoo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of pathological disorders including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Identification of anti-inflammatory natural products can prevent the inflammatory diseases. Methods Anti-inflammatory effects of blue-green algae (BGA), i.e., Nostoc commune var. Sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina Platensis (SP), were compared in RAW 264.7 and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) as well as splenocytes from apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE−/−) mice fed BGA. Results When macrophages pretreated with 100 μg/ml NO lipid extract (NOE) or SP lipid extract (SPE) were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6, were significantly repressed. NOE and SPE also significantly repressed the expression of TNFα and IL-1β in BMM. LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 was lower in splenocytes from apoE−/− fed an atherogenic diet containing 5% NO or SP for 12 weeks. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, NOE and SPE markedly decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The degree of repression of pro-inflammatory gene expression by algal extracts was much stronger than that of SN50, an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Trichostatin A, a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased basal expression of IL-1β and attenuated the repression of the gene expression by SPE. SPE significantly down-regulated mRNA abundance of 11 HDAC isoforms, consequently increasing acetylated histone 3 levels. Conclusion NOE and SPE repress pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion in macrophages and splenocytes via inhibition of NF-κB pathway. Histone acetylation state is likely involved in the inhibition. General significance This study underscores natural products can exert anti-inflammatory effects by epigenetic modifications such as histone acetylation. PMID:23357040

  11. Hypolipidemic Effect of a Blue-Green Alga (Nostoc commune) Is Attributed to Its Nonlipid Fraction by Decreasing Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Weller, Curtis L; Carr, Timothy P; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that Nostoc commune var. sphaeroids Kützing (NO), a blue-green alga (BGA), exerts a hypolipidemic effect in vivo and its lipid extract regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic effect of NO is attributed to an algal lipid or a delipidated fraction in vivo compared with Spirulina platensis (SP). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 2.5% or 5% of BGA (w/w) or a lipid extract equivalent to 5% of BGA for 4 weeks to measure plasma and liver lipids, hepatic gene expression, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in 2.5% and 5% NO-fed groups, while plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in the 5% NO group compared with controls. However, neither NO organic extract (NOE) nor SP-fed groups altered plasma lipids. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 were induced in 5% NO-fed mice, while there were no significant changes in hepatic lipogenic gene expression between groups. NO, but not NOE and SP groups, significantly decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. When HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with NOE and SP organic extract (SPE), there were marked decreases in protein levels of HMGR, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, the nonlipid fraction of NO exerts TC and TG-lowering effects primarily by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and by increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, respectively. PMID:26161942

  12. 77 FR 54862 - GNT USA, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... blue-green cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (also known as Spirulina platensis) as a color additive...-green cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (also known as Spirulina platensis) as a color additive...

  13. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.

    1993-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima as a biogenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for the space craft crew in a CELSS, was evaluated in an effort to increase the growth rate, biomass, yield, and chemical analysis in continuous cultures. The cell characteristics were determined for cultures maintained at steady state with respect to the substrate concentration. The productivity increased in experiments exposed to low light (30 uE m(exp -2)s(exp -1). Oxygen evolved and protein production were higher in cultures exposed to low light intensity. There was a relationship between nitrate concentration and the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of nitrate in the growth medium up to 20 mM was enough to produce a culture having the same chemical composition as that of complete medium. High light was inhibiting the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of phosphate beyond 1 mM did not improve the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of sodium chloride in the growth medium did not affect the growth of the alga up to 0.1 M but beyond that the culture started to be stressed. The response to stress appeared in high production of total carbohydrate on the expense of protein production. The oxygen production was also higher in cultures stressed with sodium chloride.

  14. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Wing; Takayama, Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4+/CD8+) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression. PMID:23170052

  15. Tocopherol fate in plasma and liver of streptozotocin-treated rats that orally received antioxidants and Spirulina extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, D; Rupérez, F J; Ugarte, P; Barbas, C

    2007-07-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats constitute a model of oxidative stress, and vitamin E continues to be a topic of speculation in this area. On the other hand, marine extracts, particularly microalgae extracts obtained with environmentally clean technologies and which demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro, are a potential source of in vivo antioxidant defense. We have studied the alpha-tocopherol content in the plasma and liver of diabetic rats after 7 and 14 days under the condition, and before and after the treatment with vitamin E and C, as well as with different Spirulina extracts, as compared with the corresponding controls. The improvement of analytical methodology related to the determination of alpha-tocopherol in the plasma and liver of rats was also considered. To do this, a method previously developed for plasma, employing a single extraction step, was adapted and validated for liver after minor modifications. Moreover, stability of alpha-tocopherol in plasma of diabetic and control animals was compared in different storage conditions. Results showed that diabetic plasma strongly influences stability of alpha-tocopherol, even at -20 degrees C, but samples are stable for at least one year at -80 degrees C. Finally, regarding supplementation, results indicate that supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increases stored alpha-tocopherol in liver, but not in plasma, but this availability is strongly dependent on the stage of diabetes of the animal. Extracts of Spirulina platensis, despite showing antioxidant activity in vitro, increased alpha-tocopherol concentration in neither plasma nor liver. PMID:18271281

  16. Harvesting carbohydrate-rich Arthrospira platensis by spontaneous settling.

    PubMed

    Depraetere, Orily; Pierre, Guillaume; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Badri, Hanène; Foubert, Imogen; Leys, Natalie; Markou, Giorgos; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michaud, Philippe; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-03-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is an attractive feedstock for carbohydrate-based biofuels because it accumulated up to 74% of carbohydrates when nitrogen stressed. Nitrogen stressed A. platensis also settled spontaneously, and this occurred simultaneously with carbohydrates accumulation, suggesting a link between both phenomena. The increased settling velocity was neither due to production of extracellular carbohydrates, nor due to degradation of gas vacuoles, but was caused by an increase in the specific density of the filaments as a result of accumulation of carbohydrates under the form of glycogen. Settling velocities of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis reached 0.64mh(-1), which allowed the biomass to be harvested using a lamella separator. The biomass could be concentrated at least 15 times, allowing removal of 94% of the water using gravity settling, thus offering a potential application as a low-cost and high-throughput method for primary dewatering of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis. PMID:25585253

  17. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  18. Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Emi

    2002-10-01

    Substantial amounts of vitamin B12 were found in some edible algae (green and purple lavers) and algal health food (chlorella and spirulina tablets) using the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC7830 microbiological assay method. Corrinoid-compounds were purified and characterized from these algae to clarify the chemical properties and bioavailability of the algal vitamin B12. True vitamin B12 is the predominate cobamide of green and purple lavers and chlorella tablets. Feeding the purple laver to vitamin B12-deficient rats significantly improved the vitamin B12 status. The results suggest that algal vitamin B12 is a bioavailable source for mammals. Pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid) predominated in the spirulina tablets, which are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially for vegetarians. algal health food, bioavailability, cobalamin, edible algae, vitamin B12 PMID:12656203

  19. Anticlastogenic effect of Spirulina maxima extract on the micronuclei induced by maleic hydrazide in Tradescantia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Flores, L Elvia; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Salazar, María; Chamorro, Germán

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if extracts of Spirulina maxima reduce the genotoxic damage induced by maleic hydrazide (MH) using the Tradescantia biosssay. Two types of extracts from the alga were prepared: an aqueous extract with two different concentrations, 100 and 500 mg/ml, and a second one, the extract of a 1% solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which corresponded to 100 mg/ml of the alga. The capacity of MH to induce micronuclei (MN) was initially established by administering 0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 mg/ml of the chemical to the Tradescantia inflorescences, and observing its effect after 24 h.The results of this experiment showed a significant MN increase with the two high concentrations tested, although no dose-response effect was observed. For the anticlastogenic assay, the extracts of Spirulina were applied to the inflorescences alone or immediately before the application of MH (0.01 mg/ml) and the induced MN were observed 24 h later. We found that none of the extracts increased the MN level with respect to the untreated plants; also, that MH more or less doubled the basal micronuclei frequency, and finally, that all tested extracts reduced the genotoxic damage caused by MH. The inhibitory indices obtained for the aqueous extracts (100 and 500 mg/ml) and for the DMSO extract were respectively 59, 85, and 56.3%. These data indicate that Spirulina is an anticlastogenic agent and suggest that it is advisable to extend studies on this matter using other biological models. PMID:12527032

  20. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities of microalgae Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ruitang; Chow, Te-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Spirulina is free-floating filamentous microalgae growing in alkaline water bodies. With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and viral infections. The cardiovascular benefits of Spirulina are primarily resulted from its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities. Data from preclinical studies with various animal models consistently demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of Spirulina. Although differences in study design, sample size, and patient conditions resulting in minor inconsistency in response to Spirulina supplementation, the findings from human clinical trials are largely consistent with the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina observed in the preclinical studies. However, most of the human clinical trials are suffered with limited sample size and some with poor experimental design. The antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory activities of Spirulina were demonstrated in a large number of preclinical studies. However, a limited number of clinical trials have been carried out so far to confirm such activities in human. Currently, our understanding on the underlying mechanisms for Spirulina's activities, especially the hypolipidemic effect, is limited. Spirulina is generally considered safe for human consumption supported by its long history of use as food source and its favorable safety profile in animal studies. However, rare cases of side-effects in human have been reported. Quality control in the growth and process of Spirulina to avoid contamination is mandatory to guarantee the safety of Spirulina products. PMID:20633020

  1. Spirulina is an effective dietary source of zeaxanthin to humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zeaxanthin is a predominant xanthophyll in human eyes and may reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Spirulina is an algal food that contains a high concentration of zeaxanthin. In order to determine zeaxanthin bioavailability of spirulina for dietary supplementation in h...

  2. Hypolipidemic, Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Activities of Microalgae Spirulina

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruitang; Chow, Te-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Spirulina is free-floating filamentous microalgae growing in alkaline water bodies. With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. The cardiovascular benefits of Spirulina are primarily resulted from its hypolipidemic, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Data from preclinical studies with various animal models consistently demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of Spirulina. Although differences in study design, sample size and patient conditions resulting in minor inconsistency in response to Spirulina supplementation, the findings from human clinical trials are largely consistent with the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina observed in the preclinical studies. However, most of the human clinical trials are suffered with limited sample size and some with poor experimental design. The antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory activities of Spirulina were demonstrated in a large number of preclinical studies. However, a limited number of clinical trials have been carried out so far to confirm such activities in human. Currently, our understanding on the underlying mechanisms for Spirulina’s activities, especially the hypolipidemic effect, is limited. Spirulina is generally considered safe for human consumption supported by its long history of use as food source and its favorable safety profile in animal studies. However, rare cases of side-effects in human have been reported. Quality control in the growth and process of Spirulina to avoid contamination is mandatory to guarantee the safety of Spirulina products. PMID:20633020

  3. Extraction of light filth from spirulina powders and tablets: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J; Angold, S; Beavin, B B; Bradicich, R B; Decker, S J; Dzidowski, G R; Levesque, E; Locatelli, R G; Mably, M; Paredes, A

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from spirulina (a blue-green alga) powder and tablets. A 50 g portion of either powder or tablets is dispersed in water, and then boiled with dilute HCI solution. Hairs and insect fragments are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, flotation with mineral oil, and washings of the mineral oil in a percolator. Average recoveries by 12 collaborators for tablets and powders were 70.6 and 70.2%, respectively, for 10 rat hair spikes and 68.3 and 84.4%, respectively, for 20 insect fragment spikes. The method has been approved interim official first action. PMID:2501292

  4. Feeding preference of the South American endemic anomuran Aegla platensis (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae).

    PubMed

    Colpo, Karine Delevati; Ribeiro, Liara Colpo; Wesz, Bruna; Ribeiro, Ludmilla Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    In order to determine the feeding preference of Aegla platensis in streams and the importance of microorganisms in its detritivore diet, we carried out two experiments designed to evaluate the food preferences of A. platensis (1) among leaves with different levels of microbial colonization and (2) among insect larvae (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae) and microbially conditioned leaves. A. platensis preferred animal over plant food items; when only leaves were offered, this aeglid preferred the leaves with higher levels of microorganism conditioning. PMID:22361904

  5. Feeding preference of the South American endemic anomuran Aegla platensis (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpo, Karine Delevati; Ribeiro, Liara Colpo; Wesz, Bruna; Ribeiro, Ludmilla Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    In order to determine the feeding preference of Aegla platensis in streams and the importance of microorganisms in its detritivore diet, we carried out two experiments designed to evaluate the food preferences of A. platensis (1) among leaves with different levels of microbial colonization and (2) among insect larvae (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae) and microbially conditioned leaves. A. platensis preferred animal over plant food items; when only leaves were offered, this aeglid preferred the leaves with higher levels of microorganism conditioning.

  6. Supercritical CO2 extraction of functional compounds from Spirulina and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    K G, Mallikarjun Gouda; K, Udaya Sankar; R, Sarada; G A, Ravishankar

    2015-06-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and fractionation of Spirulina platensis was carried out to obtain functional compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Extraction of SCCO2 was carried out using 200 g of Spirulina powder at 40 ºC under 120 bar pressure with CO2 flow rate of 1.2 kg h(-1). SCCO2 fraction obtained was further treated with hexane and ethyl acetate to identify its components. Individual components were identified by comparing mass spectra of samples with standard data and retention indices (RI) of C5-C20 n-alkanes mixture using the kovat index formula. The phenolic and flavonoid content of the SCCO2 extract was found to be 0.34 ± 0.01 g/100 g and 0.12 ± 0.01 g/100 g respectively. The SCCO2 extract had antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 109.6 ± 3.0 μg mL(-1) for DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical), IC50 value of 81.66 ± 2.5 μg mL(-1) for reducing power and IC50 value of 112.70 ± 0.8 μg mL(-1) for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Further, antioxidant activity study on oxidative induced DNA damage was analysed to elucidate the positive role of SCCO2 extract. SCCO2 extracts showed high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722 and Bacillus cereus F 4810) compared to that of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 108 and Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859). The SCCO2 extract exhibited inhibitory activity on both Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 274 ± 1.0 μg mL(-1) and 307 ± 2.0 μg mL(-1) respectively. PMID:26028745

  7. Fed-batch cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: potassium nitrate and ammonium chloride as simultaneous nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M S; Ferreira, L S; Converti, A; Sato, S; Carvalho, J C M

    2010-06-01

    Arthrospiraplatensis was cultivated in minitanks at 13 klux, using a mixture of KNO(3) and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. Fed-batch daily supply of NH(4)Cl at exponentially-increasing feeding rate allowed preventing ammonia toxicity and nitrogen deficiency, providing high maximum cell concentration (X(m)) and high-quality biomass (21.85 mg chlorophyll g cells(-1); 20.5% lipids; 49.8% proteins). A central composite design combined to response surface methodology was utilized to determine the relationships between responses (X(m), cell productivity and nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor) and independent variables (KNO(3) and NH(4)Cl concentrations). Under optimum conditions (15.5mM KNO(3); 14.1mM NH(4)Cl), X(m) was 4327 mg L(-1), a value almost coincident with that obtained with only 25.4mM KNO(3), but more than twice that obtained with 21.5mM NH(4)Cl. A 30%-reduction of culture medium cost can be estimated when compared to KNO(3)-batch runs, thus behaving as a cheap alternative for the commercial production of this cyanobacterium. PMID:20153635

  8. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina) Biomass and Biopolymer

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Stillings, Christopher; Dersch, Roland; Rudisile, Markus; Pranke, Patrícia; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Wendorff, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications. PMID:25667931

  9. Biofunctionalized nanofibers using Arthrospira (Spirulina) biomass and biopolymer.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Stillings, Christopher; Dersch, Roland; Rudisile, Markus; Pranke, Patrícia; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Wendorff, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications. PMID:25667931

  10. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  11. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  12. Vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in Chinese adults assessed by stable isotope dilution and reference techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Spirulina is a high-protein food supplement that contains carotenoids. Objective: The study aimed at determining the vitamin A equivalence of spirulina beta-carotene in humans. Design: Spirulina was grown in a 23 atom% 2H2O cultural solution. Spirulina beta-carotene showed the highest ab...

  13. Modification of energy-transfer processes in the cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis, to adapt to light conditions, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    In cyanobacteria, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes are modified in response to changes in light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed excitation energy transfer from the phycobilisome and photosystem II to photosystem I in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. The cells were grown under lights with different spectral profiles and under different light intensities, and the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra. The direct energy transfer from the phycobilisome to photosystem I and energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I were modified depending on the light quality, light quantity, and cultivation period. However, the total amount of energy transferred to photosystem I remained constant under the different growth conditions. We discuss the differences in energy-transfer processes under different cultivation and light conditions. PMID:23605291

  14. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  15. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOEpatents

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  16. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), temperature (30 °C), CO2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L(-1)). PMID:24764599

  17. [Determination of micro-elements in natural spirulina using FAAS].

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Ma, W X; Li, L; Sun, X T

    2001-12-01

    The analytic results show that the spirulina powder have a plenty of microelements(K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn). Compared with that of rice, wheat flour, maize and soybean, the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn of it is respectively as from 4 to 10 times, from 10 to 80 times, from 25 to 70 times, from 3 to 15 times, from 4 to 36 times and from 4 to 24 times as theirs. The content of microelements of it compared with vegetable is much higher. The spirulina has a certain inhibition from cancer, high blood pressure, sugar diabetes and hasten body to absorb Se and Mo, and is of benefit to cardiac muscle. The experimental result indicated that spirulina was good health care food with value of nourish and medicinal. PMID:12958919

  18. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. PMID:25621725

  19. Polarotaxis and scototaxis in the supratidal amphipod Platorchestia platensis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Putts, Meagan R

    2013-08-01

    Talitrid amphipods use many cues for orientation during forays between temporary burrows and feeding areas, and for locating beaches when submerged, with visual cues being particularly important. Little evidence exists for polarized light among these visual cues despite extensive orientation by celestial and underwater polarized light in other crustaceans and in insects. We used electroretinography to assess spectral sensitivity in the eye of the beach flea Platorchestia platensis, and behavioral studies to test whether linearly polarized light serves as an orientation cue. Two spectral classes were present in the P. platensis eye with maxima at 431 and 520 nm. Non-uniform orientation of amphipods in the laboratory arena required either light/dark or polarized cues. Scototactic movements depended on arena conditions (day/night, wet/dry), while orientation under linearly polarized light was wavelength-dependent and parallel to the e-vector. Subsequent tests presented conflicting and additive scototactic and polarotactic cues to differentiate among these responses. In dry conditions, orientation parallel to the polarization e-vector overcame a dominant negative scototaxis, confirming that polarotaxis and scototaxis are separate orientation responses in this species. These behavioral results demonstrate talitrid amphipods can perceive and orient to linearly polarized light, and may use it to orient toward preferred zones on beaches. PMID:23653016

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Spirulina maxima on the Azoxymethane-induced Aberrant Colon Crypts and Oxidative Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-González, Isela; Islas-Islas, Víctor; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Barrios, Juan Pablo; Paniagua, Norma; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R.; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Osiris-Madrigal-Santillán; Morales-González, José Antonio; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spirulina maxima (Sm) is a cyanobacterium well known because of its high nutritive value, as well as its anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-genotoxic activities. Objective: To determine the capacity of Sm to inhibit the induction of aberrant colon crypts (AC), as well as the level of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage in mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Materials and Methods: Sm (100, 400, and 800 mg/kg) was daily administered to animals by the oral route during 4 weeks, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to mice twice in weeks 2 and 3 of the assay. We also included a control group of mice orally administered with distilled water along the assay, as well as other group orally administered with the high dose of Sm. Results: A significant decrease in the number of AC with the three tested doses of Sm, with a mean protection of 51.6% respect to the damage induced by AOM. Also, with the three doses of the alga, we found a reduction in the level of lipoperoxidation, as well as in regard to the percentage of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2’- deoxyguanosine. Conclusion: Sm possesses anti-precarcinogenic potential in vivo, as well as capacity to reduce the oxidative damage induced by AOM. SUMMARY Azoxymethane (AOM) induced a high number of colon aberrant crypts in mouse. It also increased the level of peroxidation and of DNA oxidation in the same organ.Spirulina maxima significantly reduced the number of AOM-induced colon aberrant crypts in mouse. It also reduced the AOM-induced lipid and DNA oxidation in mouse.The results suggest a chemopreventive potential for the tested algae. PMID:27013804

  1. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Nirmal D; Edwall, Dan; Lindmark, Lars; Kousoulas, K Gus; Iyer, Arun V; Haron, Mona H; Pasco, David S

    2015-02-15

    A growing body of research indicates that oral administration of bacteria (such as probiotics) can exhibit a protective effect against influenza A (H1N1) viral infection in mice. In the present study, we used a mouse model to examine whether oral administration of Immulina(®), a commercial extract from the cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, can reduce the severity of illness resulting from influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. The main active compounds within Immulina(®) are bacterial Braun-type lipoproteins that activate innate immune cells through a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-dependent pathway. Mice that were fed Immulina(®) for 30 days before and 21 days after infection with influenza A (H1N1) virus exhibited a statistically significant reduction in the severity of infection. Compared to the control group, Immulina(®)-fed mice exhibited less weight loss, increased appetite, decreased clinical signs of disease, and lower lung histopathology scores. The results from the present study adds to the increasing evidence that oral administration of bacterial components that activate innate immune cells, whether derived from a bacterial preparation (probiotics or cyanobacteria) or from plant material containing endophytic bacteria, can exhibit a protective effect against influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. PMID:25765832

  2. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  3. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxin production by phenolic extract from Spirulina sp.

    PubMed

    Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a fungal species complex pathogenic occurring worldwide, mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. The availability of efficient control measures that are less harmful to both the environment and the consumers is urgent. For such, phenolic acids (PAs) from natural sources are known to reduce fungal contaminations. This work aimed to identify the PAs present in a culture extract of Spirulina algae (strain LEB-18) and evaluate its effect on mycelial growth rate, glucosamine level, amylase activity and mycotoxin production by four strains of two lineages of F. graminearum. Results showed that amendment of potato dextrose media with LEB-18 extract (3% w/v), which was mainly composed by gallic acid, greatly reduced radial growth of fungal colonies compared to media containing a single PA and the control. Also, average reductions of 40% and 62% in the glucosamine levels and the amylase activity were observed. In general, the LEB-18 extract and the PAs reduced mycotoxin concentration, with an average reduction of 68% for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. PMID:24485311

  4. Enhancement of immune activation activities of Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  5. Cultivation of an Arthrospira platensis with digested piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Guo, Qingqing; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lüjun; Luo, Jinfei

    2015-01-01

    An Arthrospira platensis strain ZJWST-S1 was isolated in Jiaxing City, China, which proved able to proliferate quickly in undiluted digested piggery wastewater (DPW), and the protein content in the algal biomass was high. Single factor experiments showed that the strain was able to quickly grow in a Zarrouk medium as the dosage of sodium bicarbonate, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus was not less than 4.0 mg·L(-1), 40 mg·L(-1) and 10 mg·L(-1), respectively. No growth inhibition was observed when the culturing medium contained nitrite nitrogen of 0-120 mg·L(-1) and ammonium nitrogen of below 20 mg·L(-1). Five runs of semi-continuous cultivation with DPW as the culturing medium in a 250 L raceway pond showed that the biomass yield in a 9-day semi-continuous culturing was up to 45.2-64.7 g·m(-2)·d(-1), higher than the yields obtained by other researchers, and the crude protein content in biomass was over 50%, meeting the national animal feed grade standard. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were removed from DPW at a rate of 10.9-14.0 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) and 1.3-1.8 mg·L(-1)·d(-1), respectively. The mass balance revealed that 80-93% of TN and 84-98% of TP reduced from DPW were converted to A. platensis biomass. PMID:26540538

  6. Spirulina (Arthrospira) industry in Inner Mongolia of China: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun-Ming; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Yong-Huang

    2011-04-01

    This paper outlines an investigation on current situation of Spirulina (Arthrospira) industry in Inner Mongolia, an internal region of China with temperate continental climate. More than 20 Spirulina plants have been established in Inner Mongolia since 2001, most of which are located at Wulan Town in the Ordos Plateau. By the end of 2009, the total annual production of Spirulina in the Ordos Plateau surpassed 700 t (dw), which account for ca. 80% of the total productivity of Inner Mongolia, and ca. 20% of China. Besides abundant solar radiation and enough freshwater favorable for Spirulina production, the three technical strategies contribute to the prosperity and success of Spirulina industry in the region: (1) reducing the cost or investment by overall advantages of rich local natural resources with low cost for Spirulina production, such as alkaline lakes, coal, electricity, and sandy land; (2) controlling the culture temperature and to avoid contamination by building plastic greenhouses on raceway ponds, (3) reducing investment by simplifying the construction of the ponds and the greenhouses. As the result, the growth period of Spirulina has been prolonged from about 120 to about 165 days, the cost of Spirulina has decreased by 25-30%, and the quality of products has been enhanced substantially. Inner Mongolia is expected to become the largest base for Spirulina production not only in China, but also in the world in the near future. PMID:21544188

  7. [Harmful algae and health].

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Harri T

    2011-01-01

    Harmful algae are a worldwide problem. Phycotoxins is a general term for toxic compounds produced by harmful species of the phytoplankton. This review deals with the occurrence of harmful algae and phycotoxins in the Baltic Sea and other domestic waters, the ways of getting exposed to them, and their effects. Advice on how to avoid the exposure is provided. PMID:21834336

  8. Whole genomic DNA sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of Arthrospira platensis: high genome plasticity and genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Teng; Qin, Song; Hu, Yongwu; Song, Zhijian; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Peizhen; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Fangqing; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62 Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A. platensis YZ and three other Arthrospira speices, some of which have been previously demonstrated that can be laterally transferred among different species, such as restriction-modification systems-coding genes. Moreover, unprecedented extensive chromosomal rearrangements among different strains were observed. The chromosomal rearrangements, particularly the chromosomal inversions, were analysed and estimated to be closely related to palindromes that involved long inverted repeat sequences and the extensively distributed type IIR restriction enzyme in the Arthrospira genome. In addition, species from genus Arthrospira unanimously contained the highest rate of repetitive sequence compared with the other species of order Oscillatoriales, suggested that sequence duplication significantly contributed to Arthrospira genome phylogeny. These results provided in-depth views into the genomic phylogeny and structural variation of A. platensis, as well as provide a valuable resource for functional genomics studies. PMID:27330141

  9. Whole genomic DNA sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of Arthrospira platensis: high genome plasticity and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Teng; Qin, Song; Hu, Yongwu; Song, Zhijian; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Peizhen; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Fangqing; Yang, Huanming; Bao, Qiyu

    2016-08-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62 Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A. platensis YZ and three other Arthrospira speices, some of which have been previously demonstrated that can be laterally transferred among different species, such as restriction-modification systems-coding genes. Moreover, unprecedented extensive chromosomal rearrangements among different strains were observed. The chromosomal rearrangements, particularly the chromosomal inversions, were analysed and estimated to be closely related to palindromes that involved long inverted repeat sequences and the extensively distributed type IIR restriction enzyme in the Arthrospira genome. In addition, species from genus Arthrospira unanimously contained the highest rate of repetitive sequence compared with the other species of order Oscillatoriales, suggested that sequence duplication significantly contributed to Arthrospira genome phylogeny. These results provided in-depth views into the genomic phylogeny and structural variation of A. platensis, as well as provide a valuable resource for functional genomics studies. PMID:27330141

  10. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  11. Vitamin A Value of Spirulina B-carotene in Chinese Adults Assessed by Stable Isotope Dilution Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the vitamin A value of spirulina B-carotene (B-C) in humans, spirulina was intrinsically labeled by growing the plant in 25 atom% 2H2O nutrient solution. Isotopomers of spirulina trans-B-C showed the highest aboundant enrichment at molecular mass plus 10 mass units (2H10 trans-B-C). Ten...

  12. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  13. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. PMID:23430275

  14. Heavy metal analysis in commercial Spirulina products for human consumption

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population’s health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP–MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002–0.028 (Hg), 0.002–0.042 (Mg), 0.005–2.248 (Mn), 0.211–4.672 (Ni) and 0.533–6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food. PMID:24235875

  15. [SPIRULINA AND ITS HYPOLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Hernández Lepe, Marco Antonio; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Several chronic transmissible (e.g. AIDS) and non transmissible diseases like cadiovascular disease, are associated with oxidative stress (EOX) and dyslipidemia. Has been reported that Spirulina can reduce them, this has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models but scarcely in humans. Through a systematic review on last 5 years (keywords: Spirulina AND cholesterol, Spirulina AND oxidative stress) 8 intervention studies with humans were reported, finding that oral (1-10 g/d) subchronic (0.5-6 month) administration of Spirulina appears to have and hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect. However, no study was properly randomized and/or controlled and no biological mechanism was proposed to support these findings. The level of evidence and the absence of appropriate experimental designs do not allow validating Spirulina as a functional food for preventing dyslipidemic diseases and EOX, and hereby decrease the CVD. We do not found papers relating harmful effect. PMID:26268076

  16. Potential complementarity of high-flavanol cocoa powder and spirulina for health protection.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies show that ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa powder provokes increased endothelial production of nitric oxide - an effect likely mediated by epicatchin - and thus may have considerable potential for promoting vascular health. The Kuna Indians of Panama, who regularly consume large amounts of flavanol-rich cocoa, are virtually free of hypertension and stroke, even though they salt their food. Of potentially complementary merit is the cyanobacterium spirulina, which has been used as a food in certain cultures. Spirulina is exceptionally rich in phycocyanobilin (PCB), which recently has been shown to act as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase; this effect likely rationalizes the broad range of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anti-atherosclerotic effects which orally administered spirulina has achieved in rodent studies. In light of the central pathogenic role which NADPH oxidase-derived oxidant stress plays in a vast range of disorders, spirulina or PCB-enriched spirulina extracts may have remarkable potential for preserving and restoring health. Joint administration of flavanol-rich cocoa powder and spirulina may have particular merit, inasmuch as cocoa can mask the somewhat disagreeable flavor and odor of spirulina, whereas the antioxidant impact of spirulina could be expected to amplify the bioactivity of the nitric oxide evoked by cocoa flavanols in inflamed endothelium. Moreover, there is reason to suspect that, by optimizing cerebrovascular perfusion while quelling cerebral oxidant stress, cocoa powder and spirulina could collaborate in prevention of senile dementia. Thus, food products featuring ample amounts of both high-flavanol cocoa powder and spirulina may have considerable potential for health promotion, and merit evaluation in rodent studies and clinical trials. PMID:19577379

  17. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. PMID:26967336

  18. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon. PMID:23305492

  19. Assessment of pharmacokinetic interaction of spirulina with glitazone in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Annu; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar-E; Chattopadhyaya, Ipshita; Gupta, Sumeet

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of spirulina with glitazones in an insulin resistance rat model. Wistar male albino rats were equally divided into five groups: insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), and insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg). Described doses of pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, or spirulina were per orally administered and the plasma drug concentrations were determined. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel were determined by plotting the drug concentration as a function of time. The data observed in this acute study indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel) of glitazones (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) or spirulina, when they were coadministered. Given the promising results, this study concludes that the coadministration of spirulina does not influence the pharmacokinetics of glitazones in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Further chronic in vivo studies are recommended to assess the real time effect. PMID:24328701

  20. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open. PMID:25516500

  1. Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005

    PubMed Central

    Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hanène; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

  2. Production of indole-3-acetic acid by the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mehboob; Stal, Lucas; Hasnain, Shahida

    2010-09-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9 was isolated from a rice field. The ability of this strain to synthesize the bioactive compound indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was demonstrated. IAA was extracted from the culture A. platensis strain MMG-9 and its identity was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) as well as by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The IAA precursor L-tryptophan was required for IAA biosynthesis. Released IAA increased with the increase of the initial concentration of L-tryptophan in the medium and with the incubation time. A. platensis strain MMG-9 accumulates more IAA than it released it into the medium. The bioactivity of the secreted IAA was shown by its effect on the formation of roots by Pisum sativum. There was a significant positive effect of the supernatant of cultures of A. platensis strain MMG-9 on the number of lateral roots of P. sativum while a negative effect on root length was observed. PMID:20890089

  3. Proteome-wide analysis and diel proteomic profiling of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.

    PubMed

    Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hanène; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

  4. Continuous cultivation of Arthrospira platensis using exhausted medium treated with granular activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morocho-Jácome, Ana Lucía; Mascioli, Guilherme Favaro; Sato, Sunao; Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro de

    2015-03-01

    Reusing culture medium of Arthrospira platensis is quite important in large scale production because its inappropriate disposal could exacerbate problems of environmental pollution. This study evaluates the suitability of using different quantities of exhausted Schlösser medium after continuous treatment using granular activated carbon (GAC) with a residence time (T) of 2 h for A. platensis growth in continuous cultivation. A tubular photobioreactor (PBR) and urea as cheap nitrogen source were used, taking as response variables kinetic parameters and biomass composition. The removal of both organic matter and pigment (OMR and PgR, respectively) was measured to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment process. This treatment process yielded high values of OMR (73.7 ± 0.1%) and PgR (52.4 ± 0.4%) using 75% treated medium, thereby A. platensis biomass with high protein content (42.0 ± 0.6%), 1568 ± 15 mg/L cell concentration under steady-state conditions and 941 mg/L d cell productivity. This alternative to simultaneous treatment with GAC for reuse of Schlösser medium in continuous cultivation could ensure no diminution in either cell productivity or protein content in A. platensis cultivation using tubular PBR with 65% reduction in medium culture costs.

  5. A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Ji-Eun; Choi, Young-Ju; Huh, Kap-Bum; Kim, Wha-Young

    2008-01-01

    Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of spirulina intervention in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 37 type 2 diabetic patients who visited a diabetic clinic in Seoul and randomly assigned into spirulina (8 g/day) or control group. During the intervention period of 12 weeks, subjects were asked to keep usual diet and prohibited to take any functional foods or dietary supplements. Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks did not affect anthropometric parameters, however, lowered plasma triglycerides level significantly (p<0.05). Spirulina supplementation also resulted in a significant reduction in plasma malondialdehyde level (p<0.05) and an increase in plasma adiponectin level (p<0.1). The lipid lowering effect of spirulina supplementation was different according to serum lipid levels of the subjects before entering the intervention. The subjects with higher initial triglyceride level showed higher reduction in plasma triglyceride and blood pressure. The subjects with higher initial total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level showed higher reduction in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, and blood pressure. It seems that spirulina supplementation is more effective in subjects with dyslipidemia. This study provides the evidence for beneficial effects of spirulina supplementation on blood lipid profiles, inflammatory variables, and antioxidant capacity in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The results suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for diabetes management. PMID:20016733

  6. Clocks in algae.

    PubMed

    Noordally, Zeenat B; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-01-20

    As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in other taxa have not been as widely applied to algae. We review results from seven species: the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ostreococcus tauri, and Acetabularia spp.; the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium spp.; the euglenozoa Euglena gracilis; and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The relative simplicity, experimental tractability, and ecological and evolutionary diversity of algal systems may now make them particularly useful in integrating quantitative data from "omic" technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with computational and mathematical methods. PMID:25379817

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  8. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  9. Spirulan from blue-green algae inhibits fibrin and blood clots: its potent antithrombotic effects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We investigated in vitro and in vivo fibrinolytic and antithrombotic activity of spirulan and analyzed its partial biochemical properties. Spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide from the blue-green alga Arthrospira platensis, exhibits antithrombotic potency. Spirulan showed a strong fibrin zymogram lysis band corresponding to its molecular mass. It specifically cleaved Aα and Bβ, the major chains of fibrinogen. Spirulan directly decreased the activity of thrombin and factor X activated (FXa), procoagulant proteins. In vitro assays using human fibrin and mouse blood clots showed fibrinolytic and hemolytic activities of spirulan. Spirulan (2 mg/kg) showed antithrombotic effects in the ferric chloride (FeCl3 )-induced carotid arterial thrombus model and collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism mouse model. These results may be attributable to the prevention of thrombus formation and partial lysis of thrombus. Therefore, we suggest that spirulan may be a potential antithrombotic agent for thrombosis-related diseases. PMID:25651404

  10. Production of the α and β Subunits of Spirulina Allophycocyanin and C-Phycocyanin in Escherichia coli : A Comparative Study of Their Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Cherdkiatikul, Thiti; Suwanwong, Yaneenart

    2014-07-01

    Allophycocyanin and c-phycocyanin have been reported to be potent antioxidants. In this work, the genes encoding the apo-proteins of allophycocyanin α (ApcA), allophycocyanin β (ApcB), c-phycocyanin α (CpcA), and c-phycocyanin β (CpcB) from Spirulina platensis were cloned, and the recombinant proteins were produced in Escherichia coli to study their antioxidant effects. All four recombinant phycocyanins could be produced in the soluble form and purified to more than 97% purity. The results of radical scavenging assays showed that the Trolox equivalent values for peroxyl radical scavenging by the ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, and CpcB proteins were 1.81 ± 0.2 µM, 1.98 ± 0.22 µM, 0.95 ± 0.15 µM, and 1.49 ± 0.15 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for hydroxyl radical scavenging of ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, CpcB, and Trolox were 269 ± 9 µg/mL, 190 ± 5 µg/mL, 129 ± 8 µg/mL, 108 ± 4 µg/mL, and 195 ± 12 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicated that allophycocyanin exhibited higher activity than c-phycocyanin in scavenging peroxyl radicals, whereas c-phycocyanin exhibited higher activity than allophycocyanin in scavenging hydroxyl radicals. All of the apo-phycocyanin subunits possessed strong antioxidant activities and can be further developed and applied to the food and drug industries. However, the selection of the most useful antioxidant should depend on the type of targeted free radical to obtain the highest efficiency. PMID:24464435

  11. A structured model for simulation of cultures of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in photobioreactors: I. Coupling between light transfer and growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cornet, J F; Dussap, C G; Dubertret, G

    1992-10-01

    The study of the interactions between physical limitation by light and biological limitations in photobioreactors leads to very complex partial differential equations. Modeling of light transfer and kinetics and the assessment of radiant energy absorbed in photoreactors require an equation including two parameters for light absorption and scattering in the culture medium. In this article, a simple model based on the simplified, monodimensional equation of Schuster for radiative transfer is discussed. This approach provides a simple way to determine a working illuminated volume in which growth occurs, therefore allowing identification of kinetic parameters. These parameters might then be extended to the analysis of more complex geometries such as cylindrical reactors. Moreover, this model allows the behavior of batch or continuous cultures of cyanobacteria under light and mineral limitations to be predicted. PMID:18601185

  12. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region. PMID:24815190

  13. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-05-01

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  14. Effects of Spirulina on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Ovarian Toxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Yener, Nese Arzu; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Ilter, Erdin; Celik, Aygen; Sezgin, Gulbuz; Midi, Ahmet; Aksungar, Fehime

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cyc) is known to cause ovotoxicity and infertility in women. Our aim is to investigate the possible ovotoxic effects of Cyc and possible antioxidant and protective effects of blue-green algae, Spirulina (Sp), in rat ovaries. Eighteen rats were given: group I (n = 6, control); group II (n = 6, CP), a single dose Cyc; group III (n = 6, Sp+Cyc), 7 days Sp+single dose Cyc. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities are assessed biochemically. Normal and atretic primordial and primary follicle counts for all sections obtained for each ovary are calculated. Mean number of follicle counts for each group are compared. In Sp+Cyc group, tissue MDA levels were significantly lower than those in the CP and higher than those in the C group (CP > Sp+Cyc > C). Tissue SOD activity was significantly higher in Sp+Cyc group than that in the CP group and lower than that in the C group (C > Sp+Cyc > C). No statistically significant difference was found between the ovarian CAT activities in any group. Histomorphometrically, there was also no significant difference between the mean numbers of normal and atretic small follicle counts. Our results suggest that single dose Cyc has adverse effects on oxidant status of the ovaries and Sp has protective effects in Cyc-induced ovotoxicity. PMID:23762559

  15. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). Results The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. Conclusions It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina. PMID:20353607

  16. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  17. Use of rotifers for the maintenance of monoalgal mass cultures of Spirulina

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.; Richmond, A.

    1987-01-01

    Zooplankton was successfully used for the biological control of unicellular algal contaminants in Spirulina mass cultures even under conditions adverse to the growth of Spirulina (maximal winter daily temperature of approximately 10 degrees C and very low bicarbonate concentration). Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) was the most successful species of zooplankton used. The interrelationships between Spirulina, green unicellular contaminant, and B. plicatilis were studied under various conditions. Two species of unicellular contaminant were used; Monoraphidium minutum was isolated from local cultures and Chlorella vulgaris, obtained from contaminated Spirulina cultures in Israel. The rotifer B. plicatilis successfully controlled the population size of both contaminants whether they were introduced in a single addition or as a daily dose. The biological control of the unicellular contaminants allows Spirulina to be cultured in a medium low in bicarbonate, thereby reducing the cost of the medium and increasing the quantity of CO2 that may be freely absorbed from the atmosphere at the optimal pH for Spirulina cultivation. (Refs. 9).

  18. Arsoniumphospholipid in algae*

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Robert V.; Mumma, R. O.; Benson, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A novel phospholipid containing arsenic was formed by all marine algae cultured in [74As]arsenate. Components of the labeled algal extracts readily separated by two-dimensional paper radiochromatography. Base-catalyzed deacylation of the major lipid yielded a phosphodiester identical to one of the two major water-soluble compounds. Acid or enzymic hydrolysis of the phosphodiester produced a product identified as trimethylarsoniumalactic acid. The structure of the phospholipid therefore is O-phosphatidyltrimethylarsoniumlactic acid. Detoxication of arsenate by marine algae leads to accumulation of the arsoniumphospholipid as a major reservoir for arsenic. Its degradation to trimethylarsoniumbetaine, dimethylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, and arsenate in marine food chains and its metabolism in human beings are of considerable interest. Images PMID:16592562

  19. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  20. The effect of Arthrospira platensis capsules on CD4 T-cells and antioxidative capacity in a randomized pilot study of adult women infected with human immunodeficiency virus not under HAART in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Winter, Frank Stéphane; Emakam, Francois; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Hermann, Johannes; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant activities. This pilot study describes the effects of the supplementation of 5 g/day of Asp on a pre-highly-active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), HIV-infected, adult female population. It was conducted as a three-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared a cup supplementation of five grams/day of Asp with a placebo of equal protein content and energy. The study included 73 HIV-infected women. The immediate outcome variables were CD4 T-cells, viral load and immune activation by CD8 T-cells expressing CD38. The antioxidant status was assessed by way of the total antioxidant capacity of the serum (TAOS). The renal function was documented by way of creatinine, urea and the calculated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were carried out with non-parametric tests, and the effect size of each interaction was calculated. No differences in the immunological and virological markers between the Asp and the placebo group could be observed. In the placebo group, 21 of 30 patients (70%) developed concomitant events, while in the Asp group, only 12 of 28 patients (43%) did. Both groups registered a significant weight increase; 0.5 kg (p < 0.05) in the Asp group and 0.65 kg (p < 0.05) in the placebo group. The antioxidant capacity increase of 56 (1-98) µM for Asp was significantly different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A slight increase in the creatinine level of 0.1 g/dL (p < 0.001) was observed in the Asp group, and no effect was observed in the urea levels. The improvement of the antioxidant capacity under Asp, shown for the first time on PLHIV, could become a focus for future research on the nutritional and health

  1. The Effect of Arthrospira platensis Capsules on CD4 T-Cells and Antioxidative Capacity in a Randomized Pilot Study of Adult Women Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Not under HAART in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Frank Stéphane; Emakam, Francois; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Hermann, Johannes; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Krawinkel, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant activities. This pilot study describes the effects of the supplementation of 5 g/day of Asp on a pre-highly-active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), HIV-infected, adult female population. It was conducted as a three-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared a cup supplementation of five grams/day of Asp with a placebo of equal protein content and energy. The study included 73 HIV-infected women. The immediate outcome variables were CD4 T-cells, viral load and immune activation by CD8 T-cells expressing CD38. The antioxidant status was assessed by way of the total antioxidant capacity of the serum (TAOS). The renal function was documented by way of creatinine, urea and the calculated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were carried out with non-parametric tests, and the effect size of each interaction was calculated. No differences in the immunological and virological markers between the Asp and the placebo group could be observed. In the placebo group, 21 of 30 patients (70%) developed concomitant events, while in the Asp group, only 12 of 28 patients (43%) did. Both groups registered a significant weight increase; 0.5 kg (p < 0.05) in the Asp group and 0.65 kg (p < 0.05) in the placebo group. The antioxidant capacity increase of 56 (1–98) µM for Asp was significantly different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A slight increase in the creatinine level of 0.1 g/dL (p < 0.001) was observed in the Asp group, and no effect was observed in the urea levels. The improvement of the antioxidant capacity under Asp, shown for the first time on PLHIV, could become a focus for future research on the nutritional and health

  2. Purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina (Arthrospira) fusiformis.

    PubMed

    Minkova, K M; Tchernov, A A; Tchorbadjieva, M I; Fournadjieva, S T; Antova, R E; Busheva, M Ch

    2003-04-10

    C-phycocyanin was purified from Spirulina (Arthrospira) fusiformis by a multi-step treatment of the crude extract with rivanol in a ratio 10:1 (v/v), followed by 40% saturation with ammonium sulfate. After removal of rivanol by gel-filtration on Sephadex G-25, the pigment solution was saturated to 70% with ammonium sulfate. After the last step of purification, C-phycocyanin had an emission and absorption maxima at 620 and 650 nm, respectively and absorbance ratio A(620)/A(280) of 4.3, which are specific for the pure biliprotein. Its homogeneity was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, yielding two bands of molecular masses 19500 and 21500 kDa, corresponding to alpha and beta subunits of the pigment, respectively. The yield of C-phycocyanin was approximately 46% from its content in the crude extract. PMID:12668314

  3. Quantification of Phytochemicals from Commercial Spirulina Products and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to profile the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols in 37 varieties of Spirulina commonly available in the market using gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the biological potentials of the Spirulina samples were evaluated by analysing the in vitro antioxidant activities using various analytical techniques. The analyses revealed the presence of 13 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18 amino acids, 7 sugars, and polyphenols. The polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were varied between Spirulina samples. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids amount was 4.25 mg/100 g, and the average among of sapienic acid detected was 2.25 mg/100 g, which was followed by linoleic acid (16.7%) and γ-linolenic acid (14%). Among the 7 sugars, the hexose levels were the highest (73.85%). The total amino acids contents ranged from 11.49 to 56.14 mg/100 g, and the individual essential amino acids accounted for 17% to 39.18%. The "natural" tablets exhibited the highest polyphenols levels (24 mg/g). All of the Spirulina samples expressed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols contents varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the Spirulina samples were significant. PMID:26933442

  4. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina. PMID:27609480

  5. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  6. Quantification of Phytochemicals from Commercial Spirulina Products and Their Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to profile the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols in 37 varieties of Spirulina commonly available in the market using gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the biological potentials of the Spirulina samples were evaluated by analysing the in vitro antioxidant activities using various analytical techniques. The analyses revealed the presence of 13 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18 amino acids, 7 sugars, and polyphenols. The polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were varied between Spirulina samples. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids amount was 4.25 mg/100 g, and the average among of sapienic acid detected was 2.25 mg/100 g, which was followed by linoleic acid (16.7%) and γ-linolenic acid (14%). Among the 7 sugars, the hexose levels were the highest (73.85%). The total amino acids contents ranged from 11.49 to 56.14 mg/100 g, and the individual essential amino acids accounted for 17% to 39.18%. The “natural” tablets exhibited the highest polyphenols levels (24 mg/g). All of the Spirulina samples expressed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols contents varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the Spirulina samples were significant. PMID:26933442

  7. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  8. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  9. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  10. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima. PMID:24871274

  11. Spirulina cultivation with a CO2 absorbent: Influence on growth parameters and macromolecule production.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Gabriel Martins da; Moraes, Luiza; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select a concentration of CO2 absorbents to supplement Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultivation and to evaluate the effect of these compounds on the growth and production of macromolecules. Three initial biomass concentrations (X0), eight concentrations of monoethanolamine (MEA), and three NaOH concentrations were tested. The selected MEA concentrations did not inhibit the growth of Spirulina and doubled the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration in the assay medium in relation to the concentration of NaOH. The protein concentration in the biomass grown with MEA was, on average, 17% higher than that obtained with NaOH. Thus, it was found that MEA did not reduce the productivity of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, and its use can be further explored as a means for converting the carbon dissolved in the medium to biomolecules. PMID:26524251

  12. Production of hydrogen, ethanol and volatile fatty acids through co-fermentation of macro- and micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Herrmann, Christiane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Algae may be fermented to produce hydrogen. However micro-algae (such as Arthrospira platensis) are rich in proteins and have a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which is not ideal for hydrogen fermentation. Co-fermentation with macro-algae (such as Laminaria digitata), which are rich in carbohydrates with a high (C/N) ratio, improves the performance of hydrogen production. Algal biomass, pre-treated with 2.5% dilute H2SO4 at 135°C for 15min, effected a total yield of carbohydrate monomers (CMs) of 0.268g/g volatile solids (VS). The CMs were dominating by glucose and mannitol and most (ca. 95%) were consumed by anaerobic fermentative micro-organisms during subsequent fermentation. An optimal specific hydrogen yield (SHY) of 85.0mL/g VS was obtained at an algal C/N ratio of 26.2 and an algal concentration of 20g VS/L. The overall energy conversion efficiency increased from 31.3% to 54.5% with decreasing algal concentration from 40 to 5 VS g/L. PMID:26820925

  13. Spirulina and Pentoxyfilline – A Novel Approach for Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mulk, Bhavana Sujana; Deshpande, Prasannasrinivas; Velpula, Nagalakshmi; Chappidi, Vani; Chintamaneni, Raja Lakshmi; Goyal, Stuti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is a habit associated insidious precancerous condition of the oral cavity commonly found in Asian countries. Many treatment modalities have been attempted in treating the condition apart from steroids which have been the main stay. Hence the present study was designed to assess the efficacy of spirulina and pentoxyfilline and also to compare them in oral submucous fibrosis. Material and Methods: Fourty Patients with clinico-histological diagnosis of oral sub mucous fibrosis were selected and divided into two groups with 20 in each group by simple randomization method. Group I received Pentoxyfilline and Group II Spirulina for period of 3 months. The efficacy was assessed by parameters like mouth opening, burning sensation and tongue protrusion using vernier caliper, visual analog scale and a metric scale respectively along with the side effects. Results: Student’s t-test was applied to obtain the results. Both Pentoxyfilline and Spirulina groups showed statistically significant results (p=0.000) in all the three parameters namely mouth opening, burning sensation and tongue protrusion. On comparing both the drugs statistically insignificant results were obtained for mouth opening (p=0.35) and tongue protrusion (p=0.25) but statistically significant difference was seen in subjective parameter i.e burning sensation (p=0.04). Side effects like bloating of stomach, nausea and gastritis were noted in the pentoxyfilline group in contrast to Spirulina group. Conclusion: Newer drugs Pentoxyfilline and Spirulina showed promising results in treatment of Oral sub mucous fibrosis. Spirulina was used for the first time for treatment of Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and it proved to be superior than pentoxyfilline as no side effects were observed. Also it was superior in reducing burning sensation and hence can be advised in OSMF patients suffering from severe subjective symptoms. PMID:24551724

  14. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  15. Role of Spirulina in the Control of Glycemia and Lipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Panam; Mani, Uliyar; Iyer, Uma

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina, with its high concentration of functional nutrients, is emerging as an important therapeutic food. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic role of Spirulina. Twenty-five subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive Spirulina (study group) or to form the control group. At baseline, the control and study groups were matched for various variables. The efficacy of Spirulina supplementation (2 g/day for 2 months) was determined using the preintervention and postintervention blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, and lipid profiles of the diabetic subjects. Two-month supplementation with Spirulina resulted in an appreciable lowering of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels. A significant reduction in the HbA(1c) level was also observed, indicating improved long-term glucose regulation. With regard to lipids, triglyceride levels were significantly lowered. Total cholesterol (TC) and its fraction, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), exhibited a fall coupled with a marginal increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). As a result, a significant reduction in the atherogenic indices, TC:HDL-C and LDL-C: HDL-C, was observed. The level of apolipoprotein B registered a significant fall together with a significant increment in the level of apolipoprotein A1. Therefore, a significant and favorable increase in the ratio of A1:B was also noted. These findings suggest the beneficial effect of Spirulina supplementation in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving the lipid profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:12639401

  16. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  17. Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation on the immune response to tetanus toxoid vaccination in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Quynh, Le Van; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model. PMID:23927690

  18. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). PMID:26773377

  19. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients. PMID:26782493

  20. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  1. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  2. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  3. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  4. Cambrian calcareous algae and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinina, Veronica A.; Terleev, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Individual calcareous algae were known in Riphean. Their mass distribution is connected to the beginning of Cambrian. Despite of a long history of study, the nature of this group long time remained not clear. The new unique finds of algae from East Sayan region have shown, that primary carbonate thallus disappeared in the process of fossilization, and after it the calcareous cover formed by association of bacteria and cyanobacteria only.

  5. Nevada - the frontier of bio-geothermal conversion of blue-green algae, Spirulina, a high-protein food

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    This article discusses the efforts that are underway to develop algal biomass production for both human and animal food, food supplements, other algally derived products, aquaculture of prawns and fish, and the production of new building materials derived from geothermal water that will be competitive with concrete. These projects are being mobilized to develop all aspects of Nevada geothermal and other hot water resources.

  6. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  7. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  8. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection. PMID:25157367

  9. Biological effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) biopolymers and biomass in the development of nanostructured scaffolds.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection. PMID:25157367

  10. Stable bio-oil production from proteinaceous cyanobacteria: tail gas reactive pyrolysis of spirulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of Spirulina, a cyanobacteria with high levels of protein (74 wt %) and low levels of lipid (0.8 wt %) content, has the potential to produce fuels and platform chemicals that differ from those produced from lignocellulosic materials. The yields and product distribution from fluidized-bed p...

  11. Titer improvement and pilot-scale production of platensimycin from Streptomyces platensis SB12026.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pan, Jian; Liu, Ling; Yang, Dong; Lu, Songquan; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Shen, Ben; Duan, Yanwen; Huang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), isolated from several strains of Streptomyces platensis are potent antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. PTM was also shown to have antidiabetic and antisteatotic activities in mouse models. Through a novel genome-mining method, we have recently identified six PTM and PTN dual-producing strains, and generated several mutants with improved production of PTM or PTN by inactivating the pathway-specific transcriptional repressor gene ptmR1. Among them, S. platensis SB12026 gave the highest titer of 310 mg/L for PTM. In this study, we now report titer improvement by medium and fermentation optimization and pilot-scale production and isolation of PTM from SB12026. The fermentation medium optimization was achieved by manipulating the carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the inorganic salts. The highest titer of 1560 mg/L PTM was obtained in 15-L fermentors, using a formulated medium mainly containing soluble starch, soybean flour, morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt and CaCO3. In addition, a polyamide chromatographic step was applied to facilitate the purification and 45.14 g of PTM was successfully obtained from a 60 L scale fermentation. These results would speed up the future development of PTM as human medicine. PMID:27126098

  12. Spirulina Promotes Stem Cell Genesis and Protects against LPS Induced Declines in Neural Stem Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Vila, Jennifer L.; Hudson, Charles; Cole, Michael J.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Paul R.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Borlongan, Cesario; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Gemma, Carmelina; Bickford, Paula C.

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020) of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the negative

  13. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution. PMID:11887207

  14. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension. PMID:26779620

  15. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  16. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  17. Ammonia inhibition on Arthrospira platensis in relation to the initial biomass density and pH.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2014-08-01

    In this study the combined effect of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentration, initial biomass density and initial pH of the cultivation medium on growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The results indicate that TAN inhibition in relation to the initial biomass in unregulated pH cultures is neither a clearly biomass-independent nor biomass-dependent phenomenon. However, low biomass densities are more susceptible to ammonia inhibition than higher biomass densities. Higher biomass densities seems to mitigate ammonia inhibition through rapider assimilation of TAN. In all cases studied the growth rates were lower compared to the cultures with nitrate as nitrogen source. It was observed that at low TAN concentration, although no ammonia inhibition occured the growth rates were decreased due to nitrogen limitation. Low TAN concentration triggered the accumulation of carbohydrates affecting thus significantly the biomass composition. Ammonia losses from the cultivation system were also determined. Ammonia losses ranged between 17% and 80%. PMID:24926597

  18. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80 mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2 mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55 mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24 h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine. PMID:26470387

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A.; López, Víctor H.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P.; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis. PMID:27164081

  20. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; López, Víctor H; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO₂ produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis. PMID:27164081

  1. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  12. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  13. Using natural zeolite for ammonia sorption from wastewater and as nitrogen releaser for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2014-03-01

    Herein a new approach for the application of wastewater nutrients for the cultivation of cyanobacteria or microalgae is described. Natural zeolite was used as medium for the sorption of ammonia from wastewater and subsequently as nitrogen releaser in cultures of Arthrospira platensis. The main scope of the present approach was to isolate ammonia from the wastewater and to transfer it into the culture medium excluding thus the suspended solids, the dissolved colored compounds or any other possible contaminant of the wastewater. The results demonstrate that the indirect use of ammonia derived from wastewater using zeolite as sorption and releasing medium for the cultivation of A. platensis is promising. This is the first time that a medium was used for indirect application of wastewater nutrient for the production of cyanobacterial or microalgal biomass. PMID:24472681

  14. Co-production of carbonic anhydrase and phycobiliproteins by Spirulina sp. and Synechococcus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ores, Joana da Costa; Amarante, Marina Campos Assumpção de; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the co-production of the carbonic anhydrase, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin during cyanobacteria growth. Spirulina sp. LEB 18 demonstrated a high potential for simultaneously obtaining the three products, achieving a carbonic anhydrase (CA) productivity of 0.97U/L/d and the highest C-phycocyanin (PC, 5.9μg/mL/d) and allophycocyanin (APC, 4.3μg/mL/d) productivities. In the extraction study, high extraction yields were obtained from Spirulina using an ultrasonic homogenizer (CA: 25.5U/g; PC: 90mg/g; APC: 70mg/g). From the same biomass, it was possible to obtain three biomolecules that present high industrial value. PMID:27494103

  15. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome.

    PubMed

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na(+)). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L(-1) day(-1) organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the "ML635J-40 aquatic group" while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  16. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  17. Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  18. Biosorption of microelements by Spirulina: towards technology of mineral feed supplements.

    PubMed

    Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Saeid, Agnieszka; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  19. Attenuation of anti-tuberculosis therapy induced hepatotoxicity by Spirulina fusiformis, a candidate food supplement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sherry Joseph; Baskaran, Udhaya Lavinya; Vedi, Mahima; Sabina, Evan Prince

    2014-12-01

    Therapy using Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) leads to induction of hepatotoxicity in some individuals undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment. In this study, we assessed the effect of Spirulina fusiformis on INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity in rats compared with hepatoprotective drug Silymarin. Induction of hepatotoxicity was measured by changes in the liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase). The antioxidant status was also analyzed in liver tissue homogenate and plasma by measurement of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation levels. We also aimed to study the binding and interactions of the transcription factors Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) with INH, RIF, and representative active compounds of Spirulina fusiformis by in silico methods. The administration of INH and RIF resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the antioxidant levels and total protein levels. There was also a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of liver marker enzymes. Spirulina fusiformis was seen to protect the parameters from significant changes upon challenge with INH and RIF in a dose-dependent manner. This was corroborated by histological examination of the liver. The results of the in silico analyses further support the wet lab results. PMID:25137345

  20. Contamination by Microcystis and microcystins of blue-green algae food supplements (BGAS) on the Italian market and possible risk for the exposed population.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Susanna; Lavorini, Paolo; Funari, Enzo; Scardala, Simona; Testai, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Blue green algae supplements (BGAS) are generally proposed as health-promoting natural products for their purported beneficial effects. Spirulina spp. and Aphanizomenon flos aquae are mainly used in BGAS production. They are usually collected from the natural environment, where other potentially toxic cyanobacteria can be present, making possible BGAS contamination by cyanotoxins, with potential risk for human health. In this work we apply a combined approach, by using chemical and molecular techniques, on BGAS of 17 brands available in Italy. Samples containing Spirulina-only were free of contamination. The Aphanizomenon flos aquae-based samples were contaminated by highly variable levels of microcystins (MC-LR and MC-LA congeners), up to 5.2 μg MC-LR equivalents per gram product. The highest variability (up to 50 fold) was among batches of the same brand, although intra-batch differences were also evidenced. PCR analyses were positive only for the presence of Microcystis sp., identified as the toxin-producing species responsible for contamination. At the maximum contamination levels found, a risk for consumers can be expected following chronic or sub-chronic exposure to a reasonable daily BGAS consumption of 4 g. The need for a strict monitoring by producers and Health Authority to assure an adequate protection for consumers is underscored. PMID:23036452

  1. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  2. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. PMID:24845347

  3. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  4. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  5. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men. PMID:26888417

  6. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  7. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  8. AB3217-A, a novel anti-mite substance produced by a strain of Streptomyces platensis.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, K; Mimura, Y; Tamamura, T; Yatagai, S; Sato, Y; Takahashi, A; Sato, K; Naganawa, H; Nakamura, H; Takeuchi, T

    1992-04-01

    AB3217-A, a novel anti-mite substance, was isolated from the fermentation broth of a streptomycete strain. The strain was isolated from a soil collected at Kita-azumi, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, and identified as Streptomyces platensis AB3217. AB3217-A was purified by Amberlite IR120B, Diaion HP-20 and CM-Sephadex C-25 column chromatographies. The molecular formula was determined as C17H23NO7 by elemental analysis, MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The structure of AB3217-A was determined to be (1R,3S,4S,7R,8R,11R,12S,13R)-4,12,13-trihydroxy-8-(4-methoxy phenyl)-6-aza-2,9,14-trioxatricyclo-[9.2.1.0(3,7)]tetradecane by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The molecule of AB3217-A has unique structure that deacetylanisomycin and beta-D-xylofuranose linked through glycosidic bond and ether bond resulting in the formation of nine-membered ring. AB3217-A showed marked activity against the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. PMID:1592678

  9. [CpcHID operon as a new tool for classification and identification of Arthrospira platensis strains].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling-yong; Wang, Zhi-ping; Cao, Xue-cheng; Chen, Xiao-yan; Xu, Bu-jin; Li, Xue-bin; Huang, Hui

    2006-12-01

    Arthrospira is a photoautotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium belonging to the family Oscillatoriaceae, phylum Cyanophyta. Morphological criteria alone were inadequate for classification of Arthrospira . To develop new molecular markers, in this study, the cpcHID operon, 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS) of seven Arthrospira platensis strains, Sp-10, Sp-2, Sp-9, Sp-1, Sp-1ll, Sp-3 and Sp-5, were cloned and sequenced. And the results of bioinformatics and molecular phylogenetics analyses with BioEdit 7.0, Clustal X 1.81 and Phylip 3.65 were as follows: (1) The sequences of cpcHID operon, 16S rRNA and ITS from the seven strains were highly homologous to the each corresponding gene based on multiple pair-wise comparison. (2) The mean absolute deviation of the G + C content, the ratio of different sites and the genetic distance coefficient based on the sequences of cpcHID operon in the seven strains were generally greater than that based on 16S rRNA and ITS region. (3) The phylogenetic dendrogram based on the sequences of cpcHID operon was almost same with that based on the sequences of 16S rRNA and ITS region. Therefore, it revealed that cpcHID operon could be applied as a new molecular marker to classification and identification of cyanobacterium, and more appropriate for species or strains determination due to its abundant information. PMID:17302170

  10. Characterization and large-scale production of recombinant Streptoverticillium platensis transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shie-Jea; Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Lai, Li-An; Chao, Mei-Li; Chu, Wen-Shen

    2008-09-01

    Recombinant Streptomyces platensis transglutaminase (MtgA) produced by the Streptomyces lividans transformant 25-2 was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by CM-Sepharose CL-6B fast flow, and blue-Sepharose fast flow chromatography. The purification factor was approximately 33.2-fold, and the yield was 65%. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant MtgA was 40.0 KDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and the temperature for the enzyme activity were 6.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at pH 5.0-6.0 and at temperature 45-55 degrees C. Enzyme activity was not affected by Ca(2+), Li(+), Mn(2+), Na(+), Fe(3+), K(+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), EDTA, or IAA but was inhibited by Fe(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), PCMB, NEM, and PMSF. Optimization of the fermentation medium resulted in a twofold increase of recombinant MtgA activity in both flasks (5.78 U/ml) and 5-l fermenters (5.39 U/ml). Large-scale productions of the recombinant MtgA in a 30-l air-lift fermenter and a 250-l stirred-tank fermenter were fulfilled with maximal activities of 5.36 and 2.54 U/ml, respectively. PMID:18500544

  11. Combination of Spirulina with glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cognition enhancing effect of the combination of Spirulina and glycyrrhizin in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese aged rats. Materials and Methods: Obesity was induced in rats by administration of MSG (intraperitoneally, 4 mg/g body weight) for 14 consecutive days from day 1 after birth. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to grow for 18 months with food and water ad libitum. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, leptin resistance, were monitored in these animals. Cognitive status was assessed by Barne's maze task and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Further, the animals were treated with Spirulina (Sp) (oral route, 1 g/Kg body weight, for 30 days) alone or glycyrrhizin (Gly) alone (intraperitoneal route, 0.1 mg/Kg, on day 15 and day 21), or their combination (SpGly). Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1. After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks. They were then were assessed for their biochemical and cognitive changes. Results: The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats. Conclusion: SpGly combination has a potential role in reversing cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging and obesity. PMID:25821309

  12. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V.

    1995-07-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. The improvement of phycocyanin stability extracted from Spirulina sp using extrusion encapsulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzery, Meiny; Hadiyanto, Sutanto, Heri; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Majid, Dian; Setyawan, Deny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    The stability of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae Spirulina has been evaluated and it showed that the stability of this antioxidant was affected by temperature and pH changes. The encapsulation technique was of the alternatives to overcome this stability changes. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of coating materials (alginate and chitosan) during encapsulation by using extrusion technique. The experiments were conducted with variation of alginate as coating materials. The size of each microcapsules was evaluated by using SEM/XRD for its size and homogeneity.

  14. Toxicity and accumulation of selenite in four microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dazhi, Wang; Zhaodi, Cheng; Shaojing, Li; Yahui, Gao

    2003-09-01

    The toxicity and bioaccumulation of selenite in four microalgae, Spirulina platensis, Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawill and Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured in the presence of selenite were investigated. Lower concentrations of selenite were generally nontoxic and frequently stimulated algal growth, while higher concentrations of selenite inhibited algal growth. Selenite was more toxic to D. salina and D. bardawill than to S. platensis and P. Tricornutum. All algae cultured in selenite were able to incorporate Se to different degrees, which depended on algal species. The distributions of selenite among intracellular macromolecular compounds were different among algal species: most of the selenite was associated with proteins in S. platensis, D. salina and D. bardawill, while most of the selenite was associated with lipids in P. tricornutum, which reflected the physiological differences among the algae. These observations suggest that algae are able to accumulate selenite and bind it with intracellular macromolecular compounds when exposed to high concentration of selenite. This may represent a form of storage or detoxification of selenite by the algae.

  15. Temperature influences on the expression of GFP promoted by the upstream sequence of cpcB from Arthrospira platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yongzhong; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2007-07-01

    In order to investigate the regulation mechanism of the phycocyanin gene, a series of functional analyses of the upstream sequence of cpcB gene from Arthrospira platensis were conducted in E. coli with green fluorescent protein encoding gene (gfp) as the reporter. Results showed that the gfp gene could express at a high level under the promotion of the upstream sequence, suggesting the existence of some strong promoter elements in it. The expression of GFP was influenced by temperature. Higher temperature led to higher expression level. The bioinformatics analyses followed by mutation analyses on the secondary structure of translation initiation region (TIR) revealed that RNA thermosensor might account for the temperature regulation.

  16. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  17. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  18. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  19. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  20. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  1. Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  2. Investigation into chromophore excited-state coupling in allophycocyanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiguang; Zhao, Fuli; Wang, He Z.; Gao, Zhaolan; Yu, Zhenxin; Zhu, Jinchang; Xia, Andong; Jiang, Lijin

    1994-08-01

    Both theoretical and experimental studies are presented on chromophore excited-state coupling in linker-free allophycocyanin (APC), one of the antenna phycobiliproteins in algal photosynthesis. A three-site-coupling model has been introduced to describe the exciton interaction mechanism amoung the excited (beta) chromophore in APC, and the exciton energy splitting is estimated. Picosecond polarized fluorescence experiments both on monomeric and trimeric APC isolated from alga Spirulina platensis have been performed. The experimental results show that APC monomer and trimer exhibit remarkedly different spectropic characteristics, and satisfy the suggestion of strong excited- state coupling among chromophores in APC.

  3. Seeing into the infrared: a novel IR fluorescent fingerprint powder.

    PubMed

    King, Roberto S P; Hallett, Peter M; Foster, Doug

    2015-04-01

    A preliminary study demonstrates that latent fingermarks across a range of highly patterned, coloured non-porous and semi-porous substrates may be clearly developed and imaged in the near infrared following a simple dusting method using finely divided spirulina platensis powder, a naturally occurring, non-toxic algae, used widely within the food industry. Troublesome printed/multicoloured backgrounds show less interference with the fluorescence observed using this material, unlike conventional luminescent powders which fluoresce in the visible spectrum alongside the background to which they are applied. The material shows promise for use both in the field and in the laboratory. PMID:25698417

  4. Flocculation of model algae under shear.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

  5. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. PMID:24602833

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The "two hits" hypothesis is widely accepted for its pathogenesis: the first hit is an increased fat flux to the liver, which predisposes our patient to a second hit where increasing free fatty acid oxidation into the mitochondria leads to oxidative stress, lipoperoxidation and a chain reaction with increased ROS. Clinical indications include abdominal cramps, meteorism and fatigue. Most patients, however, are asymptomatic, and diagnosis is based on aminotransferase elevation and ultrasonography (or "brilliant liver"). Spirulina maxima has been experimentally proven to possess in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective properties by maintaining the liver lipid profile. This case report evaluates the hepatoprotective effects of orally supplied Spirulina maxima. Case presentation Three Hispanic Mexican patients (a 43-year-old man, a 77-year-old man and a 44-year-old woman) underwent ultrasonography and were treated with 4.5 g/day of Spirulina maxima for three months. Their blood samples before and after the treatment determined triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The results were assessed using ultrasound. Conclusion Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder. PMID:20370930

  7. Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Burkhard; Marin, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background Land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte green algae, a small group of freshwater algae ranging from scaly, unicellular flagellates (Mesostigma) to complex, filamentous thalli with branching, cell differentiation and apical growth (Charales). Streptophyte algae and embryophytes form the division Streptophyta, whereas the remaining green algae are classified as Chlorophyta. The Charales (stoneworts) are often considered to be sister to land plants, suggesting progressive evolution towards cellular complexity within streptophyte green algae. Many cellular (e.g. phragmoplast, plasmodesmata, hexameric cellulose synthase, structure of flagellated cells, oogamous sexual reproduction with zygote retention) and physiological characters (e.g. type of photorespiration, phytochrome system) originated within streptophyte algae. Recent Progress Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Mesostigma (flagellate) and Chlorokybus (sarcinoid) form the earliest divergence within streptophytes, as sister to all other Streptophyta including embryophytes. The question whether Charales, Coleochaetales or Zygnematales are the sister to embryophytes is still (or, again) hotly debated. Projects to study genome evolution within streptophytes including protein families and polyadenylation signals have been initiated. In agreement with morphological and physiological features, many molecular traits believed to be specific for embryophytes have been shown to predate the Chlorophyta/Streptophyta split, or to have originated within streptophyte algae. Molecular phylogenies and the fossil record allow a detailed reconstruction of the early evolutionary events that led to the origin of true land plants, and shaped the current diversity and ecology of streptophyte green algae and their embryophyte descendants. Conclusions The Streptophyta/Chlorophyta divergence correlates with a remarkably conservative preference for freshwater/marine habitats, and the early freshwater

  8. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  9. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  10. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A.; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  11. Characterization and bioactivity of phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina maxima grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Baky, Hanaa H; El-Baroty, Gamal S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, Spirulina maxima (SM) has been selected following preliminary investigations, for cultivation in either normal (0.02 M) or stress (0.1 M) NaCl medium (Zarrouk) under room conditions to evaluate the possibility of increasing the total phycobiliprotein content (TPC) and their chemical constituents: C-phycocyanin (C-PC), allophycocyanin (APC) and phycoerthrin (PE). TPC material was separated, purified and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis and IR spectra). The antioxidant activity against free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide (˙(-)O(2)), hydroxy (˙OH) and reducing power potential were determined. Results indicated a highly significant correlation between increased TPC content in SM cells and the increasing concentration of NaCl in medium, and its chemical constituents were significantly different (P > 0.05). TPC of SM (grown in stress NaCl) containing high amounts of C-PC groups, showed strong antioxidant activity compared with ascorbic acid (standard antioxidant). Although, it activity against different free radicals were found to be variable and dose-dependent. Moreover, the TPC showed lower antimicrobial activity (MIC values in the range of 250-300 μg mL(-1)) than that of chloramphinicol (30 μg mL(-1), reference antimicrobial). Therefore, Spirulina maxima could be cultivated in a salinated open pond, and considered as highly healthy foods and source of natural pigments. PMID:22234291

  12. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  13. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    PubMed

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima. The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % (P < 0.05) higher in the experimental group. No effect on the production results (average daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio) was detected. It was found that copper concentration in feces in the experimental group was 60 % (P < 0.05) lower than in the control group. The new preparation-a dietary supplement with microelements produced by biosorption based on biomass of microalgae S. maxima-is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements. PMID:23482251

  14. Effects of glucomannan/spirulina-surimi on liver oxidation and inflammation in Zucker rats fed atherogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Cholesterolemia is associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Glucomannan- or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched surimis were included in cholesterol-enriched high-saturated diets to test the effects on lipemia; antioxidant status (glutathione status, and antioxidant enzymatic levels, expressions and activities); and inflammation biomarkers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in Zucker fa/fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received diet containing squid-surimi (C), squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HC), glucomannan-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HG), or glucomannan-spirulina-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HGS) over a period of 7 weeks. HC diet induced severe hyperlipemia, hepatomegalia, increased inflammation markers, and impaired antioxidant status significantly (at least p < 0.05) vs. C diet. HG diet decreased lipemia and liver size and normalized antioxidant status to C group levels, but increased TNF-α with respect to HC diet (p < 0.05). In general terms, 3 g/kg of spirulina in diet maintained the positive results observed in the HG diet but, in addition, increased inflammation index [eNOS/(eNOS + iNOS)] and decreased plasma TNF-α (both p < 0.05). In conclusion, glucomannan plus a small amount of spirulina blocks negative effects promoted by hypercholesterolemic diets. Although more studies are needed, present results suggest the utility of including glucomannan and/or spirulina as functional ingredients into fish derivates to be consumed by people on metabolic syndrome risk. PMID:26239810

  15. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  16. Polysaccharide production by microalgae. Final report on phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing overall biomass production rates. Three different algae were studied--unicellular blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis, filamentous blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and a green colonial alga, Scenedesmus sp. Batch cultures were grown with varying amounts of nitrate to limit nitrogen uptake at various stages in the batch growth curve. In the presence of high nitrate concentrations, the Synechococcus culture became stationary within four days, whereas both Spirulina and Scenedesmus maintained an appreciable growth rate and high daily productivities, for at least a week. With limiting nitrate concentrations, the cellular content of polysaccharide (measured as total carbohydrates) increased markedly, from 20-25 percent to 70-80 percent in Synechococcus and Spirulina. Depending on the level of nitrate used, onset of nitrogen limitation could be set at various culture densities. In all cases, little or no inhibition of total biomass production was noted.

  17. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. PMID:27262092

  18. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  19. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  20. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F

    2016-07-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  1. Regulatory effects of Spirulina complex polysaccharides on growth of murine RSV-M glioma cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Yu; Tominaga, Akira; Okuyama, Hiromi; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Taguchi, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Yutaka; Yawata, Toshio; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Ono, Shiro; Shimizu, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to report that Spirulina complex polysaccharides (CPS) suppress glioma growth by down-regulating angiogenesis via a Toll-like receptor 4 signal. Murine RSV-M glioma cells were implanted s.c. into C3H/HeN mice and TLR4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice. Treatment with either Spirulina CPS or Escherichia coli (E. coli) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) strongly suppressed RSV-M glioma cell growth in C3H/HeN, but not C3H/HeJ, mice. Glioma cells stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-17 in both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with E. coli LPS induced much greater IL-17 production in tumor-bearing C3H/HeN mice than in tumor-bearing C3H/HeJ mice. In C3H/HeN mice, treatment with Spirulina CPS suppressed growth of re-transplanted glioma; however, treatment with E. coli LPS did not, suggesting that Spirulina CPS enhance the immune response. Administration of anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)8, anti-CD4, anti-CD8 antibodies, and anti-asialo GM1 antibodies enhanced tumor growth, suggesting that T cells and natural killer cells or macrophages are involved in suppression of tumor growth by Spirulina CPS. Although anti-interferon-γ antibodies had no effect on glioma cell growth, anti-IL-17 antibodies administered four days after tumor transplantation suppressed growth similarly to treatment with Spirulina CPS. Less angiogenesis was observed in gliomas from Spirulina CPS-treated mice than in those from saline- or E. coli LPS-treated mice. These findings suggest that, in C3H/HeN mice, Spirulina CPS antagonize glioma cell growth by down-regulating angiogenesis, and that this down-regulation is mediated in part by regulating IL-17 production. PMID:23134155

  2. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  3. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  4. Effect of pycnogenol and spirulina on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z; Said, Mona A; Badawi, Marwa S; El-Bakary, Reda H

    2016-08-01

    Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to occur in 5%-25% of patients who were administered with it. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. We evaluated the possible protective effects of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress. Forty-nine rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: group I, control; group II, received spirulina 1000 mg/kg per day; group III, received pycnogenol 200 mg/kg per day; group IV, received vancomycin 200 mg/kg per day every 12 h; group V, (spirulina + vancomycin); group VI, (pycnogenol + vancomycin); and group VII, (pycnogenol + spirulina + vancomycin). At the end of the experiment, kidney functions were estimated and then the kidneys were removed, weighed, and sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. Administration of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal malondialdehyde, and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), autophagic marker protein (LC3/B), and inducible nitric oxide synthase induced by vancomycin. They increased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). They also ameliorated the morphological changes induced by vancomycin. The combination therapy of spirulina and pycnogenol showed better protective effects than the corresponding monotherapy. PMID:27203524

  5. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  6. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  7. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  8. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  9. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  10. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately. PMID:27206398

  11. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  12. The Alga Ochromonas danica Produces Bromosulfolipids.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander R; Duggan, Brendan M; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-01

    Many halogenases interchangeably incorporate chlorine and bromine into organic molecules. On the basis of an unsubstantiated report that the alga Ochromonas danica, a prodigious producer of chlorosulfolipids, was able to produce bromosulfolipids, we have investigated the promiscuity of its halogenases toward bromine incorporation. We have found that bromosulfolipids are produced with the exact positional and stereochemical selectivity as in the chlorosulfolipid danicalipin A when this alga is grown under modified conditions containing excess bromide ion. PMID:26889956

  13. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  14. Effect of Interactions Among Algae on Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) in Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; Greene, Sarah; Alexander, Martin

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by algae in flooded soil was limited by interactions within the algal community. Nitrogen fixation by either indigenous algae or Tolypothrix tenuis was reduced severalfold by a dense suspension of the green alga Nephrocytium sp. Similarly, interactions between the nitrogen-fixing alga (cyanobacterium) Aulosira 68 and natural densities of indigenous algae limited nitrogen-fixing activity in one of two soils examined. This was demonstrated by developing a variant of Aulosira 68 that was resistant to the herbicide simetryne at concentrations that prevented development of indigenous algae. More nitrogen was fixed by the resistant variant in flooded soil containing herbicide than was fixed in herbicide-free soil by either the indigenous algae or indigenous algae plus the parent strain of Aulosira. Interference from indigenous algae may hamper the development of nitrogen-fixing algae introduced into rice fields in attempts to increase biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:16345463

  15. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production. PMID:25859392

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  17. Inhibition of mast cells by algae.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A; Sanny, Charles; Shevlin, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    There is a history of use of algae as foods and as food additives, or nutraceuticals. Although algae are a safe component of human foods and animal feeds, the effects of the algae other than as a source of protein are not clear. We examined the prevalence of an antiinflammatory activity in selected algae using, as an assay system, the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. Methanolic extracts of eleven algae were examined for activity to inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells in vitro. This activity was found widely among the samples tested. The activities of these extracts were not uniformly stable in acid methanol. Selected extracts studied further did not separate with the use of size-exclusion filtration filters. LH-20 chromatography suggested at least two main elution areas of activity of the Chlorella extract. In summary, we saw wide phylogenetic dispersion of mast cell inhibition activity, suggesting that this antiinflammatory property is common in algae. This effect was apparently due to multiple activities within the algal extracts. PMID:12639395

  18. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp. PMID:27368541

  19. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  1. Isolation, enzyme-bound structure and antibacterial activity of platencin A[subscript 1] from Streptomyces platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sheo B.; Ondeyka, John G.; Herath, Kithsiri B.; Zhang, Chaowei; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Zink, Deborah L.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnan; Becker, Joseph W.; Wang, Jun; Soisson, Stephen M.; Merck

    2010-09-03

    Natural products continue to serve as one of the best sources for discovery of antibacterial agents as exemplified by the recent discoveries of platensimycin and platencin. Chemical modifications as well as discovery of congeners are the main sources for gaining knowledge of structure-activity relationship of natural products. Screening for congeners in the extracts of the fermentation broths of Streptomyces platensis led to the isolation of platencin A{sub 1}, a hydroxy congener of platencin. The hydroxylation of the tricyclic enone moiety negatively affected the antibacterial activity and appears to be consistent with the hydrophobic binding pocket of the FabF. Isolation, structure, enzyme-bound structure and activity of platencin A{sub 1} and two other congeners have been described.

  2. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  3. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Md.; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163). PMID:25685791

  4. Growth, nutrient uptake and carbohydrate production in laboratory cultures of Spirulina major (Cyanophyceae). Final report Jan 81-Dec 82

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyne, C.F.; Crump, L.A.

    1983-07-01

    The basic aim of this study was to develop and analyze a photo-synthetic bioconversion system utilizing marine algae as the basis for the production of a useable feedstock (algae food reserve) by achieving the following: Analysis of various marine algae found along the Mississippi and Alabama coasts based on growth potential in a wastewater/seawater mixture. Evaluation of procedures used in maximizing production of food reserves in the selected marine algae. Study of the wastewater treatment relative to NO3, NH4 and PO4 utilized by the algae biomass.

  5. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  6. Investigation and modeling of biomass decay rate in the dark and its potential influence on net productivity of solar photobioreactors for microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, François; Pruvost, Jérémy

    2013-06-01

    Biomass decay rate (BDR) in the dark was investigated for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (microalga) and Arthrospira platensis (cyanobacterium). A specific setup based on a torus photobioreactor with online gas analysis was validated, enabling us to follow the time course of the specific BDR using oxygen monitoring and mass balance. Various operating parameters that could limit respiration rates, such as culture temperature and oxygen deprivation, were then investigated. C. reinhardtii was found to present a higher BDR in the dark than A. platensis, illustrating here the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In both cases, temperature proved an influential parameter, and the Arrhenius law was found to efficiently relate specific BDR to culture temperature. The utility of decreasing temperature at night to increase biomass productivity in a solar photobioreactor is also illustrated. PMID:23619140

  7. Exploration of using stripped ammonia and ash from poultry litter for the cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis and the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Iconomou, Dimitris; Sotiroudis, Theodore; Israilides, Cleanthes; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Herein a new approach of exploiting poultry litter (PL) is demonstrated. The suggested method includes drying of PL with simultaneously striping and recovery of ammonia, followed by the direct combustion of dried PL. The generated ash after the combustion, and the striped ammonia consequently, could be used as nutrient source for the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria to produce feed additives. The present study explored the application of PL ash and recovered ammonia for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris. For a simultaneously 90% dissolution of ash potassium and phosphorus, a ratio of acid to ash of 0.02mol-H(+)/g was required. The optimum mass of ash required was 0.07-0.08g/g dry biomass, while the addition of ammoniac nitrogen of 8-9mgN per g of dry biomass per day was adequate for a satisfactory production of A. platensis and C. vulgaris. PMID:26280098

  8. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature. PMID:16414751

  9. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  10. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  11. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  12. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2014-06-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  13. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  14. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  15. Lyase activities of heterologous CpcS and CpcT for phycocyanin holo-β-subunit from Arthrospira platensis in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Junjie; Xu, Di; Zang, Xiaonan; Yuan, Dingyang; Zhao, Bingran; Tang, Li; Tan, Yanning; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2014-06-01

    Arthrospira platensis is an economically important cyanobacterium; and it has been used widely in food and pharmaceutical industries. The phycocyanin (PC) from A. platensis is extremely valuable in medicine and molecular biology due to its antioxidation and anti-tumoring activity and applicability as fluorescence protein tag. In present study, two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB)-producing genes ( hox1 and pcyA) while the other contained the phycobiliprotein gene ( cpcB) and the lyase gene (either cpcS/U or cpcT), were constructed and synchronically transferred into E. coli in order to test the the activities of relevant lyases for catalysing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent PC holo-β-subunit (β-PC) of A. platensis. As was evidenced by the fluorescence emitted at a peak specific for PC, CpcB was successfully synthesized in E. coli, to which co-expressed PCBs attached though at a relatively low efficiency. The results showed that the attachment of PCBs to CpcB were carried out mainly by co-expressed CpcS/U but CpcB also showed some autocatalytic activity. Currently, no CpcT activity was detected in this E. coli expression system. Further studies will be conducted to improve the efficiency of fluorescent PC synthesis in E. coli.

  16. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  17. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    PubMed

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  18. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  19. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Wu, Jilong

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W, lambda(max) = 365 nm) was investigated. Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algae-water systems. The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration, and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution. Meanwhile, the cooperation action of algae and Fe(III), and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxacin. The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae. In addition, we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae. This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae, for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution. PMID:22894111

  20. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  1. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  2. ALGAE BLOOMS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN LAKE LOWELL, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae blooms limit recreational use of Lake Lowell, ID (17050114) by reducing water clarity and esthetic qualities. Under bloom conditions, algae have a negative impact on the reservoir fishery because of periodic oxygen depletion associated with respiration and decomposition. ...

  3. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  4. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  5. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  6. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  7. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  8. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  10. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  11. Potential of mass algae production in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, A.; Fekri, M.

    1984-11-01

    The rationale for efficient light absorption by algae at a production unit is given and design details of an intensive thin-layer technology outdoor (2.11m/sup 2/) unit are presented. Data on productivity under extreme conditions were collected. Maximum productivity data are close to those reported in the literature for similar geographic areas.

  12. Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

  13. OPTIMAL COST CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ATTACHED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis for alternative programs intended for the control of the nuisance growth of an attached alga (Cladophora). Such analyses require that changes in water quality be quantitatively related to the cost of implementation for specific manageme...

  14. Microalgae growth using high-strength wastewater followed by anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin; Wang, Meng; Park, Chul; Sahu, Ashish K; Ergas, Sarina J

    2012-05-01

    Integration of algal biofuel production to wastewater anaerobic digestion infrastructure has the potential to increase biogas production, decrease high and variable internal nitrogen loads, and improve sludge digestibility and dewaterability. In this research, two species of microalgae, Spirulina platensis and Chlorella sp., were grown on sludge centrate and a centrate and nitrified wastewater effluent mixture. Harvested algae were co-digested with waste activated sludge (WAS) at varying ratios. High-growth (6.8 g m(-2) x d(-1)), nitrogen (36.5 g m(-3) x d(-1)), and phosphorus (6.5 g m(-3) x d(-1)) uptake rates were achieved with Chlorella on centrate. No growth was observed with S. platensis under the same conditions; however, both organisms grew well on the centrate and effluent mixture. Co-digestion of algae with WAS improved volatile solids reduction. Although co-digestion with S. platensis improved biosolids dewaterability, Chlorella had a slight negative effect on dewaterability compared to WAS alone. The efficiency of energy conversion from photons to biogas generated from Chlorella was estimated at 1.4%. PMID:22852424

  15. Molecular Cloning of cpcU and Heterodimeric Bilin Lyase Activity Analysis of CpcU and CpcS for Attachment of Phycocyanobilin to Cys-82 on the β-Subunit of Phycocyanin in Arthrospira platensis FACHB314.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Ran; Huang, Xiaoyun; Hou, Lulu; Jiang, Minjie; Liu, Chang; Pang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing genes (hoxI and pcyA), while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB) and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S) were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the β-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314. PMID:26999083

  16. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents. PMID:26985685

  17. Nanoencapsulation of the Bioactive Compounds of Spirulina with a Microalgal Biopolymer Coating.

    PubMed

    Greque de Morais, Michele; Greque de Morais, Etiele; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; Gonçalves, Carolina Ferrer; Lisboa, Cristiane; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have been studied in biotechnological processes due to the various biocompounds that can be obtained from their biomasses, including pigments, proteins, antioxidants, biopeptides, fatty acids and biopolymers. Microalgae biopolymers are biodegradable materials that present similar characteristics to traditional polymers, with the advantage of being rapidly degraded when discarded. In addition, nanoencapsulation is capable of increasing the availability of bioactive compounds by allowing the release of these biocompounds to occur slowly over time. The use of polymers in the nanoencapsulation of active ingredients can mask the undesired physicochemical properties of the compounds to be encapsulated, thereby enhancing consumer acceptability. This covering also acts as a barrier against several foreign substances that can react with bioactive compounds and reduce their activity. Studies of the development of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanocapsules from microbial sources are little explored; this review addresses the use of nanotechnology to obtain bioactive compounds coated with biopolymer nanocapsules, both obtained from Spirulina biomasses. These microalgae are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) certified, which guarantees that the biomass can be used to obtain high added value biocompounds, which can be used in human and animal supplementation. PMID:27398435

  18. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    SciTech Connect

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur; Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  19. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Tang, Quanming; Zhong, Xueyun; Bai, Yan; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Yinghua; Zheng, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS) has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 μM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers. PMID:22359460

  20. Amelioration of Cadmium-Produced Teratogenicity and Genotoxicity in Mice Given Arthrospira maxima (Spirulina) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Argüelles-Velázquez, Nancy; Alvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of Arthrospira maxima (AM) was made, otherwise known as Spirulina, on the teratogenicity, genotoxicity, and DNA oxidation processes induced by cadmium (Cd). Pregnant ICR mice were divided into groups and administered water, Cd only, AM only, or AM plus Cd. AM was administered orally at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg from gestational day 0 (GD0) to GD17, and at GD7 there was an intraperitoneal challenge of Cd (1.5 mg/kg). Cd only caused fetal malformations, including exencephaly, micrognathia, ablephary, microphthalmia, and clubfoot, as well as a significant increase in the quantity of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) and of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) in blood cells of both the mothers and their fetuses. An increased level of oxidation was also found, measured by a rise in the levels of the adduct 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. In a dose-dependent manner, AM significantly reduced the number of external, visceral, and skeletal malformations, the quantity of MNPE and MNNE, and the level of DNA oxidation. The results suggest that AM may reduce the genotoxic effects and rates of congenital malformations caused by exposure to Cd in utero and that the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium could be responsible, at least in part, for producing this effect. PMID:24369479

  1. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  2. Scaffolds Containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass: Development, Characterization and Evaluation of In Vitro Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Schmatz, Daiane Angelica; Uebel, Livia Da Silva; Kuntzler, Suelen Goettems; Dora, Cristiana Lima; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers are nanomaterials that can be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate the in vitro degradation of a biomaterial consisting of nanofibers produced from biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with potential applications as a scaffold for tissue regeneration and containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass as the bioactive compound. The polymers used were poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and polycaprolactone. The polymeric solutions exhibited sufficiently high viscosity to produce uniform nanofibers with diameters between 335 and 617 nm. The applied conditions were as follows: a voltage of 25 kV, a distance from the capillary to the collector of 120 mm, a capillary diameter of 0.80 mm, and 12% polycaprolactone and a blend of 5% polycaprolactone and 10% poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The biomass was incorporated into the nanofibers at a concentration of 3%, and the incorporation was confirmed using confocal microscopy. The nanofibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which showed that the addition of biomass did not alter the thermal properties of the biomaterial. The addition of biomass improved the tensile strength and elongation of the scaffolds compared with those produced with polymers alone. A biodegradation assay showed enzymatic action toward the biomaterial, simulating the behavior of natural tissue. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the scaffolds that were produced have the potential to be applied in the field of tissue regeneration as biomaterials with pharmacological properties. PMID:27398568

  3. Spirulina maxima prevents fatty liver formation in CD-1 male and female mice with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Blé-Castillo, J L; Juárez-Oropeza, M A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C

    2001-07-20

    The dietary administration of 5% Spirulina maxima (SM) during four weeks to diabetic mice, starting one week after a single dose of alloxan, 250 mg/Kg body weight, prevented fatty liver production in male and female animals. The main action of SM was on triacylglycerol levels in serum and liver. There was also a moderate hypoglycemia in male mice. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also decreased in serum and liver after SM administration. There was also a decrease in the percentage of HDL in diabetic mice that was reverted by the SM administration. The sum of LDL + VLDL percentages was also partially normalized in diabetic animals by the SM administration. An additional observation was the lower incidence of adherences between the liver and the intestine loops in the diabetic mice treated with SM compared with diabetic mice without SM. Male and female mice showed differences to diabetes susceptibility and response to SM, the female being more resistant to diabetes induction by alloxan and more responsive to the beneficial effects of SM. It is worth future work of SM on humans looking for better quality of life and longer survival of diabetic patients. PMID:11508645

  4. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy. PMID:27400526

  5. Nitrogen limitation in natural populations of cyanobacteria (Spirulina and Oscillatoria spp. ) and its effect on macromolecular synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    van Rijn, J.; Shilo, M.

    1986-08-01

    Natural populations of the cyanobacteria Spirulina species and Oscillatoria species obtained from Israeli fish ponds were limited in growth by nitrogen availability in summer. Physiological indicators for nitrogen limitation, such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carbohydrate content, did not show clear evidence for nitrogen limited growth, since these organisms are capable of vertical migration from and to the nitrogen-rich bottom. By means of /sup 14/C labeling of the cells under simulated pond conditions followed by cell fractionation into macromolecular compounds, it was found that carbohydrates synthesized at the lighted surface were partially utilized for dark protein synthesis at the bottom of these ponds.

  6. Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide antitumor macrolide, pladienolide, in Streptomyces platensis Mer-11107.

    PubMed

    Machida, Kazuhiro; Arisawa, Akira; Takeda, Susumu; Tsuchida, Toshio; Aritoku, Yasuhide; Yoshida, Masashi; Ikeda, Haruo

    2008-11-01

    Pladienolides are novel 12-membered macrolides produced by Streptomyces platensis Mer-11107. They show strong antitumor activity and are a potential lead in the search for novel antitumor agents. We sequenced the 65-kb region covering the biosynthetic gene cluster, and found four polyketide synthase genes (pldAI-pldAIV) composed of 11 modules, three genes involved in post-modifications (pldB-D), and a luxR-family regulatory gene (pldR). The thioesterase domain of pldAIV was more dissimilar to that of polyketide synthase systems synthesizing 12/14-membered macrolide polyketides than to that of systems synthesizing other cyclic polyketides. The pldB gene was identified as a 6-hydroxylase belonging to a cytochrome P450 of the CYP107 family. This was clarified by a disruption experiment on pldB, in which the disruptant produced 6-dehydroxy pladienolide B. Two genes located downstream of pldB, designated pldC and pldD, are thought to be a probable genes for 7-O-acetylase and 18, 19-epoxydase respectively. PMID:18997414

  7. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  8. Phycobilisomes in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Ruth B.; Bowen, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater blue-green algae, including unicellular, filamentous, and colonial forms, were subjected to a variety of fixatives, fixation conditions, and stains for comparison of the preservation of phycobilisomes. Absorption spectra of the corresponding in vivo and released photosynthetic pigments, in 10 of the species that were maintained in culture, demonstrated the presence of phycocyanin in all 10 species and phycoerythrin in only 2 of them. Spectroscope and electron microscope evidence was obtained for localization of phycobiliproteins in phycobilisomes of Nostoc muscorum. Phycobilisomes were observed in all species examined in situ, strenghening the hypothesis that phycobilisomes are common to all phycobiliprotein-containing photosynthetic blue-green algae. Images PMID:4204443

  9. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

    1997-12-01

    Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCB<1,2-DCB<1,2,3,4-TeCBalgae was almost in the order: Pyramidomonas sp. < Platymonas subcordiformis < Nannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

  10. Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene in marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Lin; Ma, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun

    1997-09-01

    Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; and toxicity of TeCB to the marine algae were tested. Values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k 1, elimination rate constant k 2 and bioconcentration factor BCF, were obtained not only from the time course of TeCB uptake by the marine algae by using a bioconcentration model, but also from the acute toxicity test data for percent inhibition PI(%)˜exposure concentration of TeCB-time by using a combined bioconcentration and probability model. The results showed good relationship between k 1(TOXIC) and k 1(UPTAKE) and k 2(TOXIC), k 2(UPTAKE), and BCF D(IOXIC) and BCF D(UPTAKE). Especially, the values of BCF D(TOXIC) were well consistent with those of BCF D(UPTAKE).

  11. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  12. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  13. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  14. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  15. Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

    1972-01-01

    The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

  16. Sequestration of CO2 by halotolerant algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential of halotolerant algae isolated from natural resources was used to study CO2 fixation and algal lipid production. Biological fixation of CO2 in photobioreactor in presence of salinity is exploited. The CO2 concentration 1060 ppm gave the highest biomass yield (700 mg dry wt/l), the highest total lipid content (10.33%) with 80% of CO2 removal. PMID:24847439

  17. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice. PMID:686747

  18. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops. PMID:20085253

  19. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  20. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  1. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  2. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1–1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  3. Analysis of proteome dynamics in mice by isotopic labeling.

    PubMed

    Price, John C; Ghaemmaghami, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry and in vivo isotopic labeling have enabled proteome-wide analyses of protein turnover in complex organisms. Here, we describe a protocol for analyzing protein turnover rates in mouse tissues by comprehensive (15)N labeling. The procedure involves the complete isotopic labeling of blue green algae (Spirulina platensis) with (15)N and utilizing it as a source of dietary nitrogen for mice. We outline a detailed protocol for in-house production of (15)N-labeled algae, labeling of mice, and analysis of isotope incorporation kinetics by mass spectrometry. The methodology can be adapted to analyze proteome dynamics in most murine tissues and may be particularly useful in the analysis of proteostatic disruptions in mouse models of disease. PMID:24791984

  4. Hydrogenases in green algae: do they save the algae's life and solve our energy problems?

    PubMed

    Happe, Thomas; Hemschemeier, Anja; Winkler, Martin; Kaminski, Annette

    2002-06-01

    Green algae are the only known eukaryotes with both oxygenic photosynthesis and a hydrogen metabolism. Recent physiological and genetic discoveries indicate a close connection between these metabolic pathways. The anaerobically inducible hydA genes of algae encode a special type of highly active [Fe]-hydrogenase. Electrons from reducing equivalents generated during fermentation enter the photosynthetic electron transport chain via the plastoquinone pool. They are transferred to the hydrogenase by photosystem I and ferredoxin. Thus, the [Fe]-hydrogenase is an electron 'valve' that enables the algae to survive under anaerobic conditions. During sulfur deprivation, illuminated algal cultures evolve large quantities of hydrogen gas, and this promises to be an alternative future energy source. PMID:12049920

  5. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  6. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  7. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  8. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. PMID:26051496

  9. Carvedilol and spirulina may provide important health protection to smokers and other nicotine addicts: a call for pertinent research.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; O'Keefe, James H; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine and soluble semi-stable aldehydes and ketones in cigarette smoke are key mediators of the elevated risks for vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease observed in smokers. Nicotine, via sympathetic stimulation, increases risk for both vascular disease and cancer. Comprehensive suppression of sympathetic activity with the well-tolerated drug carvedilol, which inhibits betal 1, beta2 and alphal adrenergic receptors, may be protective to smokers and other nicotine addicts. The soluble aldehydes and ketones in tobacco smoke appear to exert their adverse effects through activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in vascular tissues and in the lungs. The phytochemical phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), richly supplied by the edible cyanobacterium spirulina, in studies on rodents and in human cell cultures has shown the ability to safely mimic intracellular bilirubin's physiological role as an inhibitor ofNADPH oxidase activity. It therefore may have potential for mitigating the pro-oxidative effects of tobacco smoke aldehydes and ketones. Joint administration of carvedilol and spirulina merits exploration as a strategy for moderating the pathogenic impact of smoking in chronic tobacco users who either fail to quit or refuse to try cessation of tobacco. Carvedilol may be appropriate for those who manage a nicotine addiction in other ways (smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, nicotine gum). Further clinical studies to evaluate the impact of carvedilol on cardiovascular risk factors in nicotine addicts, and rodent studies to assess markers of lung inflammation in smoke- exposed rodents fed PhyCB, are recommended. PMID:25812281

  10. Evaluation of the water and organic liquids extraction efficiency of Spirulina maxima dyes using thermostated micro thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B

    2008-01-01

    Thermostated micro thin-layer chromatography was applied for separation and quantification studies of Spirulina maxima dyes isolated from pharmaceutical formulation by a simple one-step liquid extraction. The isolation process was performed using a number of liquids, including water; 10 mM water solutions of native alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin and their hydroxypropyl derivatives; and a number of common organic liquids characterized by different polarity, namely, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetonitrile, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane, toluene, and n-hexane. Chromatographic studies were performed on RP18W plates working inside a small thermostated horizontal chamber allowing a development distance of 45 mm. Using a mobile phase consisting of acetone-n-hexane (30 + 70, v/v) and 40 degrees C separation temperature, plate peak capacity of at least 15 spots/lane and developing time <5 min were obtained. Validation data indicated that under such conditions, with an office scanner used for chromatogram digitalization, spot quantification could be accurately performed within an analyte mass range of 2 factors. The raw quantitative data obtained from microchromatograms acquired under visible light conditions were explored using cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Chemometric investigations revealed that the best extraction liquids for isolation of dye mixtures from Spirulina samples were methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, and dichloromethane. Moreover, it was found that the liquids' parachor values could be used for estimation of the dye extraction efficiency from complex samples. PMID:18980141

  11. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  12. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, where heterotrophic bacteria grow on organics produced by algae and recycle nutrients. Ecological studies have identified the co-occurrence of particular species of algae and bacteria, suggesting the presence of their specific interactions. Algae/bacteria interactions are categorized into nutrient exchange, signal transduction and gene transfer. Studies have examined how these interactions shape aquatic communities and influence geochemical cycles in the natural environment. In parallel, efforts have been made to exploit algae for biotechnology processes, such as water treatment and bioenergy production, where bacteria influence algal activities in various ways. We suggest that better understanding of mechanisms underlying algae/bacteria interactions will facilitate the development of more efficient and/or as-yet-unexploited biotechnology processes. PMID:25744715

  13. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications. PMID:25120905

  14. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. PMID:21741048

  15. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Logan, Alan C; Giddings, Sabrina D; Quilliam, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications. PMID:25120905

  16. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  17. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  18. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2014-06-02

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  19. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  20. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  1. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  2. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in

  3. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  4. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  5. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  6. Inorganic carbon acquisition in some synurophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2008-05-01

    Some characteristics of photosynthesis of three synurophyte algae, Synura petersenii, Synura uvella and Tessellaria volvocina were investigated to determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake. All three species were found to have no external carbonic anhydrase, no capacity for direct bicarbonate uptake and a low whole-cell affinity for C(i). The internal pH of S. petersenii determined using (14)C-benzoic acid and [2-(14)C]-5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione was pH 7.0-7.5, over an external pH range of 5.0-7.5. Thus, the pH difference between the cell interior of S. petersenii and the external medium was large enough, over the alga's growth range, to allow the accumulation of C(i) by the diffusive uptake of CO(2). Monitoring O(2) evolution and CO(2) uptake by suspensions of S. petersenii at pH 7.0 by mass spectrometry did not indicate a rapid uptake of CO(2), and the final CO(2) compensation concentration reached was 24 +/- 0.7 microM. Furthermore, when the cells were darkened, a brief burst of CO(2) occurred before a steady rate of dark respiration was established, suggesting a loss of CO(2) by photorespiration. An examination of the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in homogenates of cells of S. petersenii, S. uvella and Mallomonas papillosa showed that values of the K(m) (CO(2)) were 28.4, 41.8 and 18.2 microM, respectively. These species lack the characteristics of cells with a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism because the cell affinity for C(i) appears to be determined by the relatively high CO(2) affinity of the Rubisco of these algae. PMID:18298411

  7. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  8. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  9. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  10. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated. PMID:19826917

  11. Effect of various colors of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the biomass composition of Arthrospira platensis cultivated in semi-continuous mode.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, semi-continuous cultivation of Arthrospira platensis using various colors of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as artificial lighting was performed in order to study their effects on the biomass composition of A. platensis. The lowest biomass productivity was obtained with blue LED (4.68 mg l(-1) day(-1)), while the highest was obtained with pink and red LEDs (30.89 and 30.69 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively). All biomass compound contents were affected by the different colors studied, except that of total carotenoids. The lowest phycocyanin content was observed in pink LED (8.2%) while the maximum in blue LED (17.6 ± 2.4%). Chlorophyll content was lowest in red LED (1.04%) and highest in blue LED (1.42%). The highest protein content was obtained with white and green LEDs (50.1 and 49.8%, respectively), while the lowest was obtained with blue LED (42.1%). Carbohydrate content was contrarily affected as that of proteins. The highest carbohydrate content was obtained in blue LED (11.3%) and the lowest under white and pink LEDs (8.8 and 8.8%, respectively). Lipid content seems to follow the same trend as that of carbohydrates; the highest lipid content was obtained in blue LED (6.0%), and the lowest was obtained under pink LED (3.8%). PMID:24435766

  12. Analysis and identification of irradiated Spirulina powder by a three-step infrared macro-fingerprint spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai Jing; Xu, Chang Hua; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei Ming; Ha, Yi Ming; Sun, Su Qin

    2013-04-01

    A three-step infrared (IR) macro-fingerprint method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR), was developed to analyze Spirulina powder before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR spectra, most of the absorption peaks of samples irradiated at 1, 2.7, 6, and 10.4 kGy had lower intensities than the non-irradiated ones, whereas peaks at 1152, 1078, and 1051 cm-1 were slightly enhanced with irradiation at 2.7, 6, and 10.4 kGy. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed that irradiation affected the C=O band of carboxylic acid and esters, and the N-H band of proteins. The peaks at 1746 and 1741 cm-1, and those at 1730 and 1725 cm-1 became two broad peaks. Meanwhile, the three sharp peaks at 1548 cm-1, 1544 cm-1 and 1536 cm-1 changed to two broad peaks at around 1547 and 1534 cm-1 after irradiation at doses higher than 1 kGy. The characteristic IR bands from 1700 cm-1 to 1600 cm-1, which represent the C=O band in proteins, also have different shapes and intensities after irradiation. The finding indicated that irradiation affected the secondary structures of protein which was confirmed by curve fitting results. During the process of increasing the temperature from 50 to 210 °C, the ratio of amide I to II in absorption intensities in the 2D-IR spectra of the irradiated samples varied with different response for different samples. Saccharides in Spirulina powder had a higher thermostability than proteins, but the autopeaks of irradiated samples did show differences from the non-irradiated sample. The intensity of autopeaks at 1012 cm-1 increased dramatically in the irradiated samples while that of peaks at 1053, 1071, and 1083 cm-1 decreased after irradiation. Based on the three-step IR macro-fingerprint method, irradiated Spirulina powder samples were successfully and fast identified and discriminated.

  13. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with themore » requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.« less

  14. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  15. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  16. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppm (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppm NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppm NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

  17. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppM (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppM NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppM NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx. 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppM of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

  18. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  19. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  20. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...