These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

2

What Are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Harmful algal blooms, sometimes referred to as "red tides,"  

E-print Network

What Are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Harmful algal blooms, sometimes referred to as "red tides the production of potent chemi- cal toxins (algal toxins) or the build up of excess biomass. Harmful algal blooms.noaa.gov/hab/). State of the Science FACT SHEET Harmful Algal Blooms NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION

3

Models of harmful algal blooms: Conceptual, empirical, and numerical approaches Now is a historic time in the field of harmful algal bloom (HAB)  

E-print Network

Preface Models of harmful algal blooms: Conceptual, empirical, and numerical approaches Now is a historic time in the field of harmful algal bloom (HAB) science. HAB problems are growing worldwide under the auspices of the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) program

McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

4

Satellite evidence of the movement of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) and the related oceanographic features in the Bohai Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are truly global marine phenomena of increasing significance. Many HAB occurrences may have been not recorded because of their high spatial and temporal variability and of their advection, once formed, by surface currents. A serious HAB occurred in the Bohai Sea in autumn 1998, dominated by the species Ceratium furca sp, causing the largest fisheries economic

D. L. Tang; H. Kawamura; I. S. Oh; Joe Baker

2004-01-01

5

Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms (HABs).  

PubMed

Virtually every coastal country in the world is affected by harmful algal blooms (HABs, commonly called "red tides"). These phenomena are caused by blooms of microscopic algae. Some of these algae are toxic, and can lead to illness and death in humans, fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and other oceanic life, typically as a result of the transfer of toxins through the food web. Sometimes the direct release of toxic compounds can be lethal to marine animals. Non-toxic HABs cause damage to ecosystems, fisheries resources, and recreational facilities, often due to the sheer biomass of the accumulated algae. The term "HAB" also applies to non-toxic blooms of macroalgae (seaweeds), which can cause major ecological impacts such as the displacement of indigenous species, habitat alteration and oxygen depletion in bottom waters.Globally, the nature of the HAB problem has changed considerably over the last several decades. The number of toxic blooms, the resulting economic losses, the types of resources affected, and the number of toxins and toxic species have all increased dramatically. Some of this expansion has been attributed to storms, currents and other natural phenomena, but human activities are also frequently implicated. Humans have contributed by transporting toxic species in ballast water, and by adding massive and increasing quantities of industrial, agricultural and sewage effluents to coastal waters. In many urbanized coastal regions, these inputs have altered the size and composition of the nutrient pool which has, in turn, created a more favorable nutrient environment for certain HAB species. The steady expansion in the use of fertilizers for agricultural production represents a large and worrisome source of nutrients in coastal waters that promote some HABs.The diversity in HAB species and their impacts presents a significant challenge to those responsible for the management of coastal resources. Furthermore, HABs are complex oceanographic phenomena that require multidisciplinary study ranging from molecular and cell biology to large-scale field surveys, numerical modelling, and remote sensing from space. Our understanding of these phenomena is increasing dramatically, and with this understanding come technologies and management tools that can reduce HAB incidence and impact. Here I summarize the global HAB problem, its trends and causes, and new technologies and approaches to monitoring, control and management, highlighting molecular probes for cell detection, rapid and sensitive toxin assays, remote sensing detection and tracking of blooms, bloom control and mitigation strategies, and the use of large-scale physical/biological models to analyze past blooms and forecast future ones. PMID:20161650

Anderson, Donald M

2009-07-01

6

Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and a Potential Synthesized Framework  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are severe ecological disasters threatening aquatic systems throughout the World, which necessitate scientific efforts in detecting and monitoring them. Compared with traditional in situ point observations, satellite remote sensing is considered as a promising technique for studying HABs due to its advantages of large-scale, real-time, and long-term monitoring. The present review summarizes the suitability of current satellite data sources and different algorithms for detecting HABs. It also discusses the spatial scale issue of HABs. Based on the major problems identified from previous literature, including the unsystematic understanding of HABs, the insufficient incorporation of satellite remote sensing, and a lack of multiple oceanographic explanations of the mechanisms causing HABs, this review also attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the complicated mechanism of HABs impacted by multiple oceanographic factors. A potential synthesized framework can be established by combining multiple accessible satellite remote sensing approaches including visual interpretation, spectra analysis, parameters retrieval and spatial-temporal pattern analysis. This framework aims to lead to a systematic and comprehensive monitoring of HABs based on satellite remote sensing from multiple oceanographic perspectives. PMID:22969372

Shen, Li; Xu, Huiping; Guo, Xulin

2012-01-01

7

Some observations on harmful algal bloom (HAB) events along the coast of Guangdong, southern China in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1998 was an unusual year for Guangdong Province and Hong Kong, both in southern China, as the frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HAB) were much higher than usual. This paper describes the causative organisms found associated with these blooms and speculates on the possible causes of these blooms, including the effects of increased temperature, reduced salinity,

Yuzao Qi; Jufang Chen; Zhaohui Wang; Ning Xu; Yan Wang; Pingping Shen; Songhui Lu; I. J. Hodgkiss

2004-01-01

8

The Haber Bosch–harmful algal bloom (HB–HAB) link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale commercialization of the Haber–Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agricultural products is inefficient leading to significant environmental pollution and aquatic eutrophication. Of particular concern is the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in waters receiving nutrient enriched runoff. Many phytoplankton causing HABs have physiological adaptive strategies that make them favored under conditions of elevated N : P conditions and supply of chemically reduced N (ammonium, urea). We propose that the HB-HAB link is a function of (1) the inefficiency of incorporation of N fertilizers in the food supply chain, the leakiness of the N cycle from crop to table, and the fate of lost N relative to P to the environment; and (2) adaptive physiology of many HABs to thrive in environments in which there is excess N relative to classic nutrient stoichiometric proportions and where chemically reduced forms of N dominate. The rate of HAB expansion is particularly pronounced in China where N fertilizer use has escalated very rapidly, where soil retention is declining, and where blooms have had large economic and ecological impacts. There, in addition to increased use of urea and high N : P based fertilizers overall, escalating aquaculture production adds to the availability of reduced forms of N, as does atmospheric deposition of ammonia. HABs in both freshwaters and marginal seas in China are highly related to these overall changing N loads and ratios. Without more aggressive N control the future outlook in terms of HABs is likely to include more events, more often, and they may also be more toxic.

Glibert, Patricia M.; Maranger, Roxane; Sobota, Daniel J.; Bouwman, Lex

2014-10-01

9

A Synopsis of Research Needs Identified at the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that the incidence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial extent and temporal\\u000a frequency worldwide. Cyanobacterial blooms produce highly potent toxins and huge, noxious biomasses in surface waters used\\u000a for recreation, commerce, and as drinking water sources. The Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful\\u000a Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB) characterized the state of the science and identified

H Kenneth Hudnell; Quay Dortch

10

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

2009-12-28

11

Molecular detection of harmful algal blooms (HABs) using locked nucleic acids and bead array technology  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious public health risk in coastal waters. As the intensity and frequency of HABs continue to rise, new methods of detection are needed for reliable identification. Herein, we developed a high-throughput, multiplex, bead array technique for the detection of the dinoflagellates Karenia brevis and Karenia mikimotoi. The method combined the Luminex detection system with two novel technologies: locked nucleic acid–modified oligonucleotides (LNA) and Mirus Label IT® nucleic acid technology. To study the feasibility of the method, we evaluated the performance of modified and unmodified LNA probes with amplicon targets that were biotin labeled with two different strategies: direct chemical labeling (Mirus Label IT) versus enzymatic end-labeling (single biotinylated primer). The results illustrated that LNA probes hybridized to complementary single-stranded DNA with better affinity and displayed higher fluorescence intensities than unmodified oligonucleotide DNA probes. The latter effect was more pronounced when the assay was carried out at temperatures above 53°C degree. As opposed to the enzymatic 5? terminal labeling technique, the chemical-labeling method enhanced the level of fluorescence by as much as ~83%. The detection limits of the assay, which were established with LNA probes and Mirus Label IT system, ranged from 0.05 to 46 copies of rRNA. This high-throughput method, which represents the first molecular detection strategy to integrate Luminex technology with LNA probes and Mirus Label IT, can be adapted for the detection of other HABs and is well suited for the monitoring of red tides at pre-blooming and blooming conditions. PMID:21165155

Diaz, Mara R.; Jacobson, James W.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Dunbar, Sherry A.; Fell, Jack W.

2010-01-01

12

Forecasting Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter gives a brief summary of societal impacts of harmful algal blooms and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) project, a group funded by NOAA to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Washington coast. The site includes colorful SeaWiFS (satellite) images of the coast during upwelling events.

Woodruff, Dana; Institute, Battelle M.

13

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.

2009-10-22

14

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.

Administration, National O.

15

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage serves as a portal to the CDC's collection of harmful algal bloom (HAB) resources for the general public. Visitors can find general information about HABs, as well as focus areas targeting Cyanobacteria, Ciguatera, red tide, and Pfiesteria piscicida. Links are also provided to publications, CDC activities, and datasets (organized by federal, state, and international levels).

Branch, National C.; Prevention, Centers F.

16

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, contains a brief overview of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and their potential impacts on human health and economics. It also provides information regarding mandates/legislation regarding HABs as well as government-funded organizations dedicated to forecasting and remediating HAB events. The site also features links to related sites as well as color and detailed black and white photographs, drawings, and maps.

2009-06-22

17

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

Graham, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

18

Harmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference?  

E-print Network

Harmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference? Harmful algal blooms and muck, otherwise known as Cladophora, can be mistaken for each other simply because people may associate an algal bloom with either that photosynthesizes like algae do. Blue-green harmful algal blooms (HABs) and green algae blooms can be found

19

IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) website aims to foster the effective management of, and scientific research on, harmful algal blooms (HAB) to understand their causes, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects. The site includes an overview of the program, introduction to HABs, links to relevant databases and activities, and services provided (including literature grants, an identification service, publications, and training courses). The site also features Harmful Algal News, an IOC-published newsletter on toxic algae and algal blooms.

2010-01-25

20

Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)  

E-print Network

Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate

Quartly, Graham

21

Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.

22

Development of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Capability For the Early Detection and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Great Lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imagers have significant capability for detecting and classifying waterborne constituents. One particularly appropriate application of such instruments in the Great Lakes is to detect and monitor the development of potentially Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Two generations of small hyperspectral imagers have been built and tested for aircraft based monitoring of harmful algal blooms. In this paper a discussion of the two instruments as well as field studies conducted using these instruments will be presented. During the second field study, in situ reflectance data was obtained from the Research Vessel Lake Guardian in conjunction with reflectance data obtained with the hyperspectral imager from overflights of the same locations. A comparison of these two data sets shows that the airborne hyperspectral imager closely matches measurements obtained from instruments on the lake surface and thus positively supports its utilization for detecting and monitoring HABs.

Lekki, John; Anderson, Robert; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Demers, James; Leshkevich, George; Flatico, Joseph; Kojima, Jun

2013-01-01

23

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Laboratory, Bigelow

24

Optical detection and assessment of algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about harmful algal blooms (HABs) have grown in recent years. There is a pressing need for robust, quantitative, and cost-effective methods to detect and characterize algal blooms. Critical applications of these meth- ods include long-term monitoring of coastal waters to indicate the degree to which present trends of HABs and human activities are linked, early warning systems to protect

John J. Cullen; Aurea M. Ciotti; Richard F. Davis; Marlon R. Lewis

25

Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Operational Forecast System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

2009-06-26

26

Distribution of chlorophyll and harmful algal blooms (HABs): A review on space based studies in the coastal environments of Chinese marginal seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of spatial and temporal distribution of chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentrations in the aquatic milieu is always challenging and often interesting. However, the recent advancements in satellite digital data play a significant role in providing outstanding results for the marine environmental investigations. The present paper is aimed to review ‘remote sensing research in Chinese seas’ within the period of 24 years from 1978 to 2002. Owing to generalized distributional pattern, the Chl-a concentrations are recognized high towards northern Chinese seas than the southern. Moreover, the coastal waters, estuaries, and upwelling zones always exhibit relatively high Chl-a concentrations compared with offshore waters. On the basis of marine Chl-a estimates obtained from satellite and other field measured environmental parameters, we have further discussed on the applications of satellite remote sensing in the fields of harmful algal blooms (HABs), primary production and physical oceanographic currents of the regional seas. Concerned with studies of HABs, satellite remote sensing proved more advantageous than any other conventional methods for large-scale applications. Probably, it may be the only source of authentic information responsible for the evaluation of new research methodologies to detect HABs. At present, studies using remote sensing methods are mostly confined to observe algal bloom occurrences, hence, it is essential to coordinate the mechanism of marine ecological and oceanographic dynamic processes of HABs using satellite remote sensing data with in situ measurements of marine environmental parameters. The satellite remote sensing on marine environment and HABs is believed to have a great improvement with popular application of technology.

Wei, Guifeng; Tang, Danling; Wang, Sufen

27

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)  

MedlinePLUS

... can produce toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. There are many kinds of ... last for several days after exposure. Ciguatera tides fish poisoning is another disease associated with toxins produced ...

28

Oceanography Vol.19, No. 2, June 200694 Algal blooms are a common occurrence in aquatic environ-  

E-print Network

Oceanography Vol.19, No. 2, June 200694 Algal blooms are a common occurrence in aquatic environ referred to as "harmful algal blooms," or HABs. Some HABs are harmful by virtue of their sheer biomass, whereas others are associated with algal blooms capable of producing toxins. During a HAB event, algal

McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

29

High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

30

Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010  

EPA Science Inventory

?Algal blooms? are local abundances of phytoplankton ? microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

31

The quantitative real-time PCR applications in the monitoring of marine harmful algal bloom (HAB) species.  

PubMed

In the last decade, various molecular methods (e.g., fluorescent hybridization assay, sandwich hybridization assay, automatized biosensor detection, real-time PCR assay) have been developed and implemented for accurate and specific identification and estimation of marine toxic microalgal species. This review focuses on the recent quantitative real-time PCR (qrt-PCR) technology developed for the control and monitoring of the most important taxonomic phytoplankton groups producing biotoxins with relevant negative impact on human health, the marine environment, and related economic activities. The high specificity and sensitivity of the qrt-PCR methods determined by the adequate choice of the genomic target gene, nucleic acid purification protocol, quantification through the standard curve, and type of chemical detection method make them highly efficient and therefore applicable to harmful algal bloom phenomena. Recent development of qrt-PCR-based assays using the target gene of toxins, such as saxitoxin compounds, has allowed more precise quantification of toxigenic species (i.e., Alexandrium catenella) abundance. These studies focus only on toxin-producing species in the marine environment. Therefore, qrt-PCR technology seems to offer the advantages of understanding the ecology of harmful algal bloom species and facilitating the management of their outbreaks. PMID:23247526

Penna, Antonella; Antonella, Penna; Galluzzi, Luca; Luca, Galluzzi

2013-10-01

32

TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ¿ of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

33

Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blooms of autotrophic algae and some heterotrophic protists are increasingly frequent in coastal waters around the world and are collectively grouped as harmful algal blooms (HABs). Blooms of these organisms are attributed to two primary factors: natural processes such as circulation, upwelling relaxation, and river flow; and, anthropogenic loadings leading to eutrophication. Unfortunately, the latter is commonly assumed to be

Kevin G. Sellner; Gregory J. Doucette; Gary J. Kirkpatrick

2003-01-01

34

Facts about Cyanobacteria (Blue-green Algae) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria are bacteria smell bad. #12;2 Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) CyanoHABs are algae blooms, including North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, Scandinavia, and China. Cyanobacterial blooms

35

Ohio Sea Grant Fact Sheets Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

Ohio Sea Grant Fact Sheets Harmful Algal Blooms in Ohio Waters this stuff? What isEugene C. Braig AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M ERCE OHSU­FS-091­©2011 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are so death--in pets, livestock, and humans. An algal bloom is an abundant or excessive growth of algae. Most

36

Investigating the Ocean Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA computer-based activity is designed to teach students in grades 9-12 how satellite imagery and remote sensing can be used to monitor harmful algal blooms (HABs). This lesson teaches students how to read and interpret satellite images and how to use GIS maps and satellite images to interpret the relationship of HABs and manatee deaths. The activity features a lesson plan and a step-by-step activity containing hyperlinks that connect the student to the relevant images and maps.

Satellite, Data N.; Administration, National O.

37

Algal blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Algae are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Algae use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-08-28

38

CSCOR Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Team. Over the past decade harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased along U.S. coasts causing major resource, economic, and health impacts. State and Federal managers responding to blooms often lack timely access to cutting-edge science useful in minimizing HAB impacts on coastal communities. The NCCOS Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Event Response program addresses the need to inject science into management by supporting coastal managers faced with responding to unusual or unexpected HABs. This page describes how to apply for funding and accomplishments achieved by the program. Links are provided to CSCOR Event Responses.

2010-01-14

39

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3  

E-print Network

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3 , P.M. Glibert b between water quality and eutrophication and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This meeting in revised form 21 January 2008 Accepted 1 August 2008 Keywords: Eutrophication Harmful algal blooms HABs

Cochlan, William P.

40

Development of Hyperspectral remote sensing capability for the early detection and monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Great Lakes John Lekki1 , Robert Anderson2 , Quang-Viet Nguyen3 Lakes is to detect and monitor the development of potentially Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Two algal blooms. In this paper a discussion of the two instruments as well as field studies conducted using

41

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

2010-06-30

42

Feeding by ciliates on two harmful algal bloom species, Prymnesium parvum and Prorocentrum minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have focused on ciliates as potential grazers on toxic phytoplankton because they are major herbivores in aquatic food webs. Ciliates may exert top down control on toxic phytoplankton blooms, potentially suppressing or shortening the duration of harmful algal blooms (HABs). We measured the growth rates of several ciliate species on uni-algal and mixed diets of both HAB and non-HAB

Carol Holmes Rosetta; George B. McManus

2003-01-01

43

Harmful algal bloom causative collected from Hong Kong waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased globally in recent years. In Hong Kong, a record algal bloom, caused by Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Gyrodiniumsp. HK'98 (subsequently described as Karenia digitata) occurred in March and April 1998. Almost all fishes died in the affected cages, and the estimated economic loss caused by the HAB was HK$$315?000?000 (equivalent to US $$40?000?000). Most of

Songhui Lu; I. J. Hodgkiss

2004-01-01

44

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem\\u000a of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern,\\u000a especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal\\u000a waters from human activities.

Donald M. Anderson; Patricia M. Glibert; Joann M. Burkholder

2002-01-01

45

Eutrophication and Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eutrophication is occurring in waters around the world and can have serious effects on marine life and humans. Excess nutrients cause the algae to "bloom," which affects aquatic life by depleting oxygen; some algae species also emit neurotoxins that impact marine species directly. The first is an article from New Scientist about the recent occurrence of thousands of dead fish on Kenyan shores. Oxygen deprivation due to algal blooms has become quite serious in the Gulf of Mexico, as described in the second article from Scientific American. An article from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency discusses how places even as far inland as Minnesota can contribute to the problem in the Gulf of Mexico. The next site from the US Environmental Protection Agency includes information about eutrophication, what causes it, why we should be concerned, and various links. The National Office for Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has created the this Web site (last mentioned in the October 29, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) that gives the basics on harmful algal blooms. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Northwest Fisheries Science Center also has a page that includes photos and information about marine algae. NOAA also has harmful algal bloom forecasting project which uses remote sensing to help predict algal blooms. The last site is a modeling project used to predict water quality and nutrient loading in the Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

46

"Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms" Resubmitted 4 March 2005  

E-print Network

"Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms" Resubmitted 4 ________________________________________________________________________ #12;X.1 Introduction Many harmful algal blooms (HABs) are marked by the presence of toxic or noxious have implemented HAB sampling programs similar to that of the CDHS (e.g., Harmful Algal Bloom

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

47

Progress in developing a new detection method for the harmful algal bloom species, Karenia brevis, through multiwavelength spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Progress in developing a new detection method for the harmful algal bloom species, Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms (HABs) annually during the late summer and fall in the Gulf of Mexico (Steidinger et May 2008 Accepted 6 May 2008 Keywords: Absorbance Detection Harmful algal blooms (HABs) Karenia brevis

Daly, Kendra L.

48

The Harmful Algal Bloom: Simple Plants With Toxic Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides scientific understanding, detection, monitoring, assessment, and prediction of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia (low oxygen). Specifics are given on understanding HABs (red tide) where they occur, the climate and economic impact on the environment as well as a framework of response options.

2003-07-27

49

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies  

E-print Network

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies Matthew, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Karenia brevis Phosphate-processing effluent monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB

Meyers, Steven D.

50

The role of nutrients in regulation and promotion of harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems  

E-print Network

The role of nutrients in regulation and promotion of harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems R on the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB), pro- motes a comparative approach. 1. Introduction and background Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global phenomenon that im- pacts

Cochlan, William P.

51

Harmful algal blooms: Their ecophysiology and general relevance to phytoplankton blooms in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 60 to 80 species of phytoplankton have been reported to be harmful; of thcsc, 90% are flagellates, notably dinoflagellates. The effects of turbulence on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxa, their photoadaptive strategies, growth rate, and nutrient uptake aFlinity (K,) are considered. Flagellates, including HAB taxa, collectively have a lower nutrient uptake affinity than diatoms. Four major adaptations are suggested

Theodore J. Smayda

1997-01-01

52

Physical Mechanisms Driving Harmful Algal Blooms Along the Texas Coast  

E-print Network

Commonly referred to as “red tide”, harmful algal blooms (HABs) formed by Karenia brevis occur frequently in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). A bloom is defined as cell abundances >105 cells L-1. This thesis will focus primarily on Karenia brevis...

Ogle, Marcus 1982-

2012-12-12

53

Controlling Harmful Algal Blooms Through Clay Flocculation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The potential use of clays to control harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been explored in East Asia, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. In Japan and South Korea, minerals such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, and yellow loess, have already been used in the field effectively, to protect fish mariculture fromCochlodiniumspp. and other blooms. Cell removal occurs through the flocculation of

MARIO R. SENGCO; DONALD M. ANDERSON

2004-01-01

54

The diversity of harmful algal blooms: a challenge for science and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad spectrum of events come under the category of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the common denominator being a negative impact on human activities. Harmful algal blooms involve a wide diversity of organisms, bloom dynamics, and mechanisms of impact. Here we review the effects of natural and man-induced environmental fluctuations on the frequency and apparent spreading of these phenomena. This

Adriana Zingone; Henrik Oksfeldt Enevoldsen

2000-01-01

55

OSU 1-8-2008_Davis 1 Short Term Dynamics of a Harmful Algal Bloom in  

E-print Network

OSU 1-8-2008_Davis 1 Short Term Dynamics of a Harmful Algal Bloom in Monterey Bay Special thanks fluorescence, data management · Peter Strutton, coastal carbon cycle, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) · Ted Strub and optical data · Assess the imaging requirements for this type of coastal environment ­ To detect the bloom

Kurapov, Alexander

56

Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

2008-06-01

57

Models of harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models used to study harmful algal blooms are a subset of those used to examine more general planktonic processes. Most models have been heuristic, examining the likelihood of certain processes generating a harmful algal bloom. Several models have been more closely coupled to field data and have been used to gain insights into the dynamics underlying the observations. As better

Peter J. S. Franks

1997-01-01

58

Using the molecular toolbox to compare harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are now generally recognized as occurring over a wide range of habitats from oligotrophic to hypernutrified, and appear to be expanding globally. Unlike many other ecosystems impacted by HABs, upwelling systems worldwide share a common set of physical parameters and are likely to respond similarly, regardless of locale. The Core Research Project on HABs in Upwelling

R. M. Kudela; M. D. A. Howard; B. D. Jenkins; P. E. Miller; G. J. Smith

2010-01-01

59

The state of U.S. freshwater harmful algal blooms assessments, policy and legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is increasing in the United States and worldwide. HAB toxins cause a substantial but unquantified amount of human and animal morbidity and mortality from exposures in recreational, commercial, drinking-source and potable waters. HAB biomass and toxins threaten the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. U.S. Congressional legislation mandated the establishment of a National Research Plan

H. Kenneth Hudnell

2010-01-01

60

Harmful Algal Blooms Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the biological and physical conditions that lead to eutrophication of a water system by using real-time data to predict the the growth of harmful algae. They also conduct research on the Internet to learn more about the causes of harmful algal blooms. Students investigate both the position of the Gulf Stream, as well as population and life cycle characteristics of harmful phytoplankton. The activity includes a worksheet and assessment questions. This resource is found in Rising Tides, a journal created for teachers and students reporting on current oceanography research conducted by NASA, NOAA, and university scientists, featuring articles, classroom activities, readings, teacher/student questions, and imagery for student investigation of marine science.

61

Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the aid of Lagrangian coherent structures  

E-print Network

Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the aid theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic), Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the aid of Lagrangian

Olascoaga, Maria Josefina

62

The aggregation of clay minerals and marine microalgal cells : physicochemical theory and implications for controlling harmful algal blooms  

E-print Network

In recent years, the use of clay minerals has emerged as one of the most promising strategies for directly controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs). Its principle is based on the mutual aggregation of algal cells and mineral ...

Sengco, Mario Rhuel

2001-01-01

63

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a “roundtable discussion” to develop a consensus on the relationship between eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs), specifically targeting those relationships for which management actions may be appropriate. Academic, federal, and state agency representatives were in attendance. The following seven statements were unanimously adopted by attendees based on review and analysis

J. Heisler; P. M. Glibert; J. M. Burkholder; D. M. Anderson; W. Cochlan; W. C. Dennison; Q. Dortch; C. J. Gobler; C. A. Heil; E. Humphries; A. Lewitus; R. Magnien; H. G. Marshall; K. Sellner; D. A. Stockwell; D. K. Stoecker; M. Suddleson

2008-01-01

64

Red tide is an example of a Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB), which results from higher than normal growth of a tiny single-celled  

E-print Network

, yellow, brown, and even green tide events. The species typically responsible for red tide blooms off toxins can affect invertebrates such as shrimp and crabs, but the extent is not well defined. Bivalve

Watson, Craig A.

65

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States  

E-print Network

of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA h Department of Marine and Ecological Sciences, Florida Gulf of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes

Townsend, David W.

66

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. X, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/2007GLXXX, 2007 Tracing the Early Development of Harmful Algal Blooms on1  

E-print Network

Development of Harmful Algal Blooms on1 the West Florida Shelf with the Aid of Lagrangian Coherent2 Structures OF HABs Abstract. Several theories have been proposed to explain the development1 of harmful algal blooms.: TRACING THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF HABs X - 3 1. Introduction The largest and most frequent harmful algal

Beron-Vera, Francisco Javier

67

Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV)  

E-print Network

to track harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Florida coast. Unfortunately satellite ocean color); Harmful algal blooms (HABs); Karenia brevis; Optical phytoplankton discriminator (OPD); Similarity index (SI) 1. Introduction The documented increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) in recent years has

Moline, Mark

68

Genetic programming for analysis and real-time prediction of coastal algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) have been widely reported and have become a serious environmental problem world wide due to its negative impacts to aquatic ecosystems, fisheries, and human health. A capability to predict the occurrence of algal blooms with an acceptable accuracy and lead-time would clearly be very beneficial to fisheries and environmental management. In this study, we present the

Nitin Muttil; Joseph H. W. Lee

2005-01-01

69

7 The variability and potential for prediction of harmful algal blooms in the southern Benguela ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the southern Benguela are usually attributed to dinoflagellate species, which constitute a regular component of normal phytoplankton populations. Fundamental to the success of HAB predictive systems is a sound knowledge of their variability. Although the Benguela remains poorly explored in terms of phytoplankton distribution, important biogeographic differences between the northern and southern Benguela, and the

Grant C. Pitcher

2006-01-01

70

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms Educational Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four lesson plans focus on understanding toxic and harmful algal blooms. Designed for use in conjunction with Bigelow Laboratory's "Toxic and Harmful Algal Bloom" web site. Each module includes background, learning objectives, student preparation, and standards-related classroom or lab activity. Topics cover: role of algae in the food web; development of algal blooms; impacts and bioaccumulation of bloom-related toxins; control of blooms and role playing a community response.

71

A Geospatial Analysis of Harmful Algal Blooms along the California Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algal blooms are natural phenomena consisting of the rapid growth of phytoplankton populations. Some blooms have negative ecological or public health effects due to toxin production and removal of oxygen from the water column. In recent years, such "harmful algal blooms" (HABs) have been linked to human illness, economic loss from decreased fishing, and ecological damage related to marine life mortality as well as eutrophication. A notable HAB event occurred along the coast of northern California in August 2011, resulting in economic and ecological impacts of approximately $82 million. This was one of several algal blooms that occurred in fall 2011, with similar northward propagating algal blooms occurring in autumn of other years. Although the scale of the bloom impact is well-known, the spatial and temporal extent of the bloom boundary is still unclear. This study tracked the space-time pattern of numerous blooms during August-October 2011 using multiple NASA Earth observing systems in an effort to quantify and understand the structure of these recurrent bloom events. Aqua MODIS images were used to quantify surface chlorophyll-? levels, and thus to map the extent and development of all autumn algal blooms. The relation between sea surface temperature, ocean surface topography, and algal blooms was further explored with AVHRR and Jason-2 satellite data. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to identify the environmental factors most statistically influential in algal blooms and specifically in HAB events. Results from this study will assist California's Departments of Public Health and Fish & Game in mitigating and managing the impact of future harmful algal blooms.

Jensen, C.; Rothwell, R.; Johnson, E.; Condamoor, M.; Patil, M.; Largier, J. L.; Schmidt, C.

2012-12-01

72

The economic effects of harmful algal blooms in the United States: Estimates, assessment issues, and information needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last several decades, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events have been observed in more locations than ever before throughout\\u000a the United States. Scientists have identified a larger number of algal species involved in HABs, more toxins have been uncovered,\\u000a and more fisheries resources have been affected. Whether this apparent increase in HAB events is a real phenomenon or is

P. Hoagland; D. M. Anderson; Y. Kaoru; A. W. White

2002-01-01

73

Marine birds and harmful algal blooms: sporadic victims or under-reported events?  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late Pliocene to now, blooms of toxic algae are associated with mortalities of marine birds. Given the long historical presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) worldwide and the numbers of seabirds that feed on filter-feeding fish and shellfish, it is surprising that relatively few incidents of seabird deaths as a result of toxic algae have been reported. The

Sandra E. Shumway; Steven M. Allen; P. Dee Boersma

2003-01-01

74

MITIGATION OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE UNITED STATES USING CLAY: RESEARCH PROGRESS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the United States, red tides and harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a serious and recurrent threat to marine ecosystems, fisheries, human health, and coastal aesthetics. Here we report results from a research program investigating the use of clay dispersal for bloom cont...

75

A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a new method of mitigating the deleterious effect of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the inhibition of the glycolipid biosurfactant sophorolipid on three common harmful algae Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo and Cochlodinium polykrikoides was studied. The optimum preparation condition for sophorolipid, the inhibition capability of sophorolipid and the interaction mechanism of sophorolipid on the three algal species

Xiao-Xia Sun; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim

2004-01-01

76

Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was specifically modelled to adapt to the marine habitat through its inclusion of ocean-colour sensitive bands in a four-band ratio-based relationship. The algorithm has demonstrated high stability against various environmental conditions like aerosol and sun glint.

Alawadi, Fahad

2010-10-01

77

Design and Implementation of Sensor Networks for the Observation and Research of Harmful Algal Blooms in Southern California Coastal Waters  

E-print Network

University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1596 Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) have becomeDesign and Implementation of Sensor Networks for the Observation and Research of Harmful Algal Blooms in Southern California Coastal Waters Ryan N. Smith1,5 , Beth Stauffer2,5 , Hordur Heidarsson1

Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

78

Environmental Monitoring with Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery (HAB Prediction)  

E-print Network

and NOAA are planning to utilize manned and unmanned (UAV) aircraft to monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs of the cause. MODIS satellite image of Lake Erie algal bloom. August 13, 2009. #12;Proposed Work This project algorithm development for early HAB detection using hyperspectral data #12;Aerial photo of algal bloom west

79

Selective Algicidal Action of Peptides against Harmful Algal Bloom Species  

PubMed Central

Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB), also termed “red tide”, has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1?4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal impact on marine ecology. PMID:22046341

Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kim, Si Wouk; Park, Yoonkyung

2011-01-01

80

HABHRCA: The Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes HABHRCA, a legislative Act that authorizes funding for research on harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia to advance scientific understanding and our ability to detect, assess, predict, control, and mitigate events. The site discusses the Act, gives an overview of The Interagency Task Force on Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia, and features links to past plans and reports called for by HABHRCA 1998. It also serves as a jumping point to conferences and workshops, pertinent documents, and other informational resources.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

81

Algal blooms and public health  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

Epstein, P.R. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States). Harvard Medical School)

1993-06-01

82

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction  

E-print Network

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction Harmful algal blooms species, and serious threats to human health posed by algal toxins. Just one harmful algal bloom event can and harmful algal blooms is a possibility under some West Coast climate change forecasts. The Problem

83

Spatial patterns in dense algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

lntricatc and striking patterns are often created in dense algal blooms by the interaction of sinking, floating, or swllmming algae and local physical dynamics. The structure of these patterns can reveal a great deal about the processes underlying the pattern formation. Here I explore three common patterns in dense algal blooms: chaotic mixing, internal wave banding, and sharp fronts. For

Peter J. S. Franks

1997-01-01

84

Application of 210Pb-derived sedimentation rates and dinoflagellate cyst analyses in understanding Pyrodinium bahamense harmful algal blooms in Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of areas affected by toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) in the Philippines has been increasing since its first recorded occurrence in 1983. Thus far, HAB has been reported in about 20 areas in the Philippines including major fishery production areas. The HAB-causing organism (Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum) produces a cyst during its life cycle. Pyrodinium cysts which are

E. Z Sombrito; A. dM Bulos; E. J Sta Maria; M. C. V Honrado; Rhodora V Azanza; Elsa F Furio

2004-01-01

85

Florida Harmful Algal Bloom Mitigation Year Five Neutralizing Brevetoxin Using the Amino Acid Derivative, Cysteine Methyl Ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide in bodies of water that range from ponds to oceans. A few species of algae produce and release lethal toxins that under certain conditions are sufficient to damage human health and marine life and severely impact coastal economies. HABs of Karenia brevis (\\

Collin McAliley

2009-01-01

86

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States  

PubMed Central

Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

2008-01-01

87

Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and intensity and are substantially affecting marine communities. In October\\/November 2008 a large-scale HAB event (> 500km2, dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides) in the Gulf of Oman caused the complete loss of the branching corals, Pocillopora and Acropora spp., and substantial reductions in the abundance, richness and trophic diversity of the associated coral

Andrew G. Bauman; John A. Burt; David A. Feary; Elise Marquis; Paolo Usseglio

2010-01-01

88

Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute: Harmful Algal Blooms Facts and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive website on harmful algal blooms (HAB), maintained by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, provides general information regarding HABs, including relevant species, terminology, and health effects, as well as information regarding the current status of red tides in Florida. Research projects underway at the Institute are described and links to publications are provided. Additionally, archived maps displaying weekly red tide counts in Florida since 2001 may be accessed from this webpage along with historical information regarding red tides in Florida.

2009-11-25

89

Can LANDSAT be used to catalog historical freshwater harmful algal blooms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blooms of toxic algae are becoming increasingly common in freshwater lakes globally, progressively impacting human and ecosystem health in more locales around the world. Despite this growing footprint of harmful algal blooms (HABs), however, there still exist few quantitative tools for monitoring the temporal and spatial progression of HABs in individual lakes, a prerequisite for documenting and understanding their global increase. Past efforts using MODIS and MERIS to monitor blooms have been limited to studying the subset of blooms that have occurred since those instruments began collecting data (1999 and 2002, respectively) and MERIS imagery in particular is not freely available. In contrast, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is available with data starting from 1982 and is freely accessible. Therefore, if LANDSAT could be used to identify blooms, then this would be advantageous for future monitoring and research. In this work, we assess the use of LANDSAT TM for identifying the presence, spatial extent, and timing of HABs. We do this by comparing LANDSAT-generated maps of phycocyanin content in Lake Erie with literature reports of harmful algal blooms and MERIS-generated maps of cyanobacteria. Lake Erie is used as the case study because its HABs have been extensively documented in the scientific literature. Maps are generated using a linear combination of spectral ratios tested previously for Lake Erie, using the Google Earth Engine platform for data processing. We further assess the effectiveness of LANDSAT TM for identifying HABs in other bloom-impacted freshwater lakes around the world. Most of the previous work using remote sensing to identify freshwater HABs has focused on individual remote sensing platforms and individual lakes; this work contributes to knowledge by comparing across platforms and water bodies. This assessment will improve understanding of the challenges of monitoring freshwater HABs, and will contribute to the development of effective management strategies for water resources both in Lake Erie and beyond.

Ho, J. C.; Michalak, A. M.

2013-12-01

90

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: field and laboratory studies.  

PubMed

In 2002, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection began discharging phosphate-processing effluent into Bishop Harbor, an estuary within Tampa Bay. Because of concerns that the effluent would serve as a nutrient source for blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, a field monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including Prorocentrum minimum and Heterosigma akashiwo, were observed in bloom concentrations adjacent to the effluent discharge site. Blooms of diatoms were widespread throughout Bishop Harbor. K. brevis was observed with cell concentrations decreasing with increasing proximity to the effluent discharge site. Bioassays using effluent as a nutrient source for K. brevis resulted in decreased cell yields, increased growth rates, and increased time to log-phase growth. The responses of HAB species within Bishop Harbor and of K. brevis to effluent in bioassays suggested that HAB species differ in their response to phosphate-processing effluent. PMID:21145070

Garrett, Matthew; Wolny, Jennifer; Truby, Earnest; Heil, Cynthia; Kovach, Charles

2011-03-01

91

The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms  

PubMed Central

The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world’s oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

Pitcher, G.C.; Figueiras, F.G.; Hickey, B.M.; Moita, M.T.

2011-01-01

92

Toxic Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Practical Challenge in Coastal Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.

Anderson, Donald M. (Donald Mark)

2010-01-04

93

Detection of bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms from coastal and microcosm environments using electronic microarrays.  

PubMed

With the global expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs), several measures, including molecular approaches, have been undertaken to monitor its occurrence. Many reports have indicated the significant roles of bacteria in controlling algal bloom dynamics. Attempts have been made to utilize the bacteria/harmful algae relationship in HAB monitoring. In this study, bacterial assemblages monitored during coastal HABs and bacterial communities in induced microcosm blooms were investigated. Samples were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene. DGGE bands with peculiar patterns before, during, and after algal blooms were isolated and identified. Probes for six ribotypes representing organisms associated with Chatonella spp., Heterocapsa circularisquama, or Heterosigma akashiwo were used for analysis on NanoChip electronic microarray. In addition, a new approach using cultured bacteria species was developed to detect longer (533 bp) polymerase chain reaction-amplified products on the electronic microarray. The use of fluorescently labelled primers allowed the detection of individual species in single or mixed DNA conditions. The developed approach enabled the detection of the presence or absence and relative abundance of the HAB-related ribotypes in coastal and microcosm blooms. This study indicates the ability of electronic microarray platform to detect or monitor bacteria in natural and induced environments. PMID:17298369

Barlaan, Edward A; Furukawa, Seiji; Takeuchi, Kazuhisa

2007-03-01

94

Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs  

PubMed Central

Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B1, B7, B12) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B1, B7, and B12 requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B12, 20 of 27 species required B1, and 10 of 27 species required B7, all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (Ks) constants of several HAB species for B1 and B12 were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

95

THE FUTURE OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO PREDICTING THE COMBINED IMPACTS OF RISING CO2, TEMPERATURE, AND EUTROPHICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent worldwide increases in harmful algal blooms (HABs) are almost certainly linked to cultural eutrophication of coastal environments. Virtually no attention has been given, however, to how other major anthropogenic impacts such as rising CO2 and greenhouse warmi...

96

Tropical harmful algal blooms: an emerging threat to coral reef communities?  

PubMed

Tropical harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and intensity and are substantially affecting marine communities. In October/November 2008 a large-scale HAB event (> 500 km(2), dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides) in the Gulf of Oman caused the complete loss of the branching corals, Pocillopora and Acropora spp., and substantial reductions in the abundance, richness and trophic diversity of the associated coral reef fish communities. Although the causative agents of this C. polykrikoides bloom are unknown, increased coastal enrichment, natural oceanographic mechanisms, and the recent expansion of this species within ballast water discharge are expected to be the main agents. With rapid changes in oceanic climate, enhanced coastal eutrophication and increased global distribution of HAB species within ballast water, large-scale HAB events are predicted to increase dramatically in both intensity and distribution and can be expected to have increasingly negative effects on coral reef communities globally. PMID:20864137

Bauman, Andrew G; Burt, John A; Feary, David A; Marquis, Elise; Usseglio, Paolo

2010-11-01

97

Harmful Algal Blooms: Brown Tide Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses brown tide blooms, particularly those caused by Aureococcus anophagefferens and Aureoumbra lagunesis in Rhode Island and Texas, respectively. The page explores the economic and ecological effects in both regions and highlights various theories regarding their formation and recurrence.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; SeaGrant

98

In situ and satellite observations of a harmful algal bloom and water condition at the Pearl River estuary in late autumn 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have posed a serious threat to the aquaculture and fisheries industries in recent years, especially in Asia. During 1998 there were several particularly serious blooms in the coastal waters of south China, which caused a serious damage to aquaculture. We report a massive dinoflagellate bloom near the mouth of Pearl River in November 1998 with analyses

DanLing Tang; Dana R. Kester; I-Hsun Ni; YuZao Qi; Hiroshi Kawamura

2003-01-01

99

Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes--United States, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are excessive accumulations of microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms (phytoplankton) that produce biotoxins or otherwise adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. HABs occur sporadically and often produce a visible algal scum on the water. This report summarizes human health data and water sampling results voluntarily reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) and the Harmful Algal Bloom-Related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS)* for the years 2009-2010. For 2009-2010, 11 waterborne disease outbreaks associated with algal blooms were reported; these HABs all occurred in freshwater lakes. The outbreaks occurred in three states and affected at least 61 persons. Health effects included dermatologic, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs and symptoms. These 11 HAB-associated outbreaks represented 46% of the 24 outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water reported for 2009-2010, and 79% of the 14 freshwater HAB-associated outbreaks that have been reported to CDC since 1978. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for HAB-associated illness among patients with a history of exposure to freshwater. PMID:24402467

Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Roberts, Virginia A; Backer, Lorraine; Deconno, Erin; Egan, Jessica S; Hyde, James B; Nicholas, David C; Wiegert, Eric J; Billing, Laurie M; Diorio, Mary; Mohr, Marika C; Hardy, Joan F; Wade, Timothy J; Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C

2014-01-10

100

MULTI-COMPONENT EVALUATION TO MINIMIZE THE SPREAD OF AQUATIC INVASIVE SEAWEEDS AND HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM MICROALGAE VIA LIVE BAIT VECTORS IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project is to quantify the importance of bait products and associated packing materials as vectors for the introduction of non-indigenous species and harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming microalgae to Long Island Sound. Non-native, invasive seaweeds and HAB-forming...

101

UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

Mitchell, B. Greg

2000-01-01

102

Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms  

PubMed Central

Background Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are one focus of the national research initiatives on Oceans and Human Health (OHH) at NIEHS, NOAA and NSF. All of the OHH Centers, from the east coast to Hawaii, include one or more research projects devoted to studying HAB problems and their relationship to human health. The research shares common goals for understanding, monitoring and predicting HAB events to protect and improve human health: understanding the basic biology of the organisms; identifying how chemistry, hydrography and genetic diversity influence blooms; developing analytical methods and sensors for cells and toxins; understanding health effects of toxin exposure; and developing conceptual, empirical and numerical models of bloom dynamics. Results In the past several years, there has been significant progress toward all of the common goals. Several studies have elucidated the effects of environmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity on bloom dynamics. New methods have been developed or implemented for the detection of HAB cells and toxins, including genetic assays for Pseudo-nitzschia and Microcystis, and a biosensor for domoic acid. There have been advances in predictive models of blooms, most notably for the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium and Karenia. Other work is focused on the future, studying the ways in which climate change may affect HAB incidence, and assessing the threat from emerging HABs and toxins, such as the cyanobacterial neurotoxin ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine. Conclusion Along the way, many challenges have been encountered that are common to the OHH Centers and also echo those of the wider HAB community. Long-term field data and basic biological information are needed to develop accurate models. Sensor development is hindered by the lack of simple and rapid assays for algal cells and especially toxins. It is also critical to adequately understand the human health effects of HAB toxins. Currently, we understand best the effects of acute toxicity, but almost nothing is known about the effects of chronic, subacute toxin exposure. The OHH initiatives have brought scientists together to work collectively on HAB issues, within and across regions. The successes that have been achieved highlight the value of collaboration and cooperation across disciplines, if we are to continue to advance our understanding of HABs and their relationship to human health. PMID:19025673

Erdner, Deana L; Dyble, Julianne; Parsons, Michael L; Stevens, Richard C; Hubbard, Katherine A; Wrabel, Michele L; Moore, Stephanie K; Lefebvre, Kathi A; Anderson, Donald M; Bienfang, Paul; Bidigare, Robert R; Parker, Micaela S; Moeller, Peter; Brand, Larry E; Trainer, Vera L

2008-01-01

103

Algal bloom in a lake in Tennessee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Large amounts of nutrients from agricultural runoff and pollution cause increased growth of algae. Algal blooms cause other organisms to die because the algae uses up all the oxygen in the water to grow. Eventually, this body of water will have no life in it.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

104

Spatial, seasonal and species variations of harmful algal blooms in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs), in terms of frequency and area in the Chinese coastal waters, have been increasing\\u000a since 1980s and caused considerable economic losses. In the present study, we have analyzed spatial and seasonal characteristics\\u000a of HAB events in the southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea along Chinese coast from 1933 to 2004. With a

DanLing Tang; BaoPing Di; Guifeng Wei; I-Hsun Ni; Im Sang Oh; SuFen Wang

2006-01-01

105

A Machine Learning Based Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Approach for Detection of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose an enormous threat to the U.S. marine habitation and economy in the coastal waters. Federal and state coastal administrators have been de- vising a state-of-the-art monitoring and forecasting system for these HAB events. The efficacy of a monitoring and forecasting system relies on the performance of HAB detection. We propose a machine learning based spatio-temporal

Balakrishna Gokaraju; Surya S. Durbha; Roger L. King; Nicolas H. Younan

2011-01-01

106

Using the molecular toolbox to compare harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are now generally recognized as occurring over a wide range of habitats from oligotrophic to hypernutrified, and appear to be expanding globally. Unlike many other ecosystems impacted by HABs, upwelling systems worldwide share a common set of physical parameters and are likely to respond similarly, regardless of locale. The Core Research Project on HABs in Upwelling Systems, a component of the scientific programme on the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB), promotes a comparative approach to identify the similarities and differences in the manifestation of HAB events in these systems. As applied to the goals of this programme, molecular techniques are a powerful suite of tools for HAB species identification, for determining genetic similarity within morphologically indistinguishable species, and ultimately, for assessing spatial and temporal patterns in ecophysiological responses in these upwelling systems. Knowledge of HAB organisms will be enhanced by comparing and contrasting the responses of these organisms in similar upwelling regions. Here, we provide an update on the availability of molecular and genetic tools for comparative HAB programmes in upwelling systems, focusing on four broad applications: cell enumeration and identification, molecular phylogenetics, functional/comparative genomics, and applications of high throughput sequencing methods. We highlight the rapid evolution, the promise, and the potential pitfalls, of the molecular toolbox, focusing on specific examples of how scientists and resource managers currently apply these methods. Specific examples are developed using relevant case studies from the California, Benguela and Iberian systems. We summarise by providing a synthesis of future research directions and goals that would be particularly relevant to advancing the comparative method for HAB genetics with an emphasis on upwelling systems.

Kudela, R. M.; Howard, M. D. A.; Jenkins, B. D.; Miller, P. E.; Smith, G. J.

2010-04-01

107

Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach  

PubMed Central

Observations of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in an estuary over multiple years were used to assess drivers of their spatial and temporal variability. Nauset Estuary on Cape Cod, Massachusetts has a recurrent, self-seeding A. fundyense population that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and leads to nearly annual closure to shellfishing. Weekly surveys of the entire estuary were made in 3 of 4 consecutive years, with surveys of a subembayment during the intervening year. Major A. fundyense blooms were observed all 4 years, with maximum concentrations >106 cells L?1. Concentrations were greatest in three salt ponds at the distal edges of the estuary. The bloom timing varied among the salt ponds and among years, although the blooms had similar durations and maximum cell concentrations. Nutrient concentrations did not correlate with the growth of the bloom, but differences in water temperature among years and ponds were significant. Net growth rates inferred from the surveys were similar to those from laboratory experiments, and increased linearly with temperature. A growing degree day calculation was used to account for effects of interannual variability and spatial gradients in water temperature on population development. The approach collapsed variability in the timing of bloom onset, development, and termination across years and among ponds, suggesting that this relatively simple metric could be used as an early-warning indicator for HABs in Nauset and similar areas with localized, self-seeding blooms.

Ralston, David K.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.

2014-01-01

108

Harmful Algal Blooms in South Carolina Residential and Golf Course Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Carolina coastal zone is among the fastest growing areas in the U.S., and population epicenters are marked by dense brackish water pond (lagoon) coverage associated with housing complexes and golf courses. Surveillance efforts in 2001–2002 documented the widespread occurrence of several types of potentially or measurably toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) in these ponds. These man-made retention ponds

Alan J. Lewitus; Laura B. Schmidt; Larissa J. Mason; Jason W. Kempton; Susan B. Wilde; Jennifer L. Wolny; B. Jamie Williams; Kenneth C. Hayes; Sabrina N. Hymel; Charles J. Keppler; Amy H. Ringwood

2003-01-01

109

Neural network modelling of coastal algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN), a data driven modelling approach, is proposed to predict the algal bloom dynamics of the coastal waters of Hong Kong. The commonly used back-propagation learning algorithm is employed for training the ANN. The modeling is based on (a) comprehensive biweekly water quality data at Tolo Harbour (1982–2000); and (b) 4-year set of weekly phytoplankton abundance

Joseph H. W. Lee; Yan Huang; Mike Dickman; A. W. Jayawardena

2003-01-01

110

Patch recognition of algal blooms and macroalgae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands interfere with the spectral location of absorption bands of photosynthetic pigments in plankton. Hyperspectral data were used to address this interference on identifying absorption bands by applying derivative analysis of radiance spectra. Algal blooms show elevated radiance data even at longer wavelengths compared to oligotrophic water and may reach radiance values of around 800 W/m2/micrometer/sr at a wavelength of about 0.8 ?m. Therefore, the use of a spectral range beyond 0.55 ?m is useful to describe bloom characteristics. In particular, the slope between 0.55 ?m to 0.80 ?m shows an advantage to depict gradients in plankton blooms. Radiance spectra in the region from 0.4 to 0.8 ?m for oligotrophic water and near coastal water show similar location of absorption bands when analyzed with derivative analysis but with different amplitudes. For this reason, radiance spectra were also analyzed without atmospheric correction, and various approaches to interpret radiance data over plankton blooms were investigated. Cluster analysis and ratio techniques at longer wavelengths were found to assist in the separation of ocean color gradients and distinguish bio-geochemical provinces in near-coastal waters. Furthermore, using the slope of spectra from plankton blooms, in connection with scatter diagrams at various wavelengths, shows that details can be revealed that would not be recognized in single channels at lower wavelength.

Szekielda, K. H.; Bowles, J. H.; Gillis, D. B.; Snyder, W.; Miller, W. D.

2010-04-01

111

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Community in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to apply their understanding of the role of algae in the food web, the general impacts of harmful algal blooms, and ways that our societies deal with blooms in a simulated situation. Students are presented with a scenario of a recent harmful algal bloom in the fictional town of Habport. They are assigned roles and are asked to prepare for and participate in a Habport town meeting called to discuss the bloom. As the students are allowed time to discuss what occurred during their town meeting, they will better understand the broader ecological, social, and economic impact of a harmful algal bloom.

112

Towards Marine Bloom Trajectory Prediction for AUV Mission Planning Jnaneshwar Das, Kanna Rajan, Sergey Frolov, Frederic Py, John Ryan, David A. Caron, Gaurav S. Sukhatme  

E-print Network

features in the coastal ocean. Our science application targets Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) which have (in 1-10 meters). Harmful Algal Blooms (the focus of this paper) are likewise spread over kilometers of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have large spatial (> 50 km2 ) and temporal extent

Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

113

Neural network and genetic programming for modelling coastal algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, machine learning (ML) techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN) have been increasingly used to model algal bloom dynamics. In the present paper, along with ANN, we select genetic programming (GP) for modelling and prediction of algal blooms in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong. The study of the weights of the trained ANN and also the GP-evolved

Nitin Muttil; Kwok-wing Chau

2006-01-01

114

December 2011 NATIONAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) FORECAST SYSTEM  

E-print Network

of charcoal filtration to address public health, taste and odor impacts to drinking water supplies (Facilities system or local water samples (typically June through October). Operational need may be more frequent. · Bulletins issued to coastal resource managers, water treatment facilities, local, state and federal public

115

INTRODUCTION Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur in many regions of  

E-print Network

, cells swim towards the surface to begin a phase of vegetative growth. Photosyn- thetic production. The culprit organisms are taxo- nomically diverse, and produce a wide variety of dele- terious effects (Anderson and Keafer, 1987) and physiological responses to environ- mental factors such as temperature

McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

116

Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Florida Harmful Bloom Dinoflagellates Karenia brevis and Pyrodinium bahamense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the critical role algae serve as primary producers, increases or accumulation of certain algae may result in Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Algal toxins from these blooms contribute significantly to incidences of food borne illness, and evidence suggests HABs are expanding in frequency and distribution. Mitigation of these HABs without knowledge of the ecological purpose and biochemical regulation of their

Cheska Burleson

2012-01-01

117

Detection of harmful algal bloom causing microalgae using covalently immobilised capture oligonucleotide probes on glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algal bloom (HAB) events have been on the rise in the last few decades with some of the causative microalgae exhibiting toxic properties. Therefore, detection is essential in order to prevent mortality of aquatic life and poisoning events from consumption of these biotoxins. Here, oligonucleotide modified glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces have been developed for the detection of the HAB causing microalgae, Alexandrium catenella, in a model system. Our preliminary studies show that the glass surface offers superior stability and analytical response when compared to those prepared from PDMS.

Bruce, Karen L.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Leterme, Sophie C.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Lenehan, Claire E.

2013-12-01

118

Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions in Remote Quorum Sensing and the Management of Harmful Algal Blooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This candidate solution proposes to use the night-imaging capabilities of the HSTC from SAC-C and of the HSC from SAC-D/Aquarius to detect bioluminescent events associated with HABs (harmful algal blooms). Once detected, this information could be fed to the NOAA CSCOR (Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research) Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program, which acts quickly to fund the mobilization of research teams and to engage local agencies in a response. The HSC/HSTC data can serve as input to the HABSOS decision support system to provide information on location, extent, and duration of HAB events. Society will benefit from improved protection of the health of humans beings, aquatic ecosystems, and coastal economies. This work supports coastal management, public health, and homeland security applications.

Fletcher, Rose; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert E.

2007-01-01

119

Watershed management strategies to prevent and control cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.  

PubMed

The tenets of watershed management--a focus on the land area linked to the water body, the incorporation of sound scientific information into the decision-making process and stakeholder involvement throughout the process--are well-suited for the management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (C-HABs). The management of C-HABs can be viewed as having two main areas of focus. First, there is mitigation--control and/or removal of the bloom. This type of crisis response is an important component to managing active C-HABs and there are several techniques that have been successfully utilized, including the application of algicides, physical removal of surface scums and the mechanical mixing of the water column. While these methods are valuable because they address the immediate problem, they do not address the conditions that exist in the system that promote and maintain C-HABs. Thus, the second component of a successful C-HAB management strategy would include a focus on prevention. C-HABs require nutrients to fuel their growth and are often favored in longer-residence time systems with vertical stratification of the water column. Consequently, nutrients and hydrology are the two factors most commonly identified as the targets for prevention of C-HABs. Management strategies to control the sources, transformation and delivery of the primary growth-limiting nutrients have been applied with success in many areas. The most effective of these include controlling land use, maintaining the integrity of the landscape and applying best management practices. In the past, notable successes in managing C-HABs have relied on the reduction of nutrients from point-sources. Because many point sources are now well-managed, current efforts are focused on non-point source nutrient reduction, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas. Non-point sources present significant challenges due to their diffuse nature. Regardless of which techniques are utilized, effective watershed management programs for decreasing the prevalence of C-HABs will require continuing efforts to integrate science and management activities. Ultimately, it is increased coordination among stakeholders and scientists that will lead to the development of the decision-making tools that managers require to effectively weigh the costs and benefits of these programs. PMID:18461773

Piehler, Michael F

2008-01-01

120

DETECTING HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN LOUISIANA COASTAL WATERS -  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will do in situ monitoring of HABs, that coupled with ongoing water quality monitoring, will provide useful cause and effect information about the occurrence and locations of blooms within the area. In the Lake Salvadore area of the Barataria Bay, just southwest of N...

121

Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integrating Salinity Measurements from Aquarius into the Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Candidate Solution suggests the use of Aquarius sea surface salinity measurements to improve the NOAA/NCDDC (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s National Coastal Data Development Center) HABSOS (Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System) DST (decision support tool) by enhancing development and movement forecasts of HAB events as well as potential species identification. In the proposed configuration, recurring salinity measurements from the Aquarius mission would augment HABSOS sea surface temperature and in situ ocean current measurements. Thermohaline circulation observations combined with in situ measurements increase the precision of HAB event movement forecasting. These forecasts allow coastal managers and public health officials to make more accurate and timely warnings to the public and to better direct science teams to event sites for collection and further measurements.

Anderson, Daniel; Lewis, David; Hilbert, Kent

2007-01-01

122

Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

2013-01-01

123

Toxic Algal Blooms in a Changing Coastal Ocean  

E-print Network

warming Royal Society, 2005 How will global change affect harmful algal blooms and toxin production? #12 2011, Mendocino county, CA Gonyaulax spinifera #12;Ocean acidification Global;Warming favors dinoflagellate blooms Cloern et al. 2005, GRL 32 #12;Dinoflagellate range extensions

Rohs, Remo

124

Effects of modified clay on cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea for harmful algal bloom control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on the effect of modified clay on cyst formation of S crippsiella trochoidea in harmful algal bloom (HAB). Modified clay (in concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/L) were added to cultures, and observations were made on cysts of S. trochoidea under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that the removal rate of algal cells reached 97.7% at the clay concentration of 1.0 g/L. The cyst formation rate increased from 4.6% to 24.6% when the concentration of clay was increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. Two cyst metamorphs were observed: spinal calcareous cysts and smooth noncalcareous ones. The proportion of the spinal cysts decreased from 76.9% to 24.1% when clay concentration increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. In addition, modified clay affected cyst germination. The germination rate decreased with the increases in the clay concentrations. Non-calcareous cysts had a lower germination rate with a longer germination time. We conclude that modified clay could depress algal cell multiplication and promote formation of temporal cysts of S. trochoidea, which may help in controlling HAB outbreaks.

Wang, Zhifu; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua; Han, Xiaotian

2014-08-01

125

Effects of modified clay on cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea for harmful algal bloom control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on the effect of modified clay on cyst formation of Scrippsiella trochoidea in harmful algal bloom (HAB). Modified clay (in concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/L) were added to cultures, and observations were made on cysts of S. trochoidea under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that the removal rate of algal cells reached 97.7% at the clay concentration of 1.0 g/L. The cyst formation rate increased from 4.6% to 24.6% when the concentration of clay was increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. Two cyst metamorphs were observed: spinal calcareous cysts and smooth noncalcareous ones. The proportion of the spinal cysts decreased from 76.9% to 24.1% when clay concentration increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. In addition, modified clay affected cyst germination. The germination rate decreased with the increases in the clay concentrations. Non-calcareous cysts had a lower germination rate with a longer germination time. We conclude that modified clay could depress algal cell multiplication and promote formation of temporal cysts of S. trochoidea, which may help in controlling HAB outbreaks.

Wang, Zhifu; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua; Han, Xiaotian

2014-11-01

126

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

127

A simple model for forecast of coastal algal blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In eutrophic sub-tropical coastal waters around Hong Kong and South China, algal blooms (more often called red tides) due to the rapid growth of microscopic phytoplankton are often observed. Under favourable environmental conditions, these blooms can occur and subside over rather short time scales—in the order of days to a few weeks. Very often, these blooms are observed in weakly flushed coastal waters under calm wind conditions—with or without stratification. Based on high-frequency field observations of harmful algal blooms at two coastal mariculture zones in Hong Kong, a mathematical model has been developed to forecast algal blooms. The model accounts for algal growth, decay, settling and vertical turbulent mixing, and adopts the same assumptions as the classical Riley, Stommel and Bumpus model (Riley, G.A., Stommel, H., Bumpus, D.F., 1949. Quantitative ecology of the plankton of the western North Atlantic. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University 12, 1-169). It is shown that for algal blooms to occur, a vertical stability criterion, E < 4 ?l2/ ?2, must be satisfied, where E, ?, l are the vertical turbulent diffusivity, algal growth rate, and euphotic layer depth respectively. In addition, a minimum nutrient threshold concentration must be reached. Moreover, with a nutrient competition consideration, the type of bloom (caused by motile or non-motile species) can be classified. The model requires as input simple and readily available field measurements of water column transparency and nutrient concentration, and representative maximum algal growth rate of the motile and non-motile species. In addition, with the use of three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation models, simple relations are derived to estimate the vertical mixing coefficient as a function of tidal range, wind speed, and density stratification. The model gives a quick assessment of the likelihood of algal bloom occurrence, and has been validated against field observations over a 4-year period. The model helps to explain the observed spatial and temporal patterns of bloom occurrences in relation to the vertical turbulence and nutrient condition. The success of the model points the way to the development of real time management models for disaster mitigation.

Wong, Ken T. M.; Lee, Joseph H. W.; Hodgkiss, I. J.

2007-08-01

128

Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms with the aid of Lagrangian coherent structures  

E-print Network

Several theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic dinoflagellate \\emph{Karenia brevis} on the West Florida Shelf. However, because the early stages of HAB development are usually not detected, these theories have been so far very difficult to verify. In this paper we employ simulated \\emph{Lagrangian coherent structures} (LCSs) to trace the early location of a HAB in late 2004 before it was transported to an area where it could be detected by satellite imagery, and then we make use of a population dynamics model to infer the factors that may have led to its development. The LCSs, which are computed based on a surface flow description provided by an ocean circulation model, delineate past and future histories of boundaries of passively advected fluid domains. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by the simulated surface currents. Two nearshore...

Olascoaga, M J; Brand, L E; Koçak, H

2007-01-01

129

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

130

Vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to changes in harmful algal bloom distribution in response to climate change: projections based on model analysis.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), those proliferations of algae that can cause fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, form unsightly scums, or detrimentally alter ecosystem function have been increasing in frequency, magnitude, and duration worldwide. Here, using a global modeling approach, we show, for three regions of the globe, the potential effects of nutrient loading and climate change for two HAB genera, pelagic Prorocentrum and Karenia, each with differing physiological characteristics for growth. The projections (end of century, 2090-2100) are based on climate change resulting from the A1B scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Climate Model (IPCC, IPSL-CM4), applied in a coupled oceanographic-biogeochemical model, combined with a suite of assumed physiological 'rules' for genera-specific bloom development. Based on these models, an expansion in area and/or number of months annually conducive to development of these HABs along the NW European Shelf-Baltic Sea system and NE Asia was projected for both HAB genera, but no expansion (Prorocentrum spp.), or actual contraction in area and months conducive for blooms (Karenia spp.), was projected in the SE Asian domain. The implications of these projections, especially for Northern Europe, are shifts in vulnerability of coastal systems to HAB events, increased regional HAB impacts to aquaculture, increased risks to human health and ecosystems, and economic consequences of these events due to losses to fisheries and ecosystem services. PMID:24942916

Glibert, Patricia M; Icarus Allen, J; Artioli, Yuri; Beusen, Arthur; Bouwman, Lex; Harle, James; Holmes, Robert; Holt, Jason

2014-12-01

131

Physical-biological sources for dense algal blooms near the Changjiang Changsheng Chen,1  

E-print Network

Physical-biological sources for dense algal blooms near the Changjiang River Changsheng Chen,1 2003; published 22 May 2003. [1] Harmful algal blooms (``red tides'') occur primarily in a confined. S. Franks, Physical-biological sources for dense algal blooms near the Changjiang River, Geophys

Chen, Changsheng

132

Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with  

E-print Network

Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent) In 2011, Lake Erie experienced the largest harmful algal bloom in its recorded history, with a peak. In the 1960s and 1970s, excess phosphorus from point and nonpoint sources produced nuisance algal blooms, poor

133

0 20 4010 Miles NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System  

E-print Network

0 20 4010 Miles NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps to Sargent BCH NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102 Matagorda Is. San Jose Is. Aransas Pass to PINS Matagorda Peninsula NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational

134

NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps  

E-print Network

COLLIER LEE PASCO MONROE MANATEE CHARLOTTE SARASOTA PINELLAS NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102.5 Miles #12 N Collier N Charlotte S Charlotte NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest

135

Biological control of harmful algal blooms: A modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispecies dynamic simulation model (ERSEM) was used to examine the influence of allelopathic and trophic interactions causing feeding avoidance by predators, on the formation of harmful algal blooms, under environmental scenarios typical of a Mediterranean harbour (Barcelona). The biological state variables of the model included four functional groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, toxic and non-toxic flagellates and picophytoplankton), heterotrophic flagellates,

Jordi Solé; Marta Estrada; Emilio Garcia-Ladona

2006-01-01

136

Relating Algal Bloom Frequencies to Phosphorus Concentrations in Lake Okeechobee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical relationships were developed between algal bloom frequencies and total phosphorus concentrations for three distinct regions of Lake Okeechobee, and hypotheses were derived to explain observed spatial variation in those relationships. The analyses were based on water quality monitoring data collected monthly between 1986 and 1993, at 10 open-water stations, 12 north littoral stations, and 14 south littoral stations. Using

William W. Walker Jr; Karl E. Havens

1995-01-01

137

Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large “blooms” in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers.

Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

2011-05-01

138

Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are frequently reported in many countries around the world. Even though this phenomenon has been\\u000a known for a long time1, the causes of HABs and toxicity releases are still not understood. Effective management of HABs of\\u000a cyanobacteria requires an understanding of both the environmental factors associated with their formation and the effectiveness\\u000a of available management alternatives

Igor Linkov; A. Fristachi; F. K. Satterstrom; A. Shifrin; J. Steevens; G. A. Clyde Jr; G. Rice

139

Genetic and Environmental Factors Influencing Microcystis Bloom Primary Investigator: Gary Fahnenstiel -NOAA GLERL  

E-print Network

is to forecast the development and toxicity of the harmful algal bloom, Microcystis. Community structure of a potential new cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom (HAB) invader, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii blooms in the Great Lakes and identify the potential for a new invasive cyanobacterial harmful algal

140

The Role of Zooplankton Grazing and Nutrient Loading in the Occurrence of Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms  

E-print Network

picocyanobacteria blooms for nearly two decades. While nutrient loading is the most commonly cited cause of algal . Nutrients . Zooplankton . Microbial food web . Microzooplankton . Grazing . Mesozooplankton . Algal bloom Introduction Harmful algal bloom (HAB) is the term used to denote the growth of planktonic microalgae to levels

Jochem, Frank J.

141

Cephalopods as vectors of harmful algal bloom toxins in marine food webs.  

PubMed

Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)--the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG > kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 ?g kg?¹ and palytoxin reaching 115 ?g kg?¹ (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 ?g kg?¹ in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the Mediterranean area. PMID:24018900

Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

2013-01-01

142

Cephalopods as Vectors of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Marine Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)—the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG >> kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 ?g kg?1 and palytoxin reaching 115 ?g kg?1 (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 ?g kg?1 in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the Mediterranean area. PMID:24018900

Lopes, Vanessa M.; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

2013-01-01

143

Convergent blooms of Karenia brevis along the Texas coast Robert D. Hetland1  

E-print Network

on harmful algal bloom formation along the Texas coast. Karenia brevis, which blooms frequently in the Gulf., 34, L19604, doi:10.1029/2007GL030474. 1. Introduction [2] Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingConvergent blooms of Karenia brevis along the Texas coast Robert D. Hetland1 and Lisa Campbell1

Hetland, Robert D.

144

Detection of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Optically Complex Coastal Waters of the Kuwait Bay using Aqua-MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the optically complex coastal marine waters of the Kuwait Bay, the propagation of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) has become a severe issue over the last decade affecting aquaculture a primary component of the Kuwaiti economy. Although several remote sensing based methods of algal bloom detection exist today, few may accurately detect the concentration and identify the type of HABs in Case II waters. The purpose of this study is: (1) assessment of the method that best detects and identifies algal blooms in general and HABs in particular, in the Kuwait Bay, and (2) identification of the factors controlling the occurrence of HABs. Fluorescence Line Height (FLH), Empirical, Bio-Optical, and Operational Methods as well as Ocean Colour 3 Band Ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM), and General Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) algorithms were applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images acquired (07/2002 to 07/2012) over the Kuwait Bay and areas as far east as Shatt Al-Arab and as far south as N. 29.284 (Lat.), E. 50.047 (Long.) decimal degrees. In-situ data (bloom days: 50; sampling locations: 64) collected (09/1999 to 07/2011) from the Kuwait Bay was provided by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and was used to test the reliability of the satellite-based inferences. Tasks accomplished and findings reached include: (1) comparison of in situ to estimated OC3M, GSM, and GIOP chlorophyll concentrations over the sampling locations for the time period 2002 to 2009 showed that OC3M outperformed the two other techniques in predicting the observed distribution and in replicating the measured concentration of the in-situ Chl-a data; (2) applying the OC3M algorithm to a total of 4039 scenes and using threshold values of 3, 4, and 5 mg/m3 Chl-a concentrations we inferred 371, 202, and 124 occurrences in the Kuwait Bay that met their respective threshold; (3) applying the operational method we successfully identified 13 of the reported blooms in Kuwait Bay on cloud free days; the majority of the unidentified events were on cloudy days. This was accomplished by generating difference images between the current satellite OC3M Chl-a concentration image and a background (mean of previous 60 days + 1 mg/m3) using a 14-day window between the analyzed image and those used in the generation of the mean. Predicted blooms in the Kuwait Bay in years 2002 through 2012 are 30, 84, 101, 96, 100, 97, 66, 60, 91, 81 and 29 blooms, respectively. These estimates exceed the observed occurrences and may be attributed to sampling bias (most blooms found >2 km from the shoreline) or due to uncertainties introduced by applying the OC3M algorithms to shallow water (mean depth Kuwait Bay: 22 m) cases; and (4) the temporal correlation of the distribution of the algal blooms in Kuwait Bay with those at the mouth of Shatt Al-Arab suggests a causal effect. Further efforts to more accurately identify HABS and to reduce uncertainties in Chl-a concentration are currently underway.

Manche, C. J.; Sultan, M.; Uddin, S.; Al-Dousari, A.; Chouinard, K.

2013-12-01

145

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom  

E-print Network

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and ...

Penn, Kevin

146

Study of harmful algal blooms in a eutrophic pond, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to analyze the underlying mechanisms and contributing factors related to the seasonal dynamic\\u000a of harmful algal blooms in a shallow eutrophic pond, Bangladesh during September 2005–July 2006. Two conspicuous events were\\u000a noted simultaneously throughout the study period: high concentration of phosphate–phosphorus (>3.03; SD 1.29 mg l???1) and permanent cyanobacterial blooms {>3,981.88 × 103 cells l???1 (SD 508.73)}. Cyanobacterial

Roksana Jahan; Saleha Khan; Joong Ki Choi

2010-01-01

147

Monitoring, management, and mitigation of Karenia blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the eastern Gulf of Mexico represent one of the most predictable global harmful algal bloom (HAB) events, yet remain amongst the most difficult HABs to effectively monitor for human and environmental health. Monitoring of Karenia blooms is necessary for a variety of precautionary, management and predictive purposes. These include the protection

Cynthia A. Heil; Karen A. Steidinger

2009-01-01

148

Connecting Florida Bay algal blooms to freshwater nutrient sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, monthly water quality data collected in the Everglades by the Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) from 1991 to 2008 at 28 sampling stations distributed across Florida Bay was analyzed within the context of local geomorphology and seasonal wind and current regimes in order to evaluate the feasibility of the various purported nutrient sources for reoccurring algal blooms. The in situ chlorophyll-a (chl-a) measurements from the SERC dataset were evaluated as the indicator of algal biomass. Significant differences in average monthly chl-a concentrations at stations indicated a seasonality of algal blooms in the north central and west areas that is not evidenced in stations exhibiting low levels of chl-a throughout the typical year. Tukey's pairwise comparisons of monthly chl-a indicated, at the 95% confidence level, peak algal biomass occurs in October and November at the end of the wet season with minimums occurring between February and August depending on the location of the station. By month comparison of chl-a levels across stations suggest seasonal trends in the geographic focus and extent of blooms. Significant differences from Tukey's pairwise comparisons at the 95% confidence level showed stations to the west as having higher levels of chl-a in March through May with north central stations dominating from June to January. The month of February shows no significant difference in chl-a levels across this area. The results support hypotheses centering on a western source of nutrients that are delivered to the bay over the course of the rainy season. Mapping water quality sampling station locations on top of the bathymetry of Florida Bay illustrates the importance of considering coastal morphology in explaining trends in estuarine algal blooms. Coastal geomorphology along with seasonal changes in the direction of winds and magnitude of rains are demonstrated to be the predominant factors influencing the nutrient circulation that is pertinent to observed patterns in Florida Bay algal blooms. These results point to the utility of regional hydrogeologic characterizations at fine spatial and temporal resolutions in tracking seasonally variable hydrologic inputs in complex and dynamic systems.

Blakey, T.; Melesse, A. M.

2013-12-01

149

Effect of algal bloom deposition on sediment respiration and fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using sediment cores collected in November 1989 from Aarhus Bight, Denmark, the fluxes of O2, SCO2 (total CO2), NH4+, NO3-+NO2-and DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) across the sediment-water interface were followed for 20 d in an experimental continous flow system. On day 7, phytoplankton was added to the sediment surface, to see the result of simulated algal bloom sedimentation. Benthic O2

L. S. Hansen; T. H. Blackburn

1992-01-01

150

Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large "blooms" in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

2011-01-01

151

Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.  

PubMed

Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

2014-01-01

152

Parasitic chytrids sustain zooplankton growth during inedible algal bloom  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of “inedible” algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19–20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the zooplankton diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin. PMID:24904543

Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlene; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

2014-01-01

153

Eos, Vol. 93, No. 5, 31 January 2011 Blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagel-  

E-print Network

the Gulf of Mexico [Steidinger, 2009]. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a gulf-wide problem to understand the bio-optical prop- erties of algal blooms in the Gulf of Mex- ico in collaboration with USFEos, Vol. 93, No. 5, 31 January 2011 Blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagel- late Karenia brevis

Meyers, Steven D.

154

Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay  

E-print Network

and harmful algal blooms (HABs) is increasing in coastal ecosystems as a response to anthropogenic nutrient that proliferate during algal blooms? If species composition is determined by ``precedent and stochasticityClimate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay James E. Cloern

155

Molecular detection and species identification of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) causing harmful algal blooms along the Chilean coastline  

PubMed Central

Background and aims On the basis of morphological evidence, the species involved in South American Pacific coast harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been traditionally recognized as Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). However, these observations have not been confirmed using evidence based on genomic sequence variability. Our principal objective was to accurately determine the species of Alexandrium involved in local HABs in order to implement a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for its rapid and easy detection on filter-feeding shellfish, such as mussels. Methodology For species-specific determination, the intergenic spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S subunit, ITS2 and the hypervariable genomic regions D1–D5 of the large ribosomal subunit of local strains were sequenced and compared with two data sets of other Alexandrium sequences. Species-specific primers were used to amplify signature sequences within the genomic DNA of the studied species by conventional and real-time PCR. Principal results Phylogenetic analysis determined that the Chilean strain falls into Group I of the tamarensis complex. Our results support the allocation of the Chilean Alexandrium species as a toxic Alexandrium tamarense rather than A. catenella, as currently defined. Once local species were determined to belong to Group I of the tamarensis complex, a highly sensitive and accurate real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect dinoflagellate presence in Mytilus spp. (Bivalvia) samples after being fed (challenged) in vitro with the Chilean Alexandrium strain. The results show that real-time PCR is useful to detect Alexandrium intake in filter-feeding molluscs. Conclusions It has been shown that the classification of local Alexandrium using morphological evidence is not very accurate. Molecular methods enabled the HAB dinoflagellate species of the Chilean coast to be assigned as A. tamarense rather than A. catenella. Real-time PCR analysis based on A. tamarense primers allowed the detection of dinoflagellate DNA in Mytilus spp. samples exposed to this alga. Through the specific assignment of dinoflagellate species involved in HABs, more reliable preventive policies can be implemented. PMID:23259043

Jedlicki, Ana; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Astorga, Marcela; Oyarzun, Pablo; Toro, Jorge E.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Martinez, Victor

2012-01-01

156

Dissolved Oxygen Characteristics of Spring Algal Bloom in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved oxygen characteristics of spring algal bloom in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir were studied. In surveys, 12 stations have been investigated and 132 samples were collected weekly from February 24 to May 10 in 2008. Chlorophyll a, pH and water temperature could be the significant influence factors to dissolved oxygen in spring algal bloom by using stepwise multiple

Huajun Luo; Defu Liu; Daobin Ji; Yingping Huang

2010-01-01

157

Effect of macrophyte community composition and nutrient enrichment on plant biomass and algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged freshwater macrophytes decline with increasing eutrophication. This has consequences for ecosystem processes in shallow lakes and ponds as macrophytes can reduce algal blooms under eutrophic conditions. We hypothesize that the productivity of submerged vegetation, biomass change under eutrophication and the suppression of algal blooms may be affected by macrophyte community composition. To test our hypothesis, we established three macrophyte

E. S. Bakker; E. Van Donk; S. A. J. Declerck; N. R. Helmsing; B. Hidding; B. A. Nolet

2010-01-01

158

Health and Ecological Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms: Risk Assessment Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome in order to provide a complete risk assessment of their impacts. Six recognized human poisoning syndromes resulting from

Frances M. Van Dolah; Daniel Roelke; Richard M. Greene

2001-01-01

159

HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS: RISK ASSESSMENT NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome...

160

Study of harmful algal blooms in a eutrophic pond, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to analyze the underlying mechanisms and contributing factors related to the seasonal dynamic of harmful algal blooms in a shallow eutrophic pond, Bangladesh during September 2005-July 2006. Two conspicuous events were noted simultaneously throughout the study period: high concentration of phosphate-phosphorus (>3.03; SD 1.29 mg l(-1)) and permanent cyanobacterial blooms {>3,981.88×10(3) cells l(-1) (SD 508.73)}. Cyanobacterial blooms were characterized by three abundance phases, each of which was associated with different ecological processes. High nitrate-nitrogen (>2.35; SD 0.83 mg l(-1)), for example, was associated with high cyanobacterial abundance, while low nitrate-nitrogen (0.36; SD 0.2 mg l(-1)) was recorded during moderate abundance phase. Extremely low NO3-N/PO4-P ratio (>3.55, SD 2.31) was recorded, and all blooming taxa were negatively correlated with this ratio. Cyanobacterial blooms were positively correlated with temperature (r=0.345) and pH (0.833; p=0.05) and negatively correlated with transparency (r=-0.956; p=0.01). Although Anabaena showed similar relationship with water quality parameters as cyanobacteria, the co-dominant Microcystis exhibited negative relationship with temperature (r=-0.386) and nitrate-nitrogen (r=-0.172). This was attributed to excessive growth of Anabaena that suppressed Microcystis's growth. Planktothrix was the third most dominant taxa, while Euglena was regarded as opportunistic. PMID:19856121

Jahan, Roksana; Khan, Saleha; Haque, Md Mahfuzul; Choi, Joong Ki

2010-11-01

161

Algicidal activity of thiazolidinedione derivatives against harmful algal blooming species.  

PubMed

Thiazolidinedione (TD) derivatives exhibit algicidal activity against harmful algal blooming species such as Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, as reported previously. In this study, the efficacies and selectivities of TD derivatives were tested by analyzing the structure-activity relationships of various TD derivatives. To investigate structure-activity relationships for growth inhibition of harmful algae, we added a methylene group between the cyclohexyl ring and oxygen of 5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-TD, which decreased the inhibitory potency of compound 17. Interestingly, another addition of a methylene group significantly increased the inhibitory potency against C. polykrikoides. The addition of 1 ?M compound 17 resulted in the cell rupture of harmful algae after less than 10 h incubation at 20 °C. Compound 17 was applied to both harmful and non-harmful algae and showed a drastic reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II, resulting in reduced photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Compound 17 at a 5 ?M concentration destroyed all of the harmful algae, while algicidal activity against non-harmful algae did not exceed 30% of the control within the concentration range tested. In contrast, a herbicide, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, tested at a 5 ?M concentration, exhibited 40-70% algicidal activity relative to that of the control against both harmful and non-harmful algae. Compound 17 is a promising lead compound for the development of algicides to control harmful algal blooming species. PMID:22080145

Kim, Yeon-Mi; Wu, Ying; Duong, Thi Uyen; Jung, Seul-Gi; Kim, Si Wouk; Cho, Hoon; Jin, Eonseon

2012-06-01

162

Algal blooms in the spread and persistence of cholera.  

PubMed

Cholera has been long associated with the seasonality of coastal algal blooms off Bangladesh. Using fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques, microbiologists have now identified a viable, non-cultivable form of Vibrio cholerae in a wide range of marine life, including cyanobacteria (Anabaena variabilis), diatoms (Skeletonema costatum), phaeophytes (Ascophyllum nodosum), in copepod molts, and in freshwater vascular aquatic plants (water hyacinths and duckweed). In unfavourable conditions V. cholerae assumes spore-like forms; with proper nutrients, pH and temperature, it reverts to a readily transmissible and infectious state. Nitrates and phosphates in sewage and fertilizers cause eutrophication, and scientists report an increase in intensity, duration and shifts in the biodiversity of algal blooms in many coastal, brackish and fresh waters worldwide. V. cholerae has been isolated from phyto- and zooplankton in marine and fresh waters near Lima, Peru. V. cholera 01, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, may have arrived in the Americas in the bilge of a Chinese freighter. There, in the abundant coastal sea life along the Latin American Pacific coast, nourished by the Humboldt current and eutrophication, it found a reservoir for surviving unfavourable conditions. It is hypothesized that the algae and Vibrio populations grew exponentially; consumed by fish, mollusks and crustacea, a heavy 'inoculum' of carriers infected with V. cholerae was generated and transported into multiple coastal communities. PMID:8155853

Epstein, P R

1993-01-01

163

Fuzzy Prediction of the Algal Blooms in the Orbetello S. Marsili-Libelli, G. Pacini, C. Barresi  

E-print Network

Fuzzy Prediction of the Algal Blooms in the Orbetello Lagoon S. Marsili-Libelli, G. Pacini, C of the resources. This paper describes a fuzzy predictor to forecast algal blooms in coastal lagoon and decide of water quality leading to anoxic conditions and algal blooms. Two water-quality monitoring stations have

164

Biological control of harmful algal blooms: A modelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multispecies dynamic simulation model (ERSEM) was used to examine the influence of allelopathic and trophic interactions causing feeding avoidance by predators, on the formation of harmful algal blooms, under environmental scenarios typical of a Mediterranean harbour (Barcelona). The biological state variables of the model included four functional groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, toxic and non-toxic flagellates and picophytoplankton), heterotrophic flagellates, micro- and mesozooplankton and bacteria. The physical-chemical forcing (irradiance, temperature and major nutrient concentrations) was based on an actual series of measurements taken along a year cycle in the Barcelona harbour. In order to evaluate potential effects of advection, some runs were repeated after introducing a biomass loss term. Numerical simulations showed that allelopathic effects of a toxic alga on a non-toxic but otherwise similar competitor did not have appreciable influence on the dynamics of the system. However, induction of avoidance of the toxic alga by predators, which resulted on increased predation pressure on other algal groups had a significant effect on the development of algal and predator populations. The presence of advection overrided the effect of these interactions and only allowed organisms with sufficiently high potential growth rates to thrive.

Solé, Jordi; Estrada, Marta; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio

2006-07-01

165

J. Phycol. 39, 874879 (2003) ARE "GREEN TIDES" HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS? TOXIC PROPERTIES OF  

E-print Network

874 J. Phycol. 39, 874­879 (2003) ARE "GREEN TIDES" HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS? TOXIC PROPERTIES OF WATER-SOLUBLE EXTRACTS FROM TWO BLOOM-FORMING MACROALGAE, ULVA FENESTRATA AND ULVARIA OBSCURA (ULVOPHYCEAE)1 Timothy A, Seattle, Washington 98195-5020, USA Toxic properties are more often associated with microalgal blooms than

Nelson, Tim

166

[Distribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved oxygen in the high frequency area of harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea in spring].  

PubMed

According to two cruises in the high frequency area of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in ECS from Apr. 8th to 26th and May 7th to 14th 2010, concentrations and distributions of biogenic elements before and after HABs were analyzed, and their influenced factors were also discussed. The results showed that April was the earlier stage of HAB breaking out, and diatom was the dominant species; while Dinoflagellate became the dominant species when large-scale HAB broke out in May. The concentrations of DIN and PO4(3-) -P decreased significantly from April to May. The Mean value of DIN decreased from 18.04 to 10.80 micromol x L(-1), its decline rate was 40%. As for PO4(3-) -P, its Mean value decreased from 0.47 to 0.27 micromol x L(-1), and its decline rate was 43%. This phenomenon indicated the significant depletion of nutrients by harmful algae in the process. However, the primary species of HABs in ECS was dinoflagellates in May. Since dinoflagellates did not consume SiO3(2-) -Si during the breed, as well as the supplement from Changjiang Diluted Water, the mean value of SiO3(2-) -Si increased slightly from 16. 15 to 16.96 micromol x L(11) in the researched area. The Mean value of DO decreased from 8.76 to 6.09 mg x L(-1) from April to May, because the effect of temperature to DO was more obvious than that of phytoplankton photosynthesis. The temperature was higher in May, and the solubility of oxygen decreased with increasing temperature, therefore, the concentration of DO was lower after the Harmful algal blooms. PMID:23947028

Li, Hong-Mei; Shi, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Chuan-Song

2013-06-01

167

Experimental study on the interspecific interactions between the two bloom-forming algal species and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interspecific interactions between the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and two harmful algal blooms (HAB) species were investigated experimentally by single culture method. B. plicatilis population and the growth of the two algae were compared at different algal cell densities. The results demonstrated that the B. plicatilis obtained sufficient nutrition from Prorocentrum donghaiense to support net population increase. With exposure to 2.5×104 cells mL-1 of P. donghaiense, the number of B. plicatilis increased faster than it did when exposed to other four algal densities (5, 10, 15 and 20 ×104 cells mL-1), and the increase rate of B. plicatilis population ( r) at this algal density was 0.104 ± 0.015 rd-1. Cell densities of P. donghaiense decreased due to the grazing of B. plicatilis. In contrast, Heterosigma akashiwo had an adverse effect on B. plicatilis population and its growth was largely unaffected by rotifer grazing. In this case, B. plicatilis population decreased and H. akashiwo grew at a rate similar to that of the control.

Xie, Zhihao; Xiao, Hui; Tang, Xuexi; Cai, Hengjiang

2009-06-01

168

Development of a simple means for predicting algal blooms  

SciTech Connect

A simple technique to predict the future occurrence of algal blooms was evaluated for seven test lake systems proximate to Syracuse, NY during the summer of 1978 and 1979. The selected test systems represent a broad range of trophic status, from mesotrophic to hypereutrophic. The technique includes a simple filtering process followed by the identification of the color imparted to the filter, based on comparison to National Bureau of Standards' color chips. The reference measure of phytoplankton standing crop was chlorophyll-a. Particular colors of filtered particulates were not demonstrated to be useful estimators of chlorophyll-a concentration, though the hues olive and yellow-green were associated with higher chlorophyll-a levels. The particulate color method was demonstrated to be useful in following certain physical/chemical changes in a lake.

Litten, S.; Effler, S.W.; Meyer, M.

1980-09-01

169

Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms at the University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NSF-NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health at the University of Miami, research is being conducted into the remote sensing of ocean color signatures associated with the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are down-linked at the University of Miami's Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing (CSTARS) and processed in near-real time to produce mapped fields of water leaving radiance in the ocean color bands, derived quantities including inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, chlorophyll concentration, and sea-surface temperature. Images of these fields are available in near-real time on a web-server. The server also provides access to the data files themselves. One of the applications currently being researched using these data is the identification of HABs over the Central West Florida Shelf where blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have a nearly annual occurance. Since chlorophyll concentration alone cannot be used as a unique variable to determine algal taxonomy, other spectral features or optical properties must be brought into play to discriminate among different phytoplankton types. A published technique developed for SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) to detect K. brevis (based on high concentration of chlorophyll and low particulate backscatter) was transitioned to measurements of Terra MODIS and replicated the results. These were confirmed by comparisons with in situ measurements. This technique is currently being applied to a multi-year time series of remote measurements from the Aqua MODIS and tested against ship-based data.

Minnett, P. J.; Carvalho, G.; Baringer, W.; Banzon, V.

2007-05-01

170

Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act  

E-print Network

problems in the United States. HAB poisoning syndromes include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP Program (CHRP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystems and Hypoxia Assessment (NGOMEX) Research Program

171

TRACKING FRESHWATER DIVERSIONS AND ALGAL BLOOMS THAT IMPACT THE NEW ORLEANS STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA -  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will monitor selected water quality parameters, including water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and algal blooms to assess the impacts of freshwater diversions for several selected areas within the New Orleans metropolitan area. The specific areas of study include ...

172

THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Significance Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

173

Giantism and its role in the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa Walker O. Smith, Jr.a,*  

E-print Network

1 Giantism and its role in the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa Walker O. Smith, Jr), the species is considered a harmful algal bloom species due to the significant indirect effects it has T _______________________ ________________________________________________________________ Keywords: The cosmopolitan alga Phaeocystis globosa forms large blooms in shallow coastal waters

Latour, Robert J.

174

Giantism and its role in the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa Walker O. Smith Jr.a,n  

E-print Network

Giantism and its role in the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa Walker O. Smith Jr is considered a harmful algal bloom species due to the significant indirect effects it has on local systems via alga Phaeocystis globosa forms large blooms in shallow coastal waters off the Viet Nam coast, which

Newman, Michael C.

175

Amer. Malac. Bull. 21: 11-15 Disappearance of a population of pygmy octopus following a harmful algal bloom  

E-print Network

algal bloom in a northwestern Florida bay) U.S.A. Bridget Nicole Tiffany, Nann A. Fangue*, and Wayne A 1999 through 14 October 1999, St. Joseph Bay experienced a severe and prolonged harmful algal bloom were devastated during the bloom. Repeated and extensive sampling from September 1999 through February

Fangue, Nann A.

176

Dynamic bacterial and viral response to an algal bloom at subzero temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

New evidence suggests that cold-loving (psychrophilic) bacteria may be a dynamic component of the episodic bloom events of high-latitude ecosystems. Here we report the results of an unusually early springtime study of pelagic microbial activity in the coastal Alaskan Arctic. Heterotrophic bacterioplankton clearly responded to an algal bloom by doubling cell size, increasing the fraction of actively respiring cells (up

Patricia L. Yager; Tara L. Connelly; Behzad Mortazavi; K. Eric Wommack; Nasreen Bano; James E. Bauer; Stephen Opsahl; James T. Hollibaugh

2001-01-01

177

Synergistic effect of sophorolipid and loess combination in harmful algal blooms mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition effect of sophorolipid and removal efficiency of loess on Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Alexandrium tamarense was investigated separately in the laboratory. Based on this, the combination of sophorolipid and loess for harmful algal bloom mitigation was proposed. Algal sedimentation tests in the laboratory and in the field revealed that the combination of sophorolipid and loess showed synergistic effects both

Xiao-Xia Sun; Young-Ju Lee; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim

2004-01-01

178

Modeling and analysis of the algal bloom in a lake caused by discharge of nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a nonlinear model for the algal bloom in a lake caused by excessive flow of nutrients from domestic drainage and water runoff from agricultural fields, is proposed and analyzed. This model considers interactions of cumulative concentration of nutrients, density of algal population, density of detritus and concentration of dissolved oxygen in the lake. It is assumed that

J. B. Shukla; A. K. Misra; Peeyush Chandra

2008-01-01

179

Use of artificial neural network in the prediction of algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model to quantify the interactions between abiotic factors and algal genera in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan was developed using artificial neural network technology. Results showed that the timing and magnitude of algal blooms of Microcystis, Phormidium and Synedra in Lake Kasumigaura could be successfully predicted. As for the newly occurring dominant Oscillatoria, results were not satisfactory. The evaluation of the

Bin Wei; Norio Sugiura; Takaaki Maekawa

2001-01-01

180

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Harmful Algal Bloom Bulletin Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage provides access to weekly Harmful Algal Bloom bulletins that are generated for the Gulf of Mexico by the NOAA Coastwatch Program, the National Ocean Service and the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service. These bulletins provide notification of bloom conditions to state and local coastal managers in the Gulf of Mexico and include maps with information on wind conditions, chlorophyll levels, and potential or actual bloom events.

2010-02-08

181

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Harmful Algal Bloom Bulletin Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage provides access to weekly Harmful Algal Bloom bulletins that are generated for the Gulf of Mexico by the NOAA Coastwatch Program, the National Ocean Service and the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service. These bulletins provide notification of bloom conditions to state and local coastal managers in the Gulf of Mexico and include maps with information on wind conditions, chlorophyll levels, and potential or actual bloom events.

Administration, The N.

182

[Systematic investigation into winter and spring algal blooms in Daning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].  

PubMed

According to the survey conducted from winter and spring algal blooms, the changes of water quality and characteristics of Daning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results suggested that during the period of winter algal blooms centered on Tangjia bay in Daning river, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) had a wide range (the rates of (Chl-a)max and (Chl-a)min is 260). The contents of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and potassium permanganate index were at very high levels because of bioaccumulation from algal blooms, but the values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were very low. During winter algal blooms fastigium poor algae were observed accounting for 2 phylum 4 species, dominant species are Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis flos-aquae, the maximum value of algal density was 3.15 x 10(7) cells/L, and the correlation weighted nutrition state index was 80, which indicated water body was at high eutrophication level. However the spring algal blooms belonged to whole watershed outbreak, the values of Chl-a, TN, TP and potassium permanganate index became all markedly high with outbreak of algal blooms. There were 5 phylum 44 species algae being observed during spring algal blooms fastigium, different sections observed different dominant species and algal density values. The correlation weighted nutrition state index showed water of Dongping bar and Baishui River sections was at slight eutrophication level. During winter algal blooms there were significantly positive correlations between Chl-a and TN, TP, potassium permanganate index, water temperature, between pH and SD. Significantly negative correlations were observed between Chl-a and DO, SD, between pH and TN, TP, potassium permanganate index. In spring algal blooms significantly positive correlations were observed between Chi-a and TP, potassium permanganate index, DO, pH, between pH and Chla, TP, potassium permanganate index, DO, air temperature. Significantly negative correlations were observed between Chl-a and SD, between pH and SD. PMID:20187374

Cao, Cheng-jin; Zheng, Bing-hui; Zhang, Jia-lei; Huang, Min-sheng; Chen, Zhen-lou

2009-12-01

183

ALGAL METABOLITE INFLUENCE ON BLOOM SEQUENCE IN EUTROPHIED FRESHWATER PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The extracellular metabolites of planktonic bloom dominant algae play a most significant role in the determination of bloom sequence in a eutrophied freshwater pond. Certain extracellular metabolites of planktonic blue-green algae substantially inhibit the growth of planktonic di...

184

Remote sensing of algal blooms by aircraft and satellite in Lake Erie and Utah Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During late summer, when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature, an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena, which characterize eutrophic conditions, have been noticed on other shallow lakes using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1). The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS Multispectral Scanner Subsystem data of Lake Erie, an aircraft was used to obtain correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. A large bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae observed in Utah Lake together with recent bloom history in Lake Erie is used to verify the Great Lakes bloom.

Strong, A. E.

1974-01-01

185

Detecting toxic diatom blooms from ocean color and a regional ocean model  

E-print Network

motivated attempts to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) as a func- tion of select environmental variablesDetecting toxic diatom blooms from ocean color and a regional ocean model Clarissa R. Anderson,1 signatures, macronutrients, and toxic diatom blooms in the various "hotspots" throughout California has

Siegel, David A.

186

Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.  

PubMed

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) sensor MODIS-Aqua provides an important tool for reliable observations of the changing ocean surface algal bloom paradigms in coastal and oceanic waters around India. A time series of the MODIS-Aqua-derived OSABI (ocean surface algal bloom index) and its seasonal composite images report new information and comprehensive pictures of these blooms and their evolution stages in a wide variety of events occurred at different times of the years from 2003 to 2011, providing the first large area survey of such phenomena around India. For most of the years, the results show a strong seasonal pattern of surface algal blooms elucidated by certain physical and meteorological conditions. The extent of these blooms reaches a maximum in winter (November-February) and a minimum in summer (June-September), especially in the northern Arabian Sea. Their spatial distribution and retention period are also significantly increased in the recent years. The increased spatial distribution and intensity of these blooms in the northern Arabian Sea in winter are likely caused by enhanced cooling, increased convective mixing, favorable winds, and atmospheric deposition of the mineral aerosols (from surrounding deserts) of the post-southwest monsoon period. The southward Oman coastal current and southwestward winds become apparently responsible for their extension up to the central Arabian Sea. Strong upwelling along this coast further triggers their initiation and growth. Though there is a warming condition associated with increased sea surface height anomalies along the coasts of India and Sri Lanka in winter, surface algal bloom patches are still persistent along these coasts due to northeast monsoonal winds, enhanced precipitation, and subsequent nutrient enrichment in these areas. The occurrence of the surface algal blooms in the northern Bay of Bengal coincides with a region of the well-known Ganges-Brahmaputra Estuarine Frontal (GBEF) system, which increases supply of nutrients in addition to the land-derived inputs triggering surface algal blooms in this region. Low density (initiation stage) of such blooms observed in clear oceanic waters southeast and northeast of Sri Lanka may be caused by the vertical mixing processes (strong monsoonal winds) and the occurrence of Indian Ocean Dipole events. Findings based on the analyses of time series satellite data indicate that the new information on surface algal blooms will have important bearing on regional fisheries, ecosystem and environmental studies, and implications of climate change scenarios. PMID:24554022

Tholkapiyan, Muniyandi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Suresh, T

2014-07-01

187

On the horizontal distribution of algal-bloom in Chaohu Lake and its formation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the remote sensing images of algae, the present work analyzes the horizontal distribution characteristics of algal blooms in Chaohu Lake, China, which also reveals the frequency of algal blooms under different wind directions. Further, an unstructured-grid, three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) is applied to investigate the wind-induced currents and the transport process to explain the reason why algal blooms occur at the detected places. We first deduce the primary distribution of biomass from overlaid satellite images, and explain the formation mechanism by analyzing the pollution sources, and simulating the flow field and transportation process under prevailing wind over Chaohu Lake. And then, we consider the adjustment action of the wind on the corresponding day and develop a two-time scale approach to describe the whole formation process of algae horizontal distribution in Chaohu Lake. That is, on the longer time scale, i.e., during bloom season, prevailing wind determines the primary distribution of biomass by inducing the characteristic flow field; on the shorter time scale, i.e., on the day when bloom occurs, the wind force adjusts the primary distribution of biomass to form the final distribution of algal bloom.

Chen, Yuan-Ying; Liu, Qing-Quan

2014-10-01

188

[Analysis of algal blooms in Da-Ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].  

PubMed

According to the survey conducted from Apr. to Jun. 2007 and from Apr. to May. 2008, the changes of water quality, forms and distributions of nutrient salts and characters of algal blooms in Da-ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient were abundant during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values are 0.84-3.21 mg/L and 0.011-0.531 mg/L respectively, and the nutrients concentrations become high gradually from upstream to downstream. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is the major form of TN accounting for 84%, and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) is dominant (TDP/TP = 60%). Algal blooms bring phosphorus nutrient bio-concentration. The rates of TN and TP are all in excess of 16, which show eutrophication is limited by phosphorus. Potassium permanganate index and dissolved oxygen (DO) are at low levels and change stably. But chlorophyll a (Chl-a) becomes frequently, the value is 1.41-219.04 mg x m(-3). Significant positive correlations are all observed by correlation analysis between Chl-a and the main parameters (r(Chla-TP) = 0.453, r(Chla-potassium permanganate index) = 0.641, r(Chla-DO) = 0.584, r(Chla-pH) = 0.409, p < 0.01), but significant negative correlations are observed between Chl-a and Secchi depth (SD) (r(Chla-SD) = - 0.392, p < 0.01). The pH is fluctuated by multiparameter esp. in algal blooms. Widespread algae are observed by microscope during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River accounting for 8 phylum 82 genus 124 species, which Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta are dominant, and then Cyanophyta and Pyrrophyta. Three whole watershed algal blooms break out in Da-ning River during the period, and the highest values of algal density are 14-1 427 times as many as the normal values. The dominant species of algal blooms are mostly involved with O. borgei, C. microporum, Chlorococcum humicola, P. morum and C. vulgaris of Chlorophyta; P. pleuronectes and T. oblonga of Euglenophyta; Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus astraea and Navicula of Bacillariophyta; P. elpatiewskyi of Pyrrophyta. Multi-algal species blooms are observed in the same time and place, and there are few algae in the estuary of Da-ning River to Changjiang River. PMID:20063732

Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Huang, Min-Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou

2009-11-01

189

Application of Fourier-transform infrared technology to the classification of harmful algal blooms (HABS).  

E-print Network

??Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative photosynthetic bacteria capable of producing toxins responsible for morbidity and mortality in humans and domestic animals. Many are capable of forming concentrated… (more)

Kenne, Gabriel Jacob

2013-01-01

190

Feeding and control of blue-green algal blooms by tilapia ( Oreochromis Niloticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreak of blue-green algal blooms, with associated unsightly scum and unpleasant odor, occurs frequently in eutrophic lakes.\\u000a We conducted feeding experiments to study ingestion and digestion of Microcystis aeruginosa by tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under laboratory conditions and field testing to reduce Microcystis blooms by stocking tilapia in Lake Yuehu and other eutrophic waters in Ningbo, China between 2000 and 2003.

Kaihong Lu; Chunhua Jin; Shuanglin Dong; Binhe Gu; Stephen H. Bowen

2006-01-01

191

Trophic cascades and future harmful algal blooms within ice-free Arctic Seas north of Bering Strait: A simulation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within larger ice-free regions of the western Arctic Seas, subject to ongoing trophic cascades induced by past overfishing, as well as to possible future eutrophication of the drainage basins of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, prior very toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) - first associated with ?100 human deaths near Sitka, Alaska in 1799 - may soon expand. Blooms of calcareous coccolithophores in the Bering Sea during 1997-1998 were non-toxic harbingers of the subsequent increments of other non-siliceous phytoplankton. But, now saxitoxic dinoflagellates, e.g. Alexandrium tamarense, were instead found by us within the adjacent downstream Chukchi Sea during SBI cruises of 2002 and 2003. A previous complex, coupled biophysical model had been validated earlier by ship-board observations from the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during the summer of 2002. With inclusion of phosphorus as another chemical state variable to modulate additional competition by recently observed nitrogen-fixers, we now explore here the possible consequences of altered composition of dominant phytoplankton functional groups [diatoms, microflagellates, prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis colonies, coccolithophores, diazotrophs, and dinoflagellates] in relation to increases of the toxic A. tamarense, responding to relaxation of grazing pressure by herbivores north of Bering Strait as part of a continuing trophic cascade. Model formulation was guided by validation observations obtained during 2002-2004 from: cruises of the SBI, CHINARE, and CASES programs; moored arrays in Bering Strait; other RUSALCA cruises around Wrangel Island; and SBI helicopter surveys of the shelf-break regions of the Arctic basin. Our year-long model scenarios during 2002-2003 indicate that post bloom silica-limitation of diatoms, after smaller simulated spring grazing losses, led to subsequent competitive advantages in summer for the coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diazotrophs. Immediate top-down control is exerted by imposed grazing pressures of the model’s herbivores and bottom-up control is also effected by light-, nitrate-, ammonium-, silicate-, and phosphate-modulated competition among the six functional groups of the simulated phytoplankton community. Similar to the history of the southern North Sea adjacent to the Rhine River, possible farming of northwestern Alaska and Canada, in conjunction with other human activities of ice retreat and overfishing, may lead to future exacerbations of poisonous phytoplankton. These potential killers include both toxic dinoflagellate and diazotroph HABs, deadly to terrestrial and marine mammals, as well as those of prymnesiophytes, some of which have already foamed beaches, while others have killed fishes of European waters.

Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Chen, F. Robert; Lenes, Jason M.; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Cassano, John J.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Stockwell, Dean; Flint, Mikhail; Sukhanova, Irina N.; Christensen, John

2011-11-01

192

Analysis of algal bloom risk with uncertainties in lakes by integrating self-organizing map and fuzzy information theory.  

PubMed

Algal blooms are a serious problem in waters, which damage aquatic ecosystems and threaten drinking water safety. However, the outbreak mechanism of algal blooms is very complex with great uncertainty, especially for large water bodies where environmental conditions have obvious variation in both space and time. This study developed an innovative method which integrated a self-organizing map (SOM) and fuzzy information diffusion theory to comprehensively analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. The Lake Taihu was taken as study case and the long-term (2004-2010) on-site monitoring data were used. The results showed that algal blooms in Taihu Lake were classified into four categories and exhibited obvious spatial-temporal patterns. The lake was mainly characterized by moderate bloom but had high uncertainty, whereas severe blooms with low uncertainty were observed in the northwest part of the lake. The study gives insight on the spatial-temporal dynamics of algal blooms, and should help government and decision-makers outline policies and practices on bloom monitoring and prevention. The developed method provides a promising approach to estimate algal bloom risks under uncertainties. PMID:24657580

Chen, Qiuwen; Rui, Han; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yanhui

2014-06-01

193

MODIS Detects a Devastating Algal Bloom in Paracas Bay, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medium-resolution bands on NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were successfully used to detect and map the distribution of a harmful phytoplankton bloom in the Paracas Bay, Peru, that caused economic losses worth millions of dollars. Routine application of MODIS data can be a valuable and cost-effective way to monitor harmful blooms and other turbid water plumes that cause disruption to the fishery and aquaculture operations of many coastal areas.

Kahru, Mati; Mitchell, B. Greg; Diaz, Anibal; Miura, Manuel

2004-11-01

194

MODIS Detects a Devastating Algal Bloom in Paracas Bay, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medium-resolution bands on NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were successfully used to detect and map the distribution of a harmful phytoplankton bloom in the Paracas Bay, Peru, that caused economic losses worth millions of dollars. Routine application of MODIS data can be a valuable and cost-effective way to monitor harmful blooms and other turbid water plumes that cause disruption

Mati Kahru; B. Greg Mitchell; Anibal Diaz; Manuel Miura

2004-01-01

195

Image processing for smarter browsing of ocean color data products: investigating algal blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing technology continues to play a significant role in the understanding of our environment and the investigation of the Earth. Ocean color is the water hue due to the presence of tiny plants containing the pigment chlorophyll, sediments, and colored dissolved organic material and so can provide valuable information on coastal ecosystems. We propose to make the browsing of Ocean Color data more efficient for users by using image processing techniques to extract useful information which can be accessible through browser searching. Image processing is applied to chlorophyll and sea surface temperature images. The automatic image processing of the visual level 1 and level 2 data allow us to investigate the occurrence of algal blooms. Images with colors in a certain range (red, orange etc.) are used to address possible algal blooms and allow us to examine the seasonal variation of algal blooms in Europe (around Ireland and in the Baltic Sea). Yearly seasonal variation of algal blooms in Europe based on image processing for smarter browsing of Ocean Color are presented.

Hayes, Jer; O'Connor, Edel; Lau, King-Tong; O'Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

2010-10-01

196

Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users  

EPA Science Inventory

Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Virginia A. Roberts2, Lorraine C. Backer3, Jonathan S. Yoder2, Timothy J. Wade1, Michele C. Hlavsa2 1Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Researc...

197

A PILOT PROJECT TO DETECT AND PREDICT HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this, a workshop was held to develop a user-driven, end-to-end (measurements to applicat...

198

A PILOT PROJECT TO DETECT AND FORECAST HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a pilot project was initiated to develop a user-dr...

199

Modelling the effects of macrophytes on algal blooming in eutrophic shallow lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model for eutrophication incorporating phytoplankton and nutrients in the overlying water, submerged macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L., and nutrient dynamics in sediments was developed as a functional tool to understand the effects of macrophytes on algal blooming in shallow lakes. The submodule for the overlying water treats three types of phytoplankton (diatoms, green and blue green algae), the macro-nutrients,

Takashi Asaeda; Truong Van Bon

1997-01-01

200

Toward a theory of biological-physical control of harmful algal bloom dynamics and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of laboratory, field, and theoretical work suggests that the dynamics of harmful algal blooms and their impacts on other organisms are frequently controlled not only by physiological responses to local envi- ronmental conditions as modified by trophic interactions, but also by a series of interactions between biological and physical processes occurring over an extremely broad range of

Percy L. Donaghay

201

CuSO 4 treatment of nuisance algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the turn of the century, copper sulfate has been used extensively as an algicide to control nuisance algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs Recent experimental results have shown that the toxicity of copper to algae is determined by the activity of ionic copper, and not the total copper concentration The sensitivity of algae to ionic copper has been found

Diane M. McKnight; Sallie W. Chisholm; Donald R. F. Harleman

1983-01-01

202

Meteorological influences on algal bloom potential in a nutrient-rich blackwater river  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of variability in rainfall on the potential for algal blooms was examined for the St. Johns River in northeast Florida. Water chemistry and phytoplankton data were collected at selected sites monthly from 1993 through 2003. Information on rainfall and estimates ofw at...

203

Freshly prepared rat hepatocytes used in screening the toxicity of blue?green algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity of extracts of blue?green algae was tested in freshly prepared rat hepatocytes in suspension. The results were compared with the traditional in vivo mouse bioassay. Sixty samples of natural algal blooms from freshwater lakes in Norway, Sweden, and Finland and 14 samples cultured in the laboratory were tested. The mouse bioassay revealed hepatotoxins in a large number

Kjetil Berg; Tore Aune

1987-01-01

204

Effect of coagulation on nutrient and light limitation of an algal bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation is the formation of large particles 'from multiple collisions of smaller ones. Because larger particles fall faster than smaller ones, coagulation can be important in accelerating the export of organic matter from the ocean's surface to the deep sea and has the potential to limit phyto- plankton populations. We have developed a model of an algal bloom that includes

GEORGE A. JACKSON; STEVE E. LOCHMANN

1992-01-01

205

ERTS-1 observes algal blooms in Lake Erie and Utah Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During late summer when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena have been noticed on other shallow lakes using ERTS-1 and characterize eutrophic conditions. The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS-1 MSS data of Lake Erie an aircraft was flown to provide correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. The algal bloom is highly absorptive in the visible wavelengths but reverses contrast with the surrounding water in the near-IR bands. The absorption of shortwave energy heats the dark brown algal mass, providing a hot surface target for the thermal-IR scanner.

Strong, A. E.

1973-01-01

206

Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human) health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria) are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis) and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria) that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2), enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from zooplankton to further up the food chain. Both N2- and non-N2-fixing genera participate in mutualistic and symbiotic associations with microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. These associations appear to be of great benefit to their survival and periodic dominance. In this review, we address the ecological impacts and environmental controls of harmful blooms, with an emphasis on the ecology, physiology, and management of cyanobacterial bloom taxa. Combinations of physical, chemical, and biotic features of natural waters function in a synergistic fashion to determine the sensitivity of water bodies. In waters susceptible to blooms, human activities in water- and airsheds have been linked to the extent and magnitudes of blooms. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P). The types and amount of nutrient input constraints depend on hydrologic, climatic, geographic, and geologic factors, which interact with anthropogenic and natural nutrient input regimes. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies, dual N and P input reductions are usually required for effective long-term control and management of harmful blooms. In some systems where hydrologic manipulations (i.e., plentiful water supplies) are possible, reducing the water residence time by enhanced flushing and artificial mixing (in conjunction with nutrient input constraints) can be particularly effective alternatives. Implications of various management strategies, based on combined ecophysiological and environmental considerations, are discussed. PMID:12805693

Paerl, H W; Fulton, R S; Moisander, P H; Dyble, J

2001-04-01

207

Modeling blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine D.J. McGillicuddy, Jr., D.M. Anderson, C.A. Stock1  

E-print Network

algal blooms (HABs) are a serious economic and public health problem. In New England, the most serious1 Modeling blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine D.J. McGillicuddy, Jr., D of A. fundyense blooms 5. Large-scale seasonal variability in a Gulf-wide domain 5.1 Simulations based

208

Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli

2004-01-01

209

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

E-print Network

-910-962-2410. E-mail address: mallinm@uncw.edu (M.A. Mallin). www.elsevier.com/locate/jembe Journal, but very abundant estuarine systems, management efforts should recognize their susceptibility to algal and birds, and as fisheries primary nursery areas. They also serve as rich sport and commercial finfish

Mallin, Michael

210

Monitoring Algal Blooms in a Southwestern U.S. Reservoir System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, several studies have explored the potential of higher-resolution sensor data for monitoring phytoplankton primary production in coastal areas and lakes. Landsat data have been used to monitor algal blooms [Chang et al., 2004; Vincent et al., 2004], and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) full-resolution (300-meter) bands have been utilized to detect cyanobacterial blooms [Reinart and Kutser, 2006] as well as to monitor water quality [Koponen et al., 2004]. Field sampling efforts and MODIS 250-meter data are now being combined to develop a cost-effective method for monitoring water quality in a southwestern U.S. reservoir system. In the Phoenix, Ariz., metropolitan area, the Salt River reservoirs supply more than 3.5 million people, a population expected to rise to more than 6 million by 2030. Given that reservoir capacities have physical limitations, maintaining water quality will become critical as the population expands. Potentially noxious algal blooms that can release toxins and may affect water quality by modifying taste and odor have become a major concern in recent years. While frequent field sampling regimes are expensive, satellite imagery can be applied cost-effectively to monitor algal biomass trends remotely, and this information could provide early warning of blooms in these reservoirs.

Tarrant, Philip; Neuer, Susanne

2009-02-01

211

Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89  

SciTech Connect

During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. (Nansen Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway))

1990-01-09

212

Toxic Cyanobacteria and Harmful Algal Blooms in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloom-forming algae and the toxins they produce are causative agents for human and animal illness\\/mortality as well as a litany of environmental-, legal-, and recreational-related problems (Codd, 2005). Most often, cyanobacteria toxins have been associated with the poisoning of birds and livestock. However, several high profile cases of human intoxication have occurred in recent years. In the United States, adverse

Gregory Boyer

213

A multispectral analysis of algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab multispectral scanner data acquired on January 21, 1974, were used to study the spectral characteristics of an algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico west of Fort Myers, Florida. Radiance profiles of the water and algae were prepared with data from ten bands of the S192 scanner covering the spectral range from .42 to 2.35 micrometers. The high spectral response in the near-infrared spectral bands implies a possible classification and discrimination parameter for detection of blooms of phytoplankton concentrations such as the so-called red tides of Florida.

Johnson, W. R.; Norris, D. R.

1977-01-01

214

[Remote sensing monitoring and pre-alarming of algal blooms in Taihu Lake].  

PubMed

The explosive growth of algae in inland water bodies is one of the major water environmental problems in China, and it's very important to monitor the dynamic of algae in both temporal and spatial scales. In the present paper, a model, which was used to extract the algae information from the water body of Taihu Lake using MODIS data, was established based on the remote sensing index and image false color composite methods. Using this model, we studied the algae explosive growth formation process between March and May in 2007. Through the analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution features of the algae outbreak between the spring and summer seasons, an early warning method of algal blooms was proposed, that is, when the MODIS green index mainly concentrated in the range between 0. 6 and 0. 8, the water body of Taihu Lake can be considered to have been in the early alarming stage of algal blooms. PMID:21595233

Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-dong; Guo, Qing-hai; Tang, Li-na

2011-03-01

215

Spectral modeling for the identification and quantification of algal blooms: A test of approach  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to develop and test a Monte Carlo modelling approach for the characterization of reflectance for different bloom-forming marine phytoplankton species. The model was tested on optical data for four species (Dunaliella salina, Pavlova pinguis, Emiliania huxleyi and Synechocystes spp.) and simulations performed over a range of chlorophyll concentrations. Discriminant analysis identified 10 key wavelengths which could be used to maximize the separation between the four species. The resulting wavelengths were combined in a neural network to show 100% accuracy in classifying species type. Further simulations were undertaken to investigate the effect of aquatic humus on reflectance characteristics and the change in wavelengths for algal discrimination. The implications for the development of algorithms for the identification of algal bloom species type by remote sensing are briefly discussed.

Malthus, T.J.; Grieve, L. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Harwar, M.D. [Univ. of Wolverhampton (United Kingdom)

1997-06-01

216

Protist assemblages in winter sea ice: setting the stage for the spring ice algal bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents, for the first time, the abundance and species composition of protist assemblages in Arctic sea ice during\\u000a the dark winter period. Lack of knowledge of sea-ice assemblages during the dark period has left questions about the retention\\u000a and survival of protist species that initiate the ice algal bloom. Sea-ice and surface water samples were collected between\\u000a December

Andrea Niemi; Christine Michel; Kelly Hille; Michel Poulin

217

Dimethylsulfide, algal pigments and light in an Antarctic Phaeocystis sp. bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations in sea water were found to be high (0.19 to 390 nM) in an Antarctic bloom of Phaeocystis sp. during October and November 1990. DMS concentrations were positively correlated with algal pigments, particularly 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, a prymnesiophyte pigment. Concentrations of DMS varied diurnally, possibly due to effects of sunlight, although the exact mechanism is unknown. Since oceanic DMS

K. M. Crocker; M. E. Ondrusek; R. L. Petty; R. C. Smith

1995-01-01

218

Observation of Algal Bloom in the Northwest Arabian Sea Using Multisensor Remote Sensing Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algal bloom observed using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) derived chlorophyll images during December 23, 2003–January 8, 2004, off the Oman coast. High chlorophyll concentration (?20 mg m) patches were observed. MODIS-Aqua data of January 1, 2004, were analyzed to generate normalized water leaving radiance (nLw) images for seven visible channels: 412, 443, 488, 531, 551,

R. K. Sarangi

2012-01-01

219

Applications of Satellite Ocean Color Sensors for Monitoring and Predicting Harmful Algal Blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new satellite ocean color sensors offer a means of detecting and monitoring algal blooms in the ocean and coastal zone. Beginning with SeaWiFS (Sea Wide Field-of-view Sensor) in September 1997, these sensors provide coverage every 1 to 2 days with 1-km pixel view at nadir. Atmospheric correction algorithms designed for the coastal zone combined with regional chlorophyll algorithms can

Richard P. Stumpf

2001-01-01

220

Potential for eutrophication and nuisance algal blooms in the lower Neuse river estuary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Phytoplankton primary production and its environmental regulation were examined at 3 stations representative of the lower Neuse River Estuary near the Pamlico Sound interface. This study covered a 3-year period (November 1987-October 1990). The authors also examined the roles of the major phytoplankton nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in controlling growth and bloom formation. The overall potential for nuisance blooms and associated episodes of bottom water hypoxia and anoxia was investigated in field studies. Algal biomass and production varied seasonally, with high values in summer and low values in winter. In situ nutrient addition bioassays indicated the estuary experienced a general state of N limitation with especially profound limitation during summer periods. The authors recommendations for a management strategy include reductions in Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and suspended sediment loads in order to maintain the system in a nuisance bloom-free condition.

Paerl, H.W.; Mallin, M.; Rudek, J.; Bates, P.W.

1990-12-01

221

Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Has Specific Bactericidal Activity against Harmful Algal Bloom Species.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide : In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ-genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. PMID:25261512

Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen

2014-12-15

222

An Oceanographic Buoy for Multidisciplinary Education and Research in a Coastal Embayment Prone to Harmful Algal Blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 2006 a consortium of Bowdoin College, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, and Saint Joseph's College of Maine will begin the operation of an oceanographic buoy in Harpswell Sound, part of the Casco Bay region of coastal Maine. Funding for acquisition of the buoy has been provided by NSF's MRI program. The sensing buoy will measure physical climatic and oceanographic variables, as well as a suite of biogeochemical indicators (nutrients, chlorophyll, light absorption, etc.). The data collected will be publicly available in real time and will contribute to the overall Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) monitoring program, a premier and ground-breaking effort in assessing the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Gulf of Maine. Harpswell Sound is known as an indicator region for harmful algal blooms (HABs) of toxic Alexandrium spp. microalgae, and is an ideal location to employ long-term, comprehensive, remote and real-time monitoring to characterize model systems that promote HABs, as well as system response to changing watershed use patterns and evolving cultural eutrophication. Data acquired with the buoy's sensors, both streaming in real-time and archived in larger sets, will be used in course work at Bowdoin College and Saint Joseph's College, and will be available for use by other post-secondary institutions. Immediate applications include use of data in course work to understand the influence of physical oceanographic processes on biological processes in three dimensions and through time from an Eulerian perspective. The influence of climatic events and the geological characteristics of the surrounding watershed will also be recorded and analyzed through earth science course work. Bowdoin College has a marine research station immediately adjacent on the shore of Harpswell Sound, facilitating complementary traditional monitoring opportunities, e.g. targeted and detailed sampling of interesting features indicated by the sensing buoy, as well as ancillary hypothesis-driven research made possible with complementary use of the monitoring buoy. This will provide for numerous undergraduate research internships and senior thesis research activities. The three institutions seek to form educational and research partnerships with other institutions and to create model curriculum based on the synergy between an ocean buoy and an adjacent research facility.

Laine, E. P.; Roesler, C.; Teegarden, G.

2005-12-01

223

Climate change and harmful algal blooms in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected effect of climate change for the year 2100 in the coastal zone of The Netherlands, a 4 °C temperature rise and increased salinity stratification, on the growth rates of six harmful and two non-harmful phytoplankton species was investigated in batch laboratory cultures. Stratification can split the mixed water column (18 °C, 150 W h m -2 per day) into a bottom (18 °C, 10 W h m -2 per day) and surface layer (22 °C, 600 W h m -2 per day); these three conditions (the present scenario) were compared to a 2100 scenario in which temperatures were increased by 4 °C. The growth rates of the two non-harmful species, the diatom Skeletonema costatum and the cryptophyte Rhodomonas sp. did not significantly change from present-mixed to 2100-surface conditions. Two harmful species, the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa and the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, died rapidly at the 2100-surface conditions. On the other hand, two dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum micans and Prorocentrum minimum) and two raphidophytes ( Fibrocapsa japonica and Chattonella antiqua) doubled their growth rates at 2100-surface conditions compared to present-mixed conditions. Given the restrictions set by the experiment, the uncertainties in climate change projections as well as the effects of climate change on the marine ecosystem, the qualitative conclusion from this investigation is that the risk of harmful dinoflagellate and raphidophyte blooms will increase rather than decrease due to climate change.

Peperzak, Louis

224

Decoupling physical from biological processes to assess the impact of viruses on a mesoscale algal bloom.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton blooms are ephemeral events of exceptionally high primary productivity that regulate the flux of carbon across marine food webs [1-3]. Quantification of bloom turnover [4] is limited by a fundamental difficulty to decouple between physical and biological processes as observed by ocean color satellite data. This limitation hinders the quantification of bloom demise and its regulation by biological processes [5, 6], which has important consequences on the efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean [7-9]. Here, we address this challenge and quantify algal blooms' turnover using a combination of satellite and in situ data, which allows identification of a relatively stable oceanic patch that is subject to little mixing with its surroundings. Using a newly developed multisatellite Lagrangian diagnostic, we decouple the contributions of physical and biological processes, allowing quantification of a complete life cycle of a mesoscale (?10-100 km) bloom of coccolithophores in the North Atlantic, from exponential growth to its rapid demise. We estimate the amount of organic carbon produced during the bloom to be in the order of 24,000 tons, of which two-thirds were turned over within 1 week. Complimentary in situ measurements of the same patch area revealed high levels of specific viruses infecting coccolithophore cells, therefore pointing at the importance of viral infection as a possible mortality agent. Application of the newly developed satellite-based approaches opens the way for large-scale quantification of the impact of diverse environmental stresses on the fate of phytoplankton blooms and derived carbon in the ocean. PMID:25155511

Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Schatz, Daniella; Frada, Miguel; Sheyn, Uri; Boss, Emmanuel; Efrati, Shai; Rudich, Yinon; Trainic, Miri; Sharoni, Shlomit; Laber, Christian; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Coolen, Marco J L; Martins, Ana Maria; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Bidle, Kay D; Vardi, Assaf

2014-09-01

225

Influence of algal bloom degradation on nutrient release at the sediment-water interface in Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

Algal bloom could drastically influence the nutrient cycling in lakes. To understand how the internal nutrient release responds to algal bloom decay, water and sediment columns were sampled at 22 sites from four distinct regions of China's eutrophic Lake Taihu and incubated in the laboratory to examine the influence of massive algal bloom decay on nutrient release from sediment. The column experiment involved three treatments: (1) water and sediment (WS); (2) water and algal bloom (WA); and (3) water, sediment, and algal bloom (WSA). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium (NH (4) (+) -N), and orthophosphate (PO (4) (3-) -P) were recorded during incubation. The decay of algal material caused a more rapid decrease in DO than in the algae-free controls and led to significant increases in NH (4) (+) -N and PO (4) (3-) -P in the water. The presence of algae during the incubation had a regionally variable effect on sediment nutrient profiles. In the absence of decaying algae (treatment WS), sediment nutrient concentrations decreased during the incubation. In the presence of blooms (WSA), sediments from the river mouth released P to the overlying water, while sediments from other regions absorbed surplus P from the water. This experiment showed that large-scale algal decay will dramatically affect nutrient cycling at the sediment-water interface and would potentially transfer the function of sediment as "container" or "supplier" in Taihu, although oxygen exchange with atmosphere in lake water was stronger than in columns. The magnitude of the effect depends on the physical-chemical character of the sediments. PMID:22825639

Zhu, Mengyuan; Zhu, Guangwei; Zhao, Linlin; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yunlin; Gao, Guang; Qin, Boqiang

2013-03-01

226

Quantifying Phycocyanin Concentration in Cyanobacterial Algal Blooms from Remote Sensing Reflectance-A Quasi Analytical Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHAB) are notorious for depleting dissolved oxygen level, producing various toxins, causing threats to aquatic life, altering the food-web dynamics and the overall ecosystem functioning in inland lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. Most of these algal blooms produce various toxins that can damage cells, tissues and even cause mortality of living organisms. Frequent monitoring of water quality in a synoptic scale has been possible by the virtue of remote sensing techniques. In this research, we present a novel technique to monitor CHAB using remote sensing reflectance products. We have modified a multi-band quasi analytical algorithm that determines phytoplankton absorption coefficients from above surface remote sensing reflectance measurements using an inversion method. In situ hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data were collected from several highly turbid and productive aquaculture ponds. A novel technique was developed to further decompose the phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 620 nm and obtain phycocyanin absorption coefficient at the same wavelength. An empirical relationship was established between phycocyanin absorption coefficients at 620 nm and measured phycocyanin concentrations. Model calibration showed strong relationship between phycocyanin absorption coefficients and phycocyanin pigment concentration (r2=0.94). Validation of the model in a separate dataset produced a root mean squared error of 167 mg m-3 (phycocyanin range: 26-1012 mg m-3). Results demonstrate that the new approach will be suitable for quantifying phycocyanin concentration in cyanobacteria dominated turbid productive waters. Band architecture of the model matches with the band configuration of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and assures that MERIS reflectance products can be used to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in optically complex waters.

Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.; Tucker, C.

2011-12-01

227

Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.  

PubMed

This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups. PMID:22767355

Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

2013-01-01

228

Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with expected future conditions  

PubMed Central

In 2011, Lake Erie experienced the largest harmful algal bloom in its recorded history, with a peak intensity over three times greater than any previously observed bloom. Here we show that long-term trends in agricultural practices are consistent with increasing phosphorus loading to the western basin of the lake, and that these trends, coupled with meteorological conditions in spring 2011, produced record-breaking nutrient loads. An extended period of weak lake circulation then led to abnormally long residence times that incubated the bloom, and warm and quiescent conditions after bloom onset allowed algae to remain near the top of the water column and prevented flushing of nutrients from the system. We further find that all of these factors are consistent with expected future conditions. If a scientifically guided management plan to mitigate these impacts is not implemented, we can therefore expect this bloom to be a harbinger of future blooms in Lake Erie. PMID:23576718

Michalak, Anna M.; Anderson, Eric J.; Beletsky, Dmitry; Boland, Steven; Bosch, Nathan S.; Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Chaffin, Justin D.; Cho, Kyunghwa; Confesor, Rem; Daloglu, Irem; DePinto, Joseph V.; Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; He, Lingli; Ho, Jeff C.; Jenkins, Liza; Johengen, Thomas H.; Kuo, Kevin C.; LaPorte, Elizabeth; Liu, Xiaojian; McWilliams, Michael R.; Moore, Michael R.; Posselt, Derek J.; Richards, R. Peter; Scavia, Donald; Steiner, Allison L.; Verhamme, Ed; Wright, David M.; Zagorski, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

229

Nutrients, phytoplankton and harmful algal blooms in shrimp ponds: a review with special reference to the situation in the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is a first attempt to document the latest reports on the occurrence of algal blooms in shrimp farm ponds worldwide. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing the relation of algal blooms with nutrients, with special reference to the northwest of Mexico. Typically, shrimp pond waters are enriched with organic matter and nutrients whose concentrations depend mostly on

R Alonso-Rodr??guez; F Páez-Osuna

2003-01-01

230

Comparative application of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms for multivariate time-series modelling of algal blooms in freshwater lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares potentials and achievements of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms in terms of forecasting and understanding of algal blooms in Lake Kasumigaura (Japan). Despite the complex and nonlinear nature of ecological data, artificial neural networks allow seven-days-ahead predictions of timing and magnitudes of algal blooms with reasonable accuracy. Genetic algorithms possess the capability to evolve, refine and

Friedrich Recknagel; Jason Bobbin; Peter Whigham; Hugh Wilson

2002-01-01

231

Harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake and Coastal Bays of Maryland, USA: Comparison of 1997, 1998, and 1999 events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay and coastal bays of Maryland, USA, are not a new phenomenon, but may be increasing\\u000a in frequency and diversity. Outbreaks ofPfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) were observed during 1997 in several Chesapeake Bay tributaries, while in 1998,Pfiesteria-related events were not found but massive blooms ofProrocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) occurred. In 1999,Aureococcus anophagefferens (Pelagophyceae) developed in the

Patricia M. Glibert; Robert Magnien; Michael W. Lomas; Jeffrey Alexander; Chunlei Tan; Erin Haramoto; Mark Trice; Todd M. Kana

2001-01-01

232

Flocculation of harmful algal blooms by modified attapulgite and its safety evaluation.  

PubMed

Natural attapulgite (N-AT) and modified attapulgite (M-AT) were used in this study to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies and mechanisms in freshwater containing harmful algal blooms through conventional jar test procedure. The experimental results showed that the efficiency of flocculation can be significantly improved by M-AT under appropriate conditions. It was found that the attapulgite modified by hydrochloric acid was similar to polyaluminum ferric silicate chloride (PAFSiC). The high efficiency for M-AT to flocculate Microcystis aeruginosa in freshwater was due to the mechanism of bridging and netting effect. Caenorhabditis elegans was used to detect the toxicity of N-AT and M-AT. The results showed that there was no significant toxicity on this organism. Attapulgite is a natural material, which can be readily available, abundant, and relatively inexpensive. Using modified attapulgite to remove the harmful algal blooms could have the advantages of high effectiveness, low cost, and low impact on the environment. PMID:21458018

Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xianan; Cai, Dongqing; Feng, Huiyun; Miao, Chunguang; Wang, Xiangqin; Wu, Zhengyan; Yu, Zengliang

2011-04-01

233

HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE GREAT LAKES NOAA Center of Excellence for Great Lakes and Human Health 4840 S. State Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 734-741-2235  

E-print Network

HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE GREAT LAKES NOAA Center of Excellence for Great Lakes and Human Health Blue Green Algal Blooms Blue-green algae are the most common, but not the only group of algae to form of blue-green algae. What are algal blooms? What makes them harmful? There are many species of single

234

Eutrophication and algal blooms in channel type reservoirs: a novel enclosure experiment by changing light intensity.  

PubMed

To explore eutrophication and algal bloom mechanisms in channel type reservoirs, a novel enclosure experiment was conducted by changing light intensity (LI) in the Daning River of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Square enclosures (side 5.0 m) were covered on the surface with shading materials of different thickness, and with their bases open to the river. Changes and characteristics of the main eutrophication factors under the same water quality and hydrodynamic conditions but different LI were evaluated. All experimental water samples were neutral and alkalescent, with high nitrogen and phosphate concentrations, low potassium permanganate index, stable water quality, and different LI. At the same water depth, LI decreased with increasing shade material, while dissolved oxygen and water temperature were both stable. The growth peak of phytoplankton was with light of 345-4390 lux underwater or 558-7450 lux above the water surface, and water temperature of 25.6-26.5 degrees C. Algae were observed in all water samples, accounting for 6 phylum and 57 species, with algal density changing frequently. The results showed that significantly strong or weak light was unfavorable for phytoplankton growth and the function together with suitable temperature and LI and ample sunshine encouraged algal blooms under the same water quality and hydrodynamic conditions. Correlation analysis indicated that algae reduced gradually lengthwise along water depth in the same enclosure while pH became high. The power exponent relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and LI was found by curve fitting, that is Chl-a = K(LI)(n). PMID:22432261

Cao, Chengjin; Zheng, Binghui; Chen, Zhenlou; Huang, Minsheng; Zhang, Jialei

2011-01-01

235

Does Low Temperature Constrain the Growth Rates of Heterotrophic Protists? Evidence and Implications for Algal Blooms in Cold Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature review and synthesis of growth rates of aquatic protists focused on the role of temperature in the formation of massive annual algal blooms in high-latitude ecosystems. Maximal growth rates of herbivorous protists equaled or exceeded maximal growth rates of phototrophic protists at temperatures above 15°C. Maximal growth rates of herbivorous protists declined more rapidly with decreasing temperature than did

Julie M. Rose; David A. Caron

2007-01-01

236

Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?  

PubMed

Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

2014-09-01

237

Analysis of pollutant enhanced bacterial-blue-green algal interrelationships potentiating surface water contamination by noxious blue-green algal blooms. Completion report  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibro can stimulate the blue-green alga (Cyanobacterium) Anabaena variabilis (Strain 6411) into increasing its dry weight biomass production by more than 200 percent over that of the control as the total phosphate in the medium approaches zero. Results suggest that methods which utilize total nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in waters as predictors of blue-green algal 'blooms' may be unreliable when the waters are very low in phosphorus yet remain high in sulfate with conditions favorable for sulfate-reducing bacterial growth in benthic sediments. Otherwise, if the phosphate levels alone in the aqueous systems are reduced below threshold levels under these conditions, the magnitude of the blue-green algal blooms may be increased substantially.

Bedell, G.W.

1984-02-01

238

Future increase in harmful algal blooms in the North Sea due to climate change.  

PubMed

In temperate seas such as the North Sea harmful (toxic) algal blooms will probably increase as a result of climate change. This conclusion was reached after investigating the projected effect of climate change for the year 2100 in Dutch coastal waters (4 degrees C temperature rise and increased water column stratification) on the growth rates of six harmful and two non-harmful phytoplankton species. Micro algae form the basis of the marine food chain. However, toxin-producing species may seriously disrupt the food web and lead to fish kills and human intoxication. Two species with estimated doubled growth rates in 2100, F. japonica and C. antiqua, entered Europe via ship's ballast water or shellfish imports. This stresses the need to legally regulate such invasion routes in order to prevent the import of novel species. Future toxic phytoplankton blooms may further devaluate ecosystem deliverables such as fish production or recreational use. This devaluation can be estimated by monetary value assessments that are needed in cost-benefit analyses for policy guidance. The lack of understanding of future climate, ecosystem functioning and its response to climate change calls for a scientific effort to improve our knowledge on present day coastal ecosystem functioning and its resilience. PMID:15918356

Peperzak, L

2005-01-01

239

Removal of Algal Blooms in Freshwater by Meso-porous Composite Coagulant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of "using waste to treat waste and changing waste into valuables", this paper put forward a new meso-porous composite coagulant with good performance and low cost, and the removal effects of meso-porous composite coagulant on algae cells and toxins, dissolved organics in water was studied, the object of this research was to provide a new and effective way for emergency needs to clear up harmful algal blooms in freshwater. The results showed that meso-porous composite coagulant at optimal loadings (1g/L) could remove over 99% algal cells; meanwhile, the removal efficiency of COD, microcystin, total nitrogen and phosphorus was found to be 87.5%, 97.7%, 41.5% and 77.8% respectively, moreover, the forming speed of floccules was fast, and the dense floccules had good settling performance. Furthermore, the mechanism of algae removal was explored preliminarily by meso-porous composite coagulant which played a dual role in adsorption and flocculation.

Liu, Dan; Li, Fengting; Hui, Franck; Lédion, Jean

2010-11-01

240

A comparison of in vivo and in vitro assays to assess the toxicity of algal blooms.  

PubMed

The toxicity of purified microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and algal material collected during the winter and summer seasons (2005/2006) from the Hartebeespoort dam, South Africa, was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), mouse bioassay, catfish primary hepatocytes (in vitro assay) and protein phosphatase inhibition (PPi) assays. Microcystis aeruginosa, known producer of microcystins, was the dominant cyanobacteria present in the water samples. Exceptionally high cell numbers per millilitre were observed, especially with the summer samples (approximately 1.442 x 10(8)cells/ml), indicating a severe algal bloom in the dam. The toxin concentration as detected by ELISA and PPi assay in the winter and summer extracts was at least 1000 times more than the provisional guideline value (1 microg/l) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for MC-LR in drinking water. Hepatotoxic effects and death of mice were observed after dosing with the summer extracts, while no hepatotoxic effects were observed with winter extracts. The EC(50) values obtained after exposure of the catfish primary hepatocytes for 72h to MC-LR, winter and summer extracts was about 0.091, 0.053 and 0.014 mg/l, respectively. Similar toxicity results were obtained when the mouse bioassay and primary hepatocytes were used. PMID:18486180

Masango, Mxolisi; Myburgh, Jan; Botha, Christo; Labuschagne, Leonie; Naicker, Dharmarai

2008-07-01

241

Nutrient sources and composition of recent algal blooms and eutrophication in the northern Jiulong River, Southeast China.  

PubMed

The natural process of eutrophication is accelerated by human activities worldwide that interrupt nutrient biogeochemical cycles. Three algal bloom events have been monitored in the northern tributary of the Jiulong River since 2009. The inflection points in a robust locally-weighted regression analysis (LOESS) of the relationship between TN and TP concentrations in the river water, and a TN:TP comparison with nutrient source loadings, suggested that both external loading and internal nutrient cycling contributed to these algal blooms. Nutrient release from the sediments may have played an important role in regulating the nutrients in the overlying water column. In particular, excessive nutrient inputs from various sources and ubiquitous river damming caused further accumulation of the nutrient loading. In-situ autochthonous primary production was enhanced in this relatively stable "river" to "lake" water body. Thus, attention must be paid to the effects of river damming and the consequent internal nutrient release. PMID:21377176

Li, Ying; Cao, Wenzhi; Su, Caixia; Hong, Huasheng

2011-01-01

242

Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

"Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal bloom" in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface.

Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

2010-01-01

243

Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters.  

PubMed

"Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal bloom" in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface. PMID:20844747

Miller, Melissa A; Kudela, Raphael M; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C; Tinker, M Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A

2010-01-01

244

A pilot project to detect and forecast harmful algal blooms in the northern Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a pilot project was initiated to develop a user-driven, end-to-end (measurements to applications) observing system. A key strategy of the project is to coordinate existing state, federal and academic programs at an unprecedented level of collaboration and partnership. Resource managers charged with protection of public health and aquatic resources require immediate notice of algal events and a forecast of when, where and what adverse effects will likely occur. Further, managers require integrated analyses and interpretations, rather than raw data, to make effective decisions. Consequently, a functional observing system must collect and transform diverse measurements into usable forecasts. Data needed to support development of forecasts will include such properties as sea surface temperature, winds, currents and waves; precipitation and freshwater flows with related discharges of sediment and nutrients; salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll concentrations (in vivo fluorescence); and remotely-sensed spatial images of sea surface chlorophyll concentrations. These data will be provided via a mixture of discrete and autonomous in situ sensing with near real-time data telemetry, and remote sensing from space (SeaWiFS), aircraft (hyperspectral imagery) or land (high-frequency radar). With calibration across these platforms, the project will ultimately provide a 4-dimensional visualization of harmful algae events in a time frame suitable to resource managers. PMID:12620029

Fisher, William S; Malone, Thomas C; Giattina, James D

2003-01-01

245

Verification and Validation of NASA-Supported Enhancements to the Near Real Time Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses verification and validation (V&V) assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean data products contributed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Applied Coherent Technologies (ACT) Corporation to National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration s (NOAA) Near Real Time (NRT) Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS). HABSOS is a maturing decision support tool (DST) used by NOAA and its partners involved with coastal and public health management.

Hall, Calllie; McPherson, Terry; Spiering, Bruce; Brown, Richard; Estep, Lee; Lunde, Bruce; Guest, DeNeice; Navard, Andy; Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Spruce, Joseph P.

2006-01-01

246

A new bio-optical algorithm for the remote sensing of algal blooms in complex ocean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new bio-optical algorithm has been developed to provide accurate assessments of chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration for detection and mapping of algal blooms from satellite data in optically complex waters, where the presence of suspended sediments and dissolved substances can interfere with phytoplankton signal and thus confound conventional band ratio algorithms. A global data set of concurrent measurements of pigment concentration and radiometric reflectance was compiled and used to develop this algorithm that uses the normalized water-leaving radiance ratios along with an algal bloom index (ABI) between three visible bands to determine Chl a concentrations. The algorithm is derived using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor bands, and it is subsequently tuned to be applicable to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua data. When compared with large in situ data sets and satellite matchups in a variety of coastal and ocean waters the present algorithm makes good retrievals of the Chl a concentration and shows statistically significant improvement over current global algorithms (e.g., OC3 and OC4v4). An examination of the performance of these algorithms on several MODIS/Aqua images in complex waters of the Arabian Sea and west Florida shelf shows that the new algorithm provides a better means for detecting and differentiating algal blooms from other turbid features, whereas the OC3 algorithm has significant errors although yielding relatively consistent results in clear waters. These findings imply that, provided that an accurate atmospheric correction scheme is available to deal with complex waters, the current MODIS/Aqua, MERIS and OCM data could be extensively used for quantitative and operational monitoring of algal blooms in various regional and global waters.

Shanmugam, Palanisamy

2011-04-01

247

Diel fluctuations in bacterial activity on streambed substrata during vernal algal blooms: Effects of temperature, water chemistry, and habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diel fluctuations in stream water temperature and chemistry, microbial biomass, and bacterial activity were measured in White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania, during vernal algal blooms in three different years. DOC concentrations increased 24-37% over early morning minima and temperature increased nearly 10°C over a 7-10-h period. Total carbohydrates and monosaccharides exhibited irregular fluctuations with total carbohydrates showing concentration peaks in the

LOUIS A. KAPLAN; THOMAS L. BOTT

1989-01-01

248

Remote sensing of harmful algal blooms in the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay: Modelling and algorithm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and severity of harmful algal blooms have increased in recent decades, as have the economic effects of their occurrence. The diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. caused fisheries closures in Mobile Bay during 2005 due to elevated levels of domoic acid. In the previous 4 years Karenia brevis counts of >5,000 cells L-1 have occurred in Mobile Bay and the Mississippi

Dan Martin Holiday

2009-01-01

249

Effect of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) extract on blue-green algal bloom control and plankton structure optimization: a field mesocosm experiment.  

PubMed

A field mesocosm experiment was conducted at the Three Gorges Reservoir to investigate the utility of black wattle extract in controlling blue algal blooms. The mesocosm experiment was divided into two parts: (1) a short-term test to evaluate how black wattle extract inhibits algal blooms in an emergency and (2) a long-term test to evaluate how black wattle extract maintains water quality and prevents algal blooms over a 1-year period. In the short-term test, the results showed that 3 to 4 mg L(-1) black wattle extract could reduce algal biomass in 1 week, whereas serious algal blooms occurred in the untreated control mesocosm. More importantly, the long-term test suggested that black wattle extract played a significant role in plankton structure optimization at lower concentrations of 1 to 2 mg L(-1). In this test, phytoplankton diversity increased, with the dominant species shifting from cyanobacteria to diatoms and other algae. Meanwhile, as water quality improved through the presence of plant extract treatment, the numbers of smaller zooplankton decreased and larger species increased. Therefore, this investigation founded a novel nature plant agent that not only has good effects on algal bloom control, but also restores the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:23342945

Zhou, Lirong; Bi, Yonghong; Jiang, Lihe; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wenqing

2012-12-01

250

sxtA-Based Quantitative Molecular Assay To Identify Saxitoxin-Producing Harmful Algal Blooms in Marine Waters ? †  

PubMed Central

The recent identification of genes involved in the production of the potent neurotoxin and keystone metabolite saxitoxin (STX) in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton has allowed us for the first time to develop molecular genetic methods to investigate the chemical ecology of harmful algal blooms in situ. We present a novel method for detecting and quantifying the potential for STX production in marine environmental samples. Our assay detects a domain of the gene sxtA that encodes a unique enzyme putatively involved in the sxt pathway in marine dinoflagellates, sxtA4. A product of the correct size was recovered from nine strains of four species of STX-producing Alexandrium and Gymnodinium catenatum and was not detected in the non-STX-producing Alexandrium species, other dinoflagellate cultures, or an environmental sample that did not contain known STX-producing species. However, sxtA4 was also detected in the non-STX-producing strain of Alexandrium tamarense, Tasmanian ribotype. We investigated the copy number of sxtA4 in three strains of Alexandrium catenella and found it to be relatively constant among strains. Using our novel method, we detected and quantified sxtA4 in three environmental blooms of Alexandrium catenella that led to STX uptake in oysters. We conclude that this method shows promise as an accurate, fast, and cost-effective means of quantifying the potential for STX production in marine samples and will be useful for biological oceanographic research and harmful algal bloom monitoring. PMID:21841034

Murray, Shauna A.; Wiese, Maria; Stuken, Anke; Brett, Steve; Kellmann, Ralf; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Neilan, Brett A.

2011-01-01

251

Planning applications in east central Florida. [resources management and planning, land use, and lake algal blooms in Brevard County from Skylab imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Lake Apopka and three lakes downstream of it (Dora, Eustis, and Griffin) are in an advanced state of eutrophication with high algal concentrations. This feature has shown up consistently on ERTS-1 images in the form of a characteristic water color for those lakes. As expected, EREP photographs also show a characteristic color for those lakes. What was not expected is that Lake Griffin shows a clear pattern of this coloration. Personnel familiar with the lake believe that the photograph does, indeed, show an algal bloom. It is reported that the algal concentration is often significantly higher in the southern portion of the lake. What the photograph shows that was not otherwise known is the pattern of the algal bloom. A similar, but less pronounced, effect is seen in Lake Tohopekaliga. Personnel stationed at Kissimmee reported that there was an algal bloom on that lake at the time of the EREP pass and that its extent corresponded approximately to that shown on the photograph. Again, the EREP photograph gives information about the extent of the bloom that could not be obtained practically by sampling. ERTS-1 images give some indication of this algal distribution on Lake Griffin in some cases, but are inconclusive.

Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F. (principal investigators)

1973-01-01

252

Modeling the depletion of dissolved oxygen in a lake due to algal bloom: Effect of time delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and analyze a non-linear mathematical model for algal bloom in a lake to account for the delay in conversion of detritus into nutrients. It is assumed that there is a continuous inflow of nutrients in the lake due to agricultural run off. The model involves four variables, namely nutrient concentration, algal population density, detritus density and dissolved oxygen concentration. The dynamics of the model is studied in terms of local stability analysis and Hopf-bifurcation analysis. It is found that the positive equilibrium of the model may switch from stability to instability to stability, and eventually instability sets in under certain conditions. The numerical simulation is performed to support the analytical results.

Misra, A. K.; Chandra, Peeyush; Raghavendra, V.

2011-10-01

253

An investigation of submarine groundwater-borne nutrient fluxes to the west Florida shelf and recurrent harmful algal blooms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cross-shelf, water-column mass balance of radon-222 (222Rn) provided estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which were then used to quantify benthic nutrient fluxes. Surface water and groundwater were collected along a shore-normal transect that extended from Tampa Bay, Florida, across the Pinellas County peninsula, to the 10-m isobath in the Gulf of Mexico. Samples were analyzed for 222Rn and radium-223,224,226 (223,224,226Ra) activities as well as inorganic and organic nutrients. Cross-shore gradients of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra activities indicate a nearshore source for these isotopes, which mixes with water characterized by low activities offshore. Radon-based SGD rates vary between 2.5 and 15 cm d-1 proximal to the shoreline and decrease offshore. The source of SGD is largely shallow exchange between surface and pore waters, although deeper groundwater cycling may also be important. Enrichment of total dissolved nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus in pore water combined with SGD rates results in specific nutrient fluxes comparable to or greater than estuarine fluxes from Tampa Bay. The significance of these fluxes to nearshore blooms of Karenia brevis is highlighted by comparison with prescribed nutrient demands for bloom maintenance and growth. Whereas our flux estimates do not indicate SGD and benthic fluxes as the dominant nutrient source to the harmful algal blooms, SGD-derived loads do narrow the deficit between documented nutrient supplies and bloom demands.

Smith, Christopher G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

2012-01-01

254

Cyanobacterial Blooms: Toxins, Tastes, and Odors  

E-print Network

Water Science Center USACE Harmful Algal Bloom Technical Session May 28, 2014 #12;Acknowledgements Mandy University of Idaho Oregon State University #12;Overview · Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms · Cyanotoxins;Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms What is an Algal Bloom? · The definition of a "bloom" is somewhat subjective

US Army Corps of Engineers

255

Rapid recovery of a fish assemblage following an ecosystem disruptive algal bloom  

E-print Network

,2,4 , Nathan R. Franssen1,5 , Clayton Porter3,6 , Tim M. Patton3,7 , and K. David Hambright1,2,8 1 Program structure and function (Sunda et al. 2006). Beyond the negative effects of HABs in general, EDABs

Hambright, K. David

256

Aerial extent, composition, bio-optics and biogeochemistry of a massive under-ice algal bloom in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long thought that coccolithophores are a minor component of the phytoplankton assemblage in Arctic waters, with diatoms typically being more dominant. Little is known about how the phytoplankton communities will change, however, as the Arctic warms. We participated in the 2011 Impacts of Climate on EcoSystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) cruise to the western Arctic, performing a combination of discrete measurements (microscopy, calcification, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (BSi)) plus continuous surface bio-optical measurements (absorption, scattering, backscattering and acid-labile backscattering; the latter specific for coccolithophores). Here, we report bio-optical and coccolithophore observations from the massive under-ice algal bloom originally described in Arrigo et al. (2012). The most intense portions of the bloom were centered in cold Winter Water and there was evidence for nitrate drawdown in the top 10-20 m with strong penetration of silicate rich water into the surface waters. Surface chlorophyll a and particulate absorption at 440 nm approached 30 ?g L-1 and 1.0 m-1, respectively. Particulate absorption of detritus (ap at 412 nm) was highly correlated to ap at 440 nm associated with chlorophyll a and slopes of the absorption spectrum showed that both dissolved and particulate absorption at 412 nm exceeded that at 440 nm, with slopes, Sg, of 0.01 nm-1. Colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) was high in the bloom but the relative fluorescence yields were low, characteristic of phytoplankton-produced FDOM (as opposed to terrestrially-produced FDOM). Coccolithophore backscattering was elevated in the under-ice bloom, but it only accounted for 10% of the total particle backscattering, relatively low compared to typical subpolar waters further to the south. Total particle scattering was significantly elevated in the under-ice bloom (values of almost 2 m-1), likely due to the high abundance of large diatoms. Backscattering probabilities in the bloom were ~1%, again characteristic of diatom-dominated populations with few calcifiers. PIC standing stock in the under-ice bloom was low but measurable while biogenic silica molar concentrations were 150 times greater. POC:PON molar ratios were 6-10, characteristic of healthy, rapidly growing phytoplankton, observations further buttressed by carbon:chlorophyll mass ratios of 50-100. Coccolithophore calcification was low but measurable, reaching 1.75 mg C m-3 d-1 in the under-ice bloom, only 0.4% of the photosynthesis. However, the intrinsic carbon-specific growth rate was 0.4 per day for bulk POC and ~1 per day for bulk PIC, close to maximal growth rates expected at these temperatures. SEM and light microscopy results showed mostly diatoms in the bloom. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, was observed, providing unequivocal evidence of the presence of coccolithophores in the under-ice algal bloom.

Balch, W. M.; Bowler, B. C.; Lubelczyk, L. C.; Stevens, M. W.

2014-07-01

257

Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario in the North Sea and possible effects on dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms.  

PubMed

Two hydrodynamic and ecological models were used to investigate the effects of climate change-according to the IPCC A1b emission scenario - on the primary productivity of the North Sea and on harmful algal blooms. Both models were forced with atmospheric fields from a regional downscaling of General Circulation Models to compare two sets of 20-year simulations representative of present climate (1984-2004) conditions and of the 2040s. Both models indicated a general warming of the North Sea by up to 0.8°C and a slight freshening by the 2040s. The models suggested that the eastern North Sea would be subjected to more temperature and salinity changes than the western part. In addition, the ecological modules of the models indicated that the warming up of the sea would result in a slightly earlier spring bloom. The one model that also computes the distribution of four different phytoplankton groups suggests an increase in the abundance of dinoflagellates, whereas the abundance of diatoms, flagellates and Phaeocystis sp. remains comparable to current levels, or decrease. Assuming that Dinophysis spp. would experience a similar increase in abundance as the modelled group of dinoflagellates, it is hypothesised that blooms of Dinophysis spp. may occur more frequently in the North Sea by 2040. However, implications for shellfish toxicity remain unclear. PMID:22920935

Friocourt, Y F; Skogen, M; Stolte, W; Albretsen, J

2012-01-01

258

Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

2013-01-01

259

Formation of a volunteer harmful algal bloom network in British Columbia, Canada, following an outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada's first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

2013-01-01

260

Deep Water Mixing Prevents Harmful Algal Bloom Formation: Implications for Managed Fisheries Refugia  

E-print Network

in lakes during times of toxic Prymnesium parvum blooms. Water availability sometimes can be an issue, especially in arid climates, which limits this approach to management. Utilizing source water from deeper depths to displace surface waters, however...

Hayden, Natanya Jeanne

2012-10-19

261

Eutrophic waters, algal bloom and fish kill in fish farming areas in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal waters of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines experienced environmental changes over a 10-year period (1995–2005), the most significant effect of which was the major fish kill event in 2002 that coincided with the first reported Philippine bloom of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Days before the bloom, dissolved oxygen was <2.0mg\\/l in the waters that were stratified. These conditions may be

Rhodora V. Azanza; Cesar L. Villanoy; Gil S. Jacinto

2008-01-01

262

Experimental Evaluation of Food Chain Manipulation as a Means for Preventing Algal Blooms in Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigated means of manipulating lake food chains to enhance grazing by zooplankton and thereby to decrease algal biomass and to improve water clarity. Experiments were conducted at two levels. The authors monitored a relatively deep, stratifi...

W. R. DeMott

1990-01-01

263

Algicidal Effects of a Novel Marine Pseudoalteromonas Isolate (Class Proteobacteria, Gamma Subdivision) on Harmful Algal Bloom Species of the Genera Chattonella, Gymnodinium, and Heterosigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a bacterial survey of the Huon Estuary in southern Tasmania, Australia, we isolated a yellow- pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strain (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision), designated strain Y, that had potent algicidal effects on harmful algal bloom species. This organism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as a strain with close affinities to Pseudoalteromonas peptidysin. This bacterium caused rapid cell lysis and

CONNIE LOVEJOY; JOHN P. BOWMAN; GUSTAAF M. HALLEGRAEFF

1998-01-01

264

Genetic Variation of the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa within and among Lakes: Implications for Harmful Algal Blooms  

PubMed Central

To measure genetic variation within and among populations of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we surveyed a suite of lakes in the southern peninsula of Michigan that vary in productivity (total phosphorus concentrations of ?10 to 100 ?g liter?1). Survival of M. aeruginosa isolates from lakes was relatively low (i.e., mean of 7% and maximum of 30%) and positively related to lake total phosphorus concentration (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.407, n = 14). In another study (D. F. Raikow, O. Sarnelle, A. E. Wilson, and S. K. Hamilton, Limnol. Oceanogr. 49:482-487, 2004), survival rates of M. aeruginosa isolates collected from an oligotrophic lake (total phosphorus of ?10 ?g liter?1 and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:total phosphorus ratio of 12.75) differed among five different medium types (G test, P of <0.001), with higher survival (P = 0.003) in low-nutrient media (28 to 37% survival) than in high-nutrient media. Even with the relatively low isolate survivorship that could select against detecting the full range of genetic variation, populations of M. aeruginosa were genetically diverse within and among lakes (by analysis of molecular variance, ?sc = 0.412 [?sc is an F-statistic derivative which evaluates the correlation of haplotypic diversity within populations relative to the haplotypic diversity among all sampled populations], P = 0.001), with most clones being distantly related to clones collected from lakes directly attached to Lake Michigan (a Laurentian Great Lake) and culture collection strains collected from Canada, Scotland, and South Africa. Ninety-one percent of the 53 genetically unique M. aeruginosa clones contained the microcystin toxin gene (mcyA). Genotypes with the toxin gene were found in all lakes, while four lakes harbored both genotypes possessing and genotypes lacking the toxin gene. PMID:16204530

Wilson, Alan E.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Neilan, Brett A.; Salmon, Tim P.; Gehringer, Michelle M.; Hay, Mark E.

2005-01-01

265

Streptomyces alboflavus RPS and its novel and high algicidal activity against harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa.  

PubMed

Phaeocystis globosa blooms have frequently occurred along coastal waters and exerted serious impacts on ecological environments by releasing toxic hemolytic substances, forming nuisance foam, and causing oxygen depletion. An actinomycete strain RPS with high algicidal activity against P. globosa was isolated and identified as Streptomyces alboflavus, based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RPS lysed 95% of P. globosa within 48 h by releasing an extracellular active substance into the growth medium. The activity of RPS supernatant was sensitive to temperature at and above 50 °C and insensitive to pH from 3 to 11. The molecular weight of the active substance was between 100 Da and 1000 Da, and approximately 90% of it was extracted by ethyl acetate. It was presumed that the active component efficiently inhibited the movement of P. globosa, caused the flagella to fall off the algae, and finally lysed the algal cells. RPS showed a wide target range against harmful algae. S. alboflavus RPS with high algicidal activity and such novel features of temperature and pH sensitivity, low molecular weight, algicidal process, and target range possesses great potential in the biological control of P. globosa blooms. PMID:24675867

Zhang, Bangzhou; Cai, Guanjing; Wang, Haitao; Li, Dong; Yang, Xujun; An, Xinli; Zheng, Xiaowei; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

2014-01-01

266

[Influence of scum of algal bloom on the release of N and P from sediments of Lake Taihu].  

PubMed

Sediment cores were sampled in macrophyte dominated zone, phytoplankton dominated zone and river mouth in Lake Taihu and incubated with one half of them added algae in laboratory in August to reveal the influence of algal accumulation on the release of nitrogen and phosphorus in sediments. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium, phosphate and other parameters were determined during cultivation of the sediment cores in dark. There were differences in release of TN and TP in sediments and significant variations in changes of DO, ammonium, phosphate in overlying water after adding algae. When DO declined to nearly zero, the changes of release of TN, TP in sediments differed from different ecological types of Lake Taihu with minus numbers of -0.1, -3.01 mg x (m2 x d)(-1) in macrophyte dominated zone, larger numbers of 31.1, 0.75 mg x (m2 x d)(-1) in phytoplankton dominated zone and 9.5, 2.46 mg x (m2 x d)(-1) in river mouth. The concentrations of ammonium in overlying water increased 3.62, 5.10, 6.57 mg/L and phosphate increased 53, 219, 418 microg/L in macrophyte dominated zone, phytoplankton dominated zone, river mouth, respectively. The changes of nutrients have good correlations with the decrease of DO and duration. The release of nutrients from sediments caused by accumulation and decay of algae may be the way that algal bloom satisfied itself. PMID:21528561

Zhu, Meng-Yuan; Zhu, Guang-Wei; Wang, Yong-Ping

2011-02-01

267

The effect of algal blooms on the disappearance of phenol in a small forest pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using experimental microecosystems the kinetics of phenol disappearance in small forest pond waters (Siberia, Russia) in the summer of 1995-96 were investigated. Despite of high variability of components of the ecosystem (plankton biomass and species composition) and two pronounced “blooms” of green algae Volvox aureus the same kinetics of the disappearance took place over the investigated period. Half-lives of the

Michail I. Gladyshev; Nadezhda N. Sushchik; Galina S. Kalachova; Ludmila A. Shchur

1998-01-01

268

Green Scum Up the Bay: Using Linear Modeling to Analyze Algal Blooms in the Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We used data from the Investigative Case Based Learning case "Back to the Bay" and techniques of analysis from Danny Kaplan's workshop on Multivariate Statistics to analyze the relationship between algal growth (as indicated by chlorophyll levels) and several measures of water quality (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, salinity, pH, & clarity).

Daniel Kaplan (kaplan@macalester.edu;); Amber Johnson (Truman State University;); Justine Bell (Champlain-St. Lambert College;)

2006-06-18

269

A high resolution estimate of the inorganic nitrogen flux from the Scheldt estuary to the coastal North Sea during a nitrogen-limited algal bloom, spring 1995  

SciTech Connect

Massive short-term (4--8 wk) blooms of Phaeocystis have been observed in coastal North Sea waters in the spring for a number of years now. Researchers have shown that these algal blooms, which lead to eutrophication of the local water mass, are limited by the supply of inorganic nitrogen from the various bordering estuaries. The authors demonstrate using the case of a typical heavily polluted macrotidal estuary, the Scheldt in Belgium and the Netherlands, that the short duration of the algal blooms requires estuarine flux estimation methods with a high temporal resolution. They use the fully transient, multicomponent reactive transport model CONTRASTE to compute inorganic nitrogen fluxes through the mouth of the Scheldt estuary into the North Sea. The model simulations use a detailed dataset of upstream river discharges and solute concentrations along with tidal forcings for a 210 day period between December 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. The temporally resolved estimate shows that widely used estuarine flux estimation methods which rely on a steady-state approximation underestimate the inorganic nitrogen loading available to sustain primary production in the North Sea during the period of the algal bloom by 100%.

Regnier, P. [University College Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [University College Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Oceanography; Steefel, C.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Geosciences and Environmental Technologies Div.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Geosciences and Environmental Technologies Div.

1999-05-01

270

Risk evaluation of cyanobacteria-dominated algal blooms in a North Louisiana reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria blooms may produce toxins thatare harmful to invertebrates and fishinhabiting aquatic systems. The objectives ofthis risk evaluation were: (1) to investigatethe potential toxicity (i.e., adverse effectsof cyanobacteria on the survival, reproduction,and behavior) of Lyngbya-dominated algalblooms from a North Louisiana reservoir to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas;and (2) to develop mitigation strategies forthis cyanobacteria infestation using physicaland chemical methods. Survival

Brian J. Mastin; Thomas L. Deardorff

2002-01-01

271

Trace element transformation during the development of an estuarine algal bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper and arsenic underwent large changes in chemical form during the development and senescence of natural phytoplankton\\u000a blooms in the Patuxent River, a subestuary of Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. Arsenate was rapidly reduced to arsenite and methylated\\u000a species. At a total arsenic concentration of 20 nmol l?1, arsenate reduction rates ranged from 50 amol cell?1 d?1 to >230 amol cell?1

James G. Sanders; Gerhardt F. Riedel

1993-01-01

272

Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Super-blooms” of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer

Melissa A. Miller; Raphael M. Kudela; Abdu Mekebri; Dave Crane; Stori C. Oates; M. Timothy Tinker; Michelle Staedler; Woutrina A. Miller; Sharon Toy-Choutka; Clare Dominik; Dane Hardin; Gregg Langlois; Michael Murray; Kim Ward; David A. Jessup

2010-01-01

273

Algal blooms and the nitrogen-enrichment hypothesis in Florida springs: evidence, alternatives, and adaptive management.  

PubMed

Contradictions between system-specific evidence and broader paradigms to explain ecosystem behavior present a challenge for natural resource management. In Florida (U.S.A.) springs, increasing nitrate (NO3-) concentrations have been implicated as the cause of algal overgrowth via alleviation of N-limitation. As such, policy and management efforts have centered heavily on reduction of nitrogen (N) loads. While the N-limitation hypothesis appears well founded on broadly supported aquatic eutrophication models, several observations from Florida springs are inconsistent with this hypothesis in its present simplified form. First, NO3- concentration is not correlated with algal abundance across the broad population of springs and is weakly negatively correlated with primary productivity. Second, within individual spring runs, algal mats are largely confined to the headwater reaches within 250 m of spring vents, while elevated NO3- concentrations persist for several kilometers or more. Third, historic observations suggest that establishment of macroalgal mats often lags behind observed increases in NO3- by more than a decade. Fourth, although microcosm experiments indicate high thresholds for N-limitation of algae, experiments in situ have demonstrated only minimal response to N enrichment. These muted responses may reflect large nutrient fluxes in springs, which were sufficient to satisfy present demand even at historic concentrations. New analyses of existing data indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO) has declined dramatically in many Florida springs over the past 30 years, and that DO and grazer abundance are better predictors of algal abundance in springs than are nutrient concentrations. Although a precautionary N-reduction strategy for Florida springs is warranted given demonstrable effects of nutrient enrichment in a broad suite of aquatic systems worldwide, the DO-grazer hypothesis and other potential mechanisms merit increased scientific scrutiny. This case study illustrates the importance of an adaptive approach that explicitly evaluates paradigms as hypotheses and actively seeks alternative explanations. PMID:20437966

Heffernan, James B; Liebowitz, Dina M; Frazer, Thomas K; Evans, Jason M; Cohen, Matthew J

2010-04-01

274

Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and the dispersion of algal bloom and marine debris in the Yellow and East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of satellite images show that the development and migration of green macroalgal bloom (known as Ulva prolifera) in the Yellow Sea (YS) and Eastern China Sea (ECS). This presentation will utilize the Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) analysis to demonstrate the dispersion pattern of algal bloom patches. Analyzing LCS such as stable and unstable manifolds is one of emerging technologies for characterizing Lagrangian pathways in aquatic environments. This approach is based on the assumption that unstable manifolds such as ridges (i.e., high values) in the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields coincide with material transport barriers. In this study, the FTLE fields were computed from gridded trajectories using flow fields provided by Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the YS/ECS during summer 2011. The results show that there exist two strong transport barriers that lie along the east-west direction, at least, for the simulation period; one is located from the north of Changjiang River mouth to the middle of the Yellow Sea and the other one is stretched from the south of Shandong Peninsular toward east/southeast. This LCS analysis suggests that patches of green algae developed in the coastal region of Jiangsu Province during summer may migrate toward east into the middle of the YS or even toward Korean coast rather than extending along the Jiangsu coast, which is consistent with the observation results derived from the satellite ocean color data. In the very same manner, the utilization of LCS results to evaluate the distribution/transport pattern of marine debris in the YS/ECS will also be discussed during the presentation.

Kim, Y. H.; Choi, B.; Son, Y. B.; Shim, W. J.; Hwang, J. H.; Park, Y.

2012-12-01

275

Development of coastal upwelling edge detection algorithms associated with harmful algal blooms off the Washington coast using sea surface temperature imagery.  

SciTech Connect

Satellite remote sensing imagery is being used to identify and characterize upwelling conditions on the coast of Washington State, with an emphasis on detecting ocean features associated with harmful algal bloom events. Blooms of phytoplankton, including the domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, appear to be associated with a semi-permanent eddy bordering Washington and British Columbia that is observed in satellite imagery during extended upwelling events. Strong upwelling conditions may act as a barrier to movement of these blooms onshore. Using NOAA AVHRR temperature imagery, edge detection algorithms are being developed to define the strength, location and extent of the surface temperature expression of upwelling along the coast of Washington. The edge detection technique uses a simple kernel-based gradient method that compares temperatures of pixels at a user-specified distance. This allows identification of larger features with subtle edges. The resulting maximum-gradient map is then converted to a binary format with a user-specified temperature threshold. Skeletonization and edge-linking algorithms are then employed to develop final map products. The upwelling edge detection maps are being examined in relation to harmful algal bloom events that have occurred along the coast.

Evans, Nathan R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Trainer, Vera L.

2005-01-01

276

MODIS and MERIS detection of dinoflagellates blooms using the RBD technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) can lead to severe economical and ecological impacts particularly in the coastal areas and can threaten human and marine health. About three-quarter of these toxic blooms are caused by dinoflagellates species which are well known to migrate vertically. During the day, they migrate up to the surface for photosynthesis, and consequently, their dense aggregations produce strong bio-optical signals that are detectable by space borne optical satellite sensors. In this study we use our recently developed low backscattering bloom detection technique, the Red Band Difference (RBD), to detect various dinoflagellates blooms using both MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data and present the results which confirm the potentials of the RBD technique. Here we present examples of bloom detection in waters off Gulf of Mexico, Monterey Bay, South Africa, and East China Sea.

Amin, R.; Gilerson, A.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

2009-09-01

277

A mechanism for offshore initiation of harmful algal blooms in the coastal Gulf of Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A combination of observations and model results suggest a mechanism by which coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense can be initiated from dormant cysts located in offshore sediments. The mechanism arises from the joint effects of organism behavior and the wind-driven response of a surface-trapped plume of fresh water originating from riverine sources. During upwelling-favorable winds, the plume thins vertically and extends offshore; downwelling winds thicken the plume and confine it to the nearshore region. In the western Gulf of Maine, the offshore extent of the river plume during upwelling conditions is suffcient to entrain upward-swimming A. fundyense cells germinated from offshore cyst beds. Subsequent downwelling conditions then transport those populations towards the coast.

McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr.; Signell, R.P.; Stock, C.A.; Keafer, B.A.; Keller, M.D.; Hetland, R.D.; Anderson, D.M.

2003-01-01

278

Giantism and its role in the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmopolitan alga Phaeocystis globosa forms large blooms in shallow coastal waters off the Viet Nam coast, which impacts the local aquaculture and fishing industries substantially. The unusual feature of this alga is that it forms giant colonies that can reach up to 3cm in diameter. We conducted experiments designed to elucidate the ecophysiological characteristics that presumably favor the development of giant colonies. Satellite images of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the coastal bloom was initiated in summer and temporally coincident with the onset of monsoonally driven upwelling. While determining the spatial distribution of Phaeocystis was not feasible, we sampled it in the near-shore region. A positive relationship was found between colony size and colonial cell densities, in contrast to results from the North Sea. Mean chlorophyll a concentration per cell was 0.45pgcell-1, lower than in laboratory or temperate systems. The contribution of mucous carbon ranged from 63-95% of the total carbon; furthermore, mucous carbon per unit of colony surface area appeared to decrease with colony size, suggesting that the mucoid sheath became thinner as colonies grew larger. Sinking rates averaged 189md-1, strongly suggesting that giant colonies could only persist in shallow, turbulent environments. No relationship between colony size and sinking rates was observed. DOC concentrations of intracolonial fluid averaged 5940?M, 25 times greater than ambient concentrations. Estimated diffusion coefficients of ions across the mucous envelope were ca. 1.0±0.3×10-7cm2s-1 for colonies with diameters of ca. 1.0cm. In total, the characteristics of the giant colonies suggest that the Vietnamese strain is substantially different from that found in temperate environments, and that it has a number of unusual features that influence its growth and development in coastal Vietnamese waters.

Smith, Walker O.; Liu, Xiao; Tang, Kam W.; DeLizo, Liza M.; Doan, Nhu Hai; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Wang, Xiaodong

2014-03-01

279

Mercury uptake within an ice algal community during the spring bloom in first-year Arctic sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine mercury bioaccumulation by a first-year sea-ice (FYI) algal community in the western Canadian Arctic during the spring of 2008. Total mercury concentration in bottom sea-ice particulate ([PHg]T) ranged 0.004-0.022 µg/g dw and was limited by the amount of mercury available for uptake when the spring bloom commenced. Mercury in ice algae originated from a combination of brine and seawater as sources, while atmospheric mercury depletion events did not appear to significantly contribute as a source in a coupled manner. We show that the bottom sea-ice brine presents a chemically and biologically unique niche from which inorganic Hg makes its way into the food web. Once incorporated into algae, mercury can be transported spatially and trophically within the ecosystem by a range of processes including grazing, resuspension, remineralization, and sedimentation. Ice algae contribute 10-60% of the annual primary production in the Arctic and are thought to become even more productive and abundant under a mild climate change scenario. Replacement of multiyear ice with FYI in the Beaufort Sea alone could result in an additional influx of ˜48 kg/yr of particle bound Hg. Further studies are thus warranted to elucidate mechanisms by which mercury transformation processes and transfer into the Arctic marine food web are impacted by the interaction between sea ice, brine, and seawater.

Burt, Alexis; Wang, Feiyue; Pu?ko, Monika; Mundy, Christopher-John; Gosselin, Michel; Philippe, Benoît; Poulin, Michel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Stern, Gary A.

2013-09-01

280

Nutrients and toxin producing phytoplankton control algal blooms - a spatio-temporal study in a noisy environment.  

PubMed

A phytoplankton-zooplankton prey-predator model has been investigated for temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal dissipative pattern formation in a deterministic and noisy environment, respectively. The overall carrying capacity for the phytoplankton population depends on the nutrient level. The role of nutrient concentrations and toxin producing phytoplankton for controlling the algal blooms has been discussed. The local analysis yields a number of stationary and/or oscillatory regimes and their combinations. Correspondingly interesting is the spatio-temporal behaviour, modelled by stochastic reaction-diffusion equations. The present study also reveals the fact that the rate of toxin production by toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP) plays an important role for controlling oscillations in the plankton system. We also observe that different mortality functions of zooplankton due to TPP have significant influence in controlling oscillations, coexistence, survival or extinction of the zoo-plankton population. External noise can enhance the survival and spread of zooplankton that would go extinct in the deterministic system due to a high rate of toxin production. PMID:16388147

Sarkar, Ram Rup; Malchow, Horst

2005-12-01

281

[Exploration of relationships between phytoplankton and related environmental factors in the Daning River during sensitive period of algal blooms].  

PubMed

To elucidate relationships between phytoplankton and related environmental factors, phytoplankton and environmental parameters of water quality in the Daning River were conducted using multivariate statistical analysis. Most of the investigated physico chemical parameters [water temperature, total nitrogen, nitrate-N (NO3(-) -N), pH and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO)] in Daning River are significantly different among those sampling sites (ANOVA, p < 0.05). The results indicate that the Daning River has a comparatively high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the phytoplankton community composition (ANOVA, p < 0.05). The maximum cell density was recorded in Dachang and the minimum density was found at Wuxia-kou sites. Multi-algal species blooms were observed in the same time and place with the maximum density appeared. Correlation analysis was performed to illuminate the relationships between algae density and environmental variables, TN (r = - 0.789, p < 0.05), NO3(-) -N (r = - 0.825, p < 0.05) and NO2(-) -N (r = -0.803, p < 0.05) were negatively correlated with algae density. The results indicate that nitrogen soluble nutrients are key regulatory factors for phytoplankton abundance. The results of redundancy analysis (RDA) indicate that main soluble nutrients (TN, TP, NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N), suspended substance (SS) and transparency contributed significantly to phytoplankton community composition. Phytoplankton growth could enhance the pH value. The environmental characterizations and sample sites adjacency contributed significantly to phytoplankton community composition. PMID:21634158

Zheng, Bing-Hui; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Wang, Li-Jing; Wang, Li-Ping; Huang, Min-Sheng; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Wu, Guang-Ying

2011-03-01

282

Modeling plankton dynamics during a Prymnesium parvum bloom: The importance of inflows and allelopathic relationships on bloom dynamics  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms' global amplification has driven research on growth characteristics and instigating mechanisms. These blooms prosper under diverse environmental conditions, creating challenges identifying bloom initiation. The haptophyte...

Hewitt, Natalie Case

2012-07-16

283

Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs.

Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

2014-05-01

284

The upside-down river: Reservoirs, algal blooms, and tributaries affect temporal and spatial patterns in nitrogen and phosphorus in the Klamath River, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klamath River, located in Oregon/California of the Northwestern U.S., is highly impounded and also experiences large seasonal algal blooms and impaired water quality. We investigated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constituents for one year (2010-2011) across 193 km of the Klamath River at sites above and below reservoirs and major tributaries to determine the influence of these features on longitudinal and temporal trends in concentrations, loads, and N:P ratios. In general, the headwater lake (Upper Klamath Lake) and reservoirs appeared to be the dominant influence on water quality and nutrient dynamics in the upper river, whereas tributaries appeared to exert stronger influence in the lower river. Overall, high nutrients and poor water quality at upstream sites were ameliorated downstream, however the downstream reductions in N were much greater relative to P. Seasonality appeared to play a major role in the overall appearance and magnitude of longitudinal trends. The greatest upstream-downstream differences occurred during periods of time following large algal blooms in the upper portion of the river. Overall, the amount and composition of N appeared to be strongly driven by algal blooms and biogeochemical conditions such as low oxygen, high pH and warm temperatures in the upper portion of the river, whereas P was more strongly driven by seasonal hydrology. The spatiotemporal influence of reservoirs and tributaries on nutrient flux and nutrient ratios may have significant implications for aquatic communities and ecosystem health. Nutrient objectives should be considered when designing restoration, management, and monitoring objectives for projects involving habitat suitability for anadromous fish and potential dam removal.

Oliver, Allison A.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Deas, Michael L.

2014-11-01

285

Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg/L). Furthermore, the concentration of iron-binding ligands was found to have a positive correlation to presence of cyanobacteria concentration, indicating a potential relationship between Fe, siderophores, and cyanobacteria. This project works to improve the understanding of freshwater cyanobacteria growth dynamics by investigating the physiological and biochemical processes leading to cHABs. The importance of this project lies in the understanding of elementary nutrient requirements in all algae and how cyanobacteria are able to access low concentration pools and subsequently bloom over other algal species. Investigating the nutrient regimes that stimulate siderophore production and the subsequent production of potentially toxic cyanobacteria blooms is important for lake management and preservation, specifically in the eutrophic and hypereutrophic freshwater lakes of Alberta.

Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

2013-04-01

286

Toxic Blooms: Understanding Red Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online seminar reviews the topic of red tides in four sessions, which review the effect HABs have on public health, wildlife and the economy; describe common harmful algal species and their toxins; identify poisoning symptoms; compare methods of treatment if poisoned; describe some potential methods to control HABs; and identify research areas where information on HABs is still inadequate. After completing the sessions, an optional knowledge test is provided based on the seminar material.

Anderson, Don; The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Fathom

287

The laboratory mouse in routine food safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Mouse bioassays have been a mainstay for detecting harmful concentrations of marine algal toxins in shellfish for over 70 years. Routine monitoring involves intraperitoneal injection of shellfish extracts into mice; shellfish contaminated with algal toxins are thus identified by mortality in exposed mice. With the advent of alternative test methods to detect and quantify specific algal toxins has come increasing criticism of enduring use of mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing. However, the complete replacement of shellfish safety mouse bioassays by chemical, antibody-based, and functional assays has been and will continue to be a gradual process for various reasons, including skills availability and instrument costs for chromatography-based toxin monitoring. Mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing do not comply with modern standards for laboratory animal welfare, specifically the requirement in published official methods for death as a test outcome. Mouse bioassays for algal biotoxins in shellfish, as well as fundamental algal toxin research endeavors using in vivo models, are amenable to revision and refinement from a humane endpoints perspective. Regulated hypothermia may be a useful and easily acquired nonlethal toxicological endpoint; objective determination of neuromuscular blockade may allow algal neurotoxin testing and research to enter the domain of humane endpoints evaluation. Relinquishing reliance on subjective test endpoints, including death, will likely also deliver collateral improvements in assay variability and sensitivity. PMID:24830147

Stewart, Ian; McLeod, Catherine

2014-01-01

288

Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

2010-11-01

289

Review: advances in electrochemical genosensors-based methods for monitoring blooms of toxic algae.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which have expanded worldwide in their occurrence and frequency, are a serious menace to aquatic ecosystems and humans. The development of rapid, accurate and cost-effective detection systems for toxic algal monitoring in aquatic environments is urgently required. Although many efforts have been devoted to develop reliable tools to monitor the entire spectrum of existing toxic algae, a portable semi-automated system that enables HAB monitoring at a low cost is still not available for general purchase. This work reviews the challenges and opportunities in translating the remarkable progress of electrochemical genosensors-based methods towards practical in situ HAB monitoring applications. It is specifically focused on reviewing the optimised methods for a detection system based on a sandwich hybridisation assay (SHA) performed over transducer platforms of different materials, geometries and dimensions and presenting the diverse advantages and disadvantages among them. Probe design and specificity and optimisation of the genosensor in terms of hybridisation conditions and electrochemical signal are discussed as well as their long-term stability and storage and semi-automation attempts. With continuous innovation and attention to key challenges, we expect semi-automatic devices containing DNA-based electrochemical biosensors to have an important impact upon monitoring of serious HAB events. PMID:23097073

Orozco, Jahir; Medlin, Linda K

2013-10-01

290

Boundary influences on HAB phytoplankton ecology in a stratification-enhanced upwelling shadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal marine ecosystems are profoundly influenced by processes that originate from their boundaries. These include fluid boundaries—with the atmosphere, oceanic boundary currents and terrestrial aquatic systems, as well as solid boundaries—with the seafloor and coast. Phytoplankton populations transfer complexly interacting boundary influences into the biosphere. In this contribution, we apply data from an ocean observing and modeling system to examine boundary influences driving phytoplankton ecology in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The study was focused on species that may cause harmful algal blooms (HABs). During September-October 2010, autonomous molecular analytical devices were moored at two locations characterized by different degrees of stratification and exposure to upwelling dynamics. The time-series revealed multiple transitions in local HAB phytoplankton communities, involving diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia spp.), dinoflagellates (Alexandrium catenella), and raphidophytes (Heterosigma akashiwo). Observational and model results showed that the biological transitions were closely related to environmental changes that resulted from a variety of boundary processes—responses of oceanic circulation to wind forcing, influxes of different water types that originated outside the bay, and emergence of strongly stratified nearshore water into the greater bay. Boundary processes were further implicated at patch scales. High-resolution mapping and sampling of a phytoplankton-enriched patch were conducted in a Lagrangian framework using autonomous underwater vehicles. These highly resolved measurements showed that small-scale spatial patterns in the toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia populations were related to the coupling of resuspended sediments from the bottom boundary layer to the surface mixed layer.

Ryan, J. P.; McManus, M. A.; Kudela, R. M.; Lara Artigas, M.; Bellingham, J. G.; Chavez, F. P.; Doucette, G.; Foley, D.; Godin, M.; Harvey, J. B. J.; Marin, R.; Messié, M.; Mikulski, C.; Pennington, T.; Py, F.; Rajan, K.; Shulman, I.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.

2014-03-01

291

Continuous automated imaging-in-flow cytometry for detection and early warning of Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Monitoring programs for harmful algal blooms (HABs) typically rely on time-consuming manual methods for identification and enumeration of phytoplankton, which make it difficult to obtain results with sufficient temporal resolution for early warning. Continuous automated imaging-in-flow by the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) deployed at Port Aransas, TX has provided early warnings of six HAB events. Here we describe the progress in automating this early warning system for blooms of Karenia brevis. In 2009, manual inspection of IFCB images in mid-August 2009 provided early warning for a Karenia bloom that developed in mid-September. Images from 2009 were used to develop an automated classifier that was employed in 2011. Successful implementation of automated file downloading, processing and image classification allowed results to be available within 4 h after collection and to be sent to state agency representatives by email for early warning of HABs. No human illness (neurotoxic shellfish poisoning) has resulted from these events. In contrast to the common assumption that Karenia blooms are near monospecific, post-bloom analysis of the time series revealed that Karenia cells comprised at most 60-75 % of the total microplankton. PMID:23307076

Campbell, Lisa; Henrichs, Darren W; Olson, Robert J; Sosik, Heidi M

2013-10-01

292

Applications of MODIS Fluorescence Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity in Coastal and Estuarine Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals, and new aerosol models have led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean-color. This has opened the way for studying coastal ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and increases in local concentrations of phytoplankton, which could result in harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present improved and validated MODIS coastal observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to: (1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida; and (2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California, as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and imagery from Tampa Bay, we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large, optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay illustrates that the correlations between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a are influenced by water quality parameters of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand. Sites that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths greater than seven meters and were located over five kilometers from shore. Satellite FLH estimates show improving water quality from 2003-2007 with a slight decline up through 2011. Dinoflagellate blooms in Monterey Bay, California have recently increased in frequency and intensity. Nine years of MODIS FLH observations are used to describe the annual and seasonal variability of bloom activity within the Bay. Three classes of MODIS algorithms were correlated against in situ chlorophyll measurements. The FLH algorithm provided the most robust estimate of bloom activity. Elevated concentrations of phytoplankton were evident during the months of August-November, a period during which increased occurrences of dinoflagellate blooms have been observed in situ. Seasonal patterns of FLH show the on- and offshore movement of areas of high phytoplankton biomass between oceanographic seasons. Higher concentrations of phytoplankton are also evident in the vicinity of the land-based nutrient sources and outflows, and cyclonic bay-wide circulation transports these nutrients to a northern Bay bloom incubation region. Both of these case studies illustrate the utility of improved MODIS FLH observations in supporting management decisions in coastal and estuarine waters.

Fischer, A.; Ryan, J. P.; Moreno-Madriñán, M. J.

2012-12-01

293

Rapid detection of algal toxins by microfluidic immunoassay.  

PubMed

Herein we report fabricating a microfluidic device to monitor harmful algal blooming (HAB). The heterogeneous immuno-enzyme assay was integrated into a self-designed microfluidic chip for rapid and automatic analysis of algal toxins. The device was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and was assembled with a home-made control system. The performance of the system was demonstrated by the detection of microcystin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, the major cyanotoxins. In one single microfluidic chip, multiple samples were controlled and analysed in a parallel manner. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range and the limit of detection of microcystins were 0-5.0 ng mL(-1) and 0.02 ng mL(-1) respectively. The total analysis time was less than 25 min. The designed device was highly automatic, more efficient and economic compared to conventional techniques. PMID:21879104

Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Sixiu; Yang, Pengyuan; Sui, Guodong

2011-10-21

294

Spatiotemporal changes in the genetic diversity of harmful algal blooms caused by the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.  

PubMed

Organisms with sexual and asexual reproductive systems benefit from both types of reproduction. Sexual recombination generates new combinations of alleles, whereas clonality favours the spread of the fittest genotype through the entire population. Therefore, the rate of sexual vs. clonal reproduction has a major influence on the demography and genetic structure of natural populations. We addressed the effect of reproductive system on populations of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. More specifically, we monitored the spatiotemporal genetic diversity during and between bloom events in two estuaries separated by 150 km for two consecutive years. An analysis of population genetic patterns using microsatellite markers revealed surprisingly high genotypic and genetic diversity. Moreover, there was significant spatial and temporal genetic differentiation during and between bloom events. Our results demonstrate that (i) interannual genetic differentiation can be very high, (ii) estuaries are partially isolated during bloom events and (iii) genetic diversity can change rapidly during a bloom event. This rapid genetic change may reflect selective effects that are nevertheless not strong enough to reduce allelic diversity. Thus, sexual reproduction and/or migration may regularly erase any genetic structure produced within estuaries during a bloom event. PMID:24330231

Dia, A; Guillou, L; Mauger, S; Bigeard, E; Marie, D; Valero, M; Destombe, C

2014-02-01

295

Stable Isotope Probing of an Algal Bloom To Identify Uncultivated Members of the Rhodobacteraceae Associated with Low-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation?  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria associated with an algal bloom in Tampa Bay, FL, were investigated by stable isotope probing (SIP) with uniformly labeled [13C]naphthalene. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from naphthalene enrichments) were identified as uncharacterized members of the family Rhodobacteraceae. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of these uncultivated organisms were used to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled naphthalene and phenanthrene, both of which showed substantial increases in gene copy numbers during the experiments. As demonstrated by this work, the application of uniformly 13C-labeled PAHs in SIP experiments can successfully be used to identify novel PAH-degrading bacteria in marine waters. PMID:21926219

Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R.; Aitken, Michael D.; Semple, Kirk T.

2011-01-01

296

Evaluation of internal loading and water level changes: implications for phosphorus, algal production, and nuisance blooms in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic manipulations have the potential to exacerbate or remediate eutrophication in productive reservoirs. Dam operations at Kabetogama Lake, Minnesota, were modified in 2000 to restore a more natural water regime and improve water quality. The US Geological Survey and National Park Service evaluated nutrient, algae, and nuisance bloom data in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels. Comparison of the results of this study to previous studies indicates that chlorophyll a concentrations have decreased, whereas total phosphorus (TP) concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000. Water and sediment quality data were collected at Voyageurs National Park during 2008–2009 to assess internal phosphorus loading and determine whether loading is a factor affecting TP concentrations and algal productivity. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for occasional stratification measured in certain areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, higher bottom water and sediment nutrient concentrations than in other parts of the lake, and phosphorus release rates estimated from sediment core incubations indicated that Lost Bay is one of several areas that may be contributing to internal loading. Internal loading of TP is a concern because increased TP may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria.

Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

2013-01-01

297

Turbulence, watermass stratification and harmful algal blooms: an alternative view and frontal zones as “pelagic seed banks”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermass stratification has been considered the essential physical condition that dinoflagellates require to bloom because of their relative inability, unlike diatoms, to tolerate the elevated shear-stress associated with water-column mixing, turbulence and high velocity, coastal currents. The swimming speeds of 71 flagellate taxa, with a focus on dinoflagellates, are compared to the turbulence fields and vertical velocities that develop during

Theodore J Smayda

2002-01-01

298

Linking the physiology and ecology of Cochlodinium to better understand harmful algal bloom events: A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red tide forming dinoflagellate genus Cochlodinium appears to be expanding globally, as well as blooming and\\/or causing more economic losses within its previously reported geographic distribution. Despite the widespread occurrence of this organism in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, relatively few studies of its ecophysiology have been conducted. Here we summarize the ecophysiological characteristics through both a literature

Raphael M. Kudela; John P. Ryan; Melissa D. Blakely; Tawnya D. Peterson

2008-01-01

299

Building a Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students understand algal blooms. They will devise their own experiments to test the effects of nutrients on algal growth, or younger students may follow the steps outlined in a sample activity which is provided. Students will be reminded that they need to have controls and replicates in their experiments. As a result of this activity, students will come to understand the requirements for algal growth, understand the factors that influence the occurrence and duration of algal blooms, and appreciate the diversity of algae in the marine environment.

2011-03-10

300

Case Study of Phytoplankton Blooms in Serangoon Harbor of Singapore  

E-print Network

, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA ¶E-mail: nmp@mit.edu Abstract-- A recent algal bloom in the East Johor Strait the occurrences of algal blooms so that their effects on the fish industry can be reduced. Many factors the dynamics of algal blooms. Physical and biogeochemical water column sampling were carried out using Acoustic

Patrikalakis, Nicholas M.

301

Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Combined petographic and geochemical methods are used to investigate the microfabrics present in thin sections prepared from representative organic carbon-rich mudstones collected from three successions (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the Jet Rock Member of the Whitby Mudstone Formation, and the pebble shale and Hue Shale). This study was initiated to determine how organic carbon-rich materials were being delivered to the sediment-water interface, and what happened to them after deposition, prior to deep burial. Analyses of the fabrics present shows that they exhibit many common attributes. In particular they are all: (1) highly heterogeneous on the scale of a thin section, (2) organized into thin beds (< 10 mm thick) composed mainly of mineral mixtures of fine-grained siliciclastic detritus and carbonate materials, and (3) contain significant concentrations of organic carbon, much of which is organized into laminasets that contain abundant organomineralic aggregates and pellets. In addition, framboidal pyrite (range of sizes from < 20 urn to < 1 ??m) and abundant agglutinated foraminifers are present in some units. The individual beds are commonly sharp-based and overlain by thin, silt lags. The tops of many of the beds have been homogenized and some regions of the pelleted laminasets contain small horizontal burrows. The organomineralic aggregates present in these mudstones are interpreted to be ancient examples of marine snow. This marine snow likely formed in the water column, particularly during phytoplankton blooms, and was then transported rapidly to the seafloor. The existence of the thin beds with homogenized tops and an in-situ infauna indicates that between blooms there was sufficient oxygen and time for a mixed layer to develop as a result of sediment colonization by diminutive organisms using either aerobic or dysaerobic metabolic pathways. These textures suggest that the constituents of these mudstones were delivered neither as a continuous rain of sediment nor were the bottom waters persistently anoxic. In addition, the presence of thin lags and sharp-based beds suggests that the seafloor was being episodically reworked during deposition. These fabrics indicate that conditions in the water columns and at the seafloors while these rocks were being deposited were very dynamic, and episodic fluxes of high concentrations of organic carbon to the seafloor, during phytoplankton blooms, likely enhanced preservation of organic carbon. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.; Davies, S.J.

2010-01-01

302

The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa.  

PubMed

The biological interactions and the physical and chemical properties of the littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift were studied for a 4-month period when a dense, toxic cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa was present in the main lake basin. The presence of a toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was confirmed through the use of ELISA and molecular markers that detect the presence of the mcyB and mcyD genes of the mcy gene cluster that synthesizes microcystin. An increase in Microcystis toxicity at sites dominated by the cyanobacterial scum was accompanied by an increase in total abundance of the macroinvertebrate families Hirudinae, Chironomidae, and Tubificidae. Sites located away from the cyanobacterial scum had a lower abundance but a higher diversity of macroinvertebrates. The water quality under the Microcystis scum was characterized by low pH values, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and lower total alkalinity values. The periphytic alga Ulothrix zonata was absent in areas dominated by the cyanobacterial scum, possibly as a result of overshadowing by the scum or direct toxic allelopathic effects on growth and photosynthesis. The diatom Diatoma vulgare dominated the benthic algal flora beneath the cyanobacterial scum. PMID:18802748

Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Ashton, Peter J

2009-01-01

303

[Algal blooms of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Water samples were collected during a red tide event in November 2001, near San Lucas Island (Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica). Superficial temperature was 27 degrees C and water was turbid, with no fetid smell. One sample was treated with negative staining and observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); another sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples had high concentrations of the diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia pungensf pungens (characterized by two rows of poroids in the external channel), and lower concentrations of Skeletonema costatum (chains joined by external microtubules) and Chaetoceros lorenzianus (oval apertures and long chains, having setae with distinctive transverse rows and spines). This is the first time that the first species was described producing red tides in Costa Rica. However, reports about red tides with high concentration of species like P. pungens (variety multiseries) are increasing. These species have been related to the production of domoic acid, a low molecular weight amino acid which in humans can cause amnesic intoxications with seafood. Previously, Costa Rican reports of toxic accidents only referred to seafood contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and Gymnodinium catenatum dinoflagellates. The increase in the number of Pseudo-Nitzschia causing harmful algae blooms is of interest for scientists around the world and must be documented. Similarly, some Chaetoceros species have been reported to be harmful to fish. We strongly recommend the establishment of a permanent surveillance program monitoring the presence of these species new at Costa Rican Pacific coast. Since the amnesic toxin is soluble in water and heat-resistant, we want to stress the possibility of having human cases of amnesic intoxication. PMID:17465126

Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

2004-09-01

304

Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA  

PubMed Central

Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n?=?118) and 53% positive for DA (n?=?83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p?=?0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

2011-01-01

305

Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam  

E-print Network

the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth upwelling Conceptual model Species competition Lagrangian HAB model Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south

Dippner, Joachim W.

306

Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

2010-07-01

307

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

2014-01-01

308

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

2014-09-01

309

MAS 01 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Path Planning and Navigation Based upon Ocean Model Predictions  

E-print Network

of algal and phytoplankton blooms. Such biological phenomena are a primary, collaborative research interest of the blooms that have the potential to include harmful algal species (i.e., Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs

California at Los Angeles, University of

310

Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, along the west coast of Florida are of considerable concern to state resource managers due to numerous ecological and health impacts. With the availability of remotely sensed ocean color imagery from SeaWiFS, a regional algorithm that compensates for the scattering of sediments in coastal waters can be applied to accurately estimate chlorophyll

Michelle C Tomlinson; Richard P Stumpf; Varis Ransibrahmanakul; Earnest W Truby; Gary J Kirkpatrick; Bradley A Pederson; Gabriel A Vargo; Cynthia A Heil

2004-01-01

311

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Relevant sections in this resource include What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an Introduction to Algal Blooms and "Red Tide", Algae Species (which algae are responsible for the harmful effects?), Adverse Impacts, Human Illness (food poisoning associated with harmful algal blooms & information on diagnosis and treatment), HAB Distribution Maps, HAB events in the United States and around the world, HAB related articles as printed in the news media, and a photo gallery of visible algal blooms, photomicrographs, and satellite imagery.

Anderson, Donald

2004-06-17

312

Macroalgal blooms on southeast Florida coral reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990, coral reefs off southeast Florida have experienced an unprecedented succession of macroalgal blooms and invasions. To determine if anthropogenic land-based nitrogen (N) sources support these HABs, we collected macroalgal tissue for stable nitrogen isotope (?15N) analysis at three spatially distinct depths ranging from the shallow subtidal to the shelf break (?43m) along seven transects from Jupiter to Deerfield

Brian E. Lapointe; Peter J. Barile; Mark M. Littler; Diane S. Littler

2005-01-01

313

The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological interactions and the physical and chemical properties of the littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift were studied\\u000a for a 4-month period when a dense, toxic cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa was present in the main lake basin. The presence of a toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was confirmed through the use of ELISA and molecular markers that detect the presence

Paul J. Oberholster; Anna-Maria Botha; Peter J. Ashton

2009-01-01

314

Case study of phytoplankton blooms in serangoon harbor of Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent algal bloom in the East Johor Strait has led to the damage of marine life in the water channel. This has lead to heavy economic losses to the fish farms located along the water channel. There is a desire to study and be able to predict the occurrences of algal blooms so that their effects on the fish

B. H. Ooi; H. Zheng; K. P. Yue; H. Kurniawati; P. Sundarambal; M. H. Dao; K. A. P. Roopsekhar; J. Wei; W. Cho; P. Tkalich; P. Malanotte-Rizzoli; N. M. Patrikalakis

2010-01-01

315

Isolation, identification and characterization of algicidal bacteria against Stephanodiscus hantzschii and Peridinium bipes for the control of freshwater winter algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five strains (HYY0510-SK04, HYY0511-SK09, HYK0512-SK12, HYK0512-PK04 and HYY0512-PK05) of algicidal bacteria against the harmful\\u000a bloom forming diatom Stephanodiscus hantzschii and dinoflagellate Peridinium bipes, were isolated. Among these strains, HYY0510-SK04, HYY0511-SK09 and HYK0512-SK12 have an effective algicidal activity for\\u000a S. hantzschii, while HYK0512-PK04 and HYY0512-PK05 have an algicidal effect against P. bipes. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA showed that HYY0510-SK04 and

Yoon-Kyung Kang; Soo-Yeon Cho; Yoon-Ho Kang; Toshiya Katano; Eon-Seon Jin; Dong-Soo Kong; Myung-Soo Han

2008-01-01

316

MAS 03 Marine Bloom Trajectory Prediction for AUV Mission Planning MAS 03.1 Overview  

E-print Network

kilometers) and small vertical extent (in 1-10 meters). Harmful Algal Blooms (the focus of this paper such predictions can be used to plan survey missions for AUVs. MAS 03.2 Approach The dynamics of an algal bloom canMAS 03 Marine Bloom Trajectory Prediction for AUV Mission Planning MAS 03.1 Overview Observing

California at Los Angeles, University of

317

A Quantitative Assessment of the Role of the Parasite Amoebophrya in the Termination of Alexandrium fundyense Blooms within a Small Coastal Embayment  

PubMed Central

Parasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Amoebophrya infect free-living dinoflagellates, some of which can cause harmful algal blooms (HABs). High prevalence of Amoebophrya spp. has been linked to the decline of some HABs in marine systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Amoebophrya spp. on the dynamics of dinoflagellate blooms in Salt Pond (MA, USA), particularly the harmful species Alexandrium fundyense. The abundance of Amoebophrya life stages was estimated 3–7 days per week through the full duration of an annual A. fundyense bloom using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with tyramide signal amplification (FISH- TSA). More than 20 potential hosts were recorded including Dinophysis spp., Protoperidinium spp. and Gonyaulax spp., but the only dinoflagellate cells infected by Amoebophrya spp. during the sampling period were A. fundyense. Maximum A. fundyense concentration co-occurred with an increase of infected hosts, followed by a massive release of Amoebophrya dinospores in the water column. On average, Amoebophrya spp. infected and killed ?30% of the A. fundyense population per day in the end phase of the bloom. The decline of the host A. fundyense population coincided with a dramatic life-cycle transition from vegetative division to sexual fusion. This transition occurred after maximum infected host concentrations and before peak infection percentages were observed, suggesting that most A. fundyense escaped parasite infection through sexual fusion. The results of this work highlight the importance of high frequency sampling of both parasite and host populations to accurately assess the impact of parasites on natural plankton assemblages. PMID:24324668

Velo-Suarez, Lourdes; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.

2013-01-01

318

Continental Shelf Research 28 (2008) 2444 The growth dynamics of Karenia brevis within discrete blooms  

E-print Network

: Phytoplankton; Algal blooms; Biomass; Pigments; Growth rate; Nitrogen assimilation ARTICLE IN PRESS www blooms on the West Florida Shelf D.G. Redaljea,Ã?, S.E. Lohrenza , M.J. Nattera , M.D. Tuela , G of the ECOHAB: Florida Program, we studied three large blooms of the harmful bloom forming dinoflagellate

319

Satellite-based detection and monitoring of phytoplankton blooms along the Oregon coast  

E-print Network

, termed CHLrel and FLHrel, respectively, describe the onset and advection of algal blooms as a functionSatellite-based detection and monitoring of phytoplankton blooms along the Oregon coast S. M. Mc to detect and monitor phytoplankton blooms in the Oregon coastal region. The resulting bloom products

White, Angelicque

320

Bloom's Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... a high incidence of breaks in an individual’s chromosomes. The most serious manifestations of this condition are ... the symptoms of this disorder may recommend specialized chromosome testing or testing of the Bloom’s syndrome gene. ...

321

Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes  

SciTech Connect

We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

2013-01-15

322

Mapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple ScaleMapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple Scales:s: QuickBirdQuickBird and MERIS Satellite Dataand MERIS Satellite Data  

E-print Network

Mapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple ScaleMapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple Scales:s: QuickBirdQuickBird and MERIS Satellite Dataand MERIS Satellite Data Harmful algal blooms in Lake Champlain (VT-NY-QC) are an increasingly serious concern. Such blooms

Morrissey, Leslie A.

323

Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 830-841; doi:10.3390/md11030830 Marine Drugs  

E-print Network

in Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins produced during Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), representing accumulations of algae in the marine environment [1]. Quite often, massive algal proliferations include blooms of toxin-producing organisms known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), producing high concentrations

Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

324

CIOSS is a cooperative (Federal-Academic) center of excellenceforresearchandeducation,whichinvolvessatellite  

E-print Network

include similar efforts at sites off the U.S. East and Gulf coasts. Strutton, Wood: Harmful Algal Blooms. Determine when and where harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur off Oregon. Improve our ability to predict Data use for Fisheries Applications. An example of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) - Dense accumulation

Kurapov, Alexander

325

GLERL ECOHAB: An Integrated Approach for Monitoring and Primary Investigator: Gary Fahnenstiel -NOAA GLERL  

E-print Network

Lakes a resurgence of harmful algal blooms (HAB) has been noted in the last decade. These events were were posted on the Harmful Algal Blooms website in order to facilitate public awareness of potentially developed a HABs forecasting tool, Lake Erie Harmful Algal Bloom Bulletin (Figure 1), that was distributed

326

The rise of harmful cyanobacteria blooms: The potential roles of eutrophication and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are the most ancient phytoplankton on the planet and form harmful algal blooms in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. Recent research suggests that eutrophication and climate change are two processes that may promote the proliferation and expansion of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. In this review, we specifically examine the relationships between eutrophication, climate change and representative cyanobacteria genera from

J. M. O’Neil; T. W. Davis; M. A. Burford; C. J. Gobler

327

CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks  

PubMed Central

The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms “CyanoHAB” in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water. PMID:22069535

Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

2009-01-01

328

Limnol. Oceanogr., 49(2), 2004, 607613 2004, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.  

E-print Network

algal blooms (HABs) by enabling algal cells to swim to favorable microenvironments that support among Heterosigma strains, mediated by differences in cell-level motility. Many harmful algal bloom (HAB explosive growth. Motility also augments the formation of algal cell aggregations that are often associated

Grünbaum, Daniel

329

4, 33433375, 2007 Algal-bacterial  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 3343­3375, 2007 Algal-bacterial competition for N and P T. Løvdal et al. Title Page Abstract spring bloom (PeECE II) T. Løvdal 1, , C. Eichner 1, , H.-P. Grossart 2 , V. Carbonnel 3 , L. Chou 3 4, 3343­3375, 2007 Algal-bacterial competition for N and P T. Løvdal et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

N values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on the island of Maui, Hawai`i, USA  

E-print Network

n f o Keywords: d15 N Wastewater Biological Nitrogen Removal Clean Water Act Algal blooms Coral scale algal blooms include diminished water column oxygen levels, negative effects on seagrass bedsUsing d15 N values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient

Smith, Jennifer E.

331

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing\\u000a long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have\\u000a a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated\\u000a the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

332

OSP WEEKLY FUNDING BULLETIN To subscribe/unsubscribe to the UAHuntsville weekly funding bulletin, UAHuntsville faculty and staff should  

E-print Network

for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research, Fiscal Year 2012, National Competitive Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Programs Algal Blooms Program, the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms Program and the Prevention, Control and Mitigation of Harmful Algal Blooms Program. Background information about the NCCOS

Alabama in Huntsville, University of

333

Environmental Control and Limnological Impacts of a Large Recurrent Spring Bloom in  

E-print Network

algal blooms are controlled by physical (e.g., water column mixing, light, temperature and particleEnvironmental Control and Limnological Impacts of a Large Recurrent Spring Bloom in Lake Washington Washington has a very consistent and pronounced annual spring diatom bloom which occurs from March to May

Brett, Michael T.

334

Evolution of a cyanobacterial bloom forecast system in western Lake Erie: Development and initial evaluation  

E-print Network

to the forecast system. Harmful algal blooms of the genus Microcystis were found in all 3 yearsEvolution of a cyanobacterial bloom forecast system in western Lake Erie: Development and initial and Atmospheric Administration began monitoring cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie using high temporal resolution

335

PHYTOPLANKTON BLOOM YNAMICS IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: A REVIEW WITH SOME GENERAL LESSONS  

E-print Network

). These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodicPHYTOPLANKTON BLOOM YNAMICS IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: A REVIEW WITH SOME GENERAL LESSONS FROM, California Abstract. Phytoplankton blooms are prominent fea- tures of biological variability in shallow

336

Spatiotemporal Aquatic Field Reconstruction Using Robotic Sensor Swarm , Guoliang Xing  

E-print Network

--Monitoring important aquatic processes like harmful algal blooms is of increasing interest to public health, ecosystem and biological phenomena in aquatic environment, including harmful algal blooms (HABs) [1], lake surface

337

Spatiotemporal Aquatic Field Reconstruction Using Cyber-Physical Robotic Sensor Systems  

E-print Network

important aquatic processes like harmful algal blooms is of increasing interest to public health, ecosystem and biological phenomena in aquatic environment, including harmful algal blooms (HABs) [Dolan et al. 2007], lake

338

Using hyperspectral imagery to monitor algal persence  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates how an inexpensive and easily deployable imaging spectrometer can be used to monitor and identify algal blooms at short notice, thus making practical the addition of airborne data to the usual in-situ measurements. Two examples are described, one in the Irish Sea and the other in a reservoir system in the London area.

Anderson, J.M.; Monk, J.; Yan, Gu; Brignal, W.

1997-08-01

339

Past trends and future scenarios for environmental conditions favoring the accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in Puget Sound, Washington State, can be assessed by identifying and predicting climate and environmental conditions that are favorable for bloom development and the accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish. When these favorable conditions occur in combination, a harmful algal bloom window of opportunity (HAB-WOO) exists

Stephanie K. Moore; Nathan J. Mantua; Eric P. Salathé

2011-01-01

340

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOBIOSCIENCE, VOL. 5, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2006 149 Whole-Cell Sensing for a Harmful Bloom-  

E-print Network

, and human health effects [2]. Detecting, predicting and ultimately preventing these harmful algal blooms for a Harmful Bloom- Forming Microscopic Alga by Measuring Antibody­Antigen Forces Alexander S. Lee, Mrinal, and Chongwu Zhou Abstract--Aureococcus anophagefferens, a harmful bloom- forming alga responsible for brown

Zhou, Chongwu

341

Contamination University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool  

E-print Network

blooms (HABs) including Florida red tide. Recurrences of harmful algal blooms such as red tides pose in affected areas to search for new harmful algal bloom organisms and their toxins and to monitor an outbreak and build data that will explain these micro-algal blooms that can cause human health effects (such

Miami, University of

342

Blooming Thermometers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students develop an understanding of the relationship between natural phenomena, weather, and climate change: the study known as phenology. In addition, they learn how cultural events are tied to the timing of seasonal events. Students brainstorm annual natural phenomena that are tied to seasonal weather changes. Next, they receive information regarding the Japanese springtime festival of Hanami, celebrating the appearance of cherry blossoms. Students plot and interpret average bloom date data from over the past 1100 years.

2007-01-01

343

BIOMARKER LIPIDS IN RED TIDE (GYMNODINIUM BREVE) BLOOMS ALONG THE NORTHWEST FLORIDA COAST  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability to characterize phytoplankton communities and algal blooms using lipids as biomarkers requires knowledge of their distribution and taxonomic significance. Such an approach would have application, for example, in distinguishing and tracking certain dinoflagellates suc...

344

Continuous monitoring of short term dissolved oxygen and algal dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in coastal bays with frequent algal blooms can undergo significant diurnal changes. Short-term DO and algal dynamics in a sub-tropical, nitrogen-limited, marine ecosystem are studied by means of a specially designed telemetry system. The high resolution data show clearly the importance of the vertical DO structure, and its relationship with environmental variables (solar radiation, water temperature, wind,

H. S. Lee; Joseph H. W. Lee

1995-01-01

345

[Harmful blooms of cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriaceae) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodiniaceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Recently, the Pacific coast of Costa Rica has experienced an increase in both magnitude and frequency of harmful algae blooms (HAB). The lack of data regarding the dynamics of these events in the area, and the species of microalgae that produce them, are themes of great interest. The blooms have produced negative impacts on fishery resources and on human health in Costa Rica. In May 2002 a HAB left a large number of dead fish along the central Pacific coast. Water samples were collected using a phytoplankton net and fixed for subsequent processing by electron microscopy. In addition, a one liter sample of surface water was taken for later cell count. In the observed HAB, the dominating organisms found were the cyanobacteria Trichodesmiun erythraeum surrounded by high concentrations of Gram-bacteria and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides. T. erythraeum, is one of the most important N2 fixing cyanobacteria in marine waters that has been associated with HAB events in diverse parts of the world as well as with symptoms that produce contact dermatitis and other discomforts. C. cf. polykrikoides is a dinoflagellete associated with fish kills; although the type of associated toxins are unknown. In a national newspaper 17 cases of intoxication in humans were reported during this same period, which presented respiratory disorders and burning of the eyes. This is the first report in Costa Rica where a cyanobacteria and a dinoflagellate were observed together producing HAB. PMID:17465125

Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

2004-09-01

346

A cold phase of the East Pacific triggers new phytoplankton blooms in San Francisco Bay  

E-print Network

A cold phase of the East Pacific triggers new phytoplankton blooms in San Francisco Bay James E biomass and occurrences of new seasonal blooms that began in 1999. This phytoplankton increase and phosphorus concentrations, contrary to the guiding paradigm that algal biomass in estuaries increases

347

Satellite Detection of Phaeocystis Globosa Blooms in the Eastern English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting phytoplankton species from remote sensing is essential to map and monitor algal blooms in coastal waters, but stays a challenge because of the interference of suspended sediments and dissolved organic matter with the phytoplankton signal. In the eastern English Channel and the south North Sea, a more or less intensive bloom of prymnesiophyceae Phaeocystis globosa occurs almost every spring

B. Lubac; H. Loisel; A. Poteau; N. Guiselin

2006-01-01

348

An event-driven phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan observed by satellite  

E-print Network

An event-driven phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan observed by satellite B. M. Lesht,1 J summer phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan that accounted for approximately 25% of the lake's annual gross offshore algal primary production. By combining the satellite imagery with in situ

Stroud, Jonathan

349

X-Hab Challenge: Students in the Critical Path  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge follows a non-typical format for university student competitions. Rather than provide a realistic simulated mission for the students to perform, the X-Hab Challenge puts the student teams in the critical path of NASA's human space flight Exploration systems research and development, and expects them to deliver a product that will likely become heritage for eventual flight systems in the years to come. The added responsibility has two major benefits: the university teams are given real ownership in the NASA vision; students are given Principal Investigator (PI) status for their contribution and are looked upon as peers in the development process. This paper introduces the X-Hab Challenge and discusses the successes behind the program.

Howe, A. Scott; Drew, B. A.; Bailey, L.; Gill, T.; Liolios, S.; Walsh, E.; Dory, J.; Howe, A. S.; Smitherman, D.; Bookout, P.; Howard, Robert; Tri, T.; Toups, Larry

2012-01-01

350

DLR-EnviHab - A closed environmental Habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed habitats intended for different purposes like confinement studies, life in extreme environments (Antarctica) and as simulation testbeds for complex closed life support systems have been built and achieved different degrees of closure. Those that were built in preparation of space missions oriented themselves on the need of a crew of astronauts during a long term mission in Space, on Mars or Moon. At DLR in Cologne, a modular approach is followed to build a closed environmental habitat for scientific and medical studies, the DLR-EnviHab. This modular structure of the EnviHab is designed to include humans as integral part in a bioregenerative life support system, and allows a step-wise realization of the project, ensuring useful results for a wide field of scientific research during each phase. The DLR-EnviHab provides a platform for international and interdisciplinary research and the development of innovative solutions for cultivation and habitation on Earth as well as for long term space or planetary missions. By the inclusion of humans as integral component of the system, medical research areas including physiological and psychological health and rehabilitation as well as environmental research and monitoring and modelling of coupled and controlled systems are addressed in EnviHab. Results of the research conducted in the individual and combined EnviHab modules will also contribute to most urgent issues like water(recycling) management, food management, pollution/waste management and atmosphere(air) management. In addition, EnviHab contributes to public education and outreach with the open visible and partly accessible structure, an exhibition and an explanatory module.

Rabbow, E.; Koch, B.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Graef, P.; Gerzer, R.

351

R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Variations of algal communities cause darkening of a Greenland  

E-print Network

., 2009; Yallop et al., 2012; Takeu- chi, 2013). Algal blooms colouring snow and ice surfaces are abundantR E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Variations of algal communities cause darkening of a Greenland). The observed clear change in dominant algal community and their rap- idly changing cryo-organic adaptation

Benning, Liane G.

352

Human Impacts on Catchments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers an explanation of red tide and other harmful algal blooms (HABs). It briefly explains what algal blooms are and what causes them. Designed for educatiors, the site also provides activity ideas and links to other HAB-related sites.

Boards, South A.

353

AQUATIC MICROBIAL ECOLOGY Aquat Microb Ecol  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) represent a significant threat to fisheries, public health, and economies matter in promoting the occurrence of blooms is in its infancy. One harmful algal species which has been with water column accumulation of DOM. KEY WORDS: Harmful algal blooms · Brown tide · Aureococcus

Caron, David

354

NOAA supported researchers are investigating how to predict and mitigate  

E-print Network

red tide event. Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico Introduction Dead fish or dolphins lining a beach - respiratory problems- shellfish harvesting closures. Harmful algal blooms (HABs communities. Just one harmful algal bloom event can impose millions of dollars in losses upon local coastal

355

Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters  

E-print Network

-time data from the MODIS satellite sensor was used to detect and trace a harmful algal bloom (HAB), or red data provide an unprecedented tool for research and managers to study and monitor algal blooms in coastal environments. D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Harmful Algal Bloom; Red tide

356

WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF ROBERT E. MAGNIEN, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

OF COMMERCE HEARING ON HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS AND HYPOXIA: FORMULATING AN ACTION PLAN BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE national programs solely focused on harmful algal blooms (HAB) and hypoxia that were authorized by the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998 (HABHRCA) and reauthorized in 2004. I

357

Received 5 Sep 2013 | Accepted 14 Mar 2014 | Published 16 Apr 2014 Forensic genomics as a novel tool for identifying  

E-print Network

-producing algal blooms are all possible causes of mass mortality events, but in many cases it can be difficult population. Our results support that a harmful algal bloom producing a yessotoxin was a major causative agent responsible. One major cause of recent marine mortality events are harmful algal blooms (HABs)3,6­8 that kill

Palumbi, Stephen

358

Case Study of Phytoplankton Blooms in Serangoon Harbor of Singapore  

E-print Network

A recent algal bloom in the East Johor Strait has led to the damage of marine life in the water channel. This has lead to heavy economic losses to the fish farms located along the water channel. There is a desire to study ...

Ooi, B. H.

359

Bloom syndrome.  

PubMed

Bloom Syndrome (BS, MIM #210900) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the BLM gene, which codes for the DNA repair enzyme RecQL3 helicase. Without proper DNA repair mechanisms, abnormal DNA exchange takes place between sister chromatids and results in genetic instability that may lead to cancer, especially lymphoma and acute myelogenous leukemia, lower and upper gastrointestinal tract neoplasias, cutaneous tumors, and neoplasias in the genitalia and urinary tract. BS patients are usually of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and exhibit narrow facial features, elongated limbs, and several dermatologic complications including photosensitivity, poikiloderma, and telangiectatic erythema. The most concerning manifestation of BS is multiple malignancies, which require frequent screenings and strict vigilance by the physician. Therefore, distinguishing between BS and other dermatologic syndromes of similar presentation such as Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome, Erythropoietic Protoporphyria, and Cockayne Syndrome is paramount to disease management and to prolonging life. BS can be diagnosed through a variety of DNA sequencing methods, and genetic testing is available for high-risk populations. This review consolidates several sources on BS sequelae and aims to suggest the importance of differentiating BS from other dermatologic conditions. This paper also elucidates the recently discovered BRAFT and FANCM protein complexes that link BS and Fanconi anemia. PMID:24602044

Arora, Harleen; Chacon, Anna H; Choudhary, Sonal; McLeod, Michael P; Meshkov, Lauren; Nouri, Keyvan; Izakovic, Jan

2014-07-01

360

In situ observation of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oita coast, where is in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, is a richly fish aquaculture area. However, sometimes harmful algal blooms occur in this region, especially harmful dinoflagellates blooms, and cultured fish mortality occurs. Ocean color remote sensing is expected as a useful tool to reduce the financial damage of harmful algal blooms. However, ocean color data is low accuracy in the coastal region because colored dissolved organic matter and suspended solid are dominant. More optical data of harmful algal blooms are required because there are few data in harmful algal blooms. The field observation was conducted to understand the inherent optical property of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Oita prefecture on April and August 2013. Chlorophyll-a maximum (>24 mg m^-3) was observed in the subsurface layer on April 2013. The dominant phytoplankton species in this chlorophyll-a maximum layer was dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (>300 cells ml^-1) and early stage of the bloom was formed. Peak of the remote sensing reflectance was near 565nm due to strong phytoplankton absorption within 400 ~ 500 nm domain from the subsurface bloom layer. Moreover, high phytoplankton absorption coefficient was observed at the shorter wavelength (< 400nm). This strong absorption might be due to mycosporine-like amino acids, which absorb the UV (Kahru and Mitchell, 1998). And this subsurface C. polykrikoides bloom was detected by using dinoflagellate bloom detection algorithm, which is a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based harmful algal blooms detection method for JAXA's GCOM-C/SGLI (Siswanto et al., 2013). However, detection of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi bloom by using the algorithm on August 2013 was difficult as colored dissolved organic matter and detritus absorptions were high. Although the algorithm could detect the early stage of C. polycrikoides bloom, the algorithm improvement to detect the harmful algal blooms in the case II water is thus highly required. This research is part of the combined research between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and National Research Institute of Fisheries science.

Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Murakami, Hirishi; Miyamura, Kazuyoshi; Siawanto, Eko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Joji

2014-05-01

361

View southeast, overview of building group: coal house (HABS No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast, overview of building group: coal house (HABS No. WV-267-B), large tree, Albert Thacker House (267-A), wash house (267-C), Eustace Chadwick House (268-A) (on lot to south), chicken house (267-D), and small tree (left to right in photograph) - 3249 Cyrus Road (House), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

362

8. Historic American Buildings Survey HABS Photocopy made from photograph ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey HABS Photocopy made from photograph from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DELAWARE LOG HOUSE EXHIBIT0 INSTALLED IN THE 'HALL OF EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE AMERICAN PAST,' MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Robinson-Murray House, Limestone Road, Milltown, New Castle County, DE

363

Algal biofuels.  

PubMed

The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented. PMID:23605290

Razeghifard, Reza

2013-11-01

364

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

Bertrand, Erin Marie

365

Case Study 1 Red Tide Detection in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

.1 Background Many of the red tides (i.e., harmful algal blooms or HABs) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) (24 the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB) program supported by the U.S. NOAA (National as Gymnodinium breve or G. breve). Brevetoxins produced during K. brevis blooms can kill fish, mammals, and other

Meyers, Steven D.

366

Great Lakes Issues of Interest by Dr. Stephen B. Brandt and Margaret B. Lansing  

E-print Network

,including harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the west basin,recurring low oxygen episodes ("dead zones") in the central,with a focus on hypoxia and harmful algal blooms. The research explores both why a dead zone forms blooms in Lake Erie and to develop tools to help predict their occurrences. Lake Erie "Dead Zone" Hypoxia

367

AQUATIC MICROBIAL ECOLOGY Aquat Microb Ecol  

E-print Network

a potentially considerable grazing impact on algal populations. KEY WORDS: Growth · Harmful algal bloom · HAB by Hulburt (1957) and has been considered a common bloom-forming species in tem- perate waters (Tangen 1977-908, Korea ABSTRACT: A bloom-forming dinoflagellate was isolated from coastal waters in western Korea dur

Jeong, Hae Jin

368

Gille-STPA 35 1 Disgusted by the complexities of San Diego sewage, you have moved to a small town  

E-print Network

is a harmful algal bloom (HAB)? What types of marine organisms are affected by it? (2) What pursue to try to reduce the number of harmful algal blooms? (6) What topics do you, as a restaurateur clam chowder. However, shellfish have been unavailable recently because a red tide (or harmful algal

Gille, Sarah T.

369

SHORT COMMUNICATION Bacterial chemotaxis towards the  

E-print Network

bacteria­algae associ- ations with potential implications for harmful algal bloom dynamics. The occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs), caused by toxic phytoplankton, has detrimental environ- mental, economic; Yoshinaga et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2008a, b), indicating that bacterial-algal interactions play

Entekhabi, Dara

370

Wintertime Blue-Green Algal Toxicity in a Mesotrophic Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wintertime toxic blooms of the blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae have been documented since 1989 in American Lake, a 446-ha lake near Tacoma, Washington. The toxic episodes were unusual in that algal toxicity occurred during the winter and this lake is considered to be only moderately productive. A year-long study was conducted to determine the environmental factors associated with toxic conditions.

Jean M. Jacoby; Harry L. Gibbons; Ray Hanowell; Debra D. Bouchard

1994-01-01

371

Chapter 11: Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

372

Water resource management in New Zealand: jobs or algal blooms?  

PubMed

New Zealand faces a choice between environmental improvement and dairy industry profitability and employment, since improved water quality in lakes and rivers may require measures that will reduce net farm profit. Environmental valuation studies often consider preferences for employment but rarely focus specifically on the effect of job losses on respondent preferences for environmental improvement. A choice experiment was used to investigate people's willingness to pay for water quality improvements in a typical dairy catchment in the Waikato region of New Zealand. It was found that respondents would be willing to pay for water that is safer for swimming with improvements in clarity and ecological health, but are concerned about job losses, even when they do not expect to be directly affected. This may be explained by the concept of sociality, whereby the influence of direct interpersonal interaction on human behaviour, affects choice behaviour. Findings from this study and ongoing research should allow decision makers to consider both the costs and the benefits of different levels of water quality improvements, so allowing policy makers to identify the most cost effective options for achieving any given improvement in water quality. PMID:22677063

Marsh, Dan

2012-10-30

373

PREDICTIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

374

MOLECULAR, CELLULAR, & ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL BASES OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

375

HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS AS INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

There are approximately 40 species of microalgae inhabiting coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico that produce or potentially can produce biotoxins that negatively impact aquatic ecosystems, human health, and local economics. While nutrient enrichment and reduced water quality may...

376

Why do cladocerans fail to control algal blooms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies show that even at high nutrient loads phytoplankton may be kept at low levels by filter-feeding zooplankton\\u000a for a period of weeks (spring clear water phase in lakes) or months (low-stocked fish-ponds). In the absence of planktivorous\\u000a fish, large-bodied cladocerans effectively control the abundance of algae of a broad size spectrum. Laboratory experiments\\u000a show that, although difficult to

Z. Maciej Gliwicz

1990-01-01

377

Nutrient limitation and algal blooms in urbanizing tidal creeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal creeks are commonly found in low energy systems on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States, and are often subject to intense watershed human development. Many of these creeks are receiving urban and suburban runoff containing nutrients, among other pollutants. During the period 1993–2001, we studied three tidal creeks located in southeastern North Carolina, a rapidly urbanizing

Michael A. Mallin; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. CoVan

2004-01-01

378

Marine ecologySpring algal bloom and larval fish survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different factors that influence the prevalent decline in fish stocks are currently subject to urgent and intense scrutiny. Here we combine the use of remote-sensing satellite data with a long-term data set of haddock recruitment off the eastern continental shelf of Nova Scotia, Canada, to show that the survival of the larval fish depends on the timing of the

Trevor Platt; Csar Fuentes-Yaco; Kenneth T. Frank

2003-01-01

379

Combined effect of predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal suppression.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the combined effects of four typical predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal control in a microcosm system. It would determine the effects of diverse species and biological restoration on the growth of harmful water-bloom microalgae in great lakes polluted by excess nutrients. It was found that the mixtures of each zooplankton and the floating plant Nymphoides peltatum had stronger inhibitory effects on harmful water-bloom microalgae than the individual species in clean or eutrophic water bodies. In addition, a community of four zooplankton types had a synergistic effect on algal inhibition. Algal suppression by the zooplankton community was enhanced significantly when the macrophyte was co-cultured in the microcosm. Furthermore, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more susceptible than Microcystis aeruginosa when exposed to grazing by zooplankton and the allelopathic potential of the macrophyte. Algal inhibition was also weaker in eutrophic conditions compared with the control. These findings indicate that diverse species may enhance algal inhibition. Therefore, it is necessary to restore biological diversity and rebuild an ecologically balanced food chain or web to facilitate the control of harmful algal blooms in eutrophic lakes. PMID:25409583

Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Ma, Sumin

2015-01-01

380

Diatom aggregation and dimethylsulfide production in phytoplankton blooms  

SciTech Connect

Phytoplankton blooms are crucial links in many of the earth's biogeochemical cycles. Blooms take up atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis, and sequester it on the ocean floor by sinking. Aggregation of single cells into [open quote]marine snow[close quote] particles speeds up the sinking of algal cells. Laboratory studies investigating the process of aggregation show that some species have a higher probability of aggregating than others, and that there exist several mechanisms for causing aggregation. Field studies confirm that some species are more likely to be found in aggregates than in the surrounding seawater. High latitude Premnesiophyte blooms are found to produce large amounts of dimethylsulflde (DMS), believed to be an important chemical in global thermoregulation. DMS is found to vary diurnally, possibly due to photooxidation by ultraviolet light. This possibility links the effects of DMS on cloud formation with the effects of increased ultraviolet light penetrating the earths ozone layer.

Crocker, K.M.

1994-01-01

381

Remote sensing of stream depths with hydraulically assisted bathymetry (HAB) models  

E-print Network

river. This technique, which we term hydraulically assisted bathymetry (HAB), uses a combination; Bathymetry; Streams; Rivers; Optical 1. Introduction Detailed depth maps of streams can be a valuable toolRemote sensing of stream depths with hydraulically assisted bathymetry (HAB) models Mark A. Fonstad

Marcus, W. Andrew

382

A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and

D. L. Erdner; L. Percy; B. Keafer; J. Lewis; D. M. Anderson

2010-01-01

383

A niche model to predict Microcystis bloom decline in Chaohu Lake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacterial blooms occur frequently in lakes due to eutrophication. Although a number of models have been proposed to forecast algal blooms, a good and applicable method is still lacking. This study explored a simple and effective mathematical-ecological model to evaluate the growth status and predict the population dynamics of Microcystis blooms. In this study, phytoplankton were collected and identified from 8 sampling sites in Chaohu Lake every month from July to October, 2010. The niche breadth and niche overlap of common species were calculated using standard equations, and the potential relative growth rates of Microcystis were calculated as a weighted-value of niche overlap. In July, the potential relative growth rate was 2.79 (a.u., arbitrary units) but then rapidly declined in the following months to -3.99 a.u. in September. A significant correlation ( R =0.998, P <0.01) was found in the model between the net-increase in biomass of Microcystis in the field and the predicted values calculated by the niche model, we concluded that the niche model is suitable for forecasting the dynamics of Microcystis blooms. Redundancy analysis indicated that decreases in water temperature, dissolved oxygen and total dissolved phosphorus might be major factors underlying bloom decline. Based on the theory of community succession being caused by resource competition, the growth and decline of blooms can be predicted from a community structure. This may provide a basis for early warning and control of algal blooms.

Wang, Zhicong; Li, Zhongjie; Li, Dunhai

2012-07-01

384

Observations on dinoflagellate blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinoflagellate blooms were observed in Delaware Bay from 1952 to 1954 and in tidal creeks on Sapelo Island, Georgia, during 1955. In all cases the blooms were concentrated at the surface of the water. The organisms were positively phototactic and swam toward the light at 0.3 to 0.8 cm\\/set. Because of their tendency t.o remain at the surface, the dino-

LAWRENCE R. POMEROY; H. H. HASKIN; ROBERT A. RAGOTZKIE

1956-01-01

385

Interactions between macro-algal mats and invertebrates in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blooms of opportunistic green macro-algae are a common feature of coastal areas and their effects on mudflat invertebrates can be dramatic. On the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, we have carried out a number of manipulative field experiments designed to evaluate the effects on invertebrates of different species of macro-algae with contrasting ecologies, and the effects of invertebrates on the development of the blooms. Macro-algal mats were found to have dramatic nega- tive effects on the density of the amphipod Corophium volutator, with higher algal biomasses having greater impact. The mechanism for this interaction seems to be interference by the algal filaments with the feeding behaviour of the amphipod. In contrast, the polychaete Capitella spp. increases in abundance under macro-algal mats due to enrichment of the sediment with organic material. These two interactions are seen at all scales, in areas of less than 1 m2 to the scale of the entire estuary, irrespective of the species composition of the macro- algal mats. Bioturbation by Corophium and grazing by the snail Hydrobia ulvae had little effect on macro-algal biomass, but there were less algae when the polychaete Nereis diversicolor was present. The most significant interaction in this system is the pronounced negative impact of algal mats on the abundance of Corophium, probably the most important invertebrate species in the diets of the estuary's shorebirds, fish and epibenthic crustaceans.

Raffaelli, D.

386

Possible importance of algal toxins in the Salton Sea, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to wildlife mortality including unexplained eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off events in 1992 and 1994 and other mortality events including large fish kills, a survey was conducted for the presence of algal toxins in the Salton Sea. Goals of this survey were to determine if and when algal toxins are present in the Salton Sea and to describe the phytoplankton composition during those times. A total of 29 samples was collected for toxicity analysis from both nearshore and midlake sites visited biweekly from January to December 1999. Dinoflagellates and diatoms dominated most samples, but some were dominated by a prymnesiophyte (Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis) or a raphidophyte (Chattonella marina). Several types of blooms were observed and sampled. The dinoflagellate Gyrodinium uncatenum formed an extensive, dense (up to 310 000 cells ml-1) and long-lasting bloom during the winter in 1999. A coccolithophorid, Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis, occurred at high densities in surface films and nearshore areas during the spring and summer of 1999. These surface films also contained high densities of one or two other species (an unidentified scrippsielloid, Heterocapsa niei, Chattonella marina). Localized blooms were also observed in the Salton Sea. An unknown small dinoflagellate reached high densities (110 000 cells ml-1) inside Varner Harbor, and an unidentified species of Gymnodinium formed a dense (270 000 cells ml-1) band along part of the southern shoreline during the summer. Three species known to produce toxins in other systems were found. Protoceratium reticulatum (=Gonyaulax grindleyi) and Chattonella marina were found in several samples taken during summer months, and Prorocentrum minimum was found in low densities in several samples. Extracts of most samples, including those containing known toxic species, showed a low level (<10% mortality across all concentrations) of activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay and were not considered toxic. All sample extracts tested in the mouse bioassay showed no activity. One sample extract taken from the bloom of the small dinoflagellate was highly active (100% mortality across all concentrations) in the brine shrimp lethality assay, but the active material could not be isolated. While dense algal blooms are common at the Salton Sea, no evidence gathered in this study suggests that algal toxins are present within phytoplankton cells; however, toxins actively excreted by cells may have been missed. Blooms of phytoplankton likely contribute to wildlife mortality at the Salton Sea. Possible mechanisms including intoxication due to ingestion of feathers in grebes and waterlogging caused by changes in surface tension are discussed.

Reifel, K.M.; McCoy, M.P.; Rocke, T.E.; Tiffany, M.A.; Hurlbert, S.H.; Faulkner, D.J.

2002-01-01

387

Hyperspectral and multispectral ocean color inversions to detect Phaeocystis globosa blooms in coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of phytoplankton groups from space is essential to map and monitor algal blooms in coastal waters, but remains a challenge due to the presence of suspended sediments and dissolved organic matter which interfere with phytoplankton signal. On the basis of field measurements of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(?)), bio-optical parameters, and phytoplankton cells enumerations, we assess the feasibility of using

Bertrand Lubac; Hubert Loisel; Natacha Guiselin; Rosa Astoreca; L. Felipe Artigas; Xavier Mériaux

2008-01-01

388

FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Gulf of Mexico, recurring algal blooms, caused by Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve), have significant adverse health and economic impacts. K. brevis is one member of a small group of dinoflagellates, related morphologically and by DNA-based phylogenetic ...

389

The dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in puget sound a fjord in the Northwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a quantitative investigation of relationships between the growth of phytoplankton, and climatic and hydrodynamci conditions in temperate fjords with marked tides, as exemplified by Puget Sound, Washington (USA). Algal growth in the open waters of the central basin of the Sound is dominated by a number of intense blooms beginning in late April or May and recurring

D. F. Winter; K. Banse; G. C. Anderson

1975-01-01

390

Figure 2. Algal Diversity Point Intercept Method. On each of our four 25 m  

E-print Network

richness as the % cover red algae, green algae, brown algae, calcareous algae, turtle grass, and manatee by blue-green algal blooms, it is even more important to monitor the changes in species richness of mobile invertebrates including blue crabs, stone crabs and Caribbean spiny lobsters. These data demonstrate that marine

Childress, Michael J.

391

Effect of Oxidative Stress Induced by Brevibacterium sp. BS01 on a HAB Causing Species-Alexandrium tamarense  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms occur all over the world, destroying aquatic ecosystems and threatening other organisms. The culture supernatant of the marine algicidal actinomycete BS01 was able to lysis dino?agellate Alexandrium tamarense ATGD98-006. Physiological and biochemical responses to oxidative stress in A. tamarense were investigated to elucidate the mechanism involved in BS01 inhibition of algal growth. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to BS01 supernatant. The decrease in cellular-soluble protein content suggested that cell growth was greatly inhibited at high concentration of BS01 supernatant. The increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde contents following exposure to BS01 supernatant indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The content of pigment was significantly decreased after 12 h treatment, which indicated that the accumulation of ROS destroyed pigment synthesis. Moreover, the decrease of Fv/Fm ratio suggested that in the photosynthetic system, the dominant sites producing ROS were destroyed by the supernatant of the BS01 culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and peroxidase increased in a short time and decreased slightly with increasing exposure time. A real-time PCR assay showed changes in the transcript abundances of two photosynthetic genes, psbA and psbD. The results showed that BS01 supernatant reduced the expression of the psbA gene after 2 h exposure, but the expression of the psbD gene was increased at concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. Our results demonstrated that the expression of the psbA gene was inhibited by the BS01 supernatant, which might block the electron transport chain, significantly enhancing ROS level and excess activity of the antioxidant system. The accumulation of ROS destoryed pigment synthesis and membrane integrity, and inhibited or ultimately killed the algal cells. PMID:23667564

Zhou, Yanyan; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Su; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhangran; Li, Yi; Bai, Shijie; Lv, Jinglin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Tianling

2013-01-01

392

Algal conditions in the Caloosahatchee River (1975-79), Lake Okeechobee to Franklin Lock, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maximum numbers of suspended algae occurred in late spring and early summer, in each of the years 1975-79, in the Caloosahatchee River. Numbers exceeded 100,000 cells per milliliter at all stations sometime during the study. Concentrations decreased during late summer and autumn and were low during winter, except in January 1979 when numbers at most sites exceeded 100,000 cells per milliliter. The January 1979 bloom coincided with large discharges from Lake Okeechobee. During previous winters, discharges and algal numbers were lower. During other seasons, algal blooms occurred most frequently under low-flow or stagnant conditions. The upstream site at Moore Haven, which had the least discharge and was most stagnant, had consistently higher algal concentrations than downstream sites. Blue-green algae were dominant in the river during the summer at the upstream site throughout the year. The percentage of blue-green algae decreased downstream. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen were inversely correlated with concentrations of algae and decreased to near zero during algal blooms. The low concentrations of these forms of inorganic nitrogen relative to other major nutrients probably favor blue-green algae and limit growth of other algae. Contributions by the basin tributaries to the nutritive condition of the river were small because concentrations of nutrients, algal growth potential, and algae in the tributaries were generally less than those in the river. (USGS)

McPherson, Benjamin F.; La Rose, Henry R.

1982-01-01

393

Response of copepod grazing and reproduction to different taxa of spring bloom phytoplankton in the Southern Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responses of copepod grazing and reproduction to the spring phytoplankton bloom were studied in the temperate shelf water of the Southern Yellow Sea in March-April, 2009. Two different algal blooms were found during the cruises. A diatom-dominated bloom at Station Z11, and a dinoflagellate-dominated bloom at Station Z4. The gut pigment contents indicated that different sized copepods exhibited different responses to different-species phytoplankton blooms. Large copepods (LC: body size larger than 1000 ?m) and medium copepods (MC: body size ranging from 500 to 1000 ?m), grazed actively on diatom blooms, but inactively on dinoflagellate blooms, although the chlorophyll-a concentrations of dinoflagellate blooms were twice as high as than those of the diatom blooms. For small copepods (SC: body size smaller than 500 ?m), however, there was no significant difference in gut pigment contents between the two different algal blooms. Among the three size groups, LCs were the major grazers on the diatom bloom, while SCs were major grazers on the dinoflagellate bloom. Grazing impacts of copepod assemblages on phytoplankton blooms were low, only being equivalent to 1% day-1, or less, of the chlorophyll-a standing stock. The egg production rates of a large copepod, Calanus sinicus, were on average, 11.3 egg ind.-1 day-1, which was among the higher levels recorded in the study area, especially at the two stations where phytoplankton was blooming (21.8 and 14.9 egg ind.-1 day-1 at Stations Z11 and Z4, respectively). However, C. sinicus could only obtain sufficient food to support this high reproduction from the diatom bloom, but could not if relying only on the apparently unpalatable dinoflagellate bloom. Our analysis of copepod grazing and reproduction suggests that, although the spring blooms do enhance the reproduction of copepods, the taxa changed during spring blooms from large diatoms to small dinoflagellates would change the pathway of primary production. This would restructure secondary-producers (e.g. copepods) community structure, and have important ramifications through various marine trophic levels in the Southern Yellow Sea.

Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Ning, Juan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Bo; Sun, Song

2013-12-01

394

West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

Perkins, Lori; Feldman, Gene

2002-10-15

395

Genetics Home Reference: Bloom syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Bloom's syndrome Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome congenital telangiectatic erythema For more information about naming genetic conditions, see ... congenital ; COPD ; diabetes ; dilated ; disabilities ; DNA ; double helix ; erythema ; fertility ; gene ; genome ; infertile ; inherited ; lower jaw ; menopause ; ...

396

HABS TEX,152LUBBO,12 (sheet 1 of 2) "U Lazy S" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS TEX,152-LUBBO,12- (sheet 1 of 2) - "U Lazy S" Carriage, Saddle & Harness House, National Ranching Heritage Center (moved from West Farm Road 669, South of Post, Garza County, TX), Lubbock, Lubbock County, TX

397

HABS TEX,152LUBBO,12 (sheet 2 of 2) "U Lazy S" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS TEX,152-LUBBO,12- (sheet 2 of 2) - "U Lazy S" Carriage, Saddle & Harness House, National Ranching Heritage Center (moved from West Farm Road 669, South of Post, Garza County, TX), Lubbock, Lubbock County, TX

398

HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 2 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 2 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

399

HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 3 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 3 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

400

HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 1 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 1 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

401

HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 4 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 4 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

402

Predicting potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algal blooms are now recognized as a significant threat to the Chesapeake Bay as they can severely compromise the economic viability of important recreational and commercial fisheries in the largest estuary of the United States. This study describes the development of empirical models for the potentially domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species complex present in the Bay, developed from a 22-year time series of cell abundance and concurrent measurements of hydrographic and chemical properties. Using a logistic Generalized Linear Model (GLM) approach, model parameters and performance were compared over a range of Pseudo-nitzschia bloom thresholds relevant to toxin production by different species. Small-threshold blooms (?10 cells mL -1) are explained by time of year, location, and variability in surface values of phosphate, temperature, nitrate plus nitrite, and freshwater discharge. Medium- (100 cells mL -1) to large- threshold (1000 cells mL -1) blooms are further explained by salinity, silicic acid, dissolved organic carbon, and light attenuation (Secchi) depth. These predictors are similar to other models for Pseudo-nitzschia blooms on the west coast, suggesting commonalities across ecosystems. Hindcasts of bloom probabilities at a 19% bloom prediction point yield a Heidke Skill Score of ~53%, a Probability of Detection ˜ 75%, a False Alarm Ratio of ˜ 52%, and a Probability of False Detection ˜9%. The implication of possible future changes in Baywide nutrient stoichiometry on Pseudo-nitzschia blooms is discussed.

Anderson, Clarissa R.; Sapiano, Mathew R. P.; Prasad, M. Bala Krishna; Long, Wen; Tango, Peter J.; Brown, Christopher W.; Murtugudde, Raghu

2010-11-01

403

Satellite-based detection and monitoring of phytoplankton blooms along the Oregon coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied a normalized difference algorithm to 8 day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) and fluorescence line height (FLH) imagery obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard the Aqua spacecraft in order to detect and monitor phytoplankton blooms in the Oregon coastal region. The resulting bloom products, termed CHLrel and FLHrel, respectively, describe the onset and advection of algal blooms as a function of the percent relative change observed in standard 8 day CHL or FLH imagery over time. Bloom product performance was optimized to consider local time scales of biological variability (days) and cloud cover. Comparison of CHLrel and FLHrelretrievals to in situ mooring data collected off the central Oregon coast from summer 2009 through winter 2010 shows that the products are a robust means to detect bloom events during the summer upwelling season. Evaluation of winter performance was inconclusive due to persistent cloud cover and limited in situ chl-a records. Pairing the products with coincident in situ physical proxies provides a tool to elucidate the conditions that induce bloom onset and identify the physical mechanisms that affect bloom advection, persistence, and decay. These products offer an excellent foundation for remote bloom detection and monitoring in this region, and the methods developed herein are applicable to any region with sufficient CHL and FLH coverage.

McKibben, S. M.; Strutton, P. G.; Foley, D. G.; Peterson, T. D.; White, A. E.

2012-12-01

404

Cyanobacteria Toxin and Cell Propagation through Lake Erie Treatment Facilities - proceedings  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), and their associated toxins, in fresh water lakes and reservoirs are drawing the attention of utilities and state regulators nation-wide. Recognizing the potential health and economic consequences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in partnershi...

405

DETOXIFICATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXIN - CONTAMINATED WATER USING TIO2 PHOTOCATALYTIC FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacterial harmfal algal blooms (CyanoHABs) often produce undesirable color, odor and taste and more importantly, potent toxins that can cause chronic, acute and acute letha poisonings to wild and domestic animals and humans...

406

The interaction of two coastal plumes and its effect on the transport of Alexandrium fundyense  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of A. fundyense, more commonly known as "red tides", are a serious economic and public health concern in the Gulf of Maine. Until recently, there was very little known about the mechanisms ...

Wood, Christie L

2007-01-01

407

Cyanobacterial Cells and Toxins:Evaluating Source Water Trends and Propagation through Lake Erie Treatment Facilities  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), and their associated toxins, in fresh water lakes and reservoirs are drawing the attention of utilities and state regulators nation-wide. Recognizing the potential health and economic consequences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in partnersh...

408

Response of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis to Current and Projected Environmental Conditions: Salinity and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and duration worldwide. Karenia brevis, the major toxic dinoflagellate in the Gulf of Mexico, produces potent neurotoxins, known as brevetoxins. For K. brevis, only minor concentrations...

Errera, Reagan Michelle

2013-05-03

409

Differences in growth and toxicity of Karenia  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico are primarily caused by dense aggregations of the dinoflagellate species, Karenia brevis. Karenia brevis produces a highly toxic neurotoxin, brevetoxin which has been shown to cause Neurotoxic...

Neely, Tatum Elizabeth

2006-08-16

410

Part 3 of 3 of panorama with HABS CA278342 and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Part 3 of 3 of panorama with HABS CA-2783-42 and HABS CA-2783-43. View of Easter Hill as seen from balcony of Building No. 31. Building No. 10 on left, Building No. 11 at center rear, and Building No. 8 at right. Note courtyard design at center. Looking east-southeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

411

Part 1 of 3 of panorama with HABS CA278343 and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Part 1 of 3 of panorama with HABS CA-2783-43 and HABS CA-2783-44. View of Easter Hill site as seen from balcony of Building No. 31. Building No. 32 on left, Building No. 20 at center rear, and Building No. 19 at right. Note boulders on hillside. Looking east-northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

412

A new approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms from space in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and diatom blooms often occur in the East China Sea (ECS) during spring and summer. Some of the dinoflagellate blooms are toxic, resulting in widespread economic damage. In order to mitigate the negative impacts, remote-sensing methods that can effectively and accurately discriminate between bloom types are demanded for early warning and continuous monitoring of bloom events at large scales. An in situ bio-optical data set collected from diatom and dinoflagellate blooming waters indicates that the two types of blooms exhibited distinctive differences in the shapes and magnitudes of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs). The ratio of in situ measured Rrs spectral slopes at two spectral ranges (443-488 and 531-555 nm, bands available with the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) sensor), abbreviated as BI (representing bloom index), was found effective in differentiating dinoflagellates from diatoms. Reflectance model simulations, which were carried out using in situ and algal culture data as input, provided consistent results. A classification approach for separating dinoflagellate from diatom blooms in the ECS was then developed: When fluorescence line height (FLH) is doubled over the background level and total absorption coefficient at 443 nm ? 0.5 m-1, if 0.0 < BI ? 0.3, it suggests a dinoflagellate bloom; if 0.3 < BI ? 1.0, it suggests a diatom bloom. Finally, the approach was applied to MODIS measurements over the ECS, and a series of diatom and dinoflagellate bloom events during April-June 2005 and 2011 were successfully identified, suggesting that the proposed approach is generally valid for the ECS.

Shang, Shaoling; Wu, Jingyu; Huang, Bangqin; Lin, Gong; Lee, Zhongping; Liu, James; Shang, Shaoping

2014-07-01

413

National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap  

E-print Network

National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap MAY 2010 BIOMASS PROGRAM #12;#12;U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program. Visit http://biomass.energy.gov for more information National Algal Biofuels

414

Declines in predatory fish promote bloom-forming macroalgae.  

PubMed

In the Baltic Sea, increased dominance of ephemeral and bloom-forming algae is presently attributed to increased nutrient loads. Simultaneously, coastal predatory fish are in strong decline. Using field data from nine areas covering a 700-km coastline, we examined whether formation of macroalgal blooms could be linked to the composition of the fish community. We then tested whether predator or nutrient availability could explain the field patterns in two small-scale field experiments, by comparing joint effects on algal net production from nutrient enrichment with agricultural fertilizer and exclusion of larger predatory fish with cages. We also manipulated the presence of invertebrate grazers. The abundance of piscivorous fish had a strong negative correlation with the large-scale distribution of bloom-forming macroalgae. Areas with depleted top-predator communities displayed massive increases in their prey, small-bodied fish, and high covers of ephemeral algae. Combining the results from the two experiments showed that excluding larger piscivorous fish: (1) increased the abundance of small-bodied predatory fish; (2) changed the size distribution of the dominating grazers, decreasing the smaller gastropod scrapers; and (3) increased the net production of ephemeral macroalgae. Effects of removing top predators and nutrient enrichment were similar and additive, together increasing the abundance of ephemeral algae many times. Predator effects depended on invertebrate grazers; in the absence of invertebrates there were no significant effects of predator exclusion on algal production. Our results provide strong support for regional declines of larger predatory fish in the Baltic Sea promoting algal production by decreasing invertebrate grazer control. This highlights the importance of trophic interactions for ecosystem responses to eutrophication. The view emerges that to achieve management goals for water quality we need to consider the interplay between top-down and bottom-up processes in future ecosystem management of marine resources. PMID:20014572

Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Ljunggren, Lars; Sandström, Alfred; Johansson, Gustav; Mattila, Johanna; Rubach, Anja; Råberg, Sonja; Snickars, Martin

2009-12-01

415

Tests for the toxicity assessment of cyanobacterial bloom samples.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) blooms are one of the common consequences of the increasing eutrophication of surface waters. The production of cyanobacterial toxins and their presence in drinking and recreational waters represents a growing danger to human and animal health. Due to a lack of toxin standards and to resource limitations on the wide-scale use of analytical methods (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) in cyanobacterial toxin monitoring, it is necessary to assess and to develop additional methods for their detection and estimation. Microbiotests using invertebrates offer a possible approach for the inexpensive and straightforward detection and assessment of cyanobacterial bloom toxicity. Three microbiotests with: Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Spirostomum ambiguum were examined with bloom samples containing hepatotoxic microcystin-LR and up to five additional microcystin variants. Two kinds of cyanobacterial bloom sample preparations were tested: crude extracts (CE) and purified extracts (PE). The highest toxicity was found when CE was used for microbiotests. The sensitivity of microorganisms decreased from S. ambiguum to T. platyurus and to D. magna. A statistically significant correlation was found between microcystin concentration and T. platyurus biotest, and between mouse bioassay and S. ambiguum results. Addition of Me2SO (1%, v/v) is a possible method to increase the sensitivity of the microorganisms for microcystin-LR. PMID:11594024

Tarczynska, M; Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Romanowska-Duda, Z; Sawicki, J; Beattie, K; Codd, G; Zalewski, M

2001-10-01

416

Anomalous rise in algal production linked to lakewater calcium decline through food web interactions.  

PubMed

Increased algal blooms are a threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide, although the combined effects of multiple stressors make it difficult to determine the underlying causes. We explore whether changes in trophic interactions in response to declining calcium (Ca) concentrations, a water quality issue only recently recognized in Europe and North America, can be linked with unexplained bloom production. Using a palaeolimnological approach analysing the remains of Cladocera (herbivorous grazers) and visual reflectance spectroscopically inferred chlorophyll a from the sediments of a Nova Scotia (Canada) lake, we show that a keystone grazer, Daphnia, declined in the early 1990s and was replaced by a less effective grazer, Bosmina, while inferred chlorophyll a levels tripled at constant total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. The decline in Daphnia cannot be attributed to changes in pH, thermal stratification or predation, but instead is linked to declining lakewater [Ca]. The consistency in the timing of changes in Daphnia and inferred chlorophyll a suggests top-down control on algal production, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a link between lakewater [Ca] decline and elevated algal production mediated through the effects of [Ca] decline on Daphnia. [Ca] decline has severe implications for whole-lake food webs, and presents yet another mechanism for potential increases in algal blooms. PMID:21957138

Korosi, Jennifer B; Burke, Samantha M; Thienpont, Joshua R; Smol, John P

2012-03-22

417

Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meera Rachamallu, Nancy Zhou, and Clarissa Anderson1 1 Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse? Since the early to mid 1990's, the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) has been the site of intensive time-series water column and sediment trap sampling. Chlorophyll concentrations have increased significantly over the past several years, consistent with observations of more intense diatom blooms during the spring and summer and fewer, large dinoflagellate blooms beginning in 2001. Sediment trap fluxes confirm these changes with evidence of an abrupt shift upwards in bloom frequency and abundance of the neurotoxin (domoic acid) producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia beginning in 2000. We hypothesize that these shifts are associated with decreases in the concentration of important nutrients, particularly silicic acid, that feed the phytoplankton and can help select which species bloom. Silicate and phosphate limitation have also been shown in the laboratory to stimulate domoic acid production. Our summer study of surface phytoplankton populations in the SBC showed that since surface sampling began in 2009, the biggest bloom occurred in October 2010 coinciding with a strong La Niña period. Shellfish toxin levels were also high during that period, and models that incorporate low silicic acid as a factor for toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms predicted these large blooms in fall of 2010. We show that more recent harmful algal blooms have been small in comparison to 2010, indicating that the La Niña anomaly may have been responsible. In other words, intense upwelling in the fall of 2010 combined with lower-than-normal ratios of silicic acid to nitrate may be the root cause for the large and toxic diatom bloom.

Rachamallu, M.; Zhou, N.; Anderson, C.

2013-12-01

418

An event-driven phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan observed by satellite.  

SciTech Connect

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) images from June 1998 show a surprising early summer phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan that accounted for approximately 25% of the lake's annual gross offshore algal primary production. By combining the satellite imagery with in situ measurements of water temperature and wind velocity we show that the bloom was triggered by a brief wind event that was sufficient to cause substantial vertical mixing even though the lake was already stratified. We conclude that episodic events can have significant effects on the biological state of large lakes and should be included in biogeochemical process models.

Lesht, B. M.; Stroud, J. R.; McCormick, M. J.; Fahnenstiel, G. L.; Stein, M. L.; Welty, L. J.; Leshkevich, G. A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Great Lakes Research Lab.

2002-04-15

419

Lab 7: Nitrates and Phosphates and Algae, Oh My!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human-induced nutrient loading of the world's oceans has been linked to increased and prolonged algae blooms, sometimes with potentially deadly consequences. In this investigation, students will create their own algal blooms, analyze satellite images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Sea of CortÃs, and learn about two alarming consequences of excessive algae growth-—dead zones and harmful algae blooms (HABs).

420

Study of a bloom of the oil-rich alga Botryococcus braunii in the Darwin River Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

A bloom of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii Kutzing appeared in the Darwin River Reservoir in 1976. At the time of algal sampling, the bloom was estimated at 1500 ton and possibly double this mass at a maximum cell concentration. The alga is characterized by a high liquid hydrocarbon content, sufficient to cause flotation of the algal colonies. This report is an examination of the waters of the reservoir and of the characteristics of the alga. Observations are included on the formation of a material known as Coorongite, a rubbery complex produced by the drying of colony aggregates at the shoreline. Earlier reports of blooms of B. braunii are reviewed in relation to this study. 42 references.

Wake, L.V.; Hillen, L.W.

1980-01-01

421

Part 2 of 3 of panorama with HABS CA278342 and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Part 2 of 3 of panorama with HABS CA-2783-42 and HABS CA-2783-44. View of Easter Hill site as seen from balcony of Building No. 31. Building No. 19 on left, Building No. 17 at left rear, Building No. 12 at right rear, Building No. 10 at right. Note boulders on hillside. Playground at center is a later addition. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

422

Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

2002-01-01

423

Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such studies. We present here our results on detection of algal accessory pigments using AVIRIS data.

Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

1996-01-01

424

Rising CO2 levels will intensify phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic waters. PMID:25119996

Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Finke, Jan F; Visser, Petra M; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

2014-01-01

425

Thiazolidinediones as a novel class of algicides against red tide harmful algal species.  

PubMed

This paper reports the synthesis of 28 thiazolidinedione derivatives along with their algicidal activity against microalgae causing harmful algal blooming. Among the 28 compounds tested, most showed effective algicidal activity against Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, while non-harmful algae were relatively tolerant to these thiazolidinedione derivatives. Compounds 6, 13, and 22 were the most potent against C. polykrikoides with IC?? values <0.5 µM. Among the thiazolidinedione derivatives tested, compounds 7, 13, 27, and 28 were extremely competent and selective to C. polykrikoides with IC?? values ranging from 0.1 to 2 µM, while C. marina and H. akashiwo showed an IC?? value ranging from 30 to 130 µM. These results show that some thiazolidinedione derivatives can act as potent algicides against harmful algal blooms. PMID:20544303

Kim, Yeon-Mi; Wu, Ying; Duong, Thi Uyen; Ghodake, Gajanan S; Kim, Si Wouk; Jin, Eonseon; Cho, Hoon

2010-12-01

426

Cross-Fostering and CrossBreeding of HAB and LAB Rats: A Genetic Rat Model of Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, two Wistar rat lines, bred and selected for either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus-maze, were described as a novel psychopathologic animal model. The behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to exposure to an emotional stressor were markedly enhanced in HAB rats compared with LAB rats, thus resembling patients suffering from psychiatric diseases. The present study

Alexandra Wigger; Patrick Loerscher; Petra Weissenbacher; Florian Holsboer; Rainer Landgraf

2001-01-01

427

Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.  

PubMed

This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (?10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (?30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ?60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

2011-01-01

428

Algal Growth Control Within Natural Water Purification Systems: Macrophyte Light Shading Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural water purification systems including oxidation ponds and surface flow wetlands are commonly used to treat wastewater\\u000a in tropic regions, however, the water quality of the effluent fluctuated and often failed to comply with regulatory water\\u000a criteria due to algae bloom. Separation of algae is inevitable to produce high effluent quality and to comply with local effluent\\u000a standards. Algal growth

T. Y. Yeh; T. Y. Ke; Y. L. Lin

2011-01-01

429

The Optical Phytoplankton Discriminator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The toxins produced by K. brevis cause massive fish kills, contaminate bivalves such as clams and oysters, and produce toxic aerosols. These HABs result in closure of commercial seafood production, disruption of recreational fishing enterprises, and despondent tourists due to the dead fish and toxic

A. Hails; C. Boyes; A. Boyes; R. D. Currier; K. Henderson; A. Kotlewski; G. J. Kirkpatrick

2009-01-01

430

Associations between marine phytoplankton and symptoms of illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009  

EPA Science Inventory

While phytoplankton generally have crucial roles in marine ecosystems, a small subset can release toxins and produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs can be a threat to human health as symptoms from exposure range from neurological impairment to gastrointestinal (GI), dermal, a...

431

BIOTOXIN-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: AN EMERGING RISK FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGY.  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing incidence of human illness associated with exposure to biotoxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic environments, and fungi and bacteria on land, may indicate an emerging human-health risk. HABs are reported to be increasing worldwide in frequency, duratio...

432

MONITORING, PHOTOCHEMICAL FATE, AND OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY UV AND SOLAR-BASED CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGIES OF CYANOTOXINS IN FRESHWATER ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in freshwater estuaries, especially in the Great Lakes and Florida, is a source of growing concern. The presence of high concentrations of harmful cyanotoxins from HABs in drinking water supplies is a serious threat to human and envi...

433

The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

2006-01-01

434

Hopf bifurcation of the stochastic model on HAB nonlinear stochastic dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear stochastic dynamical model on a typical HAB algae diatom and dianoflagellate densities was created and presented in this paper. Simplifying the model through a stochastic averaging method, we obtained a two-dimensional diffusion process of averaged amplitude and phase. The singular boundary theory of diffusion process and the invariant measure theory were applied in analyzing the bifurcation of stability

Dongwei Huang; Hongli Wang; Jianfeng Feng; Zhi-Wen Zhu

2006-01-01

435

Using a Multi-Component Indicator Toward Reducing Phytoplankton Bloom Occurrences in the Swan River Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swan River estuary is an icon of the city of Perth, Western Australia, running through the city centre and dividing the northern from the southern part of the city. However, frequent phytoplankton blooms have been observed in the estuary as a result of eutrophication. The Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF), a composite index able to indicate for sustainable health of the estuary, was applied, taking into account the hydrology and highly seasonal nature of the estuary to inform the management of the estuary, towards the aim of reducing bloom occurrences. The study period was from the beginning of intensive monitoring in 1995 to mid-2009. The results emphasize the importance of physical controls on the ecology of the estuary. No significant trend in the estuary's low functionality was found, indicating that despite extensive restoration efforts, the frequency of algal bloom occurrences has remained relatively stationary and other mitigating factors have maintained an annual average ISF value at around 70 % functionality. We identified that the low flow season consistently performs the worst, with (high) temperature found as the most dominant variable for phytoplankton growth and bloom. Thus in managing the estuary, vigilance is required during periods of high temperature and low flow. Focusing on the risk of phytoplankton bloom, a nutrient reduction program that is in place is a long term solution due to high concentrations in the estuary. Other management measures need to be considered and adopted to effectively reduce the occurrences of future phytoplankton blooms.

Kristiana, Ria; Antenucci, Jason P.; Imberger, Jorg

2012-08-01

436

Spatial Distribution Pattern of Cyanobactrial Blooms in Caspian Sea Using MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the southern part of Caspian Sea, two monstreous Cyanobactrial algal bloom were occurred in Aug-Sep 2005 and Aug 2010. Two ship transects were planed in Aug 2010 and physic-chemical parameters were measured along these transects by Iranian Fisheries Research and Training Organization (IFRTO). Concurrent MODIS data were collected from NASA Direct Active Archive Center (DAAC). Satellite data analysis showed that field chlorophyll have very good correlation with MODIS Chl-a, NDVI and FAI. FAI has the best correlation with field chlorophyll. MODIS NDVI, FAI and FLH vs MODIS Chl-a showed classified patches for non-bloomed off-shore and coastal waters, and bloomed regions. Also, nLw in blue-green-red spectrum over bloomed regions have specific shape and could be identified from non-bloomed regions. Howerev, two algorithms based on MODIS FAI, NDVI, FLH and Chl-a as: Chl-a > 4 mg m-3, FLH < 0.005 wm-2?m-1sr-1, -0.80 were defined and satellite images were classified based on these algorithms. The results showed that classification algorithms for off-shore waters are accurately show the bloom regions but are not valid for coastal waters because of high concentrations of suspended matters which reflect in NDVI images.

Moradi, Masoud

437

Estimation of algal and suspended sediment loads (singly and combined) using hyperspectral sensors and integrated mesocosm experiments  

SciTech Connect

Most remote sensing algorithms for materials in water are based on studies on natural waters with complex and variable optical properties, or of small indoor microcosm containers. We used sunlit, cylindrical, black mesocosm tanks (80m{sup 3}, 3 m depth) and a hyperspectral radiometer to examine reflectances of algal blooms and suspended kaolin white clay. In three integrated experiments, algae and clay levels were carefully manipulated: (1) Algal bloom water in one tank was pumped to a second which began with clear water, and clear make-up water was pumped to the first to obtain a well graded series (Chl. a = 0 - 62 {mu}g/L). (2) White, kaolin clay was added stepwise to clear water, resulting in an organic seston range of 0 - 40 mg/L. (3) Algal bloom water from a single source was divided between two tanks to establish Chi. a loads of 31 and 57 {mu}g/L. Then, identical additions of clay were made to both tanks to achieve a range of 0 - 72 mg/L inorganic matter while conserving the algal loads. The first experiment revealed a strong interplay between algal scattering and absorption. Pigment absorbance dominated below 510 nm, while increasing cell scattering in regions of low pigment activity caused green and NIR peaks to form near 560 and 700 nm. In spite of strong chlorophyll absorbance near 675 nm, this region had small reflectance increases with increased algae. In the second experiment, white clay had high albedo. At seston levels above 40 mg/L, green reflectance exceeded 50% and NIR reflectance at 800 nm exceeded 9%. In the third experiment, algal pigments strongly attenuated clay reflectance in a dose dependent manner, even at green wavelengths. Clay particles greatly amplified but also preserved algal reflectance patterns. Our findings affirm the importance of high spectral resolution at diagnostic wavelengths in turbid Case 2 coastal and inland waters.

Schalles, J.F. [Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (United States); Schiebe, F.R. [SST Development Group, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Starks, P.J. [USDA/ARS Grazinglands Research Lab., El Reno, OK (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01

438

A high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS) and its radiation closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various studies indicate that high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrum has the capability to retrieve the vertical profiles of aerosol and cloud properties. To improve the understanding of oxygen A-band inversions and utility, we developed a high-resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS), and deployed it at Howard University Beltsville site during the NASA Discover Air-Quality Field Campaign in July, 2011. By using a single telescope, the HABS instrument measures the direct solar and the zenith diffuse radiation subsequently. HABS exhibits excellent performance: stable spectral response ratio, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), high-spectrum resolution (0.016 nm), and high out-of-band rejection (10-5). For the spectral retrievals of HABS measurements, a simulator is developed by combining a discrete ordinates radiative transfer code (DISORT) with the High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN) database HITRAN2008. The simulator uses a double-k approach to reduce the computational cost. The HABS-measured spectra are consistent with the related simulated spectra. For direct-beam spectra, the discrepancies between measurements and simulations, indicated by confidence intervals (95%) of relative difference, are (-0.06, 0.05) and (-0.08, 0.09) for solar zenith angles of 27 and 72°, respectively. For zenith diffuse spectra, the related discrepancies between measurements and simulations are (-0.06, 0.05) and (-0.08, 0.07) for solar zenith angles of 27 and 72°, respectively. The main discrepancies between measurements and simulations occur at or near the strong oxygen absorption line centers. They are mainly due to two kinds of causes: (1) measurement errors associated with the noise/spikes of HABS-measured spectra, as a result of combined effects of weak signal, low SNR, and errors in wavelength registration; (2) modeling errors in the simulation, including the error of model parameters setting (e.g., oxygen absorption line parameters, vertical profiles of temperature and pressure) and the lack of treatment of the rotational Raman scattering. The high-resolution oxygen A-band measurements from HABS can constrain the active radar retrievals for more accurate cloud optical properties (e.g., cloud optical depth, effective radius), particularly for multi-layer clouds and for mixed-phase clouds.

Min, Q.; Yin, B.; Li, S.; Berndt, J.; Harrison, L.; Joseph, E.; Duan, M.; Kiedron, P.

2014-06-01

439

Nutrient conditions during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the western Gulf of Maine, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic nutrients and organic nitrogen were measured in April-June of 1998 and 2000 near Casco Bay, Maine and the adjacent coastal waters as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms—Gulf of Maine (ECOHAB-GOM) program. The samples were collected during development of toxic Alexandrium fundyense blooms [ Keafer, B.A., Churchill, J.H., Anderson, D.M., 2005. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense in the Casco Bay region of the western Gulf of Maine: advection from offshore source populations and interactions with the Kennebec River plume. Deep Sea Research II, this issue [ doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.06.017

Love, Rebecca C.; Loder, Theodore C.; Keafer, Bruce A.

2005-09-01

440

Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below Melting Arctic Sea Ice  

PubMed Central

During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K.; Fernandez-Mendez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

2013-01-01

441

Roseobacticides: Small Molecule Modulators of an Algal-Bacterial Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Marine bacteria and microalgae engage in dynamic symbioses mediated by small molecules. A recent study of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, a member of the large roseobacter clade of ?-proteobacteria, and Emiliania huxleyi, a prominent member of the microphytoplankton found in large algal blooms, revealed that an algal senescence signal produced by E. huxleyi elicits the production of novel algaecides, the roseobacticides, from the bacterial symbiont. In this report, the generality of these findings are examined by expanding the number of potential elicitors. This expansion led to the identification of nine new members of the roseobacticide family, rare bacterial troponoids, which provide insights into both their biological roles and their biosynthesis. The qualitative and quantitative changes in the levels of roseobacticides induced by the additional elicitors and the elicitors’ varied efficiencies support the concept of host-targeted roseobacticide production. Structures of the new family members arise from variable substituents at the C3 and C7 positions of the roseobacticide core as the diversifying elements and suggest that the roseobacticides result from modifications and combinations of aromatic amino acids. Together these studies support a model in which algal senescence converts a mutualistic bacterial symbiont into an opportunistic parasite of its hosts. PMID:21928816

2011-01-01

442

Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom  

PubMed Central

The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

2011-01-01

443

Remote sensing of ALGAL pigments to determine coastal phytoplankton dynamics in Florida Bay  

SciTech Connect

An important component of remote sensing of marine and coastal environments is the detection of phytoplankton to estimate biological activity. Traditionally the focus has been on detection of chlorophyll a, a photosynthetic pigment common to all algal groups. Recent advances in remote sensing instrumentation, in particular the development of hyperspectral imaging sensors, allow detection of additional algal pigments that include taxonomically significant photosynthetic and photoprotective accessory pigments. We are working with the hyperspectral imaging sensor AVIRIS (the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) to characterize phytoplankton blooms in Florida Bay. Our data analysis focuses on intersection of image data (and image-derived spectral data) with our in-house library of algal pigment signatures.

Richardson, L.L. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Ambrosia, V.G. [JCWS, Inc., Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

444

Algal functional annotation tool  

SciTech Connect

The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

Lopez, D. [UCLA; Casero, D. [UCLA; Cokus, S. J. [UCLA; Merchant, S. S. [UCLA; Pellegrini, M. [UCLA

2012-07-01

445

Modelling the production of dimethylsulfide during a phytoplankton bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important sulfur-containing atmospheric trace gas of marine biogenic origin. DMS emitted from the oceans may be a precursor of tropospheric aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby affecting the Earth's radiative balance and possibly constituting a negative feedback to global warming, although this hypothesis is still somewhat controversial. The revised conceptual model of the marine pelagic food web gives a central role to planktonic bacteria. Recent experiments have shown that consumption of dissolved DMS by microbial metabolism may be more important than atmospheric exchange in controlling its concentration in surface waters and hence its ventilation to the atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the effect of the marine food web on cycling of dissolved DMS in surface waters during a phytoplankton bloom episode. A nitrogen-based flow network simulation model has been used to analyze the relative importance of the various biological and chemical processes involved. The model predictions suggest that the concentration of DMS in marine surface waters is indeed governed by bacterial metabolism. Environmental factors that affect the bacterial compartment are thus likely to have a relatively large influence on dissolved DMS concentrations. The ecological succession is particularly sensitive to the ratio of phytoplankton to bacterial nutrient uptake rates as well the interaction between herbivore food chain and the microbial loop. Importantly for the design of field studies, the model predicts that peak DMS concentrations are achieved during the decline of the phytoplankton bloom with a typical time lag between peak DMS and peak phytoplankton biomass of 1 to 2 days. Significantly, the model predicts a relatively high DMS concentration persisting after the phytoplankton bloom due to excretion from large protozoa and zooplankton, which may be an additional explanation for the lack of correlation between DMS and chlorophyll a field measurements. Comparison of the model predictions has been made with tank algal bloom experiments.

Gabric, Albert; Murray, Nicholas; Stone, Lewi; Kohl, Manfred

1993-12-01

446

Black Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

447

Mining Metatranscriptomic Data of a Cyanobacterial Bloom for Patterns of Secondary Metabolism Gene Expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary metabolism of bacterial cells produces small molecules that can have both medicinal properties and toxigenic effects. This study focuses on mining metatranscriptomes from a tropical eutrophic water reservoir in Singapore experiencing a cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom dominated by Microcystis, to identify the types of secondary metabolites genes being expressed and by what taxa. A phylogenomic approach as implemented in the online tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS) was used. NaPDoS was recently developed to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, respectively, to provide insight into potential types of pathway products. Water samples from the reservoir were collected six times over a day/night cycle. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and next-generation Illumina DNA sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 base pairs post-quality control reads per sample. Evidence for expression of PKS and NRPS type genes based on identification of a ketosynthase and condensation domains are present in all time points. KS domains fall into to two main phylogenetic groups, type I and type II, within the type II group of domains are domains for fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), which is considered a part of primary metabolism. Type I KS domains are part of the classic PKS natural product biosynthetic genes that make things such as antibiotics and other toxins such as microcystin. 2849 KS domains were detected in the combined reservoir samples, of these 1141 were likely from fatty acid biosynthesis and 1708 were related to secondary metabolism type KS domains. The most abundant KS domains (485) besides the fab genes are closely related to a KS domain that is not currently experimentally linked to a known secondary metabolite but the domain is found in four Microcystis genomes along with two other species of cyanobacteria. The three KS domains from the microcystin pathway make up 238 of the KS domains. The third most abundant KS domain is related to a protein annotated as a heterocyst glycolipid protein from the M