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Sample records for algal blooms habs

  1. AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

  2. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms (HABs)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Virtually every coastal country in the world is affected by harmful algal blooms (HABs, commonly called “red tides”). These phenomena are caused by blooms of microscopic algae. Some of these algae are toxic, and can lead to illness and death in humans, fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and other oceanic life, typically as a result of the transfer of toxins through the food web. Sometimes the direct release of toxic compounds can be lethal to marine animals. Non-toxic HABs cause damage to ecosystems, fisheries resources, and recreational facilities, often due to the sheer biomass of the accumulated algae. The term “HAB” also applies to non-toxic blooms of macroalgae (seaweeds), which can cause major ecological impacts such as the displacement of indigenous species, habitat alteration and oxygen depletion in bottom waters. Globally, the nature of the HAB problem has changed considerably over the last several decades. The number of toxic blooms, the resulting economic losses, the types of resources affected, and the number of toxins and toxic species have all increased dramatically. Some of this expansion has been attributed to storms, currents and other natural phenomena, but human activities are also frequently implicated. Humans have contributed by transporting toxic species in ballast water, and by adding massive and increasing quantities of industrial, agricultural and sewage effluents to coastal waters. In many urbanized coastal regions, these inputs have altered the size and composition of the nutrient pool which has, in turn, created a more favorable nutrient environment for certain HAB species. The steady expansion in the use of fertilizers for agricultural production represents a large and worrisome source of nutrients in coastal waters that promote some HABs. The diversity in HAB species and their impacts presents a significant challenge to those responsible for the management of coastal resources. Furthermore, HABs are complex oceanographic phenomena that require multidisciplinary study ranging from molecular and cell biology to large-scale field surveys, numerical modelling, and remote sensing from space. Our understanding of these phenomena is increasing dramatically, and with this understanding come technologies and management tools that can reduce HAB incidence and impact. Here I summarize the global HAB problem, its trends and causes, and new technologies and approaches to monitoring, control and management, highlighting molecular probes for cell detection, rapid and sensitive toxin assays, remote sensing detection and tracking of blooms, bloom control and mitigation strategies, and the use of large-scale physical/biological models to analyze past blooms and forecast future ones. PMID:20161650

  3. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms (HABs).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M

    2009-07-01

    Virtually every coastal country in the world is affected by harmful algal blooms (HABs, commonly called "red tides"). These phenomena are caused by blooms of microscopic algae. Some of these algae are toxic, and can lead to illness and death in humans, fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and other oceanic life, typically as a result of the transfer of toxins through the food web. Sometimes the direct release of toxic compounds can be lethal to marine animals. Non-toxic HABs cause damage to ecosystems, fisheries resources, and recreational facilities, often due to the sheer biomass of the accumulated algae. The term "HAB" also applies to non-toxic blooms of macroalgae (seaweeds), which can cause major ecological impacts such as the displacement of indigenous species, habitat alteration and oxygen depletion in bottom waters.Globally, the nature of the HAB problem has changed considerably over the last several decades. The number of toxic blooms, the resulting economic losses, the types of resources affected, and the number of toxins and toxic species have all increased dramatically. Some of this expansion has been attributed to storms, currents and other natural phenomena, but human activities are also frequently implicated. Humans have contributed by transporting toxic species in ballast water, and by adding massive and increasing quantities of industrial, agricultural and sewage effluents to coastal waters. In many urbanized coastal regions, these inputs have altered the size and composition of the nutrient pool which has, in turn, created a more favorable nutrient environment for certain HAB species. The steady expansion in the use of fertilizers for agricultural production represents a large and worrisome source of nutrients in coastal waters that promote some HABs.The diversity in HAB species and their impacts presents a significant challenge to those responsible for the management of coastal resources. Furthermore, HABs are complex oceanographic phenomena that require multidisciplinary study ranging from molecular and cell biology to large-scale field surveys, numerical modelling, and remote sensing from space. Our understanding of these phenomena is increasing dramatically, and with this understanding come technologies and management tools that can reduce HAB incidence and impact. Here I summarize the global HAB problem, its trends and causes, and new technologies and approaches to monitoring, control and management, highlighting molecular probes for cell detection, rapid and sensitive toxin assays, remote sensing detection and tracking of blooms, bloom control and mitigation strategies, and the use of large-scale physical/biological models to analyze past blooms and forecast future ones. PMID:20161650

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and a Potential Synthesized Framework

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Xu, Huiping; Guo, Xulin

    2012-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are severe ecological disasters threatening aquatic systems throughout the World, which necessitate scientific efforts in detecting and monitoring them. Compared with traditional in situ point observations, satellite remote sensing is considered as a promising technique for studying HABs due to its advantages of large-scale, real-time, and long-term monitoring. The present review summarizes the suitability of current satellite data sources and different algorithms for detecting HABs. It also discusses the spatial scale issue of HABs. Based on the major problems identified from previous literature, including the unsystematic understanding of HABs, the insufficient incorporation of satellite remote sensing, and a lack of multiple oceanographic explanations of the mechanisms causing HABs, this review also attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the complicated mechanism of HABs impacted by multiple oceanographic factors. A potential synthesized framework can be established by combining multiple accessible satellite remote sensing approaches including visual interpretation, spectra analysis, parameters retrieval and spatial-temporal pattern analysis. This framework aims to lead to a systematic and comprehensive monitoring of HABs based on satellite remote sensing from multiple oceanographic perspectives. PMID:22969372

  5. The Haber Bosch-harmful algal bloom (HB-HAB) link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glibert, Patricia M.; Maranger, Roxane; Sobota, Daniel J.; Bouwman, Lex

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale commercialization of the Haber-Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agricultural products is inefficient leading to significant environmental pollution and aquatic eutrophication. Of particular concern is the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in waters receiving nutrient enriched runoff. Many phytoplankton causing HABs have physiological adaptive strategies that make them favored under conditions of elevated N : P conditions and supply of chemically reduced N (ammonium, urea). We propose that the HB-HAB link is a function of (1) the inefficiency of incorporation of N fertilizers in the food supply chain, the leakiness of the N cycle from crop to table, and the fate of lost N relative to P to the environment; and (2) adaptive physiology of many HABs to thrive in environments in which there is excess N relative to classic nutrient stoichiometric proportions and where chemically reduced forms of N dominate. The rate of HAB expansion is particularly pronounced in China where N fertilizer use has escalated very rapidly, where soil retention is declining, and where blooms have had large economic and ecological impacts. There, in addition to increased use of urea and high N : P based fertilizers overall, escalating aquaculture production adds to the availability of reduced forms of N, as does atmospheric deposition of ammonia. HABs in both freshwaters and marginal seas in China are highly related to these overall changing N loads and ratios. Without more aggressive N control the future outlook in terms of HABs is likely to include more events, more often, and they may also be more toxic.

  6. Molecular detection of harmful algal blooms (HABs) using locked nucleic acids and bead array technology

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Mara R.; Jacobson, James W.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Dunbar, Sherry A.; Fell, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious public health risk in coastal waters. As the intensity and frequency of HABs continue to rise, new methods of detection are needed for reliable identification. Herein, we developed a high-throughput, multiplex, bead array technique for the detection of the dinoflagellates Karenia brevis and Karenia mikimotoi. The method combined the Luminex detection system with two novel technologies: locked nucleic acid–modified oligonucleotides (LNA) and Mirus Label IT® nucleic acid technology. To study the feasibility of the method, we evaluated the performance of modified and unmodified LNA probes with amplicon targets that were biotin labeled with two different strategies: direct chemical labeling (Mirus Label IT) versus enzymatic end-labeling (single biotinylated primer). The results illustrated that LNA probes hybridized to complementary single-stranded DNA with better affinity and displayed higher fluorescence intensities than unmodified oligonucleotide DNA probes. The latter effect was more pronounced when the assay was carried out at temperatures above 53°C degree. As opposed to the enzymatic 5′ terminal labeling technique, the chemical-labeling method enhanced the level of fluorescence by as much as ~83%. The detection limits of the assay, which were established with LNA probes and Mirus Label IT system, ranged from 0.05 to 46 copies of rRNA. This high-throughput method, which represents the first molecular detection strategy to integrate Luminex technology with LNA probes and Mirus Label IT, can be adapted for the detection of other HABs and is well suited for the monitoring of red tides at pre-blooming and blooming conditions. PMID:21165155

  7. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  8. Temporal Variability and Environmental Drivers of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in Western Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Tian, D.; Xie, G.; Tian, J.; Tseng, K. S.; Shum, C. K.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding temporal variability and environmental drivers of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is important for guiding HABs impact mitigation plans in Lake Erie. The objective of this study is to characterize temporal variability and explore environmental driving factors of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and phycocyanin (PC), which are determinants of HABs, in western Lake Erie. Ten years' (2002 to 2012) biweekly estimates of Chl-a and PC over western Lake Erie were retrieved from remote sensing-based measurements of water color with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer ( MERIS). Nine environmental factors, including water quality and hydrometeorological variables, for the same period were also collected. While Chl-a and PC showed different predictabilities and differences in importance of environmental drivers at different locations and seasons using the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) with the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) method, hydrometeorological variables consistently showed great influences on Chl-a and PC in all four seasons. For Chl-a, the most significant environmental drivers are solar radiation and wind speed (spring); water temperature, solar radiation, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration (summer); wind speed (fall); and water temperature and streamflow (winter). For PC, the most important environmental drivers are solar radiation and wind speed (spring); precipitation, water temperature, wind speed, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration (summer); wind speed (fall); precipitation, water temperature, and streamflow ( winter). Wavelet analysis suggested that Chl-a and PC showed strong seasonal and inter-annual pattern - the 0.5- and 1-year periods are the dominant modes for both Chl-a and PC series. These findings offer insights into possible mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the HABs.

  9. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Daya Bay, China: an in situ study of primary production and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Song, Xingyu; Huang, Liangmin; Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Honghui; Li, Tao; Su, Qiang

    2009-09-01

    A month-long investigation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production (PP) was carried out during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) in Daya Bay, China, in 2003. During the bloom, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Scrippsiella trochoidea and Chattonella marina. The phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and PP reached peak levels of 519.21mgm(-3) and 734.0mgCm(-3)h(-1), respectively. Micro-phytoplankton was the key contributor to Chl a and PP in a cage-culture area and in the adjacent HAB-affected waters, with percentages of up to 82.91% and 84.94%, respectively. The HAB had complicated relationships with hydrological and meteorological factors in Daya Bay. However, the water around the cage-culture area always showed statistically greater phytoplankton biomass and nutrient loadings than in adjacent waters, suggesting that this was the "trigger area" of the bloom. The spatial and temporal distribution of diverse HABs in Daya Bay, their ecological characteristics, and their environmental impacts are also discussed in this paper. PMID:19501846

  10. Impact of several harmful algal bloom (HAB) causing species, on life history characteristics of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Müller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianing; Yan, Tian; Zhang, Qingchun; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have occurred frequently along the coast of China, and have been exhibiting succession from diatom- to dinoflagellate-dominated blooms. To examine the effects of different diatom and dinoflagellate HABs, the life history parameters of rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis Müller) were measured after exposure to different concentrations of HAB species. The HAB species examined included a diatom (Skeletonema costatum) and four dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum donghaiense, Alexandrium catenella, Prorocentrum lima and Karlodinium veneficum). Compared with the control treatment (CT), the diatom S. costatum showed no adverse impacts on rotifers. Exposure to dinoflagellates at densities equivalent to those measured in the field resulted in a reduction in all the life history parameters measured. This included a reduction in: lifetime egg production (CT: 20.34 eggs/ind.) reduced to 10.11, 3.22, 4.17, 7.16 eggs/ind., life span (CT: 394.53 h) reduced to 261.11, 162.90, 203.67, 196 h, net reproductive rate (CT: 19.51/ind.) reduced to 3.01, 1.26, 3.53, 5.96/ind., finite rate of increase (CT: 1.47/d) reduced to 1.16, 1.03, 1.33, 1.38/d, and intrinsic rate of population increase (CT: 0.39/d) reduced to 0.15, 0.03, 0.28, 0.32/d, for the dinoflagellates P. donghaiense, A. catenella, P. lima and K. veneficum, respectively. The results showed that the diatom S. costatum had no detrimental consequences on the reproduction and growth of B. plicatilis, however, the four dinoflagellates tested did show adverse effects. This suggests that dinoflagellate HABs may suppress microzooplankton, resulting in an increase in algal numbers.

  11. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  12. Development of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Capability For the Early Detection and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Anderson, Robert; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Demers, James; Leshkevich, George; Flatico, Joseph; Kojima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hyperspectral imagers have significant capability for detecting and classifying waterborne constituents. One particularly appropriate application of such instruments in the Great Lakes is to detect and monitor the development of potentially Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Two generations of small hyperspectral imagers have been built and tested for aircraft based monitoring of harmful algal blooms. In this paper a discussion of the two instruments as well as field studies conducted using these instruments will be presented. During the second field study, in situ reflectance data was obtained from the Research Vessel Lake Guardian in conjunction with reflectance data obtained with the hyperspectral imager from overflights of the same locations. A comparison of these two data sets shows that the airborne hyperspectral imager closely matches measurements obtained from instruments on the lake surface and thus positively supports its utilization for detecting and monitoring HABs.

  13. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly � of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  14. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ? of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  15. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    ‘Algal blooms’ are local abundances of phytoplankton – microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

  16. Characterization of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using MERIS fluorescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-03-01

    In this study, MERIS fluorescence data were utilized to monitor a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium bloom in 2008 in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. The bloom was characterized using modified fluorescence line height (MFLH), enhanced Red-Green-Blue (ERGB) and true color composites, and the ratio of particulate backscattering (bbp) to MFLH (bbp/MFLH). In addition to high MFLH values and dark colors in ERGB images which are generally observed when blooms happen, it was found that the Cochlodinium bloom indicated species-specific signatures which consisted of reddish brown colors in true color composites and bbp/MFLH values below 0.2 mW-1 cm2 ?m m-1 sr. Based on these findings, Cochlodinium blooms were successfully distinguished from blooms dominated by other species that were found in the study area, like diatom, Noctiluca, and Trichodesmium. Qualitative analysis showed that the fluorescence-based approach presented better performance than the chlorophyll-a anomaly approach for HAB detection, despite the sensitivity to atmospheric perturbations, benthic vegetation in coastal shallow waters, and variations in environmental conditions. The applicability of the HAB characterization approach tested for the first time over the study area using MERIS data was discussed and can be anticipated with sufficient knowledge of local bloom history. Combing different ocean color products is strongly recommended to improve our understanding of HAB dynamics and enhance our ability to characterize them. This is of great importance for marine environment protection and management and can lead to valuable information for contingency planning.

  17. Distribution of chlorophyll and harmful algal blooms (HABs): A review on space based studies in the coastal environments of Chinese marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guifeng; Tang, Danling; Wang, Sufen

    Monitoring of spatial and temporal distribution of chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentrations in the aquatic milieu is always challenging and often interesting. However, the recent advancements in satellite digital data play a significant role in providing outstanding results for the marine environmental investigations. The present paper is aimed to review ‘remote sensing research in Chinese seas’ within the period of 24 years from 1978 to 2002. Owing to generalized distributional pattern, the Chl-a concentrations are recognized high towards northern Chinese seas than the southern. Moreover, the coastal waters, estuaries, and upwelling zones always exhibit relatively high Chl-a concentrations compared with offshore waters. On the basis of marine Chl-a estimates obtained from satellite and other field measured environmental parameters, we have further discussed on the applications of satellite remote sensing in the fields of harmful algal blooms (HABs), primary production and physical oceanographic currents of the regional seas. Concerned with studies of HABs, satellite remote sensing proved more advantageous than any other conventional methods for large-scale applications. Probably, it may be the only source of authentic information responsible for the evaluation of new research methodologies to detect HABs. At present, studies using remote sensing methods are mostly confined to observe algal bloom occurrences, hence, it is essential to coordinate the mechanism of marine ecological and oceanographic dynamic processes of HABs using satellite remote sensing data with in situ measurements of marine environmental parameters. The satellite remote sensing on marine environment and HABs is believed to have a great improvement with popular application of technology.

  18. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

  20. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Do I Know It Works? What is Health Marketing? Health Marketing Basics Health Communication Science Digest Research & ...

  1. Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2008-06-01

    Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

  2. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    ‘Algal blooms’ are local abundances of phytoplankton – microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

  3. The risk of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the oyster-growing estuaries of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Penelope; Brett, Steve; Krogh, Martin; Scanes, Peter; Webster, Grant; Armand, Leanne

    2013-06-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of potentially harmful phytoplankton was examined in the oyster-growing estuaries of New South Wales. Forty-five taxa from 31 estuaries were identified from 2005 to 2009. Harmful species richness was latitudinally graded for rivers, with increasing number of taxa southward. There were significant differences (within an estuary) in harmful species abundance and richness for 11 of 21 estuaries tested. Where differences were observed, these were predominately due to species belonging to the Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima group, Dinophysis acuminata, Dictyocha octonaria and Prorocentrum cordatum with a consistent upstream versus downstream pattern emerging. Temporal (seasonal or interannual) patterns in harmful phytoplankton within and among estuaries were highly variable. Examination of harmful phytoplankton in relation to recognised estuary disturbance measures revealed species abundance correlated to estuary modification levels and flushing time, with modified, slow flushing estuaries having higher abundance. Harmful species richness correlated with bioregion, estuary modification levels and estuary class, with southern, unmodified lakes demonstrating greater species density. Predicting how these risk taxa and risk zones may change with further estuary disturbance and projected climate warming will require more focused, smaller scale studies aimed at a deeper understanding of species-specific ecology and bloom mechanisms. Coupled with this consideration, there is an imperative for further taxonomic, ecological and toxicological investigations into poorly understood taxa (e.g. Pseudo-nitzschia). PMID:23111868

  4. Promotion of harmful algal blooms by zooplankton predatory activity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J

    2006-06-22

    The relationship between algae and their zooplanktonic predators typically involves consumption of nutrients by algae, grazing of the algae by zooplankton which in turn enhances predator biomass, controls algal growth and regenerates nutrients. Eutrophication raises nutrient levels, but does not simply increase normal predator-prey activity; rather, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events develop often with serious ecological and aesthetic implications. Generally, HAB species are outwardly poor competitors for nutrients, while their development of grazing deterrents during nutrient stress ostensibly occurs too late, after the nutrients have largely been consumed already by fast-growing non-HAB species. A new mechanism is presented to explain HAB dynamics under these circumstances. Using a multi-nutrient predator-prey model, it is demonstrated that these blooms can develop through the self-propagating failure of normal predator-prey activity, resulting in the transfer of nutrients into HAB growth at the expense of competing algal species. Rate limitation of this transfer provides a continual level of nutrient stress that results in HAB species exhibiting grazing deterrents protecting them from top-down control. This process is self-stabilizing as long as nutrient demand exceeds supply, maintaining the unpalatable status of HABs; such events are most likely under eutrophic conditions with skewed nutrient ratios. PMID:17148360

  5. Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms in Influent Waters and Through Treatment on Lake Erie in the 2013 and 2014 Bloom Seasons 

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms in Influent and Through Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Located on Lake Erie in the 2013 and 2014 Bloom SeasonsToby Sanan, Nicholas Dugan, Darren Lytle, Heath MashHarmful algal blooms (HABs) and their associated toxins are emerging as signif...

  6. Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms in Influent Waters and Through Treatment on Lake Erie in the 2013 and 2014 Bloom Seasons 

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms in Influent and Through Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Located on Lake Erie in the 2013 and 2014 Bloom SeasonsToby Sanan, Nicholas Dugan, Darren Lytle, Heath MashHarmful algal blooms (HABs) and their associated toxins are emerging as signif...

  7. Identifying Historical Occurrences of HABs Using Sedimentary Algal Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Waters, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    Algal blooms are a common feature of many coastal areas. Under some environmental conditions, these develop into Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and present an environmental hazard and a health risk for humans and wildlife due to toxin production. While monitoring programs track the development of contemporary HABs, data are lacking for historical blooms. We use sedimentary algal pigments to identify the occurrence of Karenia Brevis (Florida Red Tide) in sediment cores collected from mangrove environments along the west coast of Florida. Karenia Brevis has a unique pigment, gyroxanthin-diester, that is routinely used to identify red tide in the water column. Gyroxanthin-diester and other carotenoid pigments associated with red tide taxa are analyzed using HPLC techniques. Identification of gyroxanthan-diester is based on comparison with HPLC analysis of gyroxanthin standard, a monoculture sample of K. Brevis and with published spectra of Gyroxanthin-diester in water samples. We track the timing of the K. Brevis using Pb-210 dating models which allows an examination over the last 100 years.

  8. Use of remote sensing in monitoring and forecasting of harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Tomlinson, Michelle C.

    2005-08-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have impacts on coastal economies, public health, and various endangered species. HABs are caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly dinoflagellates, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. In the late 1970's, optical remote sensing was found to have a potential for detecting the presence of blooms of Karenia brevis on the US Florida coast. Due to the nearly annual frequency of these blooms and the ability to note them with ocean color imagery, K. brevis blooms have strongly influenced the field of HAB remote sensing. However, with the variability between phytoplankton blooms, heir environment and their relatively narrow range of pigment types, particularly between toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms, techniques beyond optical detection are required for detecting and monitoring HABs. While satellite chlorophyll has some value, ecological or environmental characteristics are required to use chlorophyll. For example, identification of new blooms can be an effective means of identifying HABs that are quie intense, also blooms occurring after specific rainfall or wind events can be indicated as HABs. Several HAB species do not bloom in the traditional sense, in that they do not dominate the biomass. In these cases, remote sensing of SST or chlorophyll can be coupled with linkages to seasonal succession, changes in circulation or currents, and wind-induced transport--including upwelling and downwelling, to indicate the potential for a HAB to occur. An effective monitoring and forecasting system for HABs will require the coupling of remote sensing with an environmental and ecological understanding of the organism.

  9. A Geospatial Analysis of Harmful Algal Blooms along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, C.; Rothwell, R.; Johnson, E.; Condamoor, M.; Patil, M.; Largier, J. L.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Algal blooms are natural phenomena consisting of the rapid growth of phytoplankton populations. Some blooms have negative ecological or public health effects due to toxin production and removal of oxygen from the water column. In recent years, such "harmful algal blooms" (HABs) have been linked to human illness, economic loss from decreased fishing, and ecological damage related to marine life mortality as well as eutrophication. A notable HAB event occurred along the coast of northern California in August 2011, resulting in economic and ecological impacts of approximately $82 million. This was one of several algal blooms that occurred in fall 2011, with similar northward propagating algal blooms occurring in autumn of other years. Although the scale of the bloom impact is well-known, the spatial and temporal extent of the bloom boundary is still unclear. This study tracked the space-time pattern of numerous blooms during August-October 2011 using multiple NASA Earth observing systems in an effort to quantify and understand the structure of these recurrent bloom events. Aqua MODIS images were used to quantify surface chlorophyll-α levels, and thus to map the extent and development of all autumn algal blooms. The relation between sea surface temperature, ocean surface topography, and algal blooms was further explored with AVHRR and Jason-2 satellite data. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to identify the environmental factors most statistically influential in algal blooms and specifically in HAB events. Results from this study will assist California's Departments of Public Health and Fish & Game in mitigating and managing the impact of future harmful algal blooms.

  10. MITIGATION OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE UNITED STATES USING CLAY: RESEARCH PROGRESS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the United States, red tides and harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a serious and recurrent threat to marine ecosystems, fisheries, human health, and coastal aesthetics. Here we report results from a research program investigating the use of clay dispersal for bloom cont...

  11. Multiple simultaneous detection of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) through a high throughput bead array technology, with potential use in phytoplankton community analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scorzetti, G.; Brand, L.E.; Hitchcock, G.L.; Rein, K.S.; Sinigalliano, C.D.; Fell, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    As an alternative to traditional, morphology-based methods, molecular techniques can provide detection of multiple species within the HAB community and, more widely, the phytoplankton community in a rapid, accurate and simultaneous qualitative analysis. These methods require detailed knowledge of the molecular diversity within taxa in order to design efficient specific primers and specific probes able to avoid cross-reaction with non-target sequences. Isolates from Florida coastal communities were sequence-analyzed and compared with the GenBank database. Almost 44% of the genotypes obtained did not match any sequence in GenBank, showing the existence of a large and still unexplored biodiversity among taxa. Based on these results and on the GenBank database, we designed 14 species-specific probes and 4 sets of specific primers. Multiple simultaneous detection was achieved with a bead array method based on the use of a flow cytometer and color-coded microspheres, which are conjugated to the developed probes. Following a parallel double PCR amplification, which employed universal primers in a singleplex reaction and a set of species-specific primers in multiplex, detection was performed in a cost effective and highly specific analysis. This multi-format assay, which required less than 4 h to complete from sample collection, can be expanded according to need. Up to 100 different species can be identified simultaneously in a single sample, which allows for additional use of this method in community analyses extended to all phytoplankton species. Our initial field trials, which were based on the 14 species-specific probes, showed the co-existence and dominance of two or more species of Karenia during toxic blooms in Florida waters. PMID:20046212

  12. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  13. Skill assessment for an operational algal bloom forecast system

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Calkins, Julie A.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fisher, Kathleen; Nierenberg, Kate; Currier, Robert; Wynne, Timothy T.

    2010-01-01

    An operational forecast system for harmful algal blooms (HABs) in southwest Florida is analyzed for forecasting skill. The HABs, caused by the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, lead to shellfish toxicity and to respiratory irritation. In addition to predicting new blooms and their extent, HAB forecasts are made twice weekly during a bloom event, using a combination of satellite derived image products, wind predictions, and a rule-based model derived from previous observations and research. These forecasts include: identification, intensification, transport, extent, and impact; the latter being the most significant to the public. Identification involves identifying new blooms as HABs and is validated against an operational monitoring program involving water sampling. Intensification forecasts, which are much less frequently made, can only be evaluated with satellite data on mono-specific blooms. Extent and transport forecasts of HABs are also evaluated against the water samples. Due to the resolution of the forecasts and available validation data, skill cannot be resolved at scales finer than 30 km. Initially, respiratory irritation forecasts were analyzed using anecdotal information, the only available data, which had a bias toward major respiratory events leading to a forecast accuracy exceeding 90%. When a systematic program of twice-daily observations from lifeguards was implemented, the forecast could be meaningfully assessed. The results show that the forecasts identify the occurrence of respiratory events at all lifeguard beaches 70% of the time. However, a high rate (80%) of false positive forecasts occurred at any given beach. As the forecasts were made at half to whole county level, the resolution of the validation data was reduced to county level, reducing false positives to 22% (accuracy of 78%). The study indicates the importance of systematic sampling, even when using qualitative descriptors, the use of validation resolution to evaluate forecast capabilities, and the need to match forecast and validation resolutions. PMID:20628532

  14. Probabilistic forecasting of harmful algal blooms in western Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenour, D. R.; Gronewold, A.; Stow, C.; Bertani, I.; Steger, C. E.; Ruberg, S. A.; Scavia, D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in the magnitude of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in western Lake Erie. These cyanobacteria blooms have drawn attention to phosphorus loading, a common driver of freshwater productivity. However, it is unclear how much of the year-to-year variability in bloom size is explained by anthropogenic phosphorus loading, and how much variability is related to other factors, including weather/climate drivers and measurement error. Here, we aim to advance the state-of-the-art in HAB forecasting by explicitly quantifying uncertainties in late-summer bloom observations, and propagating them through a Bayesian modeling framework that relates bloom size to phosphorus load. Because of the need to accurately represent predictive uncertainty, different statistical formulations are critically evaluated through cross validation. A model based on a novel implementation of a gamma error distribution is found to provide the most realistic uncertainty characterization, as well as high predictive skill. Our results also underscore the benefits of a hierarchical approach that allows us to assimilate data sets from multiple sources. Finally, our modeling analysis suggests that Lake Erie has become increasingly susceptible to large cyanobacteria blooms. We explore the nature of this change and assess potential biophysical explanations.

  15. An Application of Lagrangian Coherent Structures to Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olascoaga, M. J.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Brand, L. E.; Kocak, H.

    2009-04-01

    Karenia brevis is present in low concentrations in vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). This toxic dinoflagellate sporadically develops blooms anywhere in the GoM, except in the southern portion of West Florida Shelf (WFS). There, these harmful algal blooms (HABs) are recurrent events whose frequency and intensity are increasing. HABs on the WFS are usually only evident once they have achieved high concentrations that can be detected by observation of discolored water, which may be apparent in satellite imagery; by ecological problems such as fish kills; or human health problems. Because the early development stages of HABs are usually not detected, there is limited understanding of the environmental conditions that lead to their development. Analysis of simulated surface ocean currents reveals the presence of a persistent large-scale Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) on the southern portion of the WFS. A LCS can be regarded as a distinguished material line which divides immiscible fluid regions with distinct advection properties. Consistent with satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, this LCS on the WFS constitutes a cross-shelf barrier for the lateral transport of passive tracers. We hypothesize that such a LCS provides favorable conditions for the development of HABs. LCSs are also employed to trace the early location of an observed HAB on the WFS. Using a simplified population dynamics model we infer the factors that could possibly lead to the development of this HAB. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by simulated surface ocean currents. Two nutrient sources are inferred for the HAB whose evolution is found to be strongly tied to the simulated LCSs. These nutrient sources are found to be located near shore and likely due to land runoff.

  16. The spatial and temporal characteristics of harmful algal blooms in the southwest Bohai sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zaixing; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Yuan, Yongquan; Cao, Xihua; Liang, Yubo

    2013-05-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are harmful to coastal ecosystems, fisheries, the aquaculture industry, and even human health, thus they have received great attention worldwide. In this study, geostatistical tools in Geographic information system (GIS) were used to analyze HAB data collected over the last 11 years in the southwest Bohai Sea with the goal of detecting spatial and temporal characteristics of HAB events in this area. The seasonality, trend of HAB occurrences and the spatial pattern of HAB events were examined by time-series analysis and nearest neighbor analysis, respectively. The frequency of HAB occurrences was mapped using kernel density estimation, and the harm caused by HAB events was assessed and then categorized using a characteristic-based empirical model. The occurrences of HABs not only exhibited significant seasonality and a "single peak" trend in time but also were clustered in space. HABs had both a high frequency of occurrence and a high harm in the north Bohai Bay and the Yellow River estuary. In addition, HABs posed a high harm in the nearshore area near the city of Huanghua in Bohai Bay and the offshore area in the middle Bohai Bay; thus, HAB monitoring and/or management should be concentrated in these locales. Compared to previous descriptions, this research utilized a visualizable approach to more fully identify the scope, distribution, and characteristics of HAB occurrences in the southwest Bohai Sea, thus providing useful information to support the implementation of a monitoring and management program for HABs.

  17. Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Smayda, Theodore J.; Karlson, Bengt S.O.; Trick, Charles G.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Bernard, Stewart; Wulff, Angela; Anderson, Donald M.; Cochlan, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change pressures will influence marine planktonic systems globally, and it is conceivable that harmful algal blooms may increase in frequency and severity. These pressures will be manifest as alterations in temperature, stratification, light, ocean acidification, precipitation-induced nutrient inputs, and grazing, but absence of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms driving harmful algal blooms frustrates most hope of forecasting their future prevalence. Summarized here is the consensus of a recent workshop held to address what currently is known and not known about the environmental conditions that favor initiation and maintenance of harmful algal blooms. There is expectation that harmful algal bloom (HAB) geographical domains should expand in some cases, as will seasonal windows of opportunity for harmful algal blooms at higher latitudes. Nonetheless there is only basic information to speculate upon which regions or habitats HAB species may be the most resilient or susceptible. Moreover, current research strategies are not well suited to inform these fundamental linkages. There is a critical absence of tenable hypotheses for how climate pressures mechanistically affect HAB species, and the lack of uniform experimental protocols limits the quantitative cross-investigation comparisons essential to advancement. A HAB “best practices” manual would help foster more uniform research strategies and protocols, and selection of a small target list of model HAB species or isolates for study would greatly promote the accumulation of knowledge. Despite the need to focus on keystone species, more studies need to address strain variability within species, their responses under multifactorial conditions, and the retrospective analyses of long-term plankton and cyst core data; research topics that are departures from the norm. Examples of some fundamental unknowns include how larger and more frequent extreme weather events may break down natural biogeographic barriers, how stratification may enhance or diminish HAB events, how trace nutrients (metals, vitamins) influence cell toxicity, and how grazing pressures may leverage, or mitigate HAB development. There is an absence of high quality time-series data in most regions currently experiencing HAB outbreaks, and little if any data from regions expected to develop HAB events in the future. A subset of observer sites is recommended to help develop stronger linkages among global, national, and regional climate change and HAB observation programs, providing fundamental datasets for investigating global changes in the prevalence of harmful algal blooms. Forecasting changes in HAB patterns over the next few decades will depend critically upon considering harmful algal blooms within the competitive context of plankton communities, and linking these insights to ecosystem, oceanographic and climate models. From a broader perspective, the nexus of HAB science and the social sciences of harmful algal blooms is inadequate and prevents quantitative assessment of impacts of future HAB changes on human well-being. These and other fundamental changes in HAB research will be necessary if HAB science is to obtain compelling evidence that climate change has caused alterations in HAB distributions, prevalence or character, and to develop the theoretical, experimental, and empirical evidence explaining the mechanisms underpinning these ecological shifts. PMID:27011761

  18. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  19. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Burkholder, Joann M; Cochlan, William P; Glibert, Patricia M; Gobler, Christopher J; Heil, Cynthia A; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L; Rensel, J E Jack; Townsend, David W; Trainer, Vera L; Vargo, Gabriel A

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  20. Can LANDSAT be used to catalog historical freshwater harmful algal blooms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, J. C.; Michalak, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Blooms of toxic algae are becoming increasingly common in freshwater lakes globally, progressively impacting human and ecosystem health in more locales around the world. Despite this growing footprint of harmful algal blooms (HABs), however, there still exist few quantitative tools for monitoring the temporal and spatial progression of HABs in individual lakes, a prerequisite for documenting and understanding their global increase. Past efforts using MODIS and MERIS to monitor blooms have been limited to studying the subset of blooms that have occurred since those instruments began collecting data (1999 and 2002, respectively) and MERIS imagery in particular is not freely available. In contrast, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is available with data starting from 1982 and is freely accessible. Therefore, if LANDSAT could be used to identify blooms, then this would be advantageous for future monitoring and research. In this work, we assess the use of LANDSAT TM for identifying the presence, spatial extent, and timing of HABs. We do this by comparing LANDSAT-generated maps of phycocyanin content in Lake Erie with literature reports of harmful algal blooms and MERIS-generated maps of cyanobacteria. Lake Erie is used as the case study because its HABs have been extensively documented in the scientific literature. Maps are generated using a linear combination of spectral ratios tested previously for Lake Erie, using the Google Earth Engine platform for data processing. We further assess the effectiveness of LANDSAT TM for identifying HABs in other bloom-impacted freshwater lakes around the world. Most of the previous work using remote sensing to identify freshwater HABs has focused on individual remote sensing platforms and individual lakes; this work contributes to knowledge by comparing across platforms and water bodies. This assessment will improve understanding of the challenges of monitoring freshwater HABs, and will contribute to the development of effective management strategies for water resources both in Lake Erie and beyond.

  1. Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Matthew; Wolny, Jennifer; Truby, Earnest; Heil, Cynthia; Kovach, Charles

    2011-03-01

    In 2002, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection began discharging phosphate-processing effluent into Bishop Harbor, an estuary within Tampa Bay. Because of concerns that the effluent would serve as a nutrient source for blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, a field monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including Prorocentrum minimum and Heterosigma akashiwo, were observed in bloom concentrations adjacent to the effluent discharge site. Blooms of diatoms were widespread throughout Bishop Harbor. K. brevis was observed with cell concentrations decreasing with increasing proximity to the effluent discharge site. Bioassays using effluent as a nutrient source for K. brevis resulted in decreased cell yields, increased growth rates, and increased time to log-phase growth. The responses of HAB species within Bishop Harbor and of K. brevis to effluent in bioassays suggested that HAB species differ in their response to phosphate-processing effluent. PMID:21145070

  2. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, G.C.; Figueiras, F.G.; Hickey, B.M.; Moita, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world’s oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

  3. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, G C; Figueiras, F G; Hickey, B M; Moita, M T

    2010-04-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world's oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

  4. Design and Implementation of Harmful Algal Bloom Diagnosis System Based on J2EE Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chunfeng; Zheng, Haiyong; Ji, Guangrong; Lv, Liang

    According to the shortcomings which are time consuming and laborious of the traditional HAB (Harmful Algal Bloom) diagnosis by the experienced experts using microscope, all kinds of methods and technologies to identify HAB emerged such as microscopic images, molecular biology, characteristics of pigments analysis, fluorescence spectra, inherent optical properties, etc. This paper proposes the design and implementation of a web-based diagnosis system integrating the popular methods for HAB identification. This system is designed with J2EE platform based on MVC (Model-View-Controller) model as well as technologies such as JSP, Servlets, EJB and JDBC.

  5. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-11-30

    Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B(1), B(7), B(12)) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B(1), B(7), and B(12) requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B(12), 20 of 27 species required B(1), and 10 of 27 species required B(7), all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (K(s)) constants of several HAB species for B(1) and B(12) were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

  6. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B1, B7, B12) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B1, B7, and B12 requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B12, 20 of 27 species required B1, and 10 of 27 species required B7, all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (Ks) constants of several HAB species for B1 and B12 were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs. PMID:21068377

  7. Harmful algal blooms (HABs), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and planktonic microbial community dynamics at a near-shore and a harbour station influenced by upwelling (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Sofia; Reñé, Albert; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Vaqué, Dolors

    2011-05-01

    The surface microalgal community, including harmful species, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial and viral populations were studied during an annual cycle (November 2007-October 2008) in a Near-shore (NS) and a Harbour (H) station located in an upwelling area (Sagres, SW Iberian Peninsula). The higher water residence time, water stability and shallowness of harbours in comparison with open waters likely contributed to the differences found between stations regarding chemical variables, statistical correlations and harmful algal proliferations. Also, several differences were noticed from a previous assessment ( Loureiro et al., 2005) including higher SST, lower nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations, along with a shift in the microplankton community structure from diatom to nanoflagellate predominance. These variations feasibly reflect the response of this dynamic system to regional environmental modifications contributing to the understanding of common patterns in environmental change trends. The division of the sampling period into (1) non-upwelling (Non-Uw), (2) "spin-up" of upwelling (SU-Uw), and (3) "spin-down" and relaxation-downwelling (SD-Rel) stages allowed the identification of natural groupings of microplankton samples by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and viruses were the most significant abiotic and biotic variables, respectively, contributing to the dissimilarities between these stages (SIMPER analysis) and, therefore, potentially affecting the microplankton community structure. Harmful algal species and a stable viral community appeared to be favoured by SD-Rel conditions. Data seem to indicate that both Gymnodinium catenatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, the most abundant potentially harmful species, have been imported into the sampling area. Also, the H location, together with potential retention sites developing around the Cabo de São Vicente upwelling centre, may contribute to the local accumulation of harmful species. The associations found between harmful algal species and bacterioplankton and virioplankton call for detailed studies in order to evaluate species-specific interactions.

  8. Bayesian model averaging for harmful algal bloom prediction.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Grant; McVinish, Ross; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2009-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a worldwide problem that have been increasing in frequency and extent over the past several decades. HABs severely damage aquatic ecosystems by destroying benthic habitat, reducing invertebrate and fish populations, and affecting larger species such as dugong that rely on seagrasses for food. Few statistical models for predicting HAB occurrences have been developed, and in common with most predictive models in ecology, those that have been developed do not fully account for uncertainties in parameters and model structure. This makes management decisions based on these predictions more risky than might be supposed. We used a probit time series model and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to predict occurrences of blooms of Lyngbya majuscula, a toxic cyanophyte, in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia. We found a suite of useful predictors for HAB occurrence, with temperature figuring prominently in models with the majority of posterior support, and a model consisting of the single covariate, average monthly minimum temperature, showed by far the greatest posterior support. A comparison of alternative model averaging strategies was made with one strategy using the full posterior distribution and a simpler approach that utilized the majority of the posterior distribution for predictions but with vastly fewer models. Both BMA approaches showed excellent predictive performance with little difference in their predictive capacity. Applications of BMA are still rare in ecology, particularly in management settings. This study demonstrates the power of BMA as an important management tool that is capable of high predictive performance while fully accounting for both parameter and model uncertainty. PMID:19831071

  9. Initial results from a multi-institutional collaboration to monitor harmful algal blooms in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lewitus, Alan J; Holland, A Fred

    2003-01-01

    The rapid rate of development in the South Carolina (SC) coastal zone has heightened public concern for the condition of the state's estuaries, and alerted scientists to the potential that novel and adverse effects on estuarine ecosystems may result. Although well-developed databases from long-term monitoring programs exist for many variables valuable in predicting and following system responses, information on phytoplankton distributions in SC estuaries has lagged. Knowledge of the dynamical relationship between environmental (e.g., nutrient quantity and quality) and biological (e.g., grazing) regulation, and phytoplankton biomass and composition is critical to understanding estuarine susceptibility to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms (HABs). Recently, SC scientists from federal, state, and academic institutions established a collaborative monitoring program to assess HAB distribution and ecology statewide. The South Carolina Harmful Algal Bloom Program includes: a) intensive temporal monitoring at areas of known HAB occurrence or those exhibiting symptoms potentially related to HABs (e.g., prevalent fish lesions), b) extensive spatial monitoring in coordination with existing statewide efforts, c) a citizen volunteer monitoring network, d) nutrient response bioassays, and e) laboratory-based physiological experiments on HAB isolates. By combining "trip-wire" surveillance and rapid response systems, routine monitoring of environmental parameters and HAB distribution, and process-oriented studies examining the physiological functioning of HAB species, an enhanced understanding of the impact and environmental control of HABs in SC estuaries will be achieved. The application of this approach to studies on the distribution and physiological ecology of a new widespread SC red tide, and to the discovery of several potentially toxic blooms (including Pfiesteria) in SC holding ponds, are described. PMID:12620028

  10. Initial results from a multi-institutional collaboration to monitor harmful algal blooms in South Carolina.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lewitus AJ; Holland AF

    2003-01-01

    The rapid rate of development in the South Carolina (SC) coastal zone has heightened public concern for the condition of the state's estuaries, and alerted scientists to the potential that novel and adverse effects on estuarine ecosystems may result. Although well-developed databases from long-term monitoring programs exist for many variables valuable in predicting and following system responses, information on phytoplankton distributions in SC estuaries has lagged. Knowledge of the dynamical relationship between environmental (e.g., nutrient quantity and quality) and biological (e.g., grazing) regulation, and phytoplankton biomass and composition is critical to understanding estuarine susceptibility to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms (HABs). Recently, SC scientists from federal, state, and academic institutions established a collaborative monitoring program to assess HAB distribution and ecology statewide. The South Carolina Harmful Algal Bloom Program includes: a) intensive temporal monitoring at areas of known HAB occurrence or those exhibiting symptoms potentially related to HABs (e.g., prevalent fish lesions), b) extensive spatial monitoring in coordination with existing statewide efforts, c) a citizen volunteer monitoring network, d) nutrient response bioassays, and e) laboratory-based physiological experiments on HAB isolates. By combining "trip-wire" surveillance and rapid response systems, routine monitoring of environmental parameters and HAB distribution, and process-oriented studies examining the physiological functioning of HAB species, an enhanced understanding of the impact and environmental control of HABs in SC estuaries will be achieved. The application of this approach to studies on the distribution and physiological ecology of a new widespread SC red tide, and to the discovery of several potentially toxic blooms (including Pfiesteria) in SC holding ponds, are described.

  11. Prediction of algal blooms using genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Sivapragasam, C; Muttil, Nitin; Muthukumar, S; Arun, V M

    2010-10-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to mathematically model and predict algal blooms in Tolo Harbor (Hong Kong) using genetic programming (GP). Chlorophyll plays a vital role in blooms and was used in this model as a measure of algal bloom biomass, and eight other variables were used as input for its prediction. It has been observed that GP evolves multiple models with almost the same values of errors-of-measure. Previous studies on GP modeling have primarily focused on comparing GP results with actual values. In contrast, in this study, the main aim was to propose a systematic procedure for identifying the most appropriate GP model from a list of feasible models (with similar error-of-measure) using a physical understanding of the process aided by data interpretation. Evaluation of the GP-evolved equations shows that they correctly identify the ecologically significant variables. Analysis of the final GP-evolved mathematical model indicates that, of the eight variables assumed to affect algal blooms, the most significant effects are due to chlorophyll, total inorganic nitrogen and dissolved oxygen for a 1-week prediction. For longer lead predictions (biweekly), secchi-disc depth and temperature appear to be significant variables, in addition to chlorophyll. PMID:20580024

  12. Detecting harmful algal blooms using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data in Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chaoshun

    2015-09-01

    Bohai Sea is a semi-enclosed inland sea with serious environmental problems. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Bohai Sea happen almost every year covering a large area for a long duration. Real time detection of the HABs can significantly reduce economic loss and assure human safety. Remote sensing technology can monitor the sea surface over a large area and detect HABs. Geo-stationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the world's first geostationary ocean color imager with high spatial and temporal resolution for monitoring the Bohai Sea. Rapid scanning of the GOCI allows enough cloud-free observations to accumulate for detection of HABs. Many approaches exist for detecting the HABs with GOCI data, but the approaches are rarely validated.. In this paper, an Aureococcus anophagefferens bloom that happened in Qinhuangdao is used to evaluate several HAB detecting approaches: abnormal chlorophyll concentration, red tide index (RI) and MODIS red tide index (MRI). Validations with field observations showed that the HAB was best detected with MRI, second with chlorophyll concentration abnormity and worst with RI. These results show that the MRI best detects the Aureococcus anophagefferens algae.

  13. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  14. MULTI-COMPONENT EVALUATION TO MINIMIZE THE SPREAD OF AQUATIC INVASIVE SEAWEEDS AND HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM MICROALGAE VIA LIVE BAIT VECTORS IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to quantify the importance of bait products and associated packing materials as vectors for the introduction of non-indigenous species and harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming microalgae to Long Island Sound. Non-native, invasive seaweeds and HAB-forming...

  15. Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms through Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Located on Lake Erie in the 2014 and 2015 Bloom Seasons

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of drinking water treatment plants on Lake Erie have supplied water samples on a monthly basis for analysis related to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). General water quality parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), orthophosphate, and chlorophyll-A ...

  16. Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Erdner, Deana L; Dyble, Julianne; Parsons, Michael L; Stevens, Richard C; Hubbard, Katherine A; Wrabel, Michele L; Moore, Stephanie K; Lefebvre, Kathi A; Anderson, Donald M; Bienfang, Paul; Bidigare, Robert R; Parker, Micaela S; Moeller, Peter; Brand, Larry E; Trainer, Vera L

    2008-01-01

    Background Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are one focus of the national research initiatives on Oceans and Human Health (OHH) at NIEHS, NOAA and NSF. All of the OHH Centers, from the east coast to Hawaii, include one or more research projects devoted to studying HAB problems and their relationship to human health. The research shares common goals for understanding, monitoring and predicting HAB events to protect and improve human health: understanding the basic biology of the organisms; identifying how chemistry, hydrography and genetic diversity influence blooms; developing analytical methods and sensors for cells and toxins; understanding health effects of toxin exposure; and developing conceptual, empirical and numerical models of bloom dynamics. Results In the past several years, there has been significant progress toward all of the common goals. Several studies have elucidated the effects of environmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity on bloom dynamics. New methods have been developed or implemented for the detection of HAB cells and toxins, including genetic assays for Pseudo-nitzschia and Microcystis, and a biosensor for domoic acid. There have been advances in predictive models of blooms, most notably for the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium and Karenia. Other work is focused on the future, studying the ways in which climate change may affect HAB incidence, and assessing the threat from emerging HABs and toxins, such as the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine. Conclusion Along the way, many challenges have been encountered that are common to the OHH Centers and also echo those of the wider HAB community. Long-term field data and basic biological information are needed to develop accurate models. Sensor development is hindered by the lack of simple and rapid assays for algal cells and especially toxins. It is also critical to adequately understand the human health effects of HAB toxins. Currently, we understand best the effects of acute toxicity, but almost nothing is known about the effects of chronic, subacute toxin exposure. The OHH initiatives have brought scientists together to work collectively on HAB issues, within and across regions. The successes that have been achieved highlight the value of collaboration and cooperation across disciplines, if we are to continue to advance our understanding of HABs and their relationship to human health. PMID:19025673

  17. Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, David K.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in an estuary over multiple years were used to assess drivers of their spatial and temporal variability. Nauset Estuary on Cape Cod, Massachusetts has a recurrent, self-seeding A. fundyense population that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and leads to nearly annual closure to shellfishing. Weekly surveys of the entire estuary were made in 3 of 4 consecutive years, with surveys of a subembayment during the intervening year. Major A. fundyense blooms were observed all 4 years, with maximum concentrations >106 cells L?1. Concentrations were greatest in three salt ponds at the distal edges of the estuary. The bloom timing varied among the salt ponds and among years, although the blooms had similar durations and maximum cell concentrations. Nutrient concentrations did not correlate with the growth of the bloom, but differences in water temperature among years and ponds were significant. Net growth rates inferred from the surveys were similar to those from laboratory experiments, and increased linearly with temperature. A growing degree day calculation was used to account for effects of interannual variability and spatial gradients in water temperature on population development. The approach collapsed variability in the timing of bloom onset, development, and termination across years and among ponds, suggesting that this relatively simple metric could be used as an early-warning indicator for HABs in Nauset and similar areas with localized, self-seeding blooms. PMID:25419003

  18. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing: challenges and opportunities in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    BERDALET, ELISA; FLEMING, LORA E.; GOWEN, RICHARD; DAVIDSON, KEITH; HESS, PHILIPP; BACKER, LORRAINE C.; MOORE, STEPHANIE K.; HOAGLAND, PORTER; ENEVOLDSEN, HENRIK

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal blooms are a natural part of the seasonal cycle of photosynthetic organisms in marine ecosystems. They are key components of the structure and dynamics of the oceans and thus sustain the benefits that humans obtain from these aquatic environments. However, some microalgal blooms can cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments. HABs are natural phenomena, but these events can be favoured by anthropogenic pressures in coastal areas. Global warming and associated changes in the oceans could affect HAB occurrences and toxicity as well, although forecasting the possible trends is still speculative and requires intensive multidisciplinary research. At the beginning of the 21st century, with expanding human populations, particularly in coastal and developing countries, mitigating HABs impacts on human health and wellbeing is becoming a more pressing public health need. The available tools to address this global challenge include maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans and human health and wellbeing. PMID:26692586

  19. Trash to Treasure: From Harmful Algal Blooms to High-Performance Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xinghua; Savage, Phillip E; Deng, Da

    2015-10-20

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are frequently reported around the globe. HABs are typically caused by the so-called blue-green algae in eutrophic waters. These fast-growing HABs could be a good source for biomass. Unlike terrestrial plants, they need no land or soil. If HABs could be harvested on a large scale, it could not only possible to mitigate the issue of HABs but also provide a source of biomass. Herein, we demonstrate a facile procedure for converting the HABs into a promising high-performance negative-electrode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The carbon material derived from blue-green algae demonstrated promising electrochemical performance in reversible sodium storage. The algae used in this work was collected directly from Lake Erie during the algal blooms that affected 500 000 residents in Toledo in 2014. The carbon, derived from the freshly collected HABs by calcination in argon without any additional purification process, delivered a highly stable reversible specific capacity (∼230 mAh/g at a testing current of 20 mA/g) with nearly 100% Columbic efficiency in sodium storage. Impressive rate performance was achieved with a capacity of ∼135 mAh/g even after the testing current was increased fivefold. This proof of concept provides a promising route for mitigating the issue of HABs as "trash" and for generating high-capacity, low-cost electrodes for SIBs as "treasure". PMID:26393530

  20. Cyanobacteria Toxin and Cell Propagation through Seven Lake Erie Treatment Plants during the 2013 Algal Bloom Season - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past five years, Lake Erie has been experiencing harmful algal blooms (HABs) of progressively increasing severity. Cognizant of the potential health and economic impacts, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Water Supply and Water Resources Divis...

  1. Cyanobacteria Toxin and Cell Propagation through Seven Lake Erie Treatment Plants during the 2013 Algal Bloom Season - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past five years, Lake Erie has been experiencing harmful algal blooms (HABs) of progressively increasing severity. Cognizant of the potential health and economic impacts, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Water Supply and Water Resources Divis...

  2. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  3. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and to reduce the threats posed to inland surface water quality. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:6-13. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26771345

  4. Fiber-optic microarray for simultaneous detection of multiple harmful algal bloom species.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soohyoun; Kulis, David M; Erdner, Deana L; Anderson, Donald M; Walt, David R

    2006-09-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious threat to coastal resources, causing a variety of impacts on public health, regional economies, and ecosystems. Plankton analysis is a valuable component of many HAB monitoring and research programs, but the diversity of plankton poses a problem in discriminating toxic from nontoxic species using conventional detection methods. Here we describe a sensitive and specific sandwich hybridization assay that combines fiber-optic microarrays with oligonucleotide probes to detect and enumerate the HAB species Alexandrium fundyense, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, and Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Microarrays were prepared by loading oligonucleotide probe-coupled microspheres (diameter, 3 mum) onto the distal ends of chemically etched imaging fiber bundles. Hybridization of target rRNA from HAB cells to immobilized probes on the microspheres was visualized using Cy3-labeled secondary probes in a sandwich-type assay format. We applied these microarrays to the detection and enumeration of HAB cells in both cultured and field samples. Our study demonstrated a detection limit of approximately 5 cells for all three target organisms within 45 min, without a separate amplification step, in both sample types. We also developed a multiplexed microarray to detect the three HAB species simultaneously, which successfully detected the target organisms, alone and in combination, without cross-reactivity. Our study suggests that fiber-optic microarrays can be used for rapid and sensitive detection and potential enumeration of HAB species in the environment. PMID:16957189

  5. Fiber-Optic Microarray for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Harmful Algal Bloom Species

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soohyoun; Kulis, David M.; Erdner, Deana L.; Anderson, Donald M.; Walt, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious threat to coastal resources, causing a variety of impacts on public health, regional economies, and ecosystems. Plankton analysis is a valuable component of many HAB monitoring and research programs, but the diversity of plankton poses a problem in discriminating toxic from nontoxic species using conventional detection methods. Here we describe a sensitive and specific sandwich hybridization assay that combines fiber-optic microarrays with oligonucleotide probes to detect and enumerate the HAB species Alexandrium fundyense, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, and Pseudo-nitzschia australis. Microarrays were prepared by loading oligonucleotide probe-coupled microspheres (diameter, 3 ?m) onto the distal ends of chemically etched imaging fiber bundles. Hybridization of target rRNA from HAB cells to immobilized probes on the microspheres was visualized using Cy3-labeled secondary probes in a sandwich-type assay format. We applied these microarrays to the detection and enumeration of HAB cells in both cultured and field samples. Our study demonstrated a detection limit of approximately 5 cells for all three target organisms within 45 min, without a separate amplification step, in both sample types. We also developed a multiplexed microarray to detect the three HAB species simultaneously, which successfully detected the target organisms, alone and in combination, without cross-reactivity. Our study suggests that fiber-optic microarrays can be used for rapid and sensitive detection and potential enumeration of HAB species in the environment. PMID:16957189

  6. Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Quality Instrument Suite for Airborne Monitoring of Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Leshkevich, George; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Flatico, Joseph; Prokop, Norman; Kojima, Jun; Anderson, Robert; Demers, James; Krasowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab are collaborating to utilize an airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor suite to monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie. The HABs are very dynamic events as they form, spread and then disappear within a 4 to 8 week time period in late summer. They are a concern for human health, fish and wildlife because they can contain blue green toxic algae. Because of this toxicity there is a need for the blooms to be continually monitored. This situation is well suited for aircraft based monitoring because the blooms are a very dynamic event and they can spread over a large area. High resolution satellite data is not suitable by itself because it will not give the temporal resolution due to the infrequent overpasses of the quickly changing blooms. A custom designed hyperspectral imager and a point spectrometer mounted on aT 34 aircraft have been used to obtain data on an algal bloom that formed in the western basin of Lake Erie during September 2006. The sensor suite and operations will be described and preliminary hyperspectral data of this event will be presented

  7. Progress in understanding harmful algal blooms: paradigm shifts and new technologies for research, monitoring, and management.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Cembella, Allan D; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2012-01-01

    The public health, tourism, fisheries, and ecosystem impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) have all increased over the past few decades. This has led to heightened scientific and regulatory attention, and the development of many new technologies and approaches for research and management. This, in turn, is leading to significant paradigm shifts with regard to, e.g., our interpretation of the phytoplankton species concept (strain variation), the dogma of their apparent cosmopolitanism, the role of bacteria and zooplankton grazing in HABs, and our approaches to investigating the ecological and genetic basis for the production of toxins and allelochemicals. Increasingly, eutrophication and climate change are viewed and managed as multifactorial environmental stressors that will further challenge managers of coastal resources and those responsible for protecting human health. Here we review HAB science with an eye toward new concepts and approaches, emphasizing, where possible, the unexpected yet promising new directions that research has taken in this diverse field. PMID:22457972

  8. Progress in Understanding Harmful Algal Blooms: Paradigm Shifts and New Technologies for Research, Monitoring, and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Cembella, Allan D.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.

    2012-01-01

    The public health, tourism, fisheries, and ecosystem impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) have all increased over the past few decades. This has led to heightened scientific and regulatory attention, and the development of many new technologies and approaches for research and management. This, in turn, is leading to significant paradigm shifts with regard to, e.g., our interpretation of the phytoplankton species concept (strain variation), the dogma of their apparent cosmopolitanism, the role of bacteria and zooplankton grazing in HABs, and our approaches to investigating the ecological and genetic basis for the production of toxins and allelochemicals. Increasingly, eutrophication and climate change are viewed and managed as multifactorial environmental stressors that will further challenge managers of coastal resources and those responsible for protecting human health. Here we review HAB science with an eye toward new concepts and approaches, emphasizing, where possible, the unexpected yet promising new directions that research has taken in this diverse field.

  9. [Selective feeding of Calanus sinicus on harmful algal blooms species in East China Sea in spring].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Wang, Xiao-dong; Song, Shu-qun

    2007-01-01

    From April 27th to June 5th 2005, the selective feeding of Calanus sinicus on harmful algal blooms (HABs) species was studied by in situ feeding experiments at six typical stations in a high frequency red tide occurring region of East China Sea. The results showed that the selective feeding behavior of C. sinicus was dependent on food density. It had an obvious food selectivity when the abundance of phytoplankton cell was low, but the selectivity changed from preference to discrimination at high phytoplankton cell abundance, with a threshold value of 329 cells ml. The selective feeding of C. sinicus was also dependent on food composition. It showed no selective feeding or discrimination on microzooplankton at most stations, but preferred to P. delicatissima and disliked Karenia mikimotoi at HABs occurring station, which induced the succession of phytoplankton community to K. mikimotoi blooming. PMID:17396516

  10. Harmful algal blooms: How strong is the evidence that nutrient ratios and forms influence their occurrence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Keith; Gowen, Richard J.; Tett, Paul; Bresnan, Eileen; Harrison, Paul J.; McKinney, April; Milligan, Stephen; Mills, David K.; Silke, Joe; Crooks, Anne-Marie

    2012-12-01

    There is a perception that anthropogenically-driven changes in nutrient supply to coastal waters influences the abundance, frequency and toxicity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) through a change in the form or ratio of nutrient that limits phytoplankton growth. If nutrient concentrations are not limiting for growth, then ratios do not influence floristic composition. At non-limiting concentrations, evidence that alteration of nitrogen: phosphorus (N:P) ratios has stimulated HABs is limited, and primarily based on hypothesised relationships in relatively few locations (in particular: Tolo Harbour Hong Kong and Dutch Coastal Waters). In all cases, an unequivocal causal link between an increase in HABs (frequency, magnitude or duration) and change in N or P as the limiting nutrient is difficult to establish. The silicon (Si) limitation hypothesis is generally supported by experimental evidence and field data on the nuisance flagellate Phaeocystis. We found little evidence that high N:Si ratios preferentially promote harmful dinoflagellates over benign species. Laboratory studies demonstrate that nutrient ratios can influence toxin production, but genus and species specific differences and environmental control make extrapolation of these data to the field difficult. Studies of the role of dissolved and particulate organic nutrients in the growth of HAB species, while limited, demonstrate the potential for organic nutrients (especially organic N) to support the growth of a range of HAB species. There is a clear need for better understanding of the role of mixotrophy in the formation of HABs and for studies of HAB and non-HAB species in competition for environmentally realistic concentrations of organic nutrients.

  11. Genomewide investigation of adaptation to harmful algal blooms in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Cammen, Kristina M; Schultz, Thomas F; Rosel, Patricia E; Wells, Randall S; Read, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can be lethal in marine species and cause illness in humans, are increasing worldwide. In the Gulf of Mexico, HABs of Karenia brevis produce neurotoxic brevetoxins that cause large-scale marine mortality events. The long history of such blooms, combined with the potentially severe effects of exposure, may have produced a strong selective pressure for evolved resistance. Advances in next-generation sequencing, in particular genotyping-by-sequencing, greatly enable the genomic study of such adaptation in natural populations. We used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to investigate brevetoxicosis resistance in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). To improve our understanding of the epidemiology and aetiology of brevetoxicosis and the potential for evolved resistance in an upper trophic level predator, we sequenced pools of genomic DNA from dolphins sampled from both coastal and estuarine populations in Florida and during multiple HAB-associated mortality events. We sequenced 129 594 RAD loci and analysed 7431 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The allele frequencies of many of these polymorphic loci differed significantly between live and dead dolphins. Some loci associated with survival showed patterns suggesting a common genetic-based mechanism of resistance to brevetoxins in bottlenose dolphins along the Gulf coast of Florida, but others suggested regionally specific mechanisms of resistance or reflected differences among HABs. We identified candidate genes that may be the evolutionary target for brevetoxin resistance by searching the dolphin genome for genes adjacent to survival-associated SNPs. PMID:26290192

  12. Real time observations of coastal algal blooms by an early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H. W.; Hodgkiss, I. J.; Wong, K. T. M.; Lam, I. H. Y.

    2005-10-01

    In eutrophic sub-tropical coastal waters around Hong Kong, phytoplankton or unicellular microalgae can grow rapidly to very high concentrations under favourable environmental conditions. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have led to massive fish kills, hypoxia, and beach closures. However, to date the causality and mechanism of coastal algal blooms are still poorly understood. A remotely controlled autonomous real time field monitoring system has been developed to continuously track the changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, dissolved oxygen and other hydro-meteorological variables at two representative mariculture zones. The system can give an alarm when a bloom is detected, so that timely manual water quality sampling can be carried out to supplement the telemetric data. During 2000-2003, the system has successfully tracked 19 algal blooms. In the shallow weakly flushed coastal water (depth 7-10 m, tidal current 5-19 cm s -1), the bloom is short-lived, typically lasting a few days to over a week, with chlorophyll and DO concentrations in the range of 20-40 mg m -3 and 2-15 g m -3, respectively. It is found that: (1) the chlorophyll concentration is strongly correlated with its past values in the previous week, suggesting an auto-regressive type of algal dynamics; (2) the dissolved oxygen can reach highly super-saturated levels (12 g m -3) during a diatom bloom, and decreases to below 4 g m -3 at the tail of the growth phase; (3) in contrast, a dinoflagellate bloom is characterized by a much more pronounced vertical structure. Diel vertical migration and aggregation to dense layers are clearly observed. Significant dissolved oxygen consumption is associated with the migration, resulting in DO drops by as much as 6 g m -3 during the bloom; (4) the predominance of diatoms and dinoflagellates at the two sites can be explained in terms of the different hydrographic and nutrient conditions (the N:P ratio). Net algal growth rate, sinking and swimming velocities are derived from the in situ bloom data. The 4-year high frequency data set provides a basis for development of models for forecast of harmful algal blooms.

  13. Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, S. N.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.; Banas, N. S.; Davis, K. A.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Trainer, V. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Pelland, N. A.; Connolly, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a significant threat to human and marine organism health, and negatively impact coastal economies around the world. An improved understanding of HAB formation and transport is required to improve forecasting skill. A realistic numerical simulation of the US Pacific Northwest region is used to investigate transport pathways from known HAB formation hot spots, specifically for Pseudo-nitzschia (Pn), to the coast. We show that transport pathways are seasonal, with transport to the Washington (WA) coast from a northern source (the Juan de Fuca Eddy) during the summer/fall upwelling season and from a southern source (Heceta Bank) during the winter/early spring due to the predominant wind-driven currents. Interannual variability in transport from the northern source is related to the degree of wind intermittency with more transport during years with more frequent relaxation/downwelling events. The Columbia River plume acts to mitigate transport to the coast as the plume front blocks onshore transport. The plume's influence on alongshore transport is variable although critical in aiding transport from the southern source to the WA coast via plume entrainment. Overall transport from our simulations captures most observed Pn HAB beach events from 2004 to 2007 (characterized by Pseudo-nitzschia cell abundance); however, numerous false positives occur. We show that incorporating phytoplankton biomass results from a coupled biogeochemical model reduces the number of false positives significantly and thus improves our Pn HAB predictions.

  14. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  15. DETECTING HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN LOUISIANA COASTAL WATERS -

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will do in situ monitoring of HABs, that coupled with ongoing water quality monitoring, will provide useful cause and effect information about the occurrence and locations of blooms within the area. In the Lake Salvadore area of the Barataria Bay, just southwest of N...

  16. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-01-01

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges. PMID:19025676

  17. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-01-01

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges. PMID:19025676

  18. Applications of Satellite Ocean Color Imagery for Detecting and Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in the Olympic Peninsula Region

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Ashley C.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Trainer, Vera L.; Woodruff, Dana L.

    2003-08-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) attributed to Pseudo-nitzschia species, a diatom that produces Domoic acid, are a common occurrence and serious threat along the coast of the US Northwest. Monitoring these events or providing advanced warning of their occurrence at the coast would provide an important aid to fisheries managers. Remote sensing, which is being used in the Gulf of Mexico for HAB detection and forecasting (of a different algae), could provide a tool for monitoring and warnings. Chlorophyll and SST imagery are being used to support a research and monitoring program for the region, and HAB monitoring techniques used in the Gulf of Mexico are being examined for their potential utility along the Washington coast. The focus of this study is to determine the efficacy of using satellite ocean color imagery for HAB monitoring off of Washingtons Olympic Peninsula region, and to provide support in the form of ocean color imagery products for management and mitigation efforts.

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions in Remote Quorum Sensing and the Management of Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Rose; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This candidate solution proposes to use the night-imaging capabilities of the HSTC from SAC-C and of the HSC from SAC-D/Aquarius to detect bioluminescent events associated with HABs (harmful algal blooms). Once detected, this information could be fed to the NOAA CSCOR (Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research) Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program, which acts quickly to fund the mobilization of research teams and to engage local agencies in a response. The HSC/HSTC data can serve as input to the HABSOS decision support system to provide information on location, extent, and duration of HAB events. Society will benefit from improved protection of the health of humans beings, aquatic ecosystems, and coastal economies. This work supports coastal management, public health, and homeland security applications.

  20. Detection of harmful algal bloom causing microalgae using covalently immobilised capture oligonucleotide probes on glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Karen L.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Leterme, Sophie C.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Lenehan, Claire E.

    2013-12-01

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) events have been on the rise in the last few decades with some of the causative microalgae exhibiting toxic properties. Therefore, detection is essential in order to prevent mortality of aquatic life and poisoning events from consumption of these biotoxins. Here, oligonucleotide modified glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces have been developed for the detection of the HAB causing microalgae, Alexandrium catenella, in a model system. Our preliminary studies show that the glass surface offers superior stability and analytical response when compared to those prepared from PDMS.

  1. What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

  2. Watershed management strategies to prevent and control cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    The tenets of watershed management--a focus on the land area linked to the water body, the incorporation of sound scientific information into the decision-making process and stakeholder involvement throughout the process--are well-suited for the management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (C-HABs). The management of C-HABs can be viewed as having two main areas of focus. First, there is mitigation--control and/or removal of the bloom. This type of crisis response is an important component to managing active C-HABs and there are several techniques that have been successfully utilized, including the application of algicides, physical removal of surface scums and the mechanical mixing of the water column. While these methods are valuable because they address the immediate problem, they do not address the conditions that exist in the system that promote and maintain C-HABs. Thus, the second component of a successful C-HAB management strategy would include a focus on prevention. C-HABs require nutrients to fuel their growth and are often favored in longer-residence time systems with vertical stratification of the water column. Consequently, nutrients and hydrology are the two factors most commonly identified as the targets for prevention of C-HABs. Management strategies to control the sources, transformation and delivery of the primary growth-limiting nutrients have been applied with success in many areas. The most effective of these include controlling land use, maintaining the integrity of the landscape and applying best management practices. In the past, notable successes in managing C-HABs have relied on the reduction of nutrients from point-sources. Because many point sources are now well-managed, current efforts are focused on non-point source nutrient reduction, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas. Non-point sources present significant challenges due to their diffuse nature. Regardless of which techniques are utilized, effective watershed management programs for decreasing the prevalence of C-HABs will require continuing efforts to integrate science and management activities. Ultimately, it is increased coordination among stakeholders and scientists that will lead to the development of the decision-making tools that managers require to effectively weigh the costs and benefits of these programs. PMID:18461773

  3. Impact of harmful algal blooms on wild and cultured animals in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Núñez Vázquez, Erick J; Lizarraga, Ismael Gárate; Schmidt, Christine J Band; Tapia, Amaury Cordero; Cortes, David J Lopez; Sandoval, Francisco E Hernandez; Tapia, Alejandra Heredia; Guzman, Jose J Bustillos

    2011-07-01

    Historical documents and classic works together with recent specialized literature have described Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of California. This is a review of HABs impact (qualitative and quantitative) during the last decades in the Gulf of California on wild (mammals, birds, fishes, and invertebrates) and cultured animals (shrimps and fishes). Microalgal species responsible of noxious effects are Noctiluca scintillans, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gymnodinium catenatum, Prorocentrum minimum, Akashiwo sanguinea, Chattonella subsalsa Ch. marina, Chattonella sp., Heterocapsa sp., Dinophysis sp., Fibrocapsa japonica, Heterosigma akashiwo, Thalassiosira sp., Chaetoceros spp., Pseudo-nitzschia australis, P fraudulenta, Pseudo-nitzschia sp., Trichodesmium erythraeum and ScSchizotrix calcicola. Emphasis is given to the necessity to continue with interdisciplinary studies in oceanography, ecology, toxicology and toxinology interrelated with biomedical sciences such as physiology, pathology, epidemiology and animal health. PMID:22315821

  4. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integrating Salinity Measurements from Aquarius into the Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lewis, David; Hilbert, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution suggests the use of Aquarius sea surface salinity measurements to improve the NOAA/NCDDC (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s National Coastal Data Development Center) HABSOS (Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System) DST (decision support tool) by enhancing development and movement forecasts of HAB events as well as potential species identification. In the proposed configuration, recurring salinity measurements from the Aquarius mission would augment HABSOS sea surface temperature and in situ ocean current measurements. Thermohaline circulation observations combined with in situ measurements increase the precision of HAB event movement forecasting. These forecasts allow coastal managers and public health officials to make more accurate and timely warnings to the public and to better direct science teams to event sites for collection and further measurements.

  5. Simultaneous removal of harmful algal blooms and microcystins using microorganism- and chitosan-modified local soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Pan, Gang

    2015-05-19

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyano-HAB) and microcystins (MCs) can cause a potential threat to public health. Here, a method for simultaneous removal of cyano-HAB and MCs was developed using chitosan-modified local soil (MLS) flocculation plus microorganism-modified soil capping. The experiment was conducted in simulated columns containing algal water collected from Lake Taihu (China). More than 90% of algal cells and intracellular MCs were flocculated and removed from water using chitosan-MLS and the sunken flocs were treated by different capping materials including Pseudomonas sp. An18 modified local soil. During 40 days of incubation, dissolved MC-LR and MC-RR showed 10-fold increase in the flocculation-only system. The increase of MC-LR and MC-RR in water was reduced by 30 and 70% in soil capping treatments; however, the total content of MCs in the sediment-water column remained similar to that in the control and flocculation only systems. In contrast, both dissolved MCs and total MCs were reduced by 90% in Pseudomonas sp. An18 modified soil capping treatment. The high performance of toxin decomposition was due to the combined effects of flocculation and MC-degrading bacteria that embedded in the capping material, which prevents dilution of bacteria biomass, concentrates algal cells, confines released toxins, and enhances toxin biodegradation. PMID:25901393

  6. THE FUTURE OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO PREDICTING THE COMBINED IMPACTS OF RISING CO2, TEMPERATURE, AND EUTROPHICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent worldwide increases in harmful algal blooms (HABs) are almost certainly linked to cultural eutrophication of coastal environments. Virtually no attention has been given, however, to how other major anthropogenic impacts such as rising CO2 and greenhouse warmi...

  7. Evaluation of the Harmful Algal Bloom Mapping System (HABMapS) and Bulletin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Callie; Zanoni, Vicki; Estep, Leland; Terrie, Gregory; D'Sa, Eurico; Pagnutti, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Mapping System and Bulletin provide a Web-based geographic information system (GIS) and an e-mail alert system that allow the detection, monitoring, and tracking of HABs in the Gulf of Mexico. NASA Earth Science data that potentially support HABMapS/Bulletin requirements include ocean color, sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, wind fields, precipitation, water surface elevation, and ocean currents. Modeling contributions include ocean circulation, wave/currents, along-shore current regimes, and chlorophyll modeling (coupled to imagery). The most immediately useful NASA contributions appear to be the 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) chlorophyll and SST products and the (presently used) SeaWinds wind vector data. MODIS pigment concentration and SST data are sufficiently mature to replace imagery currently used in NOAA HAB applications. The large file size of MODIS data is an impediment to NOAA use and modified processing schemes would aid in NOAA adoption of these products for operational HAB forecasting.

  8. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    PubMed

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p < 0.001) and larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs. PMID:26348409

  9. Effects of modified clay on cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea for harmful algal bloom control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifu; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua; Han, Xiaotian

    2014-11-01

    We present results on the effect of modified clay on cyst formation of Scrippsiella trochoidea in harmful algal bloom (HAB). Modified clay (in concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/L) were added to cultures, and observations were made on cysts of S. trochoidea under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that the removal rate of algal cells reached 97.7% at the clay concentration of 1.0 g/L. The cyst formation rate increased from 4.6% to 24.6% when the concentration of clay was increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. Two cyst metamorphs were observed: spinal calcareous cysts and smooth noncalcareous ones. The proportion of the spinal cysts decreased from 76.9% to 24.1% when clay concentration increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. In addition, modified clay affected cyst germination. The germination rate decreased with the increases in the clay concentrations. Non-calcareous cysts had a lower germination rate with a longer germination time. We conclude that modified clay could depress algal cell multiplication and promote formation of temporal cysts of S. trochoidea, which may help in controlling HAB outbreaks.

  10. HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS OBSERVING SYSTEM PILOT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HABSOS Pilot Project is being developed through a partnership of federal, state and academic organizations as proof-of-concept for a coastal observing system in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal is to design a HAB data management system and develop the regional communication infra...

  11. ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

  12. Lack of variation in voltage-gated sodium channels of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to neurotoxic algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Cammen, Kristina M; Rosel, Patricia E; Wells, Randall S; Read, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    In coastal marine ecosystems, neurotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs) often result in large-scale mortality events of many marine species. Historical and frequent exposure to HABs therefore may provide a strong selective pressure for adaptations that result in toxin resistance. Neurotoxin resistance has independently evolved in a variety of terrestrial and marine species via mutations in genes encoding the toxin binding sites within the voltage-gated sodium channel gene complex. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the putative binding site of brevetoxins in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) explains differences among individuals or populations in resistance to harmful Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. We found very little variation in the sodium channel exons encoding the putative brevetoxin binding site among bottlenose dolphins from central-west Florida and the Florida Panhandle. Our study included samples from several bottlenose dolphin mortality events associated with HABs, but we found no association between genetic variation and survival. We observed a significant effect of geographic region on genetic variation for some sodium channel isoforms, but this can be primarily explained by rare private alleles and is more likely a reflection of regional genetic differentiation than the cause of different levels of HAB resistance between regions. In contrast to many other previously studied neurotoxin-resistant species, we conclude that bottlenose dolphins have not evolved resistance to HABs via mutations in genes encoding the brevetoxin binding site on the voltage-gated sodium channels. PMID:25456229

  13. The paradox of algal blooms in oligotrophic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhyay, S.; Abessa, M. B.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient inputs to streams and lakes, primarily from anthropogenic sources, lead to eutrophic conditions that favor algal blooms with undesirable consequences. In contrast, low nutrient or oligotrophic waters rarely support algal blooms; such ecosystems are typically lower in productivity. Since the mid-1980’s however, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has dramatically expanded its range colonizing oligotrophic rivers worldwide with blooms appearing as thick benthic mats. This recent global occurrence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms in temperate rivers has been perplexing in its pace of spread and the paradoxical nature of the nuisance growths. The blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic flowing waters, where phosphorus (P) availability often limits primary production. We present a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats adsorb both P and iron (Fe) from flowing waters and make P available for cellular uptake. The adsorbed P becomes bioavailable through biogeochemical processes that occur within the mat. The biogeochemical processes observed here while well accepted in benthic systems are novel for algal blooms in lotic habits. Enzymatic and bacterial processes such as Fe and sulfate reduction can release the adsorbed P and increase its bioavailability, creating a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and nutrient availability. Stalk affinity for Fe, Fe-P biogeochemistry, and interaction between watershed processes and climatic setting explain the paradoxical blooms, and the recent global spread of this invasive aquatic species. At a broader scale the study also implies that such algal blooms in oligotrophic environments can fundamentally alter the retention and longitudinal transfer of important nutrients such as P in streams and rivers.

  14. Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the aid of Lagrangian coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olascoaga, M. J.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Brand, L. E.; KoçAk, H.

    2008-12-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf. However, because the early stages of HAB development are usually not detected, these theories have been so far very difficult to verify. In this paper we employ simulated Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) to trace potential early locations of the development of a HAB in late 2004 before it was transported to a region where it could be detected by satellite imagery. The LCSs, which are extracted from surface ocean currents produced by a data-assimilative HYCOM (HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model) simulation, constitute material fluid barriers that demarcate potential pathways for HAB evolution. Using a simplified population dynamics model we infer the factors that could possibly lead to the development of the HAB in question. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by surface ocean currents produced by the above HYCOM simulation. Two nutrient sources are inferred for the HAB whose evolution is found to be strongly tied to the simulated LCSs. These nutrient sources are found to be located nearshore and possibly due to land runoff.

  15. Tracing the Early Development of Harmful Algal Blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the Aid of Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, M. J.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Brand, L. E.; Koçak, H.

    2008-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf. However, because the early stages of HAB development are usually not detected, these theories have been so far very difficult to verify. In this paper we employ simulated Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) to trace potential early locations of the development of a HAB in late 2004 before it was transported to a region where it could be detected by satellite imagery. The LCSs, which are extracted from surface ocean currents produced by a data-assimilative HYCOM (HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model) simulation, constitute material fluid barriers that demarcate potential pathways for HAB evolution. Using a simplified population dynamics model we infer the factors that could possibly lead to the development of the HAB in question. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by surface ocean currents produced by the above HYCOM simulation. Two nutrient sources are inferred for the HAB whose evolution is found to be strongly tied to the simulated LCSs. These nutrient sources are found to be located nearshore and possibly due to land runoff. PMID:19137076

  16. Harmful Algal Blooms and Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been conducting algal bloom research at multiple facilities around Lake Erie over the past few years to help communities confront the challenge of keeping cyanobacterial toxins from reaching consumers’ taps, while minimizing the financial burden. The first goal of this re...

  17. Harmful Algal Blooms and Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been conducting algal bloom research at multiple facilities around Lake Erie over the past few years to help communities confront the challenge of keeping cyanobacterial toxins from reaching consumers’ taps, while minimizing the financial burden. The first goal of this re...

  18. Metatranscriptome profiling of a harmful algal bloom

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Endymion D.; Bentlage, Bastian; Gibbons, Theodore R.; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Delwiche, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic methods provide a powerful means to investigate complex ecological phenomena. Developed originally for study of Bacteria and Archaea, the application of these methods to eukaryotic microorganisms is yet to be fully realized. Most prior environmental molecular studies of eukaryotes have relied heavily on PCR amplification with eukaryote-specific primers. Here we apply high throughput short-read sequencing of poly-A selected RNA to capture the metatranscriptome of an estuarine dinoflagellate bloom. To validate the metatranscriptome assembly process we simulated metatranscriptomic datasets using short-read sequencing data from clonal cultures of four algae of varying phylogenetic distance. We find that the proportion of chimeric transcripts reconstructed from community transcriptome sequencing is low, suggesting that metatranscriptomic sequencing can be used to accurately reconstruct the transcripts expressed by bloom-forming communities of eukaryotes. To further validate the bloom metatransciptome assembly we compared it to a transcriptomic assembly from a cultured, clonal isolate of the dominant bloom-causing alga and found that the two assemblies are highly similar. Eukaryote-wide phylogenetic analyses reveal the taxonomic composition of the bloom community, which is comprised of several dinoflagellates, ciliates, animals, and fungi. The assembled metatranscriptome reveals the functional genomic composition of a metabolically active community. Highlighting the potential power of these methods, we found that relative transcript abundance patterns suggest that the dominant dinoflagellate might be expressing toxin biosynthesis related genes at a higher level in the presence of competitors, predators and prey compared to it growing in monoculture. PMID:25484636

  19. Numerical investigation of the effects of upwelling on harmful algal blooms off the west Florida coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanerolle, Lyon W. J.; Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Gross, Thomas F.; Aikman, Frank, III; Stumpf, Richard P.; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Pederson, Brad A.

    2006-12-01

    The initiation of the toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB), Karenia brevis, along the west Florida coast has been associated with upwelling events. Upwelling processes may be responsible for the transport of nutrients or algae from deep offshore locations across the Florida shelf to the coast. The influence of coastal wind-driven upwelling on the onset and occurrences of K. brevis in this region was numerically investigated using Rutgers University's Regional Ocean Modeling System. Computations were carried out in an idealized model domain, a two-dimensional slice in the cross-shore and vertical directions. The surface forcing data used was from several offshore meteorological buoys. The motion of the algae was simulated using Lagrangian particles and a passive tracer. The numerical simulations of three K. brevis events in 2000-2002 showed that the particles respond (with upwelling/downwelling) to the along-shore wind stresses as expected and some upwelling was present during the events. Comparison of the passive tracer fields with measured fluorescence data exposed the model's sensitivity to the particular surface forcing data employed and the relatively more significant role played by surface forcing over initial conditions. The present model set-up constitutes a useful predictive tool for conditions conducive to the onset of HABs. It is planned to be used in a real-time mode to aid the NOAA HAB monitoring and forecasting system.

  20. Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephanie K; Trainer, Vera L; Mantua, Nathan J; Parker, Micaela S; Laws, Edward A; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenically-derived increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been implicated in recent climate change, and are projected to substantially impact the climate on a global scale in the future. For marine and freshwater systems, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase surface temperatures, lower pH, and cause changes to vertical mixing, upwelling, precipitation, and evaporation patterns. The potential consequences of these changes for harmful algal blooms (HABs) have received relatively little attention and are not well understood. Given the apparent increase in HABs around the world and the potential for greater problems as a result of climate change and ocean acidification, substantial research is needed to evaluate the direct and indirect associations between HABs, climate change, ocean acidification, and human health. This research will require a multidisciplinary approach utilizing expertise in climatology, oceanography, biology, epidemiology, and other disciplines. We review the interactions between selected patterns of large-scale climate variability and climate change, oceanic conditions, and harmful algae. PMID:19025675

  1. Vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to changes in harmful algal bloom distribution in response to climate change: projections based on model analysis.

    PubMed

    Glibert, Patricia M; Icarus Allen, J; Artioli, Yuri; Beusen, Arthur; Bouwman, Lex; Harle, James; Holmes, Robert; Holt, Jason

    2014-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), those proliferations of algae that can cause fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, form unsightly scums, or detrimentally alter ecosystem function have been increasing in frequency, magnitude, and duration worldwide. Here, using a global modeling approach, we show, for three regions of the globe, the potential effects of nutrient loading and climate change for two HAB genera, pelagic Prorocentrum and Karenia, each with differing physiological characteristics for growth. The projections (end of century, 2090-2100) are based on climate change resulting from the A1B scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Climate Model (IPCC, IPSL-CM4), applied in a coupled oceanographic-biogeochemical model, combined with a suite of assumed physiological 'rules' for genera-specific bloom development. Based on these models, an expansion in area and/or number of months annually conducive to development of these HABs along the NW European Shelf-Baltic Sea system and NE Asia was projected for both HAB genera, but no expansion (Prorocentrum spp.), or actual contraction in area and months conducive for blooms (Karenia spp.), was projected in the SE Asian domain. The implications of these projections, especially for Northern Europe, are shifts in vulnerability of coastal systems to HAB events, increased regional HAB impacts to aquaculture, increased risks to human health and ecosystems, and economic consequences of these events due to losses to fisheries and ecosystem services. PMID:24942916

  2. Cephalopods as Vectors of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Marine Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Vanessa M.; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)—the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG >> kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 μg kg−1 and palytoxin reaching 115 μg kg−1 (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 μg kg−1 in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the Mediterranean area. PMID:24018900

  3. Cephalopods as vectors of harmful algal bloom toxins in marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)--the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG > kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 ?g kg?¹ and palytoxin reaching 115 ?g kg?¹ (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 ?g kg?¹ in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the Mediterranean area. PMID:24018900

  4. Predator-induced fleeing behaviors in phytoplankton: a new mechanism for harmful algal bloom formation?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth L; Menden-Deuer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In the plankton, heterotrophic microbes encounter and ingest phytoplankton prey, which effectively removes >50% of daily phytoplankton production in the ocean and influences global primary production and biochemical cycling rates. Factors such as size, shape, nutritional value, and presence of chemical deterrents are known to affect predation pressure. Effects of movement behaviors of either predator or prey on predation pressure, and particularly fleeing behaviors in phytoplankton are thus far unknown. Here, we quantified individual 3D movements, population distributions, and survival rates of the toxic phytoplankton species, Heterosigma akashiwo in response to a ciliate predator and predator-derived cues. We observed predator-induced defense behaviors previously unknown for phytoplankton. Modulation of individual phytoplankton movements during and after predator exposure resulted in an effective separation of predator and prey species. The strongest avoidance behaviors were observed when H. akashiwo co-occurred with an actively grazing predator. Predator-induced changes in phytoplankton movements resulted in a reduction in encounter rate and a 3-fold increase in net algal population growth rate. A spatially explicit population model predicted rapid phytoplankton bloom formation only when fleeing behaviors were incorporated. These model predictions reflected field observations of rapid H. akashiwo harmful algal bloom (HAB) formation in the coastal ocean. Our results document a novel behavior in phytoplankton that can significantly reduce predation pressure and suggests a new mechanism for HAB formation. Phytoplankton behaviors that minimize predatory losses, maximize resource acquisition, and alter community composition and distribution patterns could have major implications for our understanding and predictive capacity of marine primary production and biochemical cycling rates. PMID:23029518

  5. Connecting Florida Bay algal blooms to freshwater nutrient sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, T.; Melesse, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, monthly water quality data collected in the Everglades by the Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) from 1991 to 2008 at 28 sampling stations distributed across Florida Bay was analyzed within the context of local geomorphology and seasonal wind and current regimes in order to evaluate the feasibility of the various purported nutrient sources for reoccurring algal blooms. The in situ chlorophyll-a (chl-a) measurements from the SERC dataset were evaluated as the indicator of algal biomass. Significant differences in average monthly chl-a concentrations at stations indicated a seasonality of algal blooms in the north central and west areas that is not evidenced in stations exhibiting low levels of chl-a throughout the typical year. Tukey's pairwise comparisons of monthly chl-a indicated, at the 95% confidence level, peak algal biomass occurs in October and November at the end of the wet season with minimums occurring between February and August depending on the location of the station. By month comparison of chl-a levels across stations suggest seasonal trends in the geographic focus and extent of blooms. Significant differences from Tukey's pairwise comparisons at the 95% confidence level showed stations to the west as having higher levels of chl-a in March through May with north central stations dominating from June to January. The month of February shows no significant difference in chl-a levels across this area. The results support hypotheses centering on a western source of nutrients that are delivered to the bay over the course of the rainy season. Mapping water quality sampling station locations on top of the bathymetry of Florida Bay illustrates the importance of considering coastal morphology in explaining trends in estuarine algal blooms. Coastal geomorphology along with seasonal changes in the direction of winds and magnitude of rains are demonstrated to be the predominant factors influencing the nutrient circulation that is pertinent to observed patterns in Florida Bay algal blooms. These results point to the utility of regional hydrogeologic characterizations at fine spatial and temporal resolutions in tracking seasonally variable hydrologic inputs in complex and dynamic systems.

  6. Detection of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Optically Complex Coastal Waters of the Kuwait Bay using Aqua-MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manche, C. J.; Sultan, M.; Uddin, S.; Al-Dousari, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the optically complex coastal marine waters of the Kuwait Bay, the propagation of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) has become a severe issue over the last decade affecting aquaculture a primary component of the Kuwaiti economy. Although several remote sensing based methods of algal bloom detection exist today, few may accurately detect the concentration and identify the type of HABs in Case II waters. The purpose of this study is: (1) assessment of the method that best detects and identifies algal blooms in general and HABs in particular, in the Kuwait Bay, and (2) identification of the factors controlling the occurrence of HABs. Fluorescence Line Height (FLH), Empirical, Bio-Optical, and Operational Methods as well as Ocean Colour 3 Band Ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM), and General Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) algorithms were applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images acquired (07/2002 to 07/2012) over the Kuwait Bay and areas as far east as Shatt Al-Arab and as far south as N. 29.284 (Lat.), E. 50.047 (Long.) decimal degrees. In-situ data (bloom days: 50; sampling locations: 64) collected (09/1999 to 07/2011) from the Kuwait Bay was provided by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and was used to test the reliability of the satellite-based inferences. Tasks accomplished and findings reached include: (1) comparison of in situ to estimated OC3M, GSM, and GIOP chlorophyll concentrations over the sampling locations for the time period 2002 to 2009 showed that OC3M outperformed the two other techniques in predicting the observed distribution and in replicating the measured concentration of the in-situ Chl-a data; (2) applying the OC3M algorithm to a total of 4039 scenes and using threshold values of 3, 4, and 5 mg/m3 Chl-a concentrations we inferred 371, 202, and 124 occurrences in the Kuwait Bay that met their respective threshold; (3) applying the operational method we successfully identified 13 of the reported blooms in Kuwait Bay on cloud free days; the majority of the unidentified events were on cloudy days. This was accomplished by generating difference images between the current satellite OC3M Chl-a concentration image and a background (mean of previous 60 days + 1 mg/m3) using a 14-day window between the analyzed image and those used in the generation of the mean. Predicted blooms in the Kuwait Bay in years 2002 through 2012 are 30, 84, 101, 96, 100, 97, 66, 60, 91, 81 and 29 blooms, respectively. These estimates exceed the observed occurrences and may be attributed to sampling bias (most blooms found >2 km from the shoreline) or due to uncertainties introduced by applying the OC3M algorithms to shallow water (mean depth Kuwait Bay: 22 m) cases; and (4) the temporal correlation of the distribution of the algal blooms in Kuwait Bay with those at the mouth of Shatt Al-Arab suggests a causal effect. Further efforts to more accurately identify HABS and to reduce uncertainties in Chl-a concentration are currently underway.

  7. Numerical simulation of an algal bloom in Dianshan Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lin, Weiqing; Zhu, Jianrong; Lu, Shiqiang

    2015-06-01

    A hydrodynamic model and an aquatic ecology model of Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, were built using a hydrodynamic simulation module and the water quality simulation module of Delft3D, which is an integrated modelling suite offered by Deltares. The simulated water elevation, current velocity, and direction were validated with observed data to ensure the reliability of hydrodynamic model. The seasonal growth of different algae was analyzed with consideration of observed and historical data, as well as simulated results. In 2008, the dominant algae in Dianshan Lake was Bacillariophyta from February to March, while it was Chlorophyta from April to May, and Cyanophyta from July to August. In summer, the biomass of Cyanophyta grew quickly, reaching levels much higher than the peaks of Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. Algae blooms primarily occurred in the stagnation regions. This phenomenon indicates that water residence time can infl uence algal growth signifi cantly. A longer water residence time was associated with higher algal growth. Two conclusions were drawn from several simulations: reducing the nutrients infl ow had little effect on algal blooms in Dianshan Lake; however, increasing the discharge into Dianshan Lake could change the fl ow fi eld characteristic and narrow the range of stagnation regions, resulting in inhibition of algal aggregation and propagation and a subsequent reduction in areas of high concentration algae.

  8. Numerical simulation of an algal bloom in Dianshan Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lin, Weiqing; Zhu, Jianrong; Lu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model and an aquatic ecology model of Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, were built using a hydrodynamic simulation module and the water quality simulation module of Delft3D, which is an integrated modelling suite offered by Deltares. The simulated water elevation, current velocity, and direction were validated with observed data to ensure the reliability of hydrodynamic model. The seasonal growth of different algae was analyzed with consideration of observed and historical data, as well as simulated results. In 2008, the dominant algae in Dianshan Lake was Bacillariophyta from February to March, while it was Chlorophyta from April to May, and Cyanophyta from July to August. In summer, the biomass of Cyanophyta grew quickly, reaching levels much higher than the peaks of Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. Algae blooms primarily occurred in the stagnation regions. This phenomenon indicates that water residence time can influence algal growth significantly. A longer water residence time was associated with higher algal growth. Two conclusions were drawn from several simulations: reducing the nutrients inflow had little effect on algal blooms in Dianshan Lake; however, increasing the discharge into Dianshan Lake could change the flow field characteristic and narrow the range of stagnation regions, resulting in inhibition of algal aggregation and propagation and a subsequent reduction in areas of high concentration algae.

  9. Baseline nutrient dynamics in shallow well mixed coastal lagoon with seasonal harmful algal blooms and hypoxia formation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Evan L; Paudel, Bhanu; Montagna, Paul A

    2015-07-15

    Weekly inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations were measured to establish baseline conditions in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas during seasonal hypoxia and harmful algal bloom (HAB) formation. Two fixed stations along the southern shoreline were sampled weekly for a continuous year at the same time each day. Weekly shoreline observations were found to be statistically similar to quarterly observations in the bay center, but with a greater power to detect seasonal trends. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)<4 mg/L was measured in June, 2012 along the southern shoreline of Corpus Christi Bay, which places lower DO conditions west of previous estimates. During a bay-wide HAB event in November of 2011 no changes were observed in any of the nutrient or chlorophyll-a observations. This study documents a baseline of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in Corpus Christi Bay during a dry (average salinity>36 PSU) year. PMID:26002095

  10. Detection of algal bloom with in situ and MODIS in Lake TaiHu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingtian, Yang; Delu, Pan; Xiaoyu, Zhang; Yan, Bai; Xianqiang, He; Difeng, Wang; Fang, Gong; Shujing, Li

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, great amount of polluted water discharged into the north part of Lake TaiHu, results in water eutrophication and frequent occurrences of blue-green algal bloom in the area. In order to obtain the information about blue-green algal bloom distribution for monitoring water quality, four navigation of in situ hyperspectral measurement and MODIS data of 250 m resolution were used to study the radiance reflectance character and distribution of blue-green algal bloom in the lake. Hyperspectral measurement showed that the peak of water leaving radiance near 700 nm transferred to 750-780 nm as the water covered with blue-green algal bloom and increased with the increasing density of water bloom. Band ratio of channel I to channel II and band synthesize of MODIS image of 250 m resolution were used for detection of algal bloom, and proved that band ratio of channel I to channel II was more suitable for detection of algal bloom. The methods for differentiating submerged vegetation and algal bloom from MODIS image were also tested: The area covered with submerged vegetation usually had high secchi depth, with algal bloom usually low secchi depth, and the phenomena can be used efficiently for differentiating submerged vegetation and algal bloom on MODIS image.

  11. Long term phytoplankton monitoring, including harmful algal blooms, in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. L.; Hanke, A. R.; LeGresley, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring program was initiated in May 1987 to study phytoplankton populations in the Bay of Fundy, southwest New Brunswick, eastern Canada. Samples are collected for phytoplankton distribution and abundance at five locations in the Bay of Fundy. Other parameters measured include plant nutrients (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate), Secchi depth, and depth profiles for fluorescence, oxygen, temperature and salinity. Alexandrium fundyense abundance from the 5 sites and between years is compared to physical and chemical properties of seawater using principle component analyses (PCA) to identify factors showing the greatest amount of variance in temporal and spatial distribution patterns. Analysis of A. fundyense abundance over the 19-year period 1987-2005 indicates that cell abundance from one year does not reflect the following year's phytoplankton concentration, and nitrate values and cell densities appear to have a negative relationship. A further comparison between the 2 years 2004 and 2005 (years with very different intensities of A. fundyense maximum cell concentrations) further supported these findings. Preliminary analyses indicate that many species abundances and intensities appear to be more climate or weather related than nutrient flux related. Examination of relationships between harmful algal bloom (HAB) cell density, nutrients and environmental variables indicates that there is no evidence that HABs are linked to eutrophication processes at the temporal and spatial scales of the study.

  12. Do external resource ratios matter?: Implications for modelling eutrophication events and controlling harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Kevin J.

    2010-11-01

    Relationships between nutrient N:P ratio and P-limitation in phytoplankton are explored using a multi-nutrient photoacclimative quota-based model. The relationship depends on concentrations of input and residual nutrients, and also on variable phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry. In reality, usually only the residual nutrient concentrations and their ratios are known. However, the total amount of nutrient present in the system affects biomass growth potential through self-shading, and thence the potential for variation in organismal N:P. The critical external N:P resource ratio above which P becomes limiting increases as residual concentrations of nutrients increase to saturate transport kinetics; oligotrophic waters require a lower nutrient N:P to avoid P-limitation than do eutrophic waters. In eutrophic systems, which may support harmful algal blooms (HABs), and/or in systems in which light is rapidly attenuated (sediment loading, gelbstoff), P-limitation may not develop even in high resource N:P situations due to light limitation. This is more likely in high washout systems, where phytoplankton growth rates must remain elevated. The only diagnostics for nutrient stress are cellular functions (C-fixation, C:N:P), and the only nutrient parameters of consequence are concentrations and not ratios of them. Control of resource ratios alone should not be considered as a tool for mitigating HABs.

  13. Fish sound production in the presence of harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wall, Carrie C; Lembke, Chad; Hu, Chuanmin; Mann, David A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set to encounter toxic Karenia brevis blooms (a.k.a red tides). Oceanographic conditions measured by the glider were significantly correlated to the variation in sounds from six known or suspected species of fish across the three missions with depth consistently being the most significant factor. At the time and space scales of this study, there was no detectable effect of red tide on sound production. Sounds were still recorded within red tide-affected waters from species with overlapping depth ranges. These results suggest that the fishes studied here did not alter their sound production nor migrate out of red tide-affected areas. Although these results are preliminary because of the limited measurements, the data and methods presented here provide a proof of principle and could serve as protocol for future studies on the effects of algal blooms on the behavior of soniferous fishes. To fully capture the effects of episodic events, we suggest that stationary or vertically profiling acoustic recorders and environmental sampling be used as a complement to glider measurements. PMID:25551564

  14. Fish Sound Production in the Presence of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Carrie C.; Lembke, Chad; Hu, Chuanmin; Mann, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set to encounter toxic Karenia brevis blooms (a.k.a red tides). Oceanographic conditions measured by the glider were significantly correlated to the variation in sounds from six known or suspected species of fish across the three missions with depth consistently being the most significant factor. At the time and space scales of this study, there was no detectable effect of red tide on sound production. Sounds were still recorded within red tide-affected waters from species with overlapping depth ranges. These results suggest that the fishes studied here did not alter their sound production nor migrate out of red tide-affected areas. Although these results are preliminary because of the limited measurements, the data and methods presented here provide a proof of principle and could serve as protocol for future studies on the effects of algal blooms on the behavior of soniferous fishes. To fully capture the effects of episodic events, we suggest that stationary or vertically profiling acoustic recorders and environmental sampling be used as a complement to glider measurements. PMID:25551564

  15. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large "blooms" in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Impact of Interdecadal Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature Variability on Primary Productivity and Harmful Algal Blooms in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and intensity on global, regional and local scales. Although climate change has been suggested as one of the key factors, very few interdecadal studies comparing HABs to low frequency physical forcing have been performed. Interannual to interdecadal variability in sea level and sea surface temperature along the Southern California Coast have been shown to have high correlation with the El Nino-La Nina signal. This is important in the study of phytoplankton, because abnormally low sea level corresponds to increased sea surface nutrient concentrations in this region. The California current is stronger during these times, and the higher nutrient water found to the north is advected southward. We have determined that primary productivity is most highly correlated with interdecadal sea level variability derived from tide gage data at a lag of approximately 2 months. This is consistent with previous zooplankton studies. In preparation for a potential El Nino event, we have expanded our analysis to include parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations from spaceborne and in situ instruments. We have also expanded our research to allow for analysis of several of the most prevalent HAB species. This work is the first step in our effort to create a model to predict and locate Southern California HAB events in the future.

  17. Harmful algal bloom toxins alter c-Fos protein expression in the brain of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Salierno, J D; Snyder, N S; Murphy, A Z; Poli, M; Hall, S; Baden, D; Kane, A S

    2006-07-20

    The immediate early gene c-fos, and its protein product c-Fos, are known to be induced in neurons of mammals and fish as a result of neuronal stimulation. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine CNS alterations in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in relation to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin exposure. c-Fos expression was visualized using immunocytochemistry in the brains of killifish exposed to the excitatory neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and brevetoxin (PbTx-2), and a paralytic neurotoxin, saxitoxin (STX), released from HABs. In addition, a simulated transport stress experiment was conducted to investigate effects of physical stress on c-Fos induction. Groups of fish were exposed to the different stress agents, brain sections were processed for c-Fos staining, and expression was quantified by brain region. Fish exposed to DA, STX, and transport stress displayed significant alterations in neuronal c-Fos expression when compared to control fish (p< or = 0.05). DA, PbTx-2, and transport stress increased c-Fos expression in the optic tecta regions of the brain, whereas STX significantly decreased expression. This is the first study to quantify c-Fos protein expression in fish exposed to HAB toxins. General alterations in brain activity, as well as knowledge of specific regions within the brain activated in association with HABs or other stressors, provides valuable insights into the neural control of fish behavior as well as sublethal effects of specific stressors in the CNS. PMID:16750577

  18. Examining Climate Influences and Economic Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms in Massachusetts: 1993 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N.

    2005-12-01

    Although the potential causes of harmful algal blooms (HABs), or red tides, have been studied extensively, the relationships between the environmental drivers and economic impacts have not been fully explored. This paper examined the environmental-economic link by investigating similarities in the environmental conditions leading to the 1993 and 2005 HABs (caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandirum) along the Massachusetts coast, and the resulting effects on shellfish, public health, recreation, tourism, and the commercial shellfish industry in Massachusetts. Environmental influences including sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, precipitation, streamflow, and shellfish toxicity levels were examined for the years 1990 to 2005. Economic impacts on commercial fishery landings (Massachusetts mussel commercial fishery landings and Gloucester commercial fishery landings) were assessed for the years1990 to 2003. The Plume Advection hypothesis was studied and results showed that runoff from the five major rivers that contribute to the Western Maine Coastal Current, the current that carried these cells, peaked in April 1993 and 2005 relative to the mean which varied from river to river. The most intense wind stress coming from the North occurred in April 1993 and May 2005 with speeds of 15-20 m/s. A large decrease in salinity off the Massachusetts coast occurred in May 1993 and measured outside the 68% of 1993 salinity data recorded, and from the information available, in April and May 2005 waters were also less saline. Peaks in shellfish toxicity occurred in early June 1993 at approximately 400 ?g toxicity/g shellfish meat and in 2005 at 700 ?g toxicity/g shellfish meat. This indicated a lag time between peaks in runoff and toxicity of approximately one month and similarly with decreases in salinity. Runoff also corresponded to a large decrease in salinity during May 1993. Coincidentally, there was also a significant decrease in commercial fishery landings between 1992 and 1993, resulting in a decrease of millions of dollars of revenue for shellfish fishermen and the state of Massachusetts. The 2005 red tide affected 1700 shellfish fisherman and there was a projected loss of 527 million dollars for the 2005 Massachusetts shellfish season. Effects to tourism and public health for 1993 and 2005 were challenging to assess, however, due to scarcity of accurate information. Changing fishery policies affected commercial fishery landings during the same time and were also considered. These results argue for more accurate forecasts that will help predict future HABs, as well as improved methods to provide more reliable information on the economic impacts of HABs to minimize the negative impacts of future HABs.

  19. Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

  20. Parasitic chytrids sustain zooplankton growth during inedible algal bloom

    PubMed Central

    Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of “inedible” algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19–20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the zooplankton diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin. PMID:24904543

  1. The death mechanism of the harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium tamarense induced by algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Huajun; Cai, Guanjing; Chen, Zhangran; Fu, Lijun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment. The algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35 which can induce growth inhibition on A. tamarense was used to investigate the functional mechanism. The growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, photosynthetic system and the nuclear system of algal cells were determined under algicidal activity. A culture of strain Y35 not only induced overproduction of ROS in algal cells within only 0.5 h of treatment, also decrease the total protein content as well as the response of the antioxidant enzyme. Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation was induced and cell membrane integrity was lost. Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited. At the same time, photosynthesis-related gene expression showed down-regulation. More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed. The potential functional mechanism of the algicidal bacterium on A. tamarense was investigated and provided a novel viewpoint which could be used in HABs control. PMID:26441921

  2. Algal blooms in the spread and persistence of cholera.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Cholera has been long associated with the seasonality of coastal algal blooms off Bangladesh. Using fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques, microbiologists have now identified a viable, non-cultivable form of Vibrio cholerae in a wide range of marine life, including cyanobacteria (Anabaena variabilis), diatoms (Skeletonema costatum), phaeophytes (Ascophyllum nodosum), in copepod molts, and in freshwater vascular aquatic plants (water hyacinths and duckweed). In unfavourable conditions V. cholerae assumes spore-like forms; with proper nutrients, pH and temperature, it reverts to a readily transmissible and infectious state. Nitrates and phosphates in sewage and fertilizers cause eutrophication, and scientists report an increase in intensity, duration and shifts in the biodiversity of algal blooms in many coastal, brackish and fresh waters worldwide. V. cholerae has been isolated from phyto- and zooplankton in marine and fresh waters near Lima, Peru. V. cholera 01, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, may have arrived in the Americas in the bilge of a Chinese freighter. There, in the abundant coastal sea life along the Latin American Pacific coast, nourished by the Humboldt current and eutrophication, it found a reservoir for surviving unfavourable conditions. It is hypothesized that the algae and Vibrio populations grew exponentially; consumed by fish, mollusks and crustacea, a heavy 'inoculum' of carriers infected with V. cholerae was generated and transported into multiple coastal communities. PMID:8155853

  3. HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS: RISK ASSESSMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome...

  4. ARS Research on Harmful Algal Blooms in SE USA Aquaculture Impoundments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an EPA sponsored state of knowledge symposium on toxic cyanobacteria, six workgroups were established to assess published literature. A review of ARS research on harmful algal blooms was made by the incumbent. Aquaculture systems have had four types of freshwater toxic algal blooms. De...

  5. Biological control of harmful algal blooms: A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Jordi; Estrada, Marta; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    A multispecies dynamic simulation model (ERSEM) was used to examine the influence of allelopathic and trophic interactions causing feeding avoidance by predators, on the formation of harmful algal blooms, under environmental scenarios typical of a Mediterranean harbour (Barcelona). The biological state variables of the model included four functional groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, toxic and non-toxic flagellates and picophytoplankton), heterotrophic flagellates, micro- and mesozooplankton and bacteria. The physical-chemical forcing (irradiance, temperature and major nutrient concentrations) was based on an actual series of measurements taken along a year cycle in the Barcelona harbour. In order to evaluate potential effects of advection, some runs were repeated after introducing a biomass loss term. Numerical simulations showed that allelopathic effects of a toxic alga on a non-toxic but otherwise similar competitor did not have appreciable influence on the dynamics of the system. However, induction of avoidance of the toxic alga by predators, which resulted on increased predation pressure on other algal groups had a significant effect on the development of algal and predator populations. The presence of advection overrided the effect of these interactions and only allowed organisms with sufficiently high potential growth rates to thrive.

  6. Molecular detection and species identification of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) causing harmful algal blooms along the Chilean coastline

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicki, Ana; Fernández, Gonzalo; Astorga, Marcela; Oyarzún, Pablo; Toro, Jorge E.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Martínez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims On the basis of morphological evidence, the species involved in South American Pacific coast harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been traditionally recognized as Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). However, these observations have not been confirmed using evidence based on genomic sequence variability. Our principal objective was to accurately determine the species of Alexandrium involved in local HABs in order to implement a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for its rapid and easy detection on filter-feeding shellfish, such as mussels. Methodology For species-specific determination, the intergenic spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S subunit, ITS2 and the hypervariable genomic regions D1–D5 of the large ribosomal subunit of local strains were sequenced and compared with two data sets of other Alexandrium sequences. Species-specific primers were used to amplify signature sequences within the genomic DNA of the studied species by conventional and real-time PCR. Principal results Phylogenetic analysis determined that the Chilean strain falls into Group I of the tamarensis complex. Our results support the allocation of the Chilean Alexandrium species as a toxic Alexandrium tamarense rather than A. catenella, as currently defined. Once local species were determined to belong to Group I of the tamarensis complex, a highly sensitive and accurate real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect dinoflagellate presence in Mytilus spp. (Bivalvia) samples after being fed (challenged) in vitro with the Chilean Alexandrium strain. The results show that real-time PCR is useful to detect Alexandrium intake in filter-feeding molluscs. Conclusions It has been shown that the classification of local Alexandrium using morphological evidence is not very accurate. Molecular methods enabled the HAB dinoflagellate species of the Chilean coast to be assigned as A. tamarense rather than A. catenella. Real-time PCR analysis based on A. tamarense primers allowed the detection of dinoflagellate DNA in Mytilus spp. samples exposed to this alga. Through the specific assignment of dinoflagellate species involved in HABs, more reliable preventive policies can be implemented. PMID:23259043

  7. From genome-wide to candidate gene: an investigation of variation at the major histocompatibility complex in common bottlenose dolphins exposed to harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Cammen, Kristina M; Wilcox, Lynsey A; Rosel, Patricia E; Wells, Randall S; Read, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    The role the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays in response to exposure to environmental toxins is relatively poorly understood, particularly in comparison to its well-described role in pathogen immunity. We investigated associations between MHC diversity and resistance to brevetoxins in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). A previous genome-wide association study investigating an apparent difference in harmful algal bloom (HAB) resistance among dolphin populations in the Gulf of Mexico identified genetic variation associated with survival in close genomic proximity to multiple MHC class II loci. Here, we characterized genetic variation at DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB loci in dolphins from central-west Florida and the Florida Panhandle, including dolphins that died during HABs and dolphins presumed to have survived HAB exposure. We found that DRB and DQB exhibited patterns of genetic differentiation among geographic regions that differed from neutral microsatellite loci. In addition, genetic differentiation at DRB across multiple pairwise comparisons of live and dead dolphins was greater than differentiation observed at neutral loci. Our findings at these MHC loci did not approach the strength of association with survival previously described for a nearby genetic variant. However, the results provide evidence that selective pressures at the MHC vary among dolphin populations that differ in the frequency of HAB exposure and that the overall composition of DRB variants differs between dolphin survivors and non-survivors of HABs. These results may suggest a potential role of MHC diversity in variable survival of bottlenose dolphins exposed to HABs. PMID:25475909

  8. Harmful Algal Blooms of the West Florida Shelf and Campeche Bank: Visualization and Quantification using Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto Ramos, Inia Mariel

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are natural phenomena that can have negative impacts on marine ecosystems on which human health and the economy of some Gulf States depends. Many of the HABs in the GOM are dominated by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Non-toxic phytoplankton taxa such as Scrippsiella sp. also form intense blooms off the Mexican coast that result in massive fish mortality and economic losses, particularly as they may lead to anoxia. The main objectives of this dissertation were to (1) evaluate and improve the techniques developed for detection of Karenia spp. blooms on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using satellite remote sensing methods, (2) test the use of these methods for waters in the GOM, and (3) use the output of these techniques to better understand the dynamics and evolution of Karenia spp. blooms in the WFS and off Mexico. The first chapter of this dissertation examines the performance of several Karenia HABs detection techniques using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images and historical ground truth observations collected on the WFS from August 2002 to December 2011. A total of 2323 in situ samples collected by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute to test for Karenia spp. matched pixels with valid ocean color satellite observations over this period. This dataset was used to systematically optimize variables and coefficients used in five published HAB detection methods. Each technique was tested using a set of metrics that included the F-Measure (FM). Before optimization, the average FM for all techniques was 0.47. After optimization, the average FM increased to 0.59, and false positives decreased ~50%. The addition of a Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) criterion improved the performance of every method. A new practical method was developed using a combination of FLH and Remote Sensing Reflectance at 555 nm (Rrs555-FLH). The new method resulted in an FM of 0.62 and 3% false negatives, similar to those from more complex techniques. The first chapter concludes with a series of recommendations on how to improve the detection techniques and how to take these results a step further into a Gulf wide observing systems for HABs. In chapter two, ocean color techniques were used to examine the extension, evolution and displacement of four Karenia spp. events that occurred in the WFS between 2004 and 2011. Blooms were identified in the imagery using the new Rrs-FLH method and validated using in situ phytoplankton cell counts. The spatial extension of each event was followed in time by delineating the blooms. In 2004 and 2005, the WFS was affected by a series of hurricanes that led to high river discharge and intense sediment resuspension events. Both processes had an impact on HAB occurrence. For example, I tracked a Karenia spp. bloom found in late December 2004 approximately 40-80 km offshore Saint Petersburg, which then expanded reaching an extension of >8000 km2 in February 2005. The bloom weakened in spring 2005 and intensified again in summer reaching >42,000 km 2 after the passage of hurricane Katrina in August 2005. This bloom covered the WFS from Charlotte Harbor to the Florida Panhandle. Two other cases were studied in the WFS. The results of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model from the U.S. Navy aid understanding the dispersal of the blooms. During fall 2011, three field campaigns to study HABs in Mexico were conducted to do an analysis of optical properties and explore the possibility of using ocean color techniques to distinguish between the main phytoplankton blooms in that region. Three main bloom scenarios were observed in the Campeche Bank region: massive diatom blooms, blooms dominated by Scrippsiella spp., and Karenia spp. blooms. The normalized specific phytoplankton absorption spectra were found to be different for Karenia spp. and Scrippsiella sp. blooms. A new technique that combines phytoplankton absorption derived from MODIS data and the new technique developed in Chapter One showed potential for a detection technique that can distinguish between Karenia and Scrippsiella blooms. Additional work is needed to improve the new technique developed for Mexican waters, but results show potential for detection techniques that can be used Gulf-wide. This will help better understand the dynamic and possible connectivity of phytoplankton blooms in the GOM.

  9. Red to red - the marine bacterium Hahella chejuensis and its product prodigiosin for mitigation of harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Jihyun F; Yim, Joung Han; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Hong Kum

    2008-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), commonly called red tides, are caused by some toxic phytoplanktons, and have made massive economic losses as well as marine environmental disturbances. As an effective and environment-friendly strategy to control HAB outbreaks, biological methods using marine bacteria capable of killing the harmful algae or algicidal extracellular compounds from them have been given attention. A new member of the gamma-Proteobacteria, Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396, was originally isolated from the Korean seashore for its ability to secrete industrially useful polysaccharides, and was characterized to produce a red pigment. This pigment later was identified as an alkaloid compound, prodigiosin. During the past several decades, prodigiosin has been extensively studied for its medical potential as immunosuppressants and antitumor agents, owing to its antibiotic and cytotoxic activities. The lytic activity of this marvelous molecule against Cochlodinium polykrikoides cells at very low concentrations (1 ppb) was serendipitously detected, making H. chejuensis a strong candidate among the biological agents for HAB control. This review provides a brief overview of algicidal marine bacteria and their products, and describes in detail the algicidal characteristics, biosynthetic process, and genetic regulation of prodigiosin as a model among the compounds active against red-tide organisms from the biochemical and genetic viewpoints. PMID:18955809

  10. Development of a simple means for predicting algal blooms

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, S.; Effler, S.W.; Meyer, M.

    1980-09-01

    A simple technique to predict the future occurrence of algal blooms was evaluated for seven test lake systems proximate to Syracuse, NY during the summer of 1978 and 1979. The selected test systems represent a broad range of trophic status, from mesotrophic to hypereutrophic. The technique includes a simple filtering process followed by the identification of the color imparted to the filter, based on comparison to National Bureau of Standards' color chips. The reference measure of phytoplankton standing crop was chlorophyll-a. Particular colors of filtered particulates were not demonstrated to be useful estimators of chlorophyll-a concentration, though the hues olive and yellow-green were associated with higher chlorophyll-a levels. The particulate color method was demonstrated to be useful in following certain physical/chemical changes in a lake.

  11. Experimental study on the interspecific interactions between the two bloom-forming algal species and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihao; Xiao, Hui; Tang, Xuexi; Cai, Hengjiang

    2009-06-01

    The interspecific interactions between the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and two harmful algal blooms (HAB) species were investigated experimentally by single culture method. B. plicatilis population and the growth of the two algae were compared at different algal cell densities. The results demonstrated that the B. plicatilis obtained sufficient nutrition from Prorocentrum donghaiense to support net population increase. With exposure to 2.5×104 cells mL-1 of P. donghaiense, the number of B. plicatilis increased faster than it did when exposed to other four algal densities (5, 10, 15 and 20 ×104 cells mL-1), and the increase rate of B. plicatilis population ( r) at this algal density was 0.104 ± 0.015 rd-1. Cell densities of P. donghaiense decreased due to the grazing of B. plicatilis. In contrast, Heterosigma akashiwo had an adverse effect on B. plicatilis population and its growth was largely unaffected by rotifer grazing. In this case, B. plicatilis population decreased and H. akashiwo grew at a rate similar to that of the control.

  12. [Distribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved oxygen in the high frequency area of harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea in spring].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Mei; Shi, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Chuan-Song

    2013-06-01

    According to two cruises in the high frequency area of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in ECS from Apr. 8th to 26th and May 7th to 14th 2010, concentrations and distributions of biogenic elements before and after HABs were analyzed, and their influenced factors were also discussed. The results showed that April was the earlier stage of HAB breaking out, and diatom was the dominant species; while Dinoflagellate became the dominant species when large-scale HAB broke out in May. The concentrations of DIN and PO4(3-) -P decreased significantly from April to May. The Mean value of DIN decreased from 18.04 to 10.80 micromol x L(-1), its decline rate was 40%. As for PO4(3-) -P, its Mean value decreased from 0.47 to 0.27 micromol x L(-1), and its decline rate was 43%. This phenomenon indicated the significant depletion of nutrients by harmful algae in the process. However, the primary species of HABs in ECS was dinoflagellates in May. Since dinoflagellates did not consume SiO3(2-) -Si during the breed, as well as the supplement from Changjiang Diluted Water, the mean value of SiO3(2-) -Si increased slightly from 16. 15 to 16.96 micromol x L(11) in the researched area. The Mean value of DO decreased from 8.76 to 6.09 mg x L(-1) from April to May, because the effect of temperature to DO was more obvious than that of phytoplankton photosynthesis. The temperature was higher in May, and the solubility of oxygen decreased with increasing temperature, therefore, the concentration of DO was lower after the Harmful algal blooms. PMID:23947028

  13. TRACKING FRESHWATER DIVERSIONS AND ALGAL BLOOMS THAT IMPACT THE NEW ORLEANS STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA -

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will monitor selected water quality parameters, including water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and algal blooms to assess the impacts of freshwater diversions for several selected areas within the New Orleans metropolitan area. The specific areas of study include ...

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms at the University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, P. J.; Carvalho, G.; Baringer, W.; Banzon, V.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the NSF-NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health at the University of Miami, research is being conducted into the remote sensing of ocean color signatures associated with the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are down-linked at the University of Miami's Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing (CSTARS) and processed in near-real time to produce mapped fields of water leaving radiance in the ocean color bands, derived quantities including inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, chlorophyll concentration, and sea-surface temperature. Images of these fields are available in near-real time on a web-server. The server also provides access to the data files themselves. One of the applications currently being researched using these data is the identification of HABs over the Central West Florida Shelf where blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have a nearly annual occurance. Since chlorophyll concentration alone cannot be used as a unique variable to determine algal taxonomy, other spectral features or optical properties must be brought into play to discriminate among different phytoplankton types. A published technique developed for SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) to detect K. brevis (based on high concentration of chlorophyll and low particulate backscatter) was transitioned to measurements of Terra MODIS and replicated the results. These were confirmed by comparisons with in situ measurements. This technique is currently being applied to a multi-year time series of remote measurements from the Aqua MODIS and tested against ship-based data.

  15. USEPA Harmful Algal Bloom Research Update – Focus on Early Stage Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts: (1) A review of data generated during through-plant sampling at seven Lake Erie drinking water facilities during the 2014 HAB bloom season; (2) A review of data generated during follow-up experiments to evaluate the impact of potassium permanga...

  16. USEPA Harmful Algal Bloom Research Update – Focus on Early Stage Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts: (1) A review of data generated during through-plant sampling at seven Lake Erie drinking water facilities during the 2014 HAB bloom season; (2) A review of data generated during follow-up experiments to evaluate the impact of potassium permanga...

  17. Role of gas vesicles and intra-colony spaces during the process of algal bloom formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Zheng, Binghui; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Hao

    2013-06-01

    Aggregation morphology, vertical distribution, and algal density were analyzed during the algal cell floating process in three environments. The role of gas vesicles and intra-colony spaces was distinguished by algal blooms treated with ultrasonic waves and high pressure. Results demonstrated that the two buoyancy providers jointly provide buoyancy for floating algal cells. The results were also confirmed by force analysis. In the simulation experiment, the buoyancy acting on algal cells was greater than its gravity at sample ports 2 and 3 of a columnar-cultivated cell vessel, and intra-colony spaces were not detected. In Taihu Lake, gas vesicle buoyancy was notably less than total algal cell gravity. Buoyancy provided by intra-colony spaces exceeded total algal cell gravity at the water surface, but not at other water depths. In the Daning River, total buoyancies provided by the two buoyancy providers were less than total algal cell gravity at different water depths. PMID:23833817

  18. [Systematic investigation into winter and spring algal blooms in Daning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng-jin; Zheng, Bing-hui; Zhang, Jia-lei; Huang, Min-sheng; Chen, Zhen-lou

    2009-12-01

    According to the survey conducted from winter and spring algal blooms, the changes of water quality and characteristics of Daning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results suggested that during the period of winter algal blooms centered on Tangjia bay in Daning river, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) had a wide range (the rates of (Chl-a)max and (Chl-a)min is 260). The contents of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and potassium permanganate index were at very high levels because of bioaccumulation from algal blooms, but the values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were very low. During winter algal blooms fastigium poor algae were observed accounting for 2 phylum 4 species, dominant species are Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis flos-aquae, the maximum value of algal density was 3.15 x 10(7) cells/L, and the correlation weighted nutrition state index was 80, which indicated water body was at high eutrophication level. However the spring algal blooms belonged to whole watershed outbreak, the values of Chl-a, TN, TP and potassium permanganate index became all markedly high with outbreak of algal blooms. There were 5 phylum 44 species algae being observed during spring algal blooms fastigium, different sections observed different dominant species and algal density values. The correlation weighted nutrition state index showed water of Dongping bar and Baishui River sections was at slight eutrophication level. During winter algal blooms there were significantly positive correlations between Chl-a and TN, TP, potassium permanganate index, water temperature, between pH and SD. Significantly negative correlations were observed between Chl-a and DO, SD, between pH and TN, TP, potassium permanganate index. In spring algal blooms significantly positive correlations were observed between Chi-a and TP, potassium permanganate index, DO, pH, between pH and Chla, TP, potassium permanganate index, DO, air temperature. Significantly negative correlations were observed between Chl-a and SD, between pH and SD. PMID:20187374

  19. Harmful algal bloom characterization at ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution using small unmanned aircraft systems.

    PubMed

    Van der Merwe, Deon; Price, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI) that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV). Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r(2)-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level. PMID:25826055

  20. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    PubMed Central

    Van der Merwe, Deon; Price, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI) that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV). Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level. PMID:25826055

  1. ALGAL METABOLITE INFLUENCE ON BLOOM SEQUENCE IN EUTROPHIED FRESHWATER PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extracellular metabolites of planktonic bloom dominant algae play a most significant role in the determination of bloom sequence in a eutrophied freshwater pond. Certain extracellular metabolites of planktonic blue-green algae substantially inhibit the growth of planktonic di...

  2. The ability of the branchiopod, Artemia salina, to graze upon harmful algal blooms caused by Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.

  3. Remote sensing of algal blooms by aircraft and satellite in Lake Erie and Utah Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    During late summer, when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature, an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena, which characterize eutrophic conditions, have been noticed on other shallow lakes using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1). The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS Multispectral Scanner Subsystem data of Lake Erie, an aircraft was used to obtain correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. A large bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae observed in Utah Lake together with recent bloom history in Lake Erie is used to verify the Great Lakes bloom.

  4. Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.

    PubMed

    Tholkapiyan, Muniyandi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Suresh, T

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) sensor MODIS-Aqua provides an important tool for reliable observations of the changing ocean surface algal bloom paradigms in coastal and oceanic waters around India. A time series of the MODIS-Aqua-derived OSABI (ocean surface algal bloom index) and its seasonal composite images report new information and comprehensive pictures of these blooms and their evolution stages in a wide variety of events occurred at different times of the years from 2003 to 2011, providing the first large area survey of such phenomena around India. For most of the years, the results show a strong seasonal pattern of surface algal blooms elucidated by certain physical and meteorological conditions. The extent of these blooms reaches a maximum in winter (November-February) and a minimum in summer (June-September), especially in the northern Arabian Sea. Their spatial distribution and retention period are also significantly increased in the recent years. The increased spatial distribution and intensity of these blooms in the northern Arabian Sea in winter are likely caused by enhanced cooling, increased convective mixing, favorable winds, and atmospheric deposition of the mineral aerosols (from surrounding deserts) of the post-southwest monsoon period. The southward Oman coastal current and southwestward winds become apparently responsible for their extension up to the central Arabian Sea. Strong upwelling along this coast further triggers their initiation and growth. Though there is a warming condition associated with increased sea surface height anomalies along the coasts of India and Sri Lanka in winter, surface algal bloom patches are still persistent along these coasts due to northeast monsoonal winds, enhanced precipitation, and subsequent nutrient enrichment in these areas. The occurrence of the surface algal blooms in the northern Bay of Bengal coincides with a region of the well-known Ganges-Brahmaputra Estuarine Frontal (GBEF) system, which increases supply of nutrients in addition to the land-derived inputs triggering surface algal blooms in this region. Low density (initiation stage) of such blooms observed in clear oceanic waters southeast and northeast of Sri Lanka may be caused by the vertical mixing processes (strong monsoonal winds) and the occurrence of Indian Ocean Dipole events. Findings based on the analyses of time series satellite data indicate that the new information on surface algal blooms will have important bearing on regional fisheries, ecosystem and environmental studies, and implications of climate change scenarios. PMID:24554022

  5. HPLC pigment profiles of 31 harmful algal bloom species isolated from the coastal sea areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuxia; Yao, Peng; Yu, Zhigang; Li, Dong; Deng, Chunmei; Zhen, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Chemotaxonomy based on diagnostic pigments is now a routine tool for macroscopic determination of the composition and abundance of phytoplankton in various aquatic environments. Since the taxonomic capability of this method depends on the relationships between diagnostic pigments and chlorophyll a of classified groups, it is critical to calibrate it by using pigment relationships obtained from representative and/or dominant species local to targeted investigation area. In this study, pigment profiles of 31 harmful algal bloom (HAB) species isolated from the coastal sea areas of China were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pigment compositions, cellular pigment densities and ratios of pigments to chlorophyll a were determined and calculated. Among all these species, 25 kinds of pigments were detected, of which fucoxanthin, peridinin, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, violaxanthin, and antheraxanthin were diagnostic pigments. Cellular pigment density was basically independent of species and environmental conditions, and therefore was recommended as a bridge to compare the results of HPLC-CHEMTAX technique with the traditional microscopy method. Pigment ratios of algal species isolated from the coast of China, especially the diagnostic pigment ratios, were higher than those from other locations. According to these results, pigment ratio ranges of four classes of phytoplankton common off the coast of China were summarized for using in the current chemotaxonomic method. Moreover, the differences of pigments ratios among different species under the same culturing conditions were consistent with their biological differences. Such differences have the potential to be used to classify the phytoplankton below class, which is meaningful for monitoring HABs by HPLC-CHEMTAX.

  6. Integrative Indicator for Assessing the Alert Levels of Algal Bloom in Lakes: Lake Taihu as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinqin; Hu, Weiping; Zhai, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Algal blooms have recently become one of the most serious environmental problems in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Although many observation and simulation approaches have been applied to predict algal blooms, few studies have addressed the alert levels of algal blooms using integrative indicators in a large lake with multiple service function and significant horizontal heterogeneity. This study developed an integrative indicator assessment system (IIAS) to rank the alert level of algal blooms. In the IIAS, algal biomass, area percentage, distance from drinking water intake points, distance from scenic zones and duration of algal bloom were used as indicators to calculate a comprehensive alert level, which was classified into five grades (Vigilance, Low, Moderate, High, and Severe). Lake Taihu was taken as a case study to assess the comprehensive alert level of algal blooms in 2007 and 2010. The comprehensive alert level showed obvious spatial-temporal patterns, with an acceptable accuracy in Lake Taihu. The comprehensive alert levels were relatively higher in typical phytoplankton subzones than typical hydrophytes subzones and are more sensitive to weight factor in the northern and western subzones where high biomass usually occurs. Case study showed a very good application of the proposed comprehensive alert level assessment methodology, which can be adjusted to predict the degree of hazard of algal blooms in multi-service function large lakes to help the government and decision makers to act to prevent the disaster from algal bloom spreading.

  7. Integrative Indicator for Assessing the Alert Levels of Algal Bloom in Lakes: Lake Taihu as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinqin; Hu, Weiping; Zhai, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Algal blooms have recently become one of the most serious environmental problems in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Although many observation and simulation approaches have been applied to predict algal blooms, few studies have addressed the alert levels of algal blooms using integrative indicators in a large lake with multiple service function and significant horizontal heterogeneity. This study developed an integrative indicator assessment system (IIAS) to rank the alert level of algal blooms. In the IIAS, algal biomass, area percentage, distance from drinking water intake points, distance from scenic zones and duration of algal bloom were used as indicators to calculate a comprehensive alert level, which was classified into five grades (Vigilance, Low, Moderate, High, and Severe). Lake Taihu was taken as a case study to assess the comprehensive alert level of algal blooms in 2007 and 2010. The comprehensive alert level showed obvious spatial-temporal patterns, with an acceptable accuracy in Lake Taihu. The comprehensive alert levels were relatively higher in typical phytoplankton subzones than typical hydrophytes subzones and are more sensitive to weight factor in the northern and western subzones where high biomass usually occurs. Case study showed a very good application of the proposed comprehensive alert level assessment methodology, which can be adjusted to predict the degree of hazard of algal blooms in multi-service function large lakes to help the government and decision makers to act to prevent the disaster from algal bloom spreading. PMID:26296739

  8. [Analysis of algal blooms in Da-Ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Huang, Min-Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou

    2009-11-01

    According to the survey conducted from Apr. to Jun. 2007 and from Apr. to May. 2008, the changes of water quality, forms and distributions of nutrient salts and characters of algal blooms in Da-ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient were abundant during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values are 0.84-3.21 mg/L and 0.011-0.531 mg/L respectively, and the nutrients concentrations become high gradually from upstream to downstream. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is the major form of TN accounting for 84%, and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) is dominant (TDP/TP = 60%). Algal blooms bring phosphorus nutrient bio-concentration. The rates of TN and TP are all in excess of 16, which show eutrophication is limited by phosphorus. Potassium permanganate index and dissolved oxygen (DO) are at low levels and change stably. But chlorophyll a (Chl-a) becomes frequently, the value is 1.41-219.04 mg x m(-3). Significant positive correlations are all observed by correlation analysis between Chl-a and the main parameters (r(Chla-TP) = 0.453, r(Chla-potassium permanganate index) = 0.641, r(Chla-DO) = 0.584, r(Chla-pH) = 0.409, p < 0.01), but significant negative correlations are observed between Chl-a and Secchi depth (SD) (r(Chla-SD) = - 0.392, p < 0.01). The pH is fluctuated by multiparameter esp. in algal blooms. Widespread algae are observed by microscope during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River accounting for 8 phylum 82 genus 124 species, which Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta are dominant, and then Cyanophyta and Pyrrophyta. Three whole watershed algal blooms break out in Da-ning River during the period, and the highest values of algal density are 14-1 427 times as many as the normal values. The dominant species of algal blooms are mostly involved with O. borgei, C. microporum, Chlorococcum humicola, P. morum and C. vulgaris of Chlorophyta; P. pleuronectes and T. oblonga of Euglenophyta; Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus astraea and Navicula of Bacillariophyta; P. elpatiewskyi of Pyrrophyta. Multi-algal species blooms are observed in the same time and place, and there are few algae in the estuary of Da-ning River to Changjiang River. PMID:20063732

  9. A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the upcoming release of a fully sequenced genome, we have an unprecedented opportunity to discover how a HAB organism responds to nutrient loading and the cellular mechanisms underlying those responses. This project will provide key regulation data to help identify transc...

  10. Arctic spring awakening - Steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, E.; Mundy, C. J.; Assmy, P.; Campbell, K.; Gabrielsen, T. M.; Gosselin, M.; Juul-Pedersen, T.; Gradinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Marine ecosystems at high latitudes are characterized by extreme seasonal changes in light conditions, as well as a limited period of high primary production during spring and early summer. As light returns at the end of winter to Arctic ice-covered seas, a first algal bloom takes place in the bottom layer of the sea ice. This bottom ice algae community develops through three distinct phases in the transition from winter to spring, starting with phase I, a predominantly net heterotroph community that has limited interaction with the pelagic or benthic realms. Phase II begins in the spring once light for photosynthesis becomes available at the ice bottom, although interaction with the water column and benthos remains limited. The transition to the final phase III is then mainly driven by a balance of atmospheric and oceanographic forcing that induce structural changes in the sea ice and ultimately the removal of algal biomass from the ice. Due to limited data availability an incomplete understanding exists of all the processes determining ice algal bloom phenology and the considerable geographic differences in sympagic algal standing stocks and primary production. We present here the first pan-Arctic compilation of available time-series data on vernal sea ice algal bloom development and identify the most important factors controlling its development and termination. Using data from the area surrounding Resolute Bay (Nunavut, Canada) as an example, we support previous investigations that snow cover on top of the ice influences sea ice algal phenology, with highest biomass development, but also earliest termination of blooms, under low snow cover. We also provide a pan-Arctic overview of sea ice algae standing stocks and primary production, and discuss the pertinent processes behind the geographic differences we observed. Finally, we assess potential future changes in vernal algal bloom phenology as a consequence of climate change, including their importance to different groups of grazers.

  11. Longitudinal Hydrodynamic Characteristics in Reservoir Tributary Embayments and Effects on Algal Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Huichao; Mao, Jingqiao; Jiang, Dingguo; Wang, Lingling

    2013-01-01

    Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Since the impoundment in 2003, however, algal blooms have been often observed in the tributary embayments. To control the algal blooms, a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamics (e.g., flow regime, velocity gradient, and velocity magnitude and direction) in the tributary embayments is particularly important. Using a calibrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, we carried out a hydrodynamic analysis of a typical tributary embayment (i.e., Xiangxi Bay) with emphasis on the longitudinal patterns. The results show distinct longitudinal gradients of hydrodynamics in the study area, which can be generally characterized as four zones: riverine, intermediate, lacustrine, and mainstream influenced zones. Compared with the typical longitudinal zonation for a pure reservoir, there is an additional mainstream influenced zone near the mouth due to the strong effects of TGR mainstream. The blooms are prone to occur in the intermediate and lacustrine zones; however, the hydrodynamic conditions of riverine and mainstream influence zones are not propitious for the formation of algal blooms. This finding helps to diagnose the sensitive areas for algal bloom occurrence. PMID:23874534

  12. Modeling the impact of awareness on the mitigation of algal bloom in a lake.

    PubMed

    Misra, A K; Tiwari, P K; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of algal bloom in water bodies due to the enhanced concentration of nutrient inflow is becoming a global issue. A prime reason behind this aquatic catastrophe is agricultural runoff, which carries a large amount of nutrients that make the lakes more fertile and cause algal blooms. The only solution to this problem is curtailing the nutrient loading through agricultural runoff. This could be achieved by raising awareness among farmers to minimize the use of fertilizers in their farms. In view of this, in this paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the effect of awareness among the farmers of the mitigation of algal bloom in a lake. The growth rate of awareness among the farmers is assumed to be proportional to the density of algae in the lake. It is further assumed that the presence of awareness among the farmers reduces the inflow rate of nutrients through agricultural runoff and helps to remove the detritus by cleaning the bottom of the lake. The results evoke that raising awareness among farmers may be a plausible factor for the mitigation of algal bloom in the lake. Numerical simulations identify the most critical parameters that influence the blooms and provide indications to possibly mitigate it. PMID:26411559

  13. A harmful algal bloom of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico as revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Qi, Lin; Corcoran, Alina A

    2015-01-01

    The most recent Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is not equipped with a spectral band to detect solar-stimulated phytoplankton fluorescence. The lack of such a band may affect the ability of VIIRS to detect and quantify harmful algal blooms (HABs) in coastal waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) because of the overlap of CDOM and chlorophyll absorption within the blue-green spectrum. A recent HAB dominated by the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore of Florida's Big Bend region, allowed for comparison of the capacities of VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to detect blooms in CDOM-rich waters. Both VIIRS and MODIS showed general consistency in mapping the CDOM-rich dark water, which measured a maximum area of 8900 km2 by mid-July 2014. However, within the dark water, only MODIS allowed detection of bloom patches-as indicated by high normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH). Field surveys between late July and mid-September confirmed Karenia brevis at bloom abundances up to 20 million cells·L(-1) within these patches. The bloom patches were well captured by the MODIS nFLH images, but not by the default chlorophyll a concentration (Chla) images from either MODIS or VIIRS. Spectral analysis showed that VIIRS could not discriminate these high-phytoplankton water patches within the dark water due to its lack of fluorescence band. Such a deficiency may be overcome with new algorithms or future satellite missions such as the U.S. NASA's Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecology mission and the European Space Agency's Sentinel-3 mission. PMID:25635412

  14. A Harmful Algal Bloom of Karenia brevis in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico as Revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B.; Qi, Lin; Corcoran, Alina A.

    2015-01-01

    The most recent Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is not equipped with a spectral band to detect solar-stimulated phytoplankton fluorescence. The lack of such a band may affect the ability of VIIRS to detect and quantify harmful algal blooms (HABs) in coastal waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) because of the overlap of CDOM and chlorophyll absorption within the blue-green spectrum. A recent HAB dominated by the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore of Florida's Big Bend region, allowed for comparison of the capacities of VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to detect blooms in CDOM-rich waters. Both VIIRS and MODIS showed general consistency in mapping the CDOM-rich dark water, which measured a maximum area of 8900 km2 by mid-July 2014. However, within the dark water, only MODIS allowed detection of bloom patches—as indicated by high normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH). Field surveys between late July and mid-September confirmed Karenia brevis at bloom abundances up to 20 million cells·L−1 within these patches. The bloom patches were well captured by the MODIS nFLH images, but not by the default chlorophyll a concentration (Chla) images from either MODIS or VIIRS. Spectral analysis showed that VIIRS could not discriminate these high-phytoplankton water patches within the dark water due to its lack of fluorescence band. Such a deficiency may be overcome with new algorithms or future satellite missions such as the U.S. NASA's Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecology mission and the European Space Agency's Sentinel-3 mission. PMID:25635412

  15. Is the frequency of algal blooms increasing in oligotrophic lakes in temperate forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltsev, A.; Creed, I. F.

    2014-12-01

    Oligotrophic lakes in the temperate forests of eastern North America appear to be experiencing an increase in the frequency and duration of algal blooms. This has been the focus of numerous public and government reports, resulting in heightened public concern for reporting of algal blooms. There is a vital need for detailed historical survey of numerous lakes, covering large spatial scales (the scale of region, province, or entire country) and temporal scales (decades) to determine if public observations are accurate. We used a remote sensing approach to: (1) develop regression models that relate Landsat imagery reflectance to chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) as a proxy of algal biomass of lakes; (2) apply these models to estimate Chl-a in lakes at the northern edge of the temperate forest biome in central Ontario over a 28 year period (1984-2011). The linear regression model was built on the basis of the normalized exoatmospheric reflectance values acquired from the utility of Landsat TM and ETM imagery and in situ measurements. Landsat band 3 (red) showed the strongest correlation with in situ data explaining 84% of the variance in Chl-a (r2 = 0.84, p <0.001). We applied this model to all lakes within the region selected from atmospherically corrected Landsat data for the peak algal bloom period (late July to early November) for the entire 28 years. A time series revealed a cyclic stationary pattern in the average Chl-a. This pattern followed the regional patterns of major droughts, especially for the first part of the time period, making climate a major driver in the formation of algal biomass in lakes that, in turn, can lead to the rise of algal blooms. However this climate driver appeared to become less predictable, with elevated algal biomass occurring in both normal and drought years, later in the record.

  16. Analysis of algal bloom risk with uncertainties in lakes by integrating self-organizing map and fuzzy information theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuwen; Rui, Han; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yanhui

    2014-06-01

    Algal blooms are a serious problem in waters, which damage aquatic ecosystems and threaten drinking water safety. However, the outbreak mechanism of algal blooms is very complex with great uncertainty, especially for large water bodies where environmental conditions have obvious variation in both space and time. This study developed an innovative method which integrated a self-organizing map (SOM) and fuzzy information diffusion theory to comprehensively analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. The Lake Taihu was taken as study case and the long-term (2004-2010) on-site monitoring data were used. The results showed that algal blooms in Taihu Lake were classified into four categories and exhibited obvious spatial-temporal patterns. The lake was mainly characterized by moderate bloom but had high uncertainty, whereas severe blooms with low uncertainty were observed in the northwest part of the lake. The study gives insight on the spatial-temporal dynamics of algal blooms, and should help government and decision-makers outline policies and practices on bloom monitoring and prevention. The developed method provides a promising approach to estimate algal bloom risks under uncertainties. PMID:24657580

  17. The response of the carbonate system to a green algal bloom during the post-bloom period in the southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Chun-Ying; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2015-02-01

    Since 2007, the green algal bloom occurred along the coast of Qingdao city every summer. In this study, we focused on how the carbonate system responded to the green algal bloom. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH were measured in two cruises during the green algal post-bloom period in summer 2008 in the southern Yellow Sea. Data showed that the average values of alkalinity calculated from DIC and pH were 2217 and 2241 ?mol kg-1 during the first and second cruises, respectively. The alkalinity measured by Gran titration, however, was abnormal, with average values of 3333 and 3280 ?mol kg-1. The abnormal measured TA values were probably due to both direct contribution of organic matter and its side reaction in determining TA using Gran titration. Another significant phenomenon was an increase of DIC and a decrease of pH after the bloom. The changes of DIC and pH during the two cruises were +87 ?mol kg-1 and -0.18, respectively. Normalized DIC and TA showed that DIC was not conserved after the bloom while TA could be still conserved. In contrast to green algal bloom period, during the post-bloom period, pCO2 values were significantly raised in seawater, with average values of 596 and 981 ?atm, resulting in CO2 outgassing from seawater. These results showed that carbonate system in seawater could be greatly altered by green algal bloom.

  18. Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Virginia A. Roberts2, Lorraine C. Backer3, Jonathan S. Yoder2, Timothy J. Wade1, Michele C. Hlavsa2 1Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Researc...

  19. Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom exposure – an emerging health risk for recreational water users Elizabeth D. Hilborn1, Virginia A. Roberts2, Lorraine C. Backer3, Jonathan S. Yoder2, Timothy J. Wade1, Michele C. Hlavsa2 1Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Researc...

  20. A PILOT PROJECT TO DETECT AND PREDICT HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this, a workshop was held to develop a user-driven, end-to-end (measurements to applicat...

  1. A PILOT PROJECT TO DETECT AND FORECAST HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a pilot project was initiated to develop a user-dr...

  2. Meteorological influences on algal bloom potential in a nutrient-rich blackwater river

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of variability in rainfall on the potential for algal blooms was examined for the St. Johns River in northeast Florida. Water chemistry and phytoplankton data were collected at selected sites monthly from 1993 through 2003. Information on rainfall and estimates ofw at...

  3. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Significance

    Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  4. Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Paerl, H W; Fulton, R S; Moisander, P H; Dyble, J

    2001-04-01

    Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human) health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria) are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis) and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria) that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2), enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from zooplankton to further up the food chain. Both N2- and non-N2-fixing genera participate in mutualistic and symbiotic associations with microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. These associations appear to be of great benefit to their survival and periodic dominance. In this review, we address the ecological impacts and environmental controls of harmful blooms, with an emphasis on the ecology, physiology, and management of cyanobacterial bloom taxa. Combinations of physical, chemical, and biotic features of natural waters function in a synergistic fashion to determine the sensitivity of water bodies. In waters susceptible to blooms, human activities in water- and airsheds have been linked to the extent and magnitudes of blooms. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P). The types and amount of nutrient input constraints depend on hydrologic, climatic, geographic, and geologic factors, which interact with anthropogenic and natural nutrient input regimes. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies, dual N and P input reductions are usually required for effective long-term control and management of harmful blooms. In some systems where hydrologic manipulations (i.e., plentiful water supplies) are possible, reducing the water residence time by enhanced flushing and artificial mixing (in conjunction with nutrient input constraints) can be particularly effective alternatives. Implications of various management strategies, based on combined ecophysiological and environmental considerations, are discussed. PMID:12805693

  5. Trophic cascades and future harmful algal blooms within ice-free Arctic Seas north of Bering Strait: A simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Chen, F. Robert; Lenes, Jason M.; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Cassano, John J.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Stockwell, Dean; Flint, Mikhail; Sukhanova, Irina N.; Christensen, John

    2011-11-01

    Within larger ice-free regions of the western Arctic Seas, subject to ongoing trophic cascades induced by past overfishing, as well as to possible future eutrophication of the drainage basins of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, prior very toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) - first associated with ∼100 human deaths near Sitka, Alaska in 1799 - may soon expand. Blooms of calcareous coccolithophores in the Bering Sea during 1997-1998 were non-toxic harbingers of the subsequent increments of other non-siliceous phytoplankton. But, now saxitoxic dinoflagellates, e.g. Alexandrium tamarense, were instead found by us within the adjacent downstream Chukchi Sea during SBI cruises of 2002 and 2003. A previous complex, coupled biophysical model had been validated earlier by ship-board observations from the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during the summer of 2002. With inclusion of phosphorus as another chemical state variable to modulate additional competition by recently observed nitrogen-fixers, we now explore here the possible consequences of altered composition of dominant phytoplankton functional groups [diatoms, microflagellates, prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis colonies, coccolithophores, diazotrophs, and dinoflagellates] in relation to increases of the toxic A. tamarense, responding to relaxation of grazing pressure by herbivores north of Bering Strait as part of a continuing trophic cascade. Model formulation was guided by validation observations obtained during 2002-2004 from: cruises of the SBI, CHINARE, and CASES programs; moored arrays in Bering Strait; other RUSALCA cruises around Wrangel Island; and SBI helicopter surveys of the shelf-break regions of the Arctic basin. Our year-long model scenarios during 2002-2003 indicate that post bloom silica-limitation of diatoms, after smaller simulated spring grazing losses, led to subsequent competitive advantages in summer for the coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diazotrophs. Immediate top-down control is exerted by imposed grazing pressures of the model’s herbivores and bottom-up control is also effected by light-, nitrate-, ammonium-, silicate-, and phosphate-modulated competition among the six functional groups of the simulated phytoplankton community. Similar to the history of the southern North Sea adjacent to the Rhine River, possible farming of northwestern Alaska and Canada, in conjunction with other human activities of ice retreat and overfishing, may lead to future exacerbations of poisonous phytoplankton. These potential killers include both toxic dinoflagellate and diazotroph HABs, deadly to terrestrial and marine mammals, as well as those of prymnesiophytes, some of which have already foamed beaches, while others have killed fishes of European waters.

  6. Preparation of a new-style composite containing a key bioflocculant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJU1 and its flocculating effect on harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng-Fei; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guan; Lu, Li-Ling; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A novel composite consisting of clay, bioflocculant, and inorganic flocculant was designed, and its flocculating effect on harmful algal blooms (HABs) was studied in this study. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), produced with a yield of 3.58±0.11 g/L by a newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJU1, was indicated to be a key component in the composite. The components and functional groups of the EPS were analyzed, and it showed that polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are the main components; polar functional groups in the EPS are responsible for its flocculating activity. The novel composite was optimized by the response surface methodology and after optimization, the optical components and contents of the composite were Kaolin 2.38 g/L, CaCl2 0.28 g/L, KAl(SO4)2 0.09 g/L, and EPS 1.75 mg/L. The flocculating rates of the composite were tested, and it could rapidly reach 100±0.13% within 2 min when OD680 of Microcystis aeruginosa was 0.1; it could reach 100±0.08% within 5 min for OD680 of M. aeruginosa in HABs up to 1.0. These results suggest that the novel composite will be a highly efficient material for the treatment of HABs caused by M. aeruginosa. PMID:25463236

  7. ERTS-1 observes algal blooms in Lake Erie and Utah Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    During late summer when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena have been noticed on other shallow lakes using ERTS-1 and characterize eutrophic conditions. The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS-1 MSS data of Lake Erie an aircraft was flown to provide correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. The algal bloom is highly absorptive in the visible wavelengths but reverses contrast with the surrounding water in the near-IR bands. The absorption of shortwave energy heats the dark brown algal mass, providing a hot surface target for the thermal-IR scanner.

  8. Application of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing For Detection of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, R. M.; Accorsi, E.; Austerberry, D.; Palacios, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater Cyanobacterial Harmful algal blooms (CHABs) represent a pressing and apparently increasing threat to both human and environmental health. In California, toxin producing blooms of several species, including Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Lyngbya, and Anabaena are common; toxins from these blooms have been linked to impaired drinking water, domestic and wild animal deaths, and increasing evidence for toxin transfer to coastal marine environments, including the death of several California sea otters, a threatened marine species. California scientists and managers are under increasing pressure to identify and mitigate these potentially toxic blooms, but point-source measurements and grab samples have been less than effective. There is increasing awareness that these toxic events are both spatially widespread and ephememeral, leading to the need for better monitoring methods applicable to large spatial and temporal scales. Based on monitoring in several California water bodies, it appears that Aphanizomenon blooms frequently precede dangerous levels of toxins from Microcystis. We are exploring new detection methods for identifying CHABs and potentially distinguishing between blooms of the harmful cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon and Microcystis using remote sensing reflectance from a variety of airborne and satellite sensors. We suggest that Aphanizomenon blooms could potentially be used as an early warning of more highly toxic subsequent blooms, and that these methods, combined with better toxin monitoring, can lead to improved understanding and prediction of CHABs by pinpointing problematic watersheds.

  9. Selective control of the Prorocentrum minimum harmful algal blooms by a novel algal-lytic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis AFMB-008041.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Dong; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Jae-Kweon; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the algal-lytic activities and biological control mechanisms of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis AFMB-08041, which was isolated from surface seawater obtained at Masan Bay in Korea. In addition, we assessed whether AFMB-08041 could be used as a biocontrol agent to regulate harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. From these experiments, we found that the inoculation of AFMB-08041 at a final density of 2.5 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) caused P. minimum cells to degrade (>90%) within 5 days. The algal cells were lysed through an indirect attack by the AFMB-08041 bacterial strain. Our results also suggest that the algal-lytic compounds produced by AFMB-08041 may have beta-glucosidase activity. However, P. haloplanktis AFMB-08041 was not able to suppress the growth of other alga such as Alexandrium tamarense, Akashiwo sanguinea, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Heterosigma akashiwo. Moreover, we observed that the growth of Prorocentrum dentatum, which has a very similar morphological structure to P. minimum, was also effectively suppressed by P. haloplanktis AFMB-08041. Therefore, the effect of AFMB-08041 on P. minimum degradation appears to be species specific. When testing in an indoor mesocosms, P. haloplanktis AFMB-08041 reduced the amount of viable P. minimum cells by 94.5% within 5 days after inoculation. The combined results of this study clearly demonstrate that this bacterium is capable of regulating the harmful algal blooms of P. minimum. In addition, these results will enable us to develop a new strategy for the anthropogenic control of harmful algal bloom-forming species in nature. PMID:19048341

  10. Monitoring Algal Blooms in a Southwestern U.S. Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, Philip; Neuer, Susanne

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, several studies have explored the potential of higher-resolution sensor data for monitoring phytoplankton primary production in coastal areas and lakes. Landsat data have been used to monitor algal blooms [Chang et al., 2004; Vincent et al., 2004], and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) full-resolution (300-meter) bands have been utilized to detect cyanobacterial blooms [Reinart and Kutser, 2006] as well as to monitor water quality [Koponen et al., 2004]. Field sampling efforts and MODIS 250-meter data are now being combined to develop a cost-effective method for monitoring water quality in a southwestern U.S. reservoir system. In the Phoenix, Ariz., metropolitan area, the Salt River reservoirs supply more than 3.5 million people, a population expected to rise to more than 6 million by 2030. Given that reservoir capacities have physical limitations, maintaining water quality will become critical as the population expands. Potentially noxious algal blooms that can release toxins and may affect water quality by modifying taste and odor have become a major concern in recent years. While frequent field sampling regimes are expensive, satellite imagery can be applied cost-effectively to monitor algal biomass trends remotely, and this information could provide early warning of blooms in these reservoirs.

  11. Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. )

    1990-01-09

    During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

  12. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013. PMID:25638059

  13. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

    2015-04-15

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4 ?m). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. PMID:25682049

  14. A multispectral analysis of algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Norris, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Skylab multispectral scanner data acquired on January 21, 1974, were used to study the spectral characteristics of an algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico west of Fort Myers, Florida. Radiance profiles of the water and algae were prepared with data from ten bands of the S192 scanner covering the spectral range from .42 to 2.35 micrometers. The high spectral response in the near-infrared spectral bands implies a possible classification and discrimination parameter for detection of blooms of phytoplankton concentrations such as the so-called red tides of Florida.

  15. Harmful Algal Bloom-Associated Illness Surveillance: Lessons From Reported Hospital Visits in New York, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Figgatt, Mary; Muscatiello, Neil; Wilson, Lloyd; Dziewulski, David

    2016-03-01

    We identified hospital visits with reported exposure to harmful algal blooms, an emerging public health concern because of toxicity and increased incidence. We used the World Health Organization's International Classification of Disease (ICD) medical code specifying environmental exposure to harmful algal blooms to extract hospital visit records in New York State from 2008 to 2014. Using the ICD code, we identified 228 hospital visits with reported exposure to harmful algal blooms. They occurred all year long and had multiple principal diagnoses. Of all hospital visits, 94.7% were managed in the emergency department and 5.3% were hospitalizations. As harmful algal bloom surveillance increases, the ICD code will be a beneficial tool to public health only if used properly. PMID:26794161

  16. The use of pigment "fingerprints" in the study of harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Bustillos-Guzmán, J; Gárate-Lizárraga, I; López-Cortés, D; Hernández-Sandoval, F

    2004-09-01

    Along the Mexican coast, harmful algae blooms (HAB) have become more frequent, and therefore, there is an urgent need to establish monitoring programs to avoid the undesired consequences of HAB in human and natural ecosystems. In this work, we analyzed the pigment signatures and the species composition from phytoplankton samples to evaluate the utility of the specific pigment "fingerprints" in HAB monitoring programs. Vertical profiles from a coastal lagoon and temporal samples of a red tide occurring in a shrimp-culture pond and in a coastal zone were taken into consideration. Between 76% and 84% of dinoflagellate and diatom cell density was explained by their specific signature variation, in both vertical and temporal samples. Only the variation of zeaxanthin and the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. showed a poor relationship, probably from difficulties in counting other cyanobacteria present in the samples examined with the microscopic method. These results suggest that inclusion of pigment analysis in the study and monitoring programs dealing with harmful algae would be very useful. PMID:17465114

  17. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: "strategies" for nutrient uptake and growth outside the Redfield comfort zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glibert, Patricia M.; Burkholder, Joann M.

    2011-07-01

    While many harmful algal blooms have been associated with increasing eutrophication, not all species respond similarly and the increasing challenge, especially for resource managers, is to determine which blooms are related to eutrophication and to understand why particular species proliferate under specific nutrient conditions. The overall goal of this brief review is to describe why nutrient loads are not changing in stoichiometric proportion to the "Redfield ratio", and why this has important consequences for algal growth. Many types of harmful algae appear to be able to thrive, and/or increase their production of toxins, when nutrient loads are not in proportion classically identified as Redfield ratios. Here we also describe some of the physiological mechanisms of different species to take up nutrients and to thrive under conditions of nutrient imbalance.

  18. Spectral modeling for the identification and quantification of algal blooms: A test of approach

    SciTech Connect

    Malthus, T.J.; Grieve, L.; Harwar, M.D.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop and test a Monte Carlo modelling approach for the characterization of reflectance for different bloom-forming marine phytoplankton species. The model was tested on optical data for four species (Dunaliella salina, Pavlova pinguis, Emiliania huxleyi and Synechocystes spp.) and simulations performed over a range of chlorophyll concentrations. Discriminant analysis identified 10 key wavelengths which could be used to maximize the separation between the four species. The resulting wavelengths were combined in a neural network to show 100% accuracy in classifying species type. Further simulations were undertaken to investigate the effect of aquatic humus on reflectance characteristics and the change in wavelengths for algal discrimination. The implications for the development of algorithms for the identification of algal bloom species type by remote sensing are briefly discussed.

  19. Bacterial Community Structure Associated with a Dimethylsulfoniopropionate-Producing North Atlantic Algal Bloom

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Simó, Rafel; Massana, Ramon; Covert, Joseph S.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Moran, Mary Ann

    2000-01-01

    The bacteria associated with oceanic algal blooms are acknowledged to play important roles in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling, yet little information is available on their identities or phylogenetic affiliations. Three culture-independent methods were used to characterize bacteria from a dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)-producing algal bloom in the North Atlantic. Group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis all indicated that the marine Roseobacter lineage was numerically important in the heterotrophic bacterial community, averaging >20% of the 16S rDNA sampled. Two other groups of heterotrophic bacteria, the SAR86 and SAR11 clades, were also shown by the three 16S rRNA-based methods to be abundant in the bloom community. In surface waters, the Roseobacter, SAR86, and SAR11 lineages together accounted for over 50% of the bacterial rDNA and showed little spatial variability in abundance despite variations in the dominant algal species. Depth profiles indicated that Roseobacter phylotype abundance decreased with depth and was positively correlated with chlorophyll a, DMSP, and total organic sulfur (dimethyl sulfide plus DMSP plus dimethyl sulfoxide) concentrations. Based on these data and previous physiological studies of cultured Roseobacter strains, we hypothesize that this lineage plays a role in cycling organic sulfur compounds produced within the bloom. Three other abundant bacterial phylotypes (representing a cyanobacterium and two members of the α Proteobacteria) were primarily associated with chlorophyll-rich surface waters of the bloom (0 to 50 m), while two others (representing Cytophagales and δ Proteobacteria) were primarily found in deeper waters (200 to 500 m). PMID:11010865

  20. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between private and public goods: evidence from toxic algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, William W; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' in natural systems is currently unclear. Here, we advance a general hypothesis for a particular class of eco-evolutionary feedbacks with potentially large, long-lasting impacts in complex ecosystems. These eco-evolutionary feedbacks involve traits that mediate important interactions with abiotic and biotic features of the environment and a self-driven reversal of selection as the ecological impact of the trait varies between private (small scale) and public (large scale). Toxic algal blooms may involve such eco-evolutionary feedbacks due to the emergence of public goods. We review evidence that toxin production by microalgae may yield 'privatised' benefits for individual cells or colonies under pre- and early-bloom conditions; however, the large-scale, ecosystem-level effects of toxicity associated with bloom states yield benefits that are necessarily 'public'. Theory predicts that the replacement of private with public goods may reverse selection for toxicity in the absence of higher level selection. Indeed, blooms often harbor significant genetic and functional diversity: bloom populations may undergo genetic differentiation over a scale of days, and even genetically similar lineages may vary widely in toxic potential. Intriguingly, these observations find parallels in terrestrial communities, suggesting that toxic blooms may serve as useful models for eco-evolutionary dynamics in nature. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks involving the emergence of a public good may shed new light on the potential for interactions between ecology and evolution to influence the structure and function of entire ecosystems. PMID:26612461

  1. Recreational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Microcystins During an Algal Bloom in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Carmichael, Wayne; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Williams, Christopher; Irvin, Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Johnson, Trisha B.; Nierenberg, Kate; Hill, Vincent R.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2008-01-01

    We measured microcystins in blood from people at risk for swallowing water or inhaling spray while swimming, water skiing, jet skiing, or boating during an algal bloom. We monitored water samples from a small lake as a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom developed. We recruited 97 people planning recreational activities in that lake and seven others who volunteered to recreate in a nearby bloom-free lake. We conducted our field study within a week of finding a 10-?g/L microcystin concentration. We analyzed water, air, and human blood samples for water quality, potential human pathogens, algal taxonomy, and microcystin concentrations. We interviewed study participants for demographic and current health symptom information. Water samples were assayed for potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses), but none were detected. We did find low concentrations of Escherichia coli, indicating fecal contamination. We found low levels of microcystins (2 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L) in the water and (<0.1 ng/m3) in the aerosol samples. Blood levels of microcystins for all participants were below the limit of detection (0.147?g/L). Given this low exposure level, study participants reported no symptom increases following recreational exposure to microcystins. This is the first study to report that water-based recreational activities can expose people to very low concentrations of aerosol-borne microcystins; we recently conducted another field study to assess exposures to higher concentrations of these algal toxins. PMID:18728733

  2. Potential for eutrophication and nuisance algal blooms in the lower Neuse river estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paerl, H.W.; Mallin, M.; Rudek, J.; Bates, P.W.

    1990-12-01

    Phytoplankton primary production and its environmental regulation were examined at 3 stations representative of the lower Neuse River Estuary near the Pamlico Sound interface. This study covered a 3-year period (November 1987-October 1990). The authors also examined the roles of the major phytoplankton nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in controlling growth and bloom formation. The overall potential for nuisance blooms and associated episodes of bottom water hypoxia and anoxia was investigated in field studies. Algal biomass and production varied seasonally, with high values in summer and low values in winter. In situ nutrient addition bioassays indicated the estuary experienced a general state of N limitation with especially profound limitation during summer periods. The authors recommendations for a management strategy include reductions in Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and suspended sediment loads in order to maintain the system in a nuisance bloom-free condition.

  3. Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Has Specific Bactericidal Activity against Harmful Algal Bloom Species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide. In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ—genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. PMID:25261512

  4. Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has specific bactericidal activity against harmful algal bloom species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen

    2014-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide : In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ-genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. PMID:25261512

  5. [Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of nutrients and their relationships with harmful algal blooms in coastal area of the East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Song; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Shi, Xiao-Yong; Tang, Hong-Jie; Han, Xiu-Rong; Xin, Yu

    2007-11-01

    Based on the data from four cruises that carried out in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent areas from 2002-04 to 2003-02, the seasonal variation and spatial distribution of nutrients were analyzed, and the relationship between nutrients condition and the harmful algal blooms (HABs) was also discussed. Results showed that the annual average concentration of nutrient was (17.93 +/- 2.46) micromol x L(-1) for DIN, (0.59 +/- 0.11) micromol x L(-1) for PO4(3-) -P, (15.34 +/- 3.23) micromol x L(-1) for SiO3(2-) -Si, and the study area was in the state of eutrophication. The average concentration of nutrient showed a remarkable seasonal fluctuation with the higher value in autumn and winter and lower value in spring and summer. The spatial distribution of the nutrients was typically such that the concentrations of DIN, PO4(3-) -P and SiO3(2-) -Si decreased from inshore to offshore area, and the contours generally decreased rapidly in down-coast directions. DIN and SiO3(2-) -Si of the study area were largely contributed by Changjiang River diluted water and other terrigenous inputs, while PO4(3-) -P mainly by Changjiang River diluted water and the Taiwan Warm Current. The following HABs showed that its occurrences were usually laid in the areas with higher nutrients and lower total suspended particles (TSP). PMID:18290458

  6. Decoupling physical from biological processes to assess the impact of viruses on a mesoscale algal bloom.

    PubMed

    Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Schatz, Daniella; Frada, Miguel; Sheyn, Uri; Boss, Emmanuel; Efrati, Shai; Rudich, Yinon; Trainic, Miri; Sharoni, Shlomit; Laber, Christian; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Coolen, Marco J L; Martins, Ana Maria; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Bidle, Kay D; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-09-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are ephemeral events of exceptionally high primary productivity that regulate the flux of carbon across marine food webs [1-3]. Quantification of bloom turnover [4] is limited by a fundamental difficulty to decouple between physical and biological processes as observed by ocean color satellite data. This limitation hinders the quantification of bloom demise and its regulation by biological processes [5, 6], which has important consequences on the efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean [7-9]. Here, we address this challenge and quantify algal blooms' turnover using a combination of satellite and in situ data, which allows identification of a relatively stable oceanic patch that is subject to little mixing with its surroundings. Using a newly developed multisatellite Lagrangian diagnostic, we decouple the contributions of physical and biological processes, allowing quantification of a complete life cycle of a mesoscale (?10-100 km) bloom of coccolithophores in the North Atlantic, from exponential growth to its rapid demise. We estimate the amount of organic carbon produced during the bloom to be in the order of 24,000 tons, of which two-thirds were turned over within 1 week. Complimentary in situ measurements of the same patch area revealed high levels of specific viruses infecting coccolithophore cells, therefore pointing at the importance of viral infection as a possible mortality agent. Application of the newly developed satellite-based approaches opens the way for large-scale quantification of the impact of diverse environmental stresses on the fate of phytoplankton blooms and derived carbon in the ocean. PMID:25155511

  7. Neural network algorithms for retrieval of harmful algal blooms in the west Florida shelf from VIIRS satellite observations and comparisons with other techniques, without the need for a fluorescence channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-habashi, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2015-10-01

    New approaches are described that use of the Ocean Color Remote Sensing Reflectance readings (OC Rrs) available from the existing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) bands to detect and retrieve Karenia brevis (KB) Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) that frequently plague the coasts of the West Florida Shelf (WFS). Unfortunately, VIIRS, unlike MODIS, does not have a 678 nm channel to detect Chlorophyll fluorescence, which is used with MODIS in the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm which has been shown to help in effectively detecting and tracking KB HABs. We present here the use of neural network (NN) algorithms for KB HABS retrievals in the WFS. These NNs, previously reported by us, were trained, using a wide range of suitably parametrized synthetic data typical of coastal waters, to form a multiband inversion algorithm which models the relationship between Rrs values at the 486, 551 and 671nm VIIRS bands against the values of phytoplankton absorption (aph), CDOM absorption (ag), non-algal particles (NAP) absorption (aNAP) and the particulate backscattering bbp coefficients, all at 443nm, and permits retrievals of these parameters. We use the NN to retrieve aph443 in the WFS. The retrieved aph443 values are then filtered by applying known limiting conditions on minimum Chlorophyll concentration [Chla] and low backscatter properties associated with KB HABS in the WFS, thereby identifying, delineating and quantifying the aph443 values, and hence [Chl] concentrations representing KB HABS. Comparisons with in-situ measurements and other techniques including MODIS nFLH confirm the viability of both the NN retrievals and the filtering approaches devised.

  8. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Barry H.; Ann St. Amand

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  9. An Oceanographic Buoy for Multidisciplinary Education and Research in a Coastal Embayment Prone to Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E. P.; Roesler, C.; Teegarden, G.

    2005-12-01

    In the spring of 2006 a consortium of Bowdoin College, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, and Saint Joseph's College of Maine will begin the operation of an oceanographic buoy in Harpswell Sound, part of the Casco Bay region of coastal Maine. Funding for acquisition of the buoy has been provided by NSF's MRI program. The sensing buoy will measure physical climatic and oceanographic variables, as well as a suite of biogeochemical indicators (nutrients, chlorophyll, light absorption, etc.). The data collected will be publicly available in real time and will contribute to the overall Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) monitoring program, a premier and ground-breaking effort in assessing the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Gulf of Maine. Harpswell Sound is known as an indicator region for harmful algal blooms (HABs) of toxic Alexandrium spp. microalgae, and is an ideal location to employ long-term, comprehensive, remote and real-time monitoring to characterize model systems that promote HABs, as well as system response to changing watershed use patterns and evolving cultural eutrophication. Data acquired with the buoy's sensors, both streaming in real-time and archived in larger sets, will be used in course work at Bowdoin College and Saint Joseph's College, and will be available for use by other post-secondary institutions. Immediate applications include use of data in course work to understand the influence of physical oceanographic processes on biological processes in three dimensions and through time from an Eulerian perspective. The influence of climatic events and the geological characteristics of the surrounding watershed will also be recorded and analyzed through earth science course work. Bowdoin College has a marine research station immediately adjacent on the shore of Harpswell Sound, facilitating complementary traditional monitoring opportunities, e.g. targeted and detailed sampling of interesting features indicated by the sensing buoy, as well as ancillary hypothesis-driven research made possible with complementary use of the monitoring buoy. This will provide for numerous undergraduate research internships and senior thesis research activities. The three institutions seek to form educational and research partnerships with other institutions and to create model curriculum based on the synergy between an ocean buoy and an adjacent research facility.

  10. Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to differentiate morphospecies of Alexandrium minutum, a paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing dinoflagellate of harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leo Lai; Hodgkiss, Ivor John; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Chou, Hong-Nong; Lum, John Hon-Kei; Lo, Maria Gar-Yee; Mak, Abby Sin-Chi; Sit, Wai-Hung; Lo, Samuel Chun-Lap

    2005-04-01

    Contamination of shellfish with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PST) produced by toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been negatively affecting the shellfish and aquaculture industries worldwide. Therefore, accurate and early identification of toxic phytoplankton species is crucial in HABs surveillance programs that allow fish-farmers to take appropriate preventive measures in shellfish harvesting and other aquaculture activities to overcome the negative impacts of HABs on human health. The identification of toxic dinoflagellates present in the water is currently a time-consuming operation since it requires skillful taxonomists and toxicologists equipped with optical and scanning electron microscopes as well as sophisticated equipment, for example, high-performance liquid chromotography-fluorescence detection. In this paper, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomic approach was applied to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic strains of Alexandrium minutum. Variation in morphological features between toxic and nontoxic strains was minimal and not significant. Also, variation in 2-DE protein patterns within either toxic or nontoxic strains was low, but pronounced differences were detected between toxic and nontoxic strains. The most notable differences between these strains were several abundant proteins with pIs ranging from 4.8 to 5.3 and apparent molecular masses between 17.5 and 21.5 kDa. Groups of proteins, namely NT1, NT2, NT3, and NT4, were consistently found in all nontoxic strains, while T1 and T2 were prominent in the toxic strains. These specific protein spots characteristic for toxic and nontoxic strains remained clearly distinguishable irrespective of the various growth conditions tested. Therefore, they have the potential to serve as "taxonomic markers" to distinguish toxic and nontoxic strains within A. minutum. Initial studies revealed that the expression pattern of T1 was tightly correlated to toxin biosynthesis in the examined alga and may be used to serve as a potential toxin indicator. PMID:15800974

  11. Quantifying Phycocyanin Concentration in Cyanobacterial Algal Blooms from Remote Sensing Reflectance-A Quasi Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.; Tucker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHAB) are notorious for depleting dissolved oxygen level, producing various toxins, causing threats to aquatic life, altering the food-web dynamics and the overall ecosystem functioning in inland lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. Most of these algal blooms produce various toxins that can damage cells, tissues and even cause mortality of living organisms. Frequent monitoring of water quality in a synoptic scale has been possible by the virtue of remote sensing techniques. In this research, we present a novel technique to monitor CHAB using remote sensing reflectance products. We have modified a multi-band quasi analytical algorithm that determines phytoplankton absorption coefficients from above surface remote sensing reflectance measurements using an inversion method. In situ hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data were collected from several highly turbid and productive aquaculture ponds. A novel technique was developed to further decompose the phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 620 nm and obtain phycocyanin absorption coefficient at the same wavelength. An empirical relationship was established between phycocyanin absorption coefficients at 620 nm and measured phycocyanin concentrations. Model calibration showed strong relationship between phycocyanin absorption coefficients and phycocyanin pigment concentration (r2=0.94). Validation of the model in a separate dataset produced a root mean squared error of 167 mg m-3 (phycocyanin range: 26-1012 mg m-3). Results demonstrate that the new approach will be suitable for quantifying phycocyanin concentration in cyanobacteria dominated turbid productive waters. Band architecture of the model matches with the band configuration of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and assures that MERIS reflectance products can be used to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in optically complex waters.

  12. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  13. Recognizing harmful algal bloom based on remote sensing reflectance band ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Bartoli, Marco; Tavernini, Silvia; Bolpagni, Rossano; Nizzoli, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    We present a band ratio algorithm based on remote sensing reflectance (RRS) data to detect an algal bloom composed of cyanobacteria (Planktothrix spp.) and chrysophytes in Lake Idro, a small meso-eutrophic lake situated in the subalpine region (northern Italy). The bloom started around the first week of September 2010 and persisted for about 1 month, with highest mean chlorophyll-a concentrations (17.5 +/- 1.6 mgm-3) and phytoplankton cellular density (7,250,000 cell.l-1) measured on September 14, 2010. RRS data obtained from in situ measurements were first investigated to select the diagnostic wavelengths (i.e., 560 and 620 nm) of both phycoerythrin (present in the Planktothrix spp.) and other pigments (e.g., fucoxanthin, common to several species of chrysophyte). Testing the algorithm on RRS data derived from atmospherically corrected image data showed the ability of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) to detect the bloom also. The results demonstrate that a combination of in situ and MERIS data is a valuable tool to monitor the extent and duration of phytoplankton blooms.

  14. Towards spatial localisation of harmful algal blooms; statistics-based spatial anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutler, J. D.; Grant, M. G.; Miller, P. I.

    2005-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms are believed to be increasing in occurrence and their toxins can be concentrated by filter-feeding shellfish and cause amnesia or paralysis when ingested. As a result fisheries and beaches in the vicinity of blooms may need to be closed and the local population informed. For this avoidance planning timely information on the existence of a bloom, its species and an accurate map of its extent would be prudent. Current research to detect these blooms from space has mainly concentrated on spectral approaches towards determining species. We present a novel statistics-based background-subtraction technique that produces improved descriptions of an anomaly's extent from remotely-sensed ocean colour data. This is achieved by extracting bulk information from a background model; this is complemented by a computer vision ramp filtering technique to specifically detect the perimeter of the anomaly. The complete extraction technique uses temporal-variance estimates which control the subtraction of the scene of interest from the time-weighted background estimate, producing confidence maps of anomaly extent. Through the variance estimates the method learns the associated noise present in the data sequence, providing robustness, and allowing generic application. Further, the use of the median for the background model reduces the effects of anomalies that appear within the time sequence used to generate it, allowing seasonal variations in the background levels to be closely followed. To illustrate the detection algorithm's application, it has been applied to two spectrally different oceanic regions.

  15. Limnology of Oneida Lake with emphasis on factors contributing to algal blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1971-01-01

    Oneida Lake is a naturally eutrophic lake that has existed for about 10,500 years. It has been in a eutrophic state for at least 350 years, and the geochemically derived dissolved materials entering the lake from the drainage basin are of sufficient quantity (449,700 tones per year) to support annual algal blooms. The greatest amount of the dissolved materials (72 percent) comes from the southern tributaries to the lake, of which Chittenango Creek carries the largest load of almost all major chemical substances. The stream contributes 37 percent of all dissolved solids entering the lake. Ground water is negligible in both the water and the nutrient budgets.

  16. Zooplankton may serve as transmission vectors for viruses infecting algal blooms in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Frada, Miguel José; Schatz, Daniella; Farstey, Viviana; Ossolinski, Justin E; Sabanay, Helena; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-11-01

    Marine viruses are recognized as a major driving force regulating phytoplankton community composition and nutrient cycling in the oceans. Yet, little is known about mechanisms that influence viral dispersal in aquatic systems, other than physical processes, and that lead to the rapid demise of large-scale algal blooms in the oceans. Here, we show that copepods, abundant migrating crustaceans that graze on phytoplankton, as well as other zooplankton can accumulate and mediate the transmission of viruses infecting Emiliania huxleyi, a bloom-forming coccolithophore that plays an important role in the carbon cycle. We detected by PCR that >80% of copepods collected during a North Atlantic E. huxleyi bloom carried E. huxleyi virus (EhV) DNA. We demonstrated by isolating a new infectious EhV strain from a copepod microbiome that these viruses are infectious. We further showed that EhVs can accumulate in high titers within zooplankton guts during feeding or can be adsorbed to their surface. Subsequently, EhV can be dispersed by detachment or via viral-dense fecal pellets over a period of 1 day postfeeding on EhV-infected algal cells, readily infecting new host populations. Intriguingly, the passage through zooplankton guts prolonged EhV's half-life of infectivity by 35%, relative to free virions in seawater, potentially enhancing viral transmission. We propose that zooplankton, swimming through topographically adjacent phytoplankton micropatches and migrating daily over large areas across physically separated water masses, can serve as viral vectors, boosting host-virus contact rates and potentially accelerating the demise of large-scale phytoplankton blooms. PMID:25438947

  17. Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups. PMID:22767355

  18. Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with expected future conditions.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Anna M; Anderson, Eric J; Beletsky, Dmitry; Boland, Steven; Bosch, Nathan S; Bridgeman, Thomas B; Chaffin, Justin D; Cho, Kyunghwa; Confesor, Rem; Daloglu, Irem; Depinto, Joseph V; Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary L; He, Lingli; Ho, Jeff C; Jenkins, Liza; Johengen, Thomas H; Kuo, Kevin C; Laporte, Elizabeth; Liu, Xiaojian; McWilliams, Michael R; Moore, Michael R; Posselt, Derek J; Richards, R Peter; Scavia, Donald; Steiner, Allison L; Verhamme, Ed; Wright, David M; Zagorski, Melissa A

    2013-04-16

    In 2011, Lake Erie experienced the largest harmful algal bloom in its recorded history, with a peak intensity over three times greater than any previously observed bloom. Here we show that long-term trends in agricultural practices are consistent with increasing phosphorus loading to the western basin of the lake, and that these trends, coupled with meteorological conditions in spring 2011, produced record-breaking nutrient loads. An extended period of weak lake circulation then led to abnormally long residence times that incubated the bloom, and warm and quiescent conditions after bloom onset allowed algae to remain near the top of the water column and prevented flushing of nutrients from the system. We further find that all of these factors are consistent with expected future conditions. If a scientifically guided management plan to mitigate these impacts is not implemented, we can therefore expect this bloom to be a harbinger of future blooms in Lake Erie. PMID:23576718

  19. Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with expected future conditions

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Anna M.; Anderson, Eric J.; Beletsky, Dmitry; Boland, Steven; Bosch, Nathan S.; Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Chaffin, Justin D.; Cho, Kyunghwa; Confesor, Rem; Dalo?lu, Irem; DePinto, Joseph V.; Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; He, Lingli; Ho, Jeff C.; Jenkins, Liza; Johengen, Thomas H.; Kuo, Kevin C.; LaPorte, Elizabeth; Liu, Xiaojian; McWilliams, Michael R.; Moore, Michael R.; Posselt, Derek J.; Richards, R. Peter; Scavia, Donald; Steiner, Allison L.; Verhamme, Ed; Wright, David M.; Zagorski, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Lake Erie experienced the largest harmful algal bloom in its recorded history, with a peak intensity over three times greater than any previously observed bloom. Here we show that long-term trends in agricultural practices are consistent with increasing phosphorus loading to the western basin of the lake, and that these trends, coupled with meteorological conditions in spring 2011, produced record-breaking nutrient loads. An extended period of weak lake circulation then led to abnormally long residence times that incubated the bloom, and warm and quiescent conditions after bloom onset allowed algae to remain near the top of the water column and prevented flushing of nutrients from the system. We further find that all of these factors are consistent with expected future conditions. If a scientifically guided management plan to mitigate these impacts is not implemented, we can therefore expect this bloom to be a harbinger of future blooms in Lake Erie. PMID:23576718

  20. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in water quality changes. In situ monitoring locations that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths greater than seven meters and were located over five kilometers from shore. Water quality parameter of total nitrogen, phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand had high correlations with these sites, as well. Satellite FLH estimates show improving water quality from 2003-2007 with a slight decline up through 2011. Dinoflagellate blooms in Monterey Bay, California (USA) have recently increased in frequency and intensity. Nine years of MODIS FLH observations are used to describe the annual and seasonal variability of bloom activity within the Bay. Three classes of MODIS algorithms were correlated against in situ chlorophyll measurements. The FLH algorithm provided the most robust estimate of bloom activity. Elevated concentrations of phytoplankton were evident during the months of August-November, a period during which increased occurrences of dinoflagellate blooms have been observed in situ. Seasonal patterns of FLH show the on- and offshore movement of areas of high phytoplankton biomass between oceanographic seasons. Higher concentrations of phytoplankton are also evident in the vicinity of the land-based nutrient sources and outflows, and the cyclonic bay-wide circulation can transport these nutrients to the northern Bay bloom incubation region. Both of these case studies illustrate the utility MODIS FLH observations in supporting management decisions in coastal and estuarine waters.

  1. Flocculation of harmful algal blooms by modified attapulgite and its safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xianan; Cai, Dongqing; Feng, Huiyun; Miao, Chunguang; Wang, Xiangqin; Wu, Zhengyan; Yu, Zengliang

    2011-04-01

    Natural attapulgite (N-AT) and modified attapulgite (M-AT) were used in this study to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies and mechanisms in freshwater containing harmful algal blooms through conventional jar test procedure. The experimental results showed that the efficiency of flocculation can be significantly improved by M-AT under appropriate conditions. It was found that the attapulgite modified by hydrochloric acid was similar to polyaluminum ferric silicate chloride (PAFSiC). The high efficiency for M-AT to flocculate Microcystis aeruginosa in freshwater was due to the mechanism of bridging and netting effect. Caenorhabditis elegans was used to detect the toxicity of N-AT and M-AT. The results showed that there was no significant toxicity on this organism. Attapulgite is a natural material, which can be readily available, abundant, and relatively inexpensive. Using modified attapulgite to remove the harmful algal blooms could have the advantages of high effectiveness, low cost, and low impact on the environment. PMID:21458018

  2. The effects of sea urchin grazing and drift algal blooms on a subtropical seagrass bed community.

    PubMed

    Maciá

    2000-03-30

    Subtropical seagrass beds can be subject to relatively high levels of direct herbivory and large blooms of drift algae, both of which can have important effects on the floral and faunal components of the community. Caging experiments were used to investigate these factors in a Thalassia testudinum bed in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Abundance of sea urchins, Lytechinus variegatus, and drift algae was manipulated within the cages. Naturally occurring levels of urchin grazing do not appear to affect the T. testudinum population. With experimentally increased urchin densities in the winter, seagrass shoot density and aboveground biomass decreased significantly. Similar effects were not detected in the summer, indicating that the impact of grazing on T. testudinum is lessened during this time of year. Shoot density was more vulnerable to grazing than aboveground biomass. This may be a result of grazing-induced increases in seagrass productivity, in which the remaining shoots produce more or longer leaves. In the winter, drift algal blooms form large mats that cover the seagrass canopy. Under the normal grazing regime these algal blooms do not have significant negative effects on the seagrass. With increased grazing pressure, however, there is a synergistic effect of grazing and drift algae on seagrass shoot density. At intermediate urchin density (10 per m(-2)), cages without algae did not undergo significant decreases in shoot density, while those with algae did. At the high density of urchins, the number of seagrass shoots in cages both with and without algae decreased, but the effect was more pronounced for cages with algae. Invertebrate abundance at the field site was low relative to other seagrass beds. There were no discernible effects, either positive or negative, of urchin and algae manipulations on the sampled invertebrate community. PMID:10699218

  3. Physical-biological sources for dense algal blooms near the Changjiang River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Zhu, Jianrong; Beardsley, Robert C.; Franks, Peter J. S.

    2003-05-01

    Harmful algal blooms (``red tides'') occur primarily in a confined region on the inner shelf off the Changjiang River in the East China Sea during May-August. The areal extent of these blooms has increased dramatically in the last decade, and is thought to be associated with the rapid increase in nutrient supply via the Changjiang River. An interdisciplinary survey conducted in August 2000 identified three areas of high chlorophyll-a concentration in this region: the near-surface Changjiang River plume with high dissolved oxygen and pH, the thermocline above Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) water, and near the bottom north of the Zhoushan Island complex, an area of strong sediment deposition from the Changjiang River with low dissolved oxygen and pH. These results imply that the formation of phytoplankton blooms is controlled by a complex interplay of physical, geological, biological, and chemical processes associated with the Changjiang River discharge, sediment deposition, and TWC intrusions. The predicted increase in nutrient loading in the Changjiang River due to further economic development of Shanghai and reduction in sediment discharge due to the Three Gorges dam suggest that this part of the East China Sea could become an ecosystem disaster, with possible downstream contamination of Korea and Japan, unless the nutrient loading from Shanghai and surrounding cities and aquaculture activities along the coast are reduced.

  4. Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2014-09-01

    Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

  5. Harmful algal blooms: a case study in two mesotrophic drinking water supply reservoirs in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Knight, Rodney R.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Arrington, Jane M.; West, Rebecca; Westcott, John; Bradley, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Algal blooms can be harmful and a nuisance in a variety of aquatic ecosystems, including reservoirs and lakes. Cyanobacterial(blue-green algae) harmful algal blooms are notorious for producing both taste-and-odor compounds and potent toxins that may affect human health. Taste–and-odor episodes are aesthetic problems often caused by cyanobacterial-produced organic compounds (geosmin and methylisoborneol) and are common in reservoirs and lakes used as source water supplies. The occurrences of these taste-and-odor compounds and toxins (like microcystin) can be sporadic and vary in intensity both spatially and temporally. Recent publications by the U.S. Geological Survey address this complexity and provide protocols for cyanotoxin and taste-and-odor sampling programs. A case study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, monitored two mesotrophic reservoirs that serve as public drinking water supplies in South Carolina. Study objectives were (1) to identify spatial and temporal occurrence of the taste-and-odor compound geosmin and the cyanotoxin microcystin and (2) to assess the associated limnological conditions before, during, and after these occurrences. Temporal and spatial occurrence of geosmin and microcystin were highly variable from 2007 to 2009. The highest geosmin concentrations tended to occur in the spring. Microcystin tended to occur in the late summer and early fall, but occurrence was rare and well below World Health Organization guidelines for finished drinking water and recreational activities. No current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards are applicable to cyanotoxins in drinking or ambient water. In general, elevated geosmin and microcystin concentrations were the result of complex interactions between cyanobacterial ?community composition, nutrient availability, water clarity, hydraulic residence time, and stratification.

  6. Future increase in harmful algal blooms in the North Sea due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Peperzak, L

    2005-01-01

    In temperate seas such as the North Sea harmful (toxic) algal blooms will probably increase as a result of climate change. This conclusion was reached after investigating the projected effect of climate change for the year 2100 in Dutch coastal waters (4 degrees C temperature rise and increased water column stratification) on the growth rates of six harmful and two non-harmful phytoplankton species. Micro algae form the basis of the marine food chain. However, toxin-producing species may seriously disrupt the food web and lead to fish kills and human intoxication. Two species with estimated doubled growth rates in 2100, F. japonica and C. antiqua, entered Europe via ship's ballast water or shellfish imports. This stresses the need to legally regulate such invasion routes in order to prevent the import of novel species. Future toxic phytoplankton blooms may further devaluate ecosystem deliverables such as fish production or recreational use. This devaluation can be estimated by monetary value assessments that are needed in cost-benefit analyses for policy guidance. The lack of understanding of future climate, ecosystem functioning and its response to climate change calls for a scientific effort to improve our knowledge on present day coastal ecosystem functioning and its resilience. PMID:15918356

  7. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Torbick, Nathan; Corbiere, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 µg/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost. PMID:26389930

  8. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms.

    PubMed

    Torbick, Nathan; Corbiere, Megan

    2015-09-01

    Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophylla and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R² and root-mean-square error (RMSE) ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 ?g/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost. PMID:26389930

  9. Analysis of pollutant enhanced bacterial-blue-green algal interrelationships potentiating surface water contamination by noxious blue-green algal blooms. Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibro can stimulate the blue-green alga (Cyanobacterium) Anabaena variabilis (Strain 6411) into increasing its dry weight biomass production by more than 200 percent over that of the control as the total phosphate in the medium approaches zero. Results suggest that methods which utilize total nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in waters as predictors of blue-green algal 'blooms' may be unreliable when the waters are very low in phosphorus yet remain high in sulfate with conditions favorable for sulfate-reducing bacterial growth in benthic sediments. Otherwise, if the phosphate levels alone in the aqueous systems are reduced below threshold levels under these conditions, the magnitude of the blue-green algal blooms may be increased substantially.

  10. Harmful algal bloom removal and eutrophic water remediation by commercial nontoxic polyamine-co-polymeric ferric sulfate-modified soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guofei; Zhong, Jiayou; Song, Lirong; Guo, Chunjing; Gan, Nanqin; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-07-01

    Harmful algal bloom has posed great threat to drinking water safety worldwide. In this study, soils were combined with commercial nontoxic polyamine poly(epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine) (PN) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) to obtain PN-PFS soils for Microcystis removal and eutrophic water remediation under static laboratory conditions. High pH and temperature in water could enhance the function of PN-PFS soil. Algal removal efficiency increased as soil particle size decreased or modified soil dose increased. Other pollutants or chemicals (such as C, P, and organic matter) in eutrophic water could participate and promote algal removal by PN-PFS soil; these pollutants were also flocculated. During PN-PFS soil application in blooming field samples, the removal efficiency of blooming Microcystis cells exceeded 99 %, the cyanotoxin microcystins reduced by 57 %. Water parameters (as TP, TN, SS, and SPC) decreased by about 90 %. CODMn, PO4-P, and NH4-N also sharply decreased by >45 %. DO and ORP in water improved. Netting and bridging effects through electrostatic attraction and complexation reaction could be the two key mechanisms of Microcystis flocculation and pollutant purification. Considering the low cost of PN-PFS soil and its nontoxic effect on the environment, we proposed that this soil combination could be applied to remove cyanobacterial bloom and remediate eutrophic water in fields. PMID:25752635

  11. Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins.

    PubMed

    James, K J; Carey, B; O'Halloran, J; van Pelt, F N A M; Skrabáková, Z

    2010-07-01

    Five major human toxic syndromes caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated by algal toxins are presented. The increased risks to humans of shellfish toxicity from the prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) may be a consequence of large-scale ecological changes from anthropogenic activities, especially increased eutrophication, marine transport and aquaculture, and global climate change. Improvements in toxin detection methods and increased toxin surveillance programmes are positive developments in limiting human exposure to shellfish toxins. PMID:20412612

  12. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa A; Kudela, Raphael M; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C; Tinker, M Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal bloom" in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface. PMID:20844747

  13. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal bloom" in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface.

  14. Nutrient sources and composition of recent algal blooms and eutrophication in the northern Jiulong River, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cao, Wenzhi; Su, Caixia; Hong, Huasheng

    2011-01-01

    The natural process of eutrophication is accelerated by human activities worldwide that interrupt nutrient biogeochemical cycles. Three algal bloom events have been monitored in the northern tributary of the Jiulong River since 2009. The inflection points in a robust locally-weighted regression analysis (LOESS) of the relationship between TN and TP concentrations in the river water, and a TN:TP comparison with nutrient source loadings, suggested that both external loading and internal nutrient cycling contributed to these algal blooms. Nutrient release from the sediments may have played an important role in regulating the nutrients in the overlying water column. In particular, excessive nutrient inputs from various sources and ubiquitous river damming caused further accumulation of the nutrient loading. In-situ autochthonous primary production was enhanced in this relatively stable "river" to "lake" water body. Thus, attention must be paid to the effects of river damming and the consequent internal nutrient release. PMID:21377176

  15. A pilot project to detect and forecast harmful algal blooms in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William S; Malone, Thomas C; Giattina, James D

    2003-01-01

    More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a pilot project was initiated to develop a user-driven, end-to-end (measurements to applications) observing system. A key strategy of the project is to coordinate existing state, federal and academic programs at an unprecedented level of collaboration and partnership. Resource managers charged with protection of public health and aquatic resources require immediate notice of algal events and a forecast of when, where and what adverse effects will likely occur. Further, managers require integrated analyses and interpretations, rather than raw data, to make effective decisions. Consequently, a functional observing system must collect and transform diverse measurements into usable forecasts. Data needed to support development of forecasts will include such properties as sea surface temperature, winds, currents and waves; precipitation and freshwater flows with related discharges of sediment and nutrients; salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll concentrations (in vivo fluorescence); and remotely-sensed spatial images of sea surface chlorophyll concentrations. These data will be provided via a mixture of discrete and autonomous in situ sensing with near real-time data telemetry, and remote sensing from space (SeaWiFS), aircraft (hyperspectral imagery) or land (high-frequency radar). With calibration across these platforms, the project will ultimately provide a 4-dimensional visualization of harmful algae events in a time frame suitable to resource managers. PMID:12620029

  16. Remote sensing of harmful algal blooms in the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay: Modelling and algorithm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holiday, Dan Martin

    The incidence and severity of harmful algal blooms have increased in recent decades, as have the economic effects of their occurrence. The diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. caused fisheries closures in Mobile Bay during 2005 due to elevated levels of domoic acid. In the previous 4 years Karenia brevis counts of >5,000 cells L-1 have occurred in Mobile Bay and the Mississippi Sound. Population levels of this magnitude had previously been recorded only in 1996. Increases in human populations, urban sprawl, development of shoreline properties, sewage effluent and resultant changes in N-P ratios of discharge waters, and decline in forest and marsh lands, will potentially increase future harmful algal bloom occurrences in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Due to this trend in occurrence of harmful algal populations, there has been an increasing awareness of the need for development of monitoring systems in this region. Traditional methods of sampling have proven costly in terms of time and resources, and increasing attention has been turned toward use of satellite data in phytoplankton monitoring and prediction. This study shows that remote sensing does have utility in monitoring and predicting locations of phytoplankton blooms in this region. It has described the composition and spatial and temporal relationships of these populations, inferring salinity, total nitrogen and total phosphorous as the primary variables driving phytoplankton populations in Mobile Bay and the Mississippi Sound. Diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates were most abundant in collections. Correlations between SeaWiFS, MODIS and in situ data have shown relationships between Rrs reflectance and phytoplankton populations. These data were used in formation of a decision tree model predicting environmental conditions conducive to the formation of phytoplankton blooms that is driven completely by satellite data. Empirical algorithms were developed for prediction of salinity, based on Rrs ratios of 510 nm/555 nm, creating a new data product for use in harmful algal bloom prediction. The capacity of satellite data for rapid, synoptic coverage shows great promise in supplementing future efforts to monitor and predict harmful algal bloom events in the increasingly eutrophic waters of Mobile Bay and the Mississippi Sound.

  17. Verification and Validation of NASA-Supported Enhancements to the Near Real Time Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Calllie; McPherson, Terry; Spiering, Bruce; Brown, Richard; Estep, Lee; Lunde, Bruce; Guest, DeNeice; Navard, Andy; Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses verification and validation (V&V) assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean data products contributed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Applied Coherent Technologies (ACT) Corporation to National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration s (NOAA) Near Real Time (NRT) Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS). HABSOS is a maturing decision support tool (DST) used by NOAA and its partners involved with coastal and public health management.

  18. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  19. Monitoring the algal bloom event in Lake Okeechobee, Florida under Tropical Cyclone Fay impacts using MODIS/Terra images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daranpob, Ammarin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Jin, Kang-Ren; Yang, Y. Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    Lake Okeechobee, Florida is the largest freshwater lake in the southeastern U.S. It is a key component in the hydrologic system of South Florida providing water supply for agriculture, the environment, and urban areas. Excessive phosphorus loads, from the Okeechobee watershed over the last few decades have led to increased eutrophication of this lake. Much of the excess phosphorus has been sequestered into the sediments. Sediment water interactions, including diffusive fluxes and sediment resuspension are a source of available phosphorus for phytoplankton. As a consequence, nutrient-enriched lake water has led to phytoplankton blooms from time to time. These blooms are often quantified by measurement of chlorophyll-a concentrations. While the in-situ water quality monitoring is time-consuming, sporadic, and costly, multispectral remote sensing sensors onboard satellites can detect chlorophyll-a contained in most phytoplankton efficiently. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 1- Day images to capture the unique algal bloom event one week after the landfall of the hurricane Fay in mid-Sept. 2008. Use of the genetic programming model permits sound information retrieval for spatial mapping of chlorophyll-a concentrations, which help explain the mechanism as to why the algal bloom event occurred.

  20. Human Illnesses and Animal Deaths Associated with Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms—Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S.; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Ménager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

  1. Human illnesses and animal deaths associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms-Kansas.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Ménager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

  2. A novel remote sensing algorithm to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.

    2014-11-01

    We present a novel three-band algorithm (PC3) to retrieve phycocyanin (PC) pigment concentration in cyanobacteria laden inland waters. The water sample and remote sensing reflectance data used for PC3 calibration and validation were acquired from highly turbid productive catfish aquaculture ponds. Since the characteristic PC absorption feature at 620 nm is contaminated with residual chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) absorption, we propose a coefficient (?) for isolating the PC absorption component at 620 nm. Results show that inclusion of the model coefficient relating Chl-a absorption at 620 nm-665 nm enables PC3 to compensate for the confounding effect of Chl-a at the PC absorption band and considerably increases the accuracy of the PC prediction algorithm. In the current dataset, PC3 produced the lowest mean relative error of prediction among all PC algorithms considered in this research. Moreover, PC3 eliminates the nonlinear sensitivity issue of PC algorithms particularly at high PC range (>100 ?g L-1). Therefore, introduction of PC3 will have an immediate positive impact on studies monitoring inland and coastal cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

  3. Riverine nutrients fluxes to the North Sea and harmful algal blooms, what changed since 1984 ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passy, Paul; Gypens, Nathalie; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent; Rousseau, Véronique; Callens, Julie; Parent, Jean-Yves; Lancelot, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Nutrients fluxes delivered to the coastal zones reflect human activities taking place within watersheds. Silica (Si) fluxes mainly originate from soils and rocks weathering, so they are few impacted by human activities. On the contrary, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes are dramatically impacted by human activities. N originates from urban waste water but mainly from agricultural activities. P originates mostly from urban and industrial waste waters. The enrichment of the hydrosystems in N and P leads to an imbalance between N and P in one hand and Si in the other hand. This imbalance leads to harmful algal blooms, which are damaging aquatic ecosystems, fishing activities and touristic activities. In 1992, the OSPAR convention was signed by 15 European States and targets to decrease the N and P fluxes delivered to the European coastal zones by 50 % with respect to the reference year of 1985. Focusing on the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds (France and Belgium) and the adjacent coastal zone of the North Sea, we developed a retrospective modelling from 1984 to 2007 calculating nutrients fluxes from watersheds and Phaeocystis blooms occurring in the coastal zone. We coupled the biogeochemical deterministic model Seneque/Riverstrahler depicting processes occurring within hydrological networks with the marine model MIRO simulating Phaeocystis blooms in the coastal zone. The evolution of N and P fluxes were highly dissimilar. Indeed, P mainly originates from point sources. Thereby the banishment of P from the washing powders during the nineties, the development of sewage and the improvement of WWTP in terms of waste water treatment lead to a decrease of P fluxes delivered to the coastal zone. This decrease can be observed for the three watersheds. The P OSPAR objective is achieved since the middle of the 2000's years. On the other side, N, mostly originating from agricultural diffuse sources, did not decrease over the period. The fluxes even increased at the outlet of the Seine River. This slackness or increase can be explained by the inefficiency of the measures taken in order to manage agricultural pollutions. The N OSPAR objective is still not yet achieved and no decreasing trend can be observed. Concerning the coastal zone, Phaeocystis blooms decreased by 50 % in terms of intensity and duration over the period. Our simulations permit us to show that, P availability is the main explaining factor of the Phaeocystis development. As the main major efforts have been focused on the P abatement over the period and the corresponding OSPAR objective is now achieved, the nowadays challenge is the decrease of N fluxes. Although Phaeocystis are well controlled by P, other toxic algae (as Dinoflagellates) could be driven by N availability. Moreover, high concentration of N within continental hydrological networks is damaging for aquatic ecosystems and is a major threat for producing drinking water.

  4. The Impact of Climate Change on the Fraser River may Result in Increased Algal Blooms in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, S. L.; Grant, E.; VanKoughnett, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Fanslau, J.; Voss, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. The Fraser River is affected by urbanization and agriculture in the Fraser Valley, and mountain pine beetle and logging in other areas. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments as it measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter, relative to the total available dissolved oxygen (DO). We found BOD of the Fraser River at Fort Langley was higher in the summer than winter, but no relationship between BOD and nutrient concentration (NH4, NO2+NO3, PO4). There did appear to be a positive correlation between BOD and turbidity. There is increased agricultural input into the river in the summer: increasing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and coarse and fine particulate organic matter, as well, turbidity increases during the spring freshet. The Fraser River plume contributes to Strait of Georgia algal blooms. These blooms can occur as early as March and end as late as September. The algal bloom in the Georgia Strait does not correlate to nutrient levels in the river, but is more closely related to river turbidity and dissolved organic matter (DOM). It is predicted this algal bloom will become more prominent as the sediment and DOM levels increase in the Fraser River due to the loss of forests in the watershed from the Mountain pine beetle.

  5. Shifts and stasis in marine HAB monitoring in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Lesley; Smith, Kirsty; Moisan, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    This review article outlines harmful algal bloom (HAB) monitoring practices in New Zealand and highlights the shift from light microscope (LM)-based identification and quantification of the early 1990s to the use of molecular tools to support the HAB monitoring programmes two decades later. Published research and available client information from the monitoring programmes have been reviewed; HAB events and programme changes are highlighted. The current HAB monitoring practices allow for rapid determination of potential biotoxin issues for the shellfish industry and of potential ichthyotoxic events for finfish farmers. The use of molecular tools, including quantitative PCR, has improved risk assessments for those HAB species that are difficult to differentiate to species level using LM. This has enabled rapid feedback to aquaculture managers during HAB events. Tests for biotoxins in flesh remain the regulatory tools for commercially harvested shellfish, but this is supported by the weekly phytoplankton monitoring data. Recreational (non-commercial) shellfish harvesting and commercial finfish aquaculture rely solely on phytoplankton monitoring to assess the biotoxin risk. HAB monitoring in New Zealand continues to maintain internationally recognised standards, and the government-funded research programmes feed the latest knowledge and technical methods into the programmes. The early dependence on light microscopy continues but is now supported by molecular tools, with a view to employing multi-species detection systems in the future. The traditional mouse bioassay test has been fully replaced by chemical tests. PMID:24065246

  6. Characterizing bio-optical and ecological features of algal bloom waters for detection and tracking from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Amin, R.; Gladkova, I.; Gilerson, A.; Grossberg, M.; Hlaing, S.; Shariar, F.; Alabi, P.

    2010-04-01

    The detection and monitoring of harmful algal blooms using in-situ field measurements is both labor intensive and is practically limited on achievable temporal and spatial resolutions, since field measurements are typically carried out at a series of discrete points and at discrete times, with practical limitations on temporal continuity. The planning and preparation of remedial measures to reduce health risks, etc., requires detection approaches which can effectively cover larger areas with contiguous spatial resolutions, and at the same time offer a more comprehensive and contemporaneous snapshot of entire blooms as they occur. This is beyond capabilities of in-situ measurements and it is in this context that satellite Ocean Color sensors offer potential advantages for bloom detection and monitoring. In this paper we examine the applications and limitations of an approach we have recently developed for the detection of K. brevis blooms from satellite Ocean Color Sensors measurements, the Red Band Difference Technique, and compare it to other detection algorithm approaches, including a new statistical based approach also proposed here. To achieve more uniform standards of comparisons, the performance of different techniques for detection are applied to the same specific verified blooms occurring off the West Florida Shelf (WFS) that have been verified by in-situ measurements.

  7. sxtA-Based Quantitative Molecular Assay To Identify Saxitoxin-Producing Harmful Algal Blooms in Marine Waters ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Shauna A.; Wiese, Maria; Stüken, Anke; Brett, Steve; Kellmann, Ralf; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Neilan, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent identification of genes involved in the production of the potent neurotoxin and keystone metabolite saxitoxin (STX) in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton has allowed us for the first time to develop molecular genetic methods to investigate the chemical ecology of harmful algal blooms in situ. We present a novel method for detecting and quantifying the potential for STX production in marine environmental samples. Our assay detects a domain of the gene sxtA that encodes a unique enzyme putatively involved in the sxt pathway in marine dinoflagellates, sxtA4. A product of the correct size was recovered from nine strains of four species of STX-producing Alexandrium and Gymnodinium catenatum and was not detected in the non-STX-producing Alexandrium species, other dinoflagellate cultures, or an environmental sample that did not contain known STX-producing species. However, sxtA4 was also detected in the non-STX-producing strain of Alexandrium tamarense, Tasmanian ribotype. We investigated the copy number of sxtA4 in three strains of Alexandrium catenella and found it to be relatively constant among strains. Using our novel method, we detected and quantified sxtA4 in three environmental blooms of Alexandrium catenella that led to STX uptake in oysters. We conclude that this method shows promise as an accurate, fast, and cost-effective means of quantifying the potential for STX production in marine samples and will be useful for biological oceanographic research and harmful algal bloom monitoring. PMID:21841034

  8. Cadmium and phosphate variability during algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Mejia, E; Lares, M L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F

    2016-01-15

    Dinoflagellate algal blooms (DABs), with Lingulodinium polyedrum as the dominant species, have increased over the past few years in coastal areas off Baja California, Mexico. Vertical and temporal variability of particulate cadmium (Cdp), dissolved Cd (Cdd), PO4(3-) and Cdd/PO4(3-) were investigated during two intense DABs of L. polyedrum that occurred during the fall of 2011 and 2012 in Todos Santos Bay. Results were then, compared with data gathered in the absence of algal blooms during the autumn of 2013. In both algal blooms, L. polyedrum tended to be concentrated near the surface throughout the duration; however, during DAB 2011 the number of cells was twice as abundant ([10.0 ± 8.0] × 10(5) cells L(-1)) as in DAB 2012 ([5.0 ± 4.4] × 10(5) cells L(-1)). During DAB 2011, Cdp increased significantly (up to 1.02 ± 0.99 nmol kg(-1)) and was positively correlated with the cell abundance of L. polyedrum, suggesting that this dinoflagellate is able to assimilate and concentrate Cdd. Likewise, Cdd (up to 0.71 ± 0.17 nM) increased in the days of highest cell abundance, which could be attributed to uptake and subsequent regeneration of Cdd resulting from the remineralization of organic particulate matter produced during the bloom, as well as with the presence of organic ligands secreted by L. polyedrum that could keep Cdd in solution. During DAB 2011, dissolved Cdd/PO4(3-) ratios exhibited high vertical and temporal variability in the upper 5 m of the water column, but remained virtually constant near the bottom, suggesting a depth-dependent decoupling between these two dissolved components during the bloom development. Given the observed differences in the vertical and temporal variability of Cdd, Cdp, and PO4(3-) between these two intense DABs, we propose the existence of an abundance threshold of approximately 10(6) cells L(-1) of L. polyedrum above which Cd and PO4(3-) significantly increased due to remineralization in coastal waters during the bloom development. PMID:26437355

  9. Controls on Algal Bloom Propagation in the Kuwait Bay Utilizing: An Integrated Remote Sensing and Statistical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manche, C. J.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Uddin, S.; Al-Dousari, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    Algal blooms have become a major concern over the last decade in Kuwait's coastal waters where these blooms caused massive fish kill in a number of incidences. The purpose of this study is to accomplish the following: 1) identify the factors controlling algal bloom the development and propagation using Aqua-MODIS satellite data products (from 07/2002 to 07/2012), (2) identify the spatial and temporal variations in Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) production in relation to the controlling factors; and 3) develop conceptual and predictive models (using in-situ and satellite-based datasets) that account for reported historical blooms and can successfully predict algal bloom proliferation in space and time. To achieve these goals, the following tasks were accomplished: 1) in-situ Chl-a data was correlated with satellite-based (MODIS and MERIS) Chl-a data products (OC3M, GIOP, GSM, and OC4E); 2) Chl-a concentration (from OC3M) were correlated spatially and temporally with potential controlling factors (SST, Turbidity, Euphotic Depth, Precipitation, Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Wind Vectors etc.); 3) the stepwise regression method was applied to identify the most significant controlling factors and to determine their order of importance; and 4) a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed to predict the bloom occurrences in time (first layer process) and space (second layer process). Findings include: 1) the Aqua-MODIS OC3M Chlorophyll-a algorithm correlated best with in-situ measurements (RMSE: 2.42, Mean Bias: 32.2%); (2) maximum OC3M Chl-a concentration was observed throughout the months of August through October (Temp. range: 18.4° to 22.3 °C); 3) the stepwise regression identified SST, secchi disk depth, wind direction, OC3M and wind speed as the most indicative temporal factors (SST: most significant R2: 80.1%) and the OC3M, distance to shore, GSM, SST and GIOP as the most indicative spatial variables; 4) the ANN model showed an excellent prediction performance (area under receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve: 0.99), and (5) findings are being utilized for the development of an early warning system in the Kuwait Bay.

  10. Cyanobacteria and algae blooms: Review of health and environmental data from the Harmful Algal Bloom-Related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; LePrell, Rebecca; Bolton, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are present in all aquatic environments. We do not have a good sense of the extent of human and animal exposures to cyanobacteria or their toxins, nor do we understand the public health impacts from acute exposures associated with recreational activities or chronic exposures associated with drinking water. We describe the Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) and summarize the collected reports describing bloom events and associated adverse human and animal health events. For the period of 2007-2011, Departments of Health and/or Environment from 11 states funded by the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contributed reports for 4534 events. For 2007, states contributed 173 reports from historical data. The states participating in the HABISS program built response capacity through targeted public outreach and prevention activities, including supporting routine cyanobacteria monitoring for public recreation waters. During 2007-2010, states used monitoring data to support196 public health advisories or beach closures. The information recorded in HABISS and the application of these data to develop a wide range of public health prevention and response activities indicate that cyanobacteria and algae blooms are an environmental public health issue that needs continuing attention. PMID:25826054

  11. Cyanobacteria and Algae Blooms: Review of Health and Environmental Data from the Harmful Algal Bloom-Related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; LePrell, Rebecca; Bolton, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are present in all aquatic environments. We do not have a good sense of the extent of human and animal exposures to cyanobacteria or their toxins, nor do we understand the public health impacts from acute exposures associated with recreational activities or chronic exposures associated with drinking water. We describe the Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) and summarize the collected reports describing bloom events and associated adverse human and animal health events. For the period of 2007–2011, Departments of Health and/or Environment from 11 states funded by the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contributed reports for 4534 events. For 2007, states contributed 173 reports from historical data. The states participating in the HABISS program built response capacity through targeted public outreach and prevention activities, including supporting routine cyanobacteria monitoring for public recreation waters. During 2007–2010, states used monitoring data to support196 public health advisories or beach closures. The information recorded in HABISS and the application of these data to develop a wide range of public health prevention and response activities indicate that cyanobacteria and algae blooms are an environmental public health issue that needs continuing attention. PMID:25826054

  12. An investigation of submarine groundwater-borne nutrient fluxes to the west Florida shelf and recurrent harmful algal blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-shelf, water-column mass balance of radon-222 (222Rn) provided estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which were then used to quantify benthic nutrient fluxes. Surface water and groundwater were collected along a shore-normal transect that extended from Tampa Bay, Florida, across the Pinellas County peninsula, to the 10-m isobath in the Gulf of Mexico. Samples were analyzed for 222Rn and radium-223,224,226 (223,224,226Ra) activities as well as inorganic and organic nutrients. Cross-shore gradients of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra activities indicate a nearshore source for these isotopes, which mixes with water characterized by low activities offshore. Radon-based SGD rates vary between 2.5 and 15 cm d-1 proximal to the shoreline and decrease offshore. The source of SGD is largely shallow exchange between surface and pore waters, although deeper groundwater cycling may also be important. Enrichment of total dissolved nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus in pore water combined with SGD rates results in specific nutrient fluxes comparable to or greater than estuarine fluxes from Tampa Bay. The significance of these fluxes to nearshore blooms of Karenia brevis is highlighted by comparison with prescribed nutrient demands for bloom maintenance and growth. Whereas our flux estimates do not indicate SGD and benthic fluxes as the dominant nutrient source to the harmful algal blooms, SGD-derived loads do narrow the deficit between documented nutrient supplies and bloom demands.

  13. Planning applications in east central Florida. [resources management and planning, land use, and lake algal blooms in Brevard County from Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Lake Apopka and three lakes downstream of it (Dora, Eustis, and Griffin) are in an advanced state of eutrophication with high algal concentrations. This feature has shown up consistently on ERTS-1 images in the form of a characteristic water color for those lakes. As expected, EREP photographs also show a characteristic color for those lakes. What was not expected is that Lake Griffin shows a clear pattern of this coloration. Personnel familiar with the lake believe that the photograph does, indeed, show an algal bloom. It is reported that the algal concentration is often significantly higher in the southern portion of the lake. What the photograph shows that was not otherwise known is the pattern of the algal bloom. A similar, but less pronounced, effect is seen in Lake Tohopekaliga. Personnel stationed at Kissimmee reported that there was an algal bloom on that lake at the time of the EREP pass and that its extent corresponded approximately to that shown on the photograph. Again, the EREP photograph gives information about the extent of the bloom that could not be obtained practically by sampling. ERTS-1 images give some indication of this algal distribution on Lake Griffin in some cases, but are inconclusive.

  14. Relating Nearshore Algal Blooms Determined Using Satellite Imagery to Nutrient Loading, Watershed Land Use, and Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, R. J.; Hyndman, D. W.; Qi, J.; Esselman, P.; Novitski, L.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Lin, S.

    2014-12-01

    The overarching goal of our project was to relate algal biomass in the coastal zone of the Great Lakes, nutrient concentrations, watershed land use, and storm events. Algal biomass was determined using MODIS and Landsat remote sensing images. Nutrient loading from rivers into coastal zones was estimated with watershed land use, soils, geology, size and precipitation records. Our models of chlorophyll a based on remote sensing images (RS inferred chl a) and nutrient loading in coastal zones were validated with measured chlorophyll concentrations in the Great Lakes and nutrients in rivers. RS-inferred chl a was related to nutrient loading from rivers, which was dependent upon recent storm events and land use in watersheds. RS-inferred chl a was more related to nutrient loads during the week preceeding measurement of chl a than other periods before or during chl measurement. This lag time is presumably related to algal growth following nutrient loading, and was non-linearly related to nutrient loading. Our results indicate that these tools will improve understanding of land use effects on algal blooms in coastal zones of the Great Lakes and will help identify priority watersheds for restoration.

  15. Shifts in Cyanobacterial Strain Dominance during the Onset of Harmful Algal Blooms in Florida Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dianna L; Goleski, Jennifer A; Koch, Florian; Wall, Charles C; Peterson, Bradley J; Anderson, O Roger; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are fundamental components of aquatic phytoplankton communities and some taxa can cause harmful blooms in coastal ecosystems. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are typically comprised of multiple strains of a single genus or species that cannot be resolved microscopically. Florida Bay, USA, has experienced harmful cyanobacterial blooms that have been associated with the loss of eelgrass, spiny lobsters, and general food web disruption for more than two decades. To identify the strain or strains of cyanobacteria forming blooms in Florida Bay, samples were collected across the system over an annual cycle and analyzed via DNA sequencing using cyanobacterial-specific 16S rRNA gene primers, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses demonstrated that the onset of blooms in Florida Bay was coincident with a transformation of the cyanobacterial populations. When blooms were absent, the cyanobacterial population in Florida Bay was dominated by phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus cells that were most similar to strains within Clade III. As blooms developed, the cyanobacterial community transitioned to dominance by phycocyanin-containing Synechococcus cells that were coated with mucilage, chain-forming, and genetically most similar to the coastal strains within Clade VIII. Clade VIII strains of Synechococcus are known to grow rapidly, utilize organic nutrients, and resist top-down control by protozoan grazers and viruses, all characteristics consistent with observations of cyanobacterial blooms in Florida Bay. Further, the strains of Synechococcus blooming in this system are genetically distinct from the species previously thought to cause blooms in Florida Bay, Synechococcus elongatus. Collectively, this study identified the causative organism of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Florida Bay, demonstrates the dynamic nature of cyanobacterial stains within genera in an estuary, and affirms factors promoting Synechococcus blooms. PMID:25661475

  16. Simulation of algal bloom dynamics in a river with the ensemble Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyunghyun; Park, Minji; Min, Joong-Hyuk; Ryu, Ingu; Kang, Mi-Ri; Park, Lan Joo

    2014-11-01

    A simulation framework of algal bloom in a river channel with data assimilation (DA) was developed by employing two numerical models coupled to simulate a watershed and the embedded river channel. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model simulates flow discharge and water quality from the subwatersheds and the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model takes the subwatershed model outputs at the watershed-river confluence points as boundary forcing to simulate river hydrodynamics and water quality. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) was used for assimilation of water quality variables in the framework, linking uncertainty of model simulation and observation. The simulation uncertainty of the HSPF was quantified at the confluence points as simple stochastic error models developed by comparing the model simulation and the observation. The error models reflect uncertainty of both hydrologic and water quality simulation, including uncertainty associated with point and non-point pollution sources in the watershed. The outputs of the HSPF at the confluence points were perturbed with the error models before used in the following ensemble simulation of the EFDC for the main river. DA was conducted with weekly chlorophyll-a data observed along the river to update chlorophyll-a concentrations of the EFDC model grids. The results showed that the model performance was improved by the assimilation: the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean continuous probability rank score (CPRS) significantly decreased compared to the open-loop simulation. The updated spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration along the river channel was in reasonable agreement with the observation. Although only chlorophyll-a data was involved in the assimilation, phosphate was selected among other water quality variables for update in order to evaluate the effect of chlorophyll-a assimilation on those variables. It turned out that the phosphate simulation was not much improved by the chlorophyll-a data, which was due to weak correlation between the two variables in the model ensemble. Lastly, chlorophyll-a simulation uncertainty in the river attributed to the simulation uncertainty of each variable in the watershed was evaluated. For that, two additional simulations were made, with perturbation only to flow and phosphate respectively at the confluence points. The spread of chlorophyll-a ensemble of each case became significantly narrower than the original case, indicating that the difference is attributed to the uncertainty of the other unperturbed variables.

  17. Forecast of Algal Bloom Dynamics in a River Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Ryu, I.; Min, J.; Shin, K.; Park, L.

    2011-12-01

    A forecasting framework of algal bloom in a river channel was developed by employing two numerical models coupled in serial order to simulate a watershed and the main river channel. The HSPF model simulates flow discharge and water quality from the watershed and the EFDC model takes the results as inputs to simulate river channel hydrodynamics and water quality. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) was applied for data assimilation in the framework, linking uncertainties of inputs, model structures and observations. The input precipitation and water quality from point sources were perturbed to form ensemble members of state variables. The perturbation generated the ensemble of flow discharges and concentrations of water quality variables including Chl-a from HSPF model simulations, which were fed into the EFDC model. Stochastic forcing terms to simulate model structural errors were added for both models. Also an error distribution was used to address the measurement error. The framework was applied to theYoungsan River watershed, which is located in southwestern area of the Korean Peninsula (about 3,470 km2). The weather forecast data provided by Korean Meteorological Agency, consisting of combined data from the UM-Regional and UM-Global models, were used through the forecasting simulations. The HSPF model was calibrated for the observed flow and water quality data of 2009 to 2010 and the EFDC model for the data of 2008 to 2009 before they are used in forecasting. Data assimilation was conducted with weekly Chl-a data sampled along the river channel by updating Chl-a concentrations on the EFDC model grids. To keep mass conservation of water quality constituents, the other variables are also updated correspondingly, considering the changes due to growth, death and respiration of algae. The results show that EnKF works efficiently for updating spatial distribution of Chl-a concentrations. However, since the ensemble inputs at the boundary locations produced by the HSPF model are not updated, the effect of the update along the main channel is washed out after a couple of days by the inputs from tributaries, which is the limitation of the current study. This defect is expected to be decreased when flow residence time increases by two weirs recently constructed or when more frequent updating is possible by using real-time data from the automated water quality stations newly installed on the river.

  18. Aerial extent, composition, bio-optics and biogeochemistry of a massive under-ice algal bloom in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, W. M.; Bowler, B. C.; Lubelczyk, L. C.; Stevens, M. W.

    2014-07-01

    It has been long thought that coccolithophores are a minor component of the phytoplankton assemblage in Arctic waters, with diatoms typically being more dominant. Little is known about how the phytoplankton communities will change, however, as the Arctic warms. We participated in the 2011 Impacts of Climate on EcoSystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) cruise to the western Arctic, performing a combination of discrete measurements (microscopy, calcification, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (BSi)) plus continuous surface bio-optical measurements (absorption, scattering, backscattering and acid-labile backscattering; the latter specific for coccolithophores). Here, we report bio-optical and coccolithophore observations from the massive under-ice algal bloom originally described in Arrigo et al. (2012). The most intense portions of the bloom were centered in cold Winter Water and there was evidence for nitrate drawdown in the top 10-20 m with strong penetration of silicate rich water into the surface waters. Surface chlorophyll a and particulate absorption at 440 nm approached 30 μg L-1 and 1.0 m-1, respectively. Particulate absorption of detritus (ap at 412 nm) was highly correlated to ap at 440 nm associated with chlorophyll a and slopes of the absorption spectrum showed that both dissolved and particulate absorption at 412 nm exceeded that at 440 nm, with slopes, Sg, of 0.01 nm-1. Colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) was high in the bloom but the relative fluorescence yields were low, characteristic of phytoplankton-produced FDOM (as opposed to terrestrially-produced FDOM). Coccolithophore backscattering was elevated in the under-ice bloom, but it only accounted for 10% of the total particle backscattering, relatively low compared to typical subpolar waters further to the south. Total particle scattering was significantly elevated in the under-ice bloom (values of almost 2 m-1), likely due to the high abundance of large diatoms. Backscattering probabilities in the bloom were ~1%, again characteristic of diatom-dominated populations with few calcifiers. PIC standing stock in the under-ice bloom was low but measurable while biogenic silica molar concentrations were 150 times greater. POC:PON molar ratios were 6-10, characteristic of healthy, rapidly growing phytoplankton, observations further buttressed by carbon:chlorophyll mass ratios of 50-100. Coccolithophore calcification was low but measurable, reaching 1.75 mg C m-3 d-1 in the under-ice bloom, only 0.4% of the photosynthesis. However, the intrinsic carbon-specific growth rate was 0.4 per day for bulk POC and ~1 per day for bulk PIC, close to maximal growth rates expected at these temperatures. SEM and light microscopy results showed mostly diatoms in the bloom. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, was observed, providing unequivocal evidence of the presence of coccolithophores in the under-ice algal bloom.

  19. Detecting toxic diatom blooms from ocean color and a regional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Clarissa R.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Sekula-Wood, Emily; Burrell, Christopher T.; Chao, Yi; Langlois, Gregg; Goodman, Jo; Siegel, David A.

    2011-02-01

    An apparent link between upwelling-related physical signatures, macronutrients, and toxic diatom blooms in the various “hotspots” throughout California has motivated attempts to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) as a function of select environmental variables. Empirical models for predicting toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in one such region, the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), are tested in a nowcast mode using predictions based on merging data from MODIS ocean color geophysical products and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) applied to the Southern California Bight. Thresholds for each model generate event forecasts. Spatially-explicit, monthly HAB maps are compared to shipboard observations and California monitoring data, demonstrating that the models predict offshore events otherwise undetected by nearshore monitoring. The use of mechanistic hydrodynamic models in concert with empirical, biological models facilitates future process studies on the effects of coastal eutrophication and climate change on regional HAB dynamics.

  20. Effects of algal bloom formation, outbreak, and extinction on heavy metal fractionation in the surficial sediments of Chaohu Lake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-guang; Diao, Xiao-jun; He, Lian-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of algal bloom (AB) on the physicochemical and biochemical properties of water and sediment in lakes have been widely studied. However, limited attention has been directed toward the effects of the processes of AB formation, outbreak, and extinction on heavy metal fractionation in sediment. In this study, water and sediment samples were collected from the AB and free algal bloom (FAB) regions of Chaohu Lake from May to September in 2012. The chemical fractionation of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Fe, and Pb) in sediment was determined by using a modified three-step sequential procedure. Evident processes of AB formation, outbreak, and extinction were observed in the AB region, but not in the FAB region. The TN and TP concentrations in water and sediment in the AB region were significantly higher than those in the FAB region. The water DO concentration was higher in the AB region than that in the FAB region before the early stage of the AB outbreak, but an opposite trend was observed in the stages that followed. Metal fractionation in sediment showed that except for Mn and Cu, the majority of metals were in the residual fraction regardless of the AB process. The AB process slightly altered the concentrations of metal fractions, except for reducible Fe and oxidizable Cu. The result showed that AB formation, outbreak, and extinction slightly affected heavy metal fractionation in sediment though water properties were significantly different among AB processes. PMID:25976327

  1. Observations of Atmospheric Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deposition During the Period of Algal Bloom Formation in Northern Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shuijing; Yang, Longyuan; Hu, Weiping

    2009-09-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu occurred at the end of April 2007 and had crucial impacts on the livelihood of millions of people living there. Excessive nutrients may promote bloom formation. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition appears to play an important role in algal bloom formation. Bulk deposition and rain water samples were collected respectively from May 1 to November 30, 2007, the period of optimal algal growth, to measure the bulk atmospheric deposition rate, wet deposition rate, and dry deposition rate for total nitrogen (TN; i.e., all species of nitrogen), and total phosphorus (TP; i.e., all species of phosphorus), in northern Lake Taihu, China. The trends of the bulk atmospheric deposition rate for TN and the wet deposition rate for TN showed double peaks during the observation period and distinct influence with plum rains and typhoons. Meanwhile, monthly bulk atmospheric deposition rates for TP showed little influence of annual precipitation. However, excessive rain may lead to high atmospheric N and P deposition rates. In bulk deposition samples, the average percentage of total dissolved nitrogen accounting for TN was 91.2% and changed little with time. However, the average percentage of total dissolved phosphorus accounting for TP was 65.6% and changed substantially with time. Annual bulk atmospheric deposition rates of TN and TP during 2007 in Lake Taihu were estimated to be 2,976 and 84 kg km-2 a-1, respectively. The results showed decreases of 34.4% and 78.7%, respectively, compared to 2002-2003. Annual bulk deposition load of TN for Lake Taihu was estimated at 6,958 t a-1 in 2007 including 4,642 t a-1 of wet deposition, lower than the values obtained in 2002-2003. This may be due to measures taken to save energy and emission control regulations in the Yangtze River Delta. Nevertheless, high atmospheric N and P deposition loads helped support cyanobacterial blooms in northern Lake Taihu during summer and autumn, the period of favorable algal growth.

  2. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

  3. Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario in the North Sea and possible effects on dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Friocourt, Y F; Skogen, M; Stolte, W; Albretsen, J

    2012-01-01

    Two hydrodynamic and ecological models were used to investigate the effects of climate change-according to the IPCC A1b emission scenario - on the primary productivity of the North Sea and on harmful algal blooms. Both models were forced with atmospheric fields from a regional downscaling of General Circulation Models to compare two sets of 20-year simulations representative of present climate (1984-2004) conditions and of the 2040s. Both models indicated a general warming of the North Sea by up to 0.8°C and a slight freshening by the 2040s. The models suggested that the eastern North Sea would be subjected to more temperature and salinity changes than the western part. In addition, the ecological modules of the models indicated that the warming up of the sea would result in a slightly earlier spring bloom. The one model that also computes the distribution of four different phytoplankton groups suggests an increase in the abundance of dinoflagellates, whereas the abundance of diatoms, flagellates and Phaeocystis sp. remains comparable to current levels, or decrease. Assuming that Dinophysis spp. would experience a similar increase in abundance as the modelled group of dinoflagellates, it is hypothesised that blooms of Dinophysis spp. may occur more frequently in the North Sea by 2040. However, implications for shellfish toxicity remain unclear. PMID:22920935

  4. The causes and consequences of algal blooms: the Cladophora glomerata bloom and the Neva Estuary (eastern Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Gubelit, Yulia I; Berezina, Nadezhda A

    2010-01-01

    The biomass dynamics of the green alga Cladophora glomerata was studied in the shallow-water littoral zone of the Neva estuary during May-October of 2003-2005. Additionally, the average production rate of C. glomerata, the biomass of drifting algae and oxygen depletion were examined during period of algae decomposition. Two peaks in C. glomerata biomass, in July and in September, were observed during all years studied, reaching a maximum 300+/-100 g DW m(-2). The primary production of C. glomerata varied from 3.6 to 7.9 g C m(-2) contributing to around 90% of the total primary production in this habitat. From the middle of July to late August the biomass of drifting C. glomerata exceeded the biomass of the attached algae, accounting for 62% of the total algal biomass in shallow areas (0-1m). The hypoxia (a minimum oxygen level of 5% or 0.62 mg dm(-3)) in the water was recorded near shore (to 20-m distance from the shore), negatively influencing the quality of shallow-water habitats. PMID:20347455

  5. Changes in sea-ice phagotrophic microprotists (20 200 μm) during the spring algal bloom, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Gosselin, Michel; Juniper, S. Kim; Levasseur, Maurice

    1997-02-01

    Heterotrophic microflagellates and ciliates (i.e., 20-200 μm size fraction) were examined for evidence of their response to the spring accumulation of algal biomass in the bottom of the annual sea ice in Resolute Passage (Canadian High Arctic, ˜ 74°N, 95°W). The most abundant heterotrophic microflagellates were dinoflagellates in the water column and cryothe-comonad-type cells in the ice. Ciliates were exclusively represented by typical planktonic species in the water column while the ice community was characterized by the occurrence of benthic-type species. This contrasts with observations in the Antarctic and at the southern limit of sea ice in the northern hemisphere, where annual sea ice seems to serve as a temporary habitat for planktonic communities. Protist biomasses in Resolute Passage were one to two orders of magnitude higher in the ice than in the plankton. In the ice, a seasonal increase in the biomass of phagotrophic microprotists as well as in the number of micrometazoa (from our microprotist samples) followed the spring algal bloom. These observations (1) support previous suggestions of the existence of a functional microbial food web within sea-ice communities and (2) indicate that micrograzers may represent one of the basic levels of the ice food web that responds to the seasonal accumulation of algal biomass. Heterotrophic microprotists growing in the ice accumulated about 4 mg C m -2 d -1, a net production rate that is two to four times higher than those reported for sea-ice bacteria (both Arctic and Antarctic), and represented 1-9% of the net production of ice algea in the early season at resolute. A carbon budget exercise indicated that the required energy for microprotozoan growth in the later season, when algal biomass was declining, corresponded to 1-8% of the net biomass loss from the ice algal populations. The specific growth rates of microprotozoan populations within the ice (0.04-0.18 d -1) appeared to increase significantly with decreasing algal productivity. This may be critical for the protracted heterotrophic food web in multi-year ice and to many consumers during the long polar winter.

  6. Dimethylsulfide gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Marandino, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Law, C. S.; Smith, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2015-02-01

    Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s-1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data show no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.

  7. DMS gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Marandino, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Law, C. S.; Smith, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-11-01

    Air/sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air/sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February/March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (>15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s-1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A~flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data shows no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.

  8. [Characteristics of phytoplankton community changes in Dianshan Lake during peak period of algal blooms].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun-Yan; Yang, Jie; Ma, Ming-Rui; Hu, Xue-Qin; You, Wen-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Based on the investigation data of phytoplankton in Dianshan Lake from May to October in 2009, the characteristics of phytoplankton community and the dominant species succession are studied. The results show that Cyanophyta and Chlorophta are the main taxa. Cyanophyta is dominant in cell abundance and Chlorophta is dominant in species variety. From the flat distribution, the species variety and density of Cyanophyta are higher in west and southwest. The peak of cell density reaches 23.40 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) in September due to the occurrence of cyanobacterial bloom, Cyanophyta account for 90.3 percents, with significant differences in each point (ANOVA, P < 0.05). An obvious succession of phytoplankton species is found, Microcystis of Cyanophyta become the dominant taxa and then conglutinated together to form water bloom. Temperature and pH are the main factors that affect the cyanobacterial bloom, and wind direction is an important reason for the horizontal distribution of the bloom-forming Microcystis. The phytoplankton diversity index is poor in central and western sites, diversity index decreases during cyanobacterial bloom and the community structures are simple. PMID:22720557

  9. Genetic variation of the bloom-forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa within and among lakes: implications for harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan E; Sarnelle, Orlando; Neilan, Brett A; Salmon, Tim P; Gehringer, Michelle M; Hay, Mark E

    2005-10-01

    To measure genetic variation within and among populations of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we surveyed a suite of lakes in the southern peninsula of Michigan that vary in productivity (total phosphorus concentrations of approximately 10 to 100 microg liter(-1)). Survival of M. aeruginosa isolates from lakes was relatively low (i.e., mean of 7% and maximum of 30%) and positively related to lake total phosphorus concentration (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.407, n = 14). In another study (D. F. Raikow, O. Sarnelle, A. E. Wilson, and S. K. Hamilton, Limnol. Oceanogr. 49:482-487, 2004), survival rates of M. aeruginosa isolates collected from an oligotrophic lake (total phosphorus of approximately 10 mug liter(-1) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:total phosphorus ratio of 12.75) differed among five different medium types (G test, P of <0.001), with higher survival (P = 0.003) in low-nutrient media (28 to 37% survival) than in high-nutrient media. Even with the relatively low isolate survivorship that could select against detecting the full range of genetic variation, populations of M. aeruginosa were genetically diverse within and among lakes (by analysis of molecular variance, Phi(sc) = 0.412 [Phi(sc) is an F-statistic derivative which evaluates the correlation of haplotypic diversity within populations relative to the haplotypic diversity among all sampled populations], P = 0.001), with most clones being distantly related to clones collected from lakes directly attached to Lake Michigan (a Laurentian Great Lake) and culture collection strains collected from Canada, Scotland, and South Africa. Ninety-one percent of the 53 genetically unique M. aeruginosa clones contained the microcystin toxin gene (mcyA). Genotypes with the toxin gene were found in all lakes, while four lakes harbored both genotypes possessing and genotypes lacking the toxin gene. PMID:16204530

  10. Streptomyces alboflavus RPS and Its Novel and High Algicidal Activity against Harmful Algal Bloom Species Phaeocystis globosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Li, Dong; Yang, Xujun; An, Xinli; Zheng, Xiaowei; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa blooms have frequently occurred along coastal waters and exerted serious impacts on ecological environments by releasing toxic hemolytic substances, forming nuisance foam, and causing oxygen depletion. An actinomycete strain RPS with high algicidal activity against P. globosa was isolated and identified as Streptomyces alboflavus, based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RPS lysed 95% of P. globosa within 48 h by releasing an extracellular active substance into the growth medium. The activity of RPS supernatant was sensitive to temperature at and above 50°C and insensitive to pH from 3 to 11. The molecular weight of the active substance was between 100 Da and 1000 Da, and approximately 90% of it was extracted by ethyl acetate. It was presumed that the active component efficiently inhibited the movement of P. globosa, caused the flagella to fall off the algae, and finally lysed the algal cells. RPS showed a wide target range against harmful algae. S. alboflavus RPS with high algicidal activity and such novel features of temperature and pH sensitivity, low molecular weight, algicidal process, and target range possesses great potential in the biological control of P. globosa blooms. PMID:24675867

  11. Modeling of HABs and eutrophication: Status, advances, challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glibert, Patricia M.; Allen, J. Icarus; Bouwman, A. F.; Brown, Christopher W.; Flynn, Kevin J.; Lewitus, Alan J.; Madden, Christopher J.

    2010-11-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are often associated with eutrophication of coastal waters and estuaries. However, identifying quantitative relationships between nutrient input and proliferation of specific algal species is very challenging and complex. The complexity arises from the diversity of sources, forms and fluxes of nutrients both exported into and cycled within the system, the diversity of algal mechanisms for acquiring nutrients, and the interaction of the target harmful species with other members of the food web. Even more challenging is the development of forecasts and predictions, both on the short term and on the long term. Short term scales (days to weeks) are necessary for managers to prepare for, and respond to events; longer scales are needed to enable strategic planning to prevent HAB events, mitigate their impacts, or estimate the interactive effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change. To address these needs the HAB modeling community will need to engage with climate scientists (assess climate change scenarios), marine ecologists (describe organism ecophysiology), invasive species experts, watershed modelers and hydrologists (estimate future changes in the land derived inputs), and socio economists, managers and policy makers (define future land use scenarios and to interpret results in a policy context).

  12. A high resolution estimate of the inorganic nitrogen flux from the Scheldt estuary to the coastal North Sea during a nitrogen-limited algal bloom, spring 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, P.; Steefel, C.I.

    1999-05-01

    Massive short-term (4--8 wk) blooms of Phaeocystis have been observed in coastal North Sea waters in the spring for a number of years now. Researchers have shown that these algal blooms, which lead to eutrophication of the local water mass, are limited by the supply of inorganic nitrogen from the various bordering estuaries. The authors demonstrate using the case of a typical heavily polluted macrotidal estuary, the Scheldt in Belgium and the Netherlands, that the short duration of the algal blooms requires estuarine flux estimation methods with a high temporal resolution. They use the fully transient, multicomponent reactive transport model CONTRASTE to compute inorganic nitrogen fluxes through the mouth of the Scheldt estuary into the North Sea. The model simulations use a detailed dataset of upstream river discharges and solute concentrations along with tidal forcings for a 210 day period between December 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. The temporally resolved estimate shows that widely used estuarine flux estimation methods which rely on a steady-state approximation underestimate the inorganic nitrogen loading available to sustain primary production in the North Sea during the period of the algal bloom by 100%.

  13. Long-term effects of a toxic algal bloom on subtidal soft-sediment macroinvertebrate communities in Wellington Harbour, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Kerstin; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Wear, Robert G.

    2006-05-01

    The long-term effects (>1 year) of a naturally occurring toxic plankton bloom ( Karenia brevisulcata) on subtidal benthic macroinvertebrate communities were investigated in Wellington Harbour, a semi-enclosed temperate embayment in New Zealand. For 3 years communities were sampled at three different sites in the harbour. Analyses revealed that community recovery following the bloom was site-specific. Multivariate analyses indicated that at one site community composition was approaching recovery ˜3 years post-bloom. At the second site, a sequential recovery process was indicated, whereas at the third site the community composition oscillated from year to year, but did not show any signs of a sequential recovery process. The nature of the hydrodynamic regime was identified as a major factor influencing the observed recovery processes. Communities exposed to an active hydrodynamic regime were less affected by the bloom and differed little in their composition pre- and post-bloom, as they were naturally in a perpetual state of recovery as indicated by a dominance of r-selected species. The community at the hydrodynamically less active site was more affected by the bloom and exhibited temporal differences in composition consistent with successional models. Complete recovery to a pre-disturbance climax community dominated by K-selected species is likely to take 4-5 years, if not interrupted by other disturbances. Given the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms worldwide, more monitoring and manipulative studies are needed to further evaluate the effects of such disturbances on macrobenthic communities.

  14. Exploration of the antioxidant system and photosynthetic system of a marine algicidal Bacillus and its effect on four harmful algal bloom species.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaoling; Shu, Wanjiao; Tan, Shuo; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe

    2016-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain B1, initially showed 96.4% algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa. Under this situation, 3 other harmful algal species (Skeletonema costatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Prorocentrum donghaiense) were chosen to study the algicidal effects of strain B1, and the algicidal activities were 91.4%, 90.7%, and 90.6%, respectively. To explore the algicidal mechanism of strain B1 on these 4 harmful algal species, the characteristics of the antioxidant system and photosynthetic system were studied. Sensitivity to strain B1 supernatant, enzyme activity, and gene expression varied with algal species, while the algicidal patterns were similar. Strain B1 supernatant increased malondialdehyde contents; decreased chlorophyll a contents; changed total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity; and restrained psbA, psbD, and rbcL genes expression, which eventually resulted in the algal cells death. The algicidal procedure was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, which indicated that algal cells were lysed and cellular substances were released. These findings suggested that the antioxidant and photosynthetic system of these 4 algal species was destroyed under strain B1 supernatant stress. This is the first report to explore and compare the mechanism of a marine Bacillus against harmful algal bloom species of covered 4 phyla. PMID:26634608

  15. Yangtze River Water Diversion into Lake Taihu for Algal Bloom Control: Is it Helping or Hurting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Qiu, L.; Yu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful algae blooms in Lake Taihu are getting worse every year due to excess nutrients flowing into the water, especially from the northern watershed areas. Impact of blooms on lake's ecosystem, fisheries and drinking water supply to local towns has been severe. Many efforts have been undertaken by both government entities and researchers since 1990 for restoring the lake such as dredging, wetland construction, control of watershed runoff but none has garnered more attention than the water-diversion project. In the water-diversion project, freshwater from the Yangtze River is transferred into the lake via the Wangyuhe River (in the north) and is eventually discharged from the lake via the Taipuhe River (in the south) in an attempt to dilute the polluted water and flush pollutants out of the lake. The effects of water transfer on lake water quality and ecology have drawn great attention because the effectiveness of this project is conflicting. Recent studies suggest that water transfer could only decrease the concentration of phytoplankton but may actually increase concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in some areas of the lake where nutrient concentrations are lower than the influent water. In this study, a three dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model was used to investigate mass balance and spatial distribution of nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) in Lake Taihu before and after transfer.

  16. Eutrophic waters, algal bloom and fish kill in fish farming areas in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines.

    PubMed

    San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Azanza, Rhodora V; Villanoy, Cesar L; Jacinto, Gil S

    2008-01-01

    The coastal waters of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines experienced environmental changes over a 10-year period (1995-2005), the most significant effect of which was the major fish kill event in 2002 that coincided with the first reported Philippine bloom of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Days before the bloom, dissolved oxygen was < 2.0 mg/l in the waters that were stratified. These conditions may be linked to the uncontrolled proliferation of fish pens and cages to more than double the allowable limit of 544 units for Bolinao waters. Mariculture activities release organic matter from unconsumed feed and fecal material that accumulate in the water and sediments. In over 10 years, water quality conditions have become eutrophic with ammonia increasing by 56%, nitrite by 35%, nitrate by 90%, and phosphate by 67%. The addition of more fish pens and cages placed additional stress to this poorly flushed, shallow area that affected water quality due to changes in the water residence time. PMID:18456288

  17. Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and the dispersion of algal bloom and marine debris in the Yellow and East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Choi, B.; Son, Y. B.; Shim, W. J.; Hwang, J. H.; Park, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Series of satellite images show that the development and migration of green macroalgal bloom (known as Ulva prolifera) in the Yellow Sea (YS) and Eastern China Sea (ECS). This presentation will utilize the Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) analysis to demonstrate the dispersion pattern of algal bloom patches. Analyzing LCS such as stable and unstable manifolds is one of emerging technologies for characterizing Lagrangian pathways in aquatic environments. This approach is based on the assumption that unstable manifolds such as ridges (i.e., high values) in the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields coincide with material transport barriers. In this study, the FTLE fields were computed from gridded trajectories using flow fields provided by Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the YS/ECS during summer 2011. The results show that there exist two strong transport barriers that lie along the east-west direction, at least, for the simulation period; one is located from the north of Changjiang River mouth to the middle of the Yellow Sea and the other one is stretched from the south of Shandong Peninsular toward east/southeast. This LCS analysis suggests that patches of green algae developed in the coastal region of Jiangsu Province during summer may migrate toward east into the middle of the YS or even toward Korean coast rather than extending along the Jiangsu coast, which is consistent with the observation results derived from the satellite ocean color data. In the very same manner, the utilization of LCS results to evaluate the distribution/transport pattern of marine debris in the YS/ECS will also be discussed during the presentation.

  18. Near surface temperature stratification and the on-shore transport of dense algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-de la Torre, M.; Maske, H.; Ochoa-de-La-Torre, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Local hydrography is partially controlling the formation and maintenance of algae blooms. In the coastal upwelling off northern Baja California, Mexico, we frequently found a near surface temperature stratification (NSTS) that showed no definite mixed layer but discontinuities at about 2m depth indicating a near surface thermocline. We hypothesized that the density jump reduces significantly the frictional coupling supporting a more efficient wind transport of the top surface layer. Since during the day breezes in coastal upwelling areas are directed towards the coast, we propose that the NSTS will lead to a net transport of the top layer, with its dissolved and particulate constituents, towards the coast. During a surface bloom of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum (Sept-Oct 2011) we measured: i) the near surface stratification with a CTD profiler, ii) trajectories via GPS during daylight of CODE and Holey Sock type drifter buoys (drogued at either 1, 3, or 5m, each with thermistor at 1, 3 and 5 m), iii) wind speed and direction at a near-by meteorological station, and iv) velocity profiles via an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Aquadopp-Nortek). The comparison of simultaneous ADCP's and drifters' data showed general agreement with noticeable shear close to the surface. The comparison of the two drifter types showed no significant difference. CTD profiles consistently presented near surface thermoclines between 2 and 4 m depth and temperature gradients in agreement with drifter thermistors. Chlorophyll a profiles showed the presence of high cell densities of L. polyedrum cells above 1.5 and 3.5 m depth. We found no increase in temperature at 1, 3 or 5 m during the deployment of the drifters suggesting that the NSTS is not strongly modulated during the day. No relationship between cells concentration-dependent light attenuation and temperature enhancement during the day was found. During the day drifter trajectories at 1 m moved towards the shore whereas drifters at 3 and 5m depth showed trajectories parallel or away from shore. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that bloom forming organisms and other surface layer constituents will be efficiently transported towards shore during the day.

  19. A mechanism for offshore initiation of harmful algal blooms in the coastal Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr.; Signell, R.P.; Stock, C.A.; Keafer, B.A.; Keller, M.D.; Hetland, R.D.; Anderson, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of observations and model results suggest a mechanism by which coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense can be initiated from dormant cysts located in offshore sediments. The mechanism arises from the joint effects of organism behavior and the wind-driven response of a surface-trapped plume of fresh water originating from riverine sources. During upwelling-favorable winds, the plume thins vertically and extends offshore; downwelling winds thicken the plume and confine it to the nearshore region. In the western Gulf of Maine, the offshore extent of the river plume during upwelling conditions is suffcient to entrain upward-swimming A. fundyense cells germinated from offshore cyst beds. Subsequent downwelling conditions then transport those populations towards the coast.

  20. Giantism and its role in the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Liu, Xiao; Tang, Kam W.; DeLizo, Liza M.; Doan, Nhu Hai; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    The cosmopolitan alga Phaeocystis globosa forms large blooms in shallow coastal waters off the Viet Nam coast, which impacts the local aquaculture and fishing industries substantially. The unusual feature of this alga is that it forms giant colonies that can reach up to 3cm in diameter. We conducted experiments designed to elucidate the ecophysiological characteristics that presumably favor the development of giant colonies. Satellite images of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the coastal bloom was initiated in summer and temporally coincident with the onset of monsoonally driven upwelling. While determining the spatial distribution of Phaeocystis was not feasible, we sampled it in the near-shore region. A positive relationship was found between colony size and colonial cell densities, in contrast to results from the North Sea. Mean chlorophyll a concentration per cell was 0.45pgcell-1, lower than in laboratory or temperate systems. The contribution of mucous carbon ranged from 63-95% of the total carbon; furthermore, mucous carbon per unit of colony surface area appeared to decrease with colony size, suggesting that the mucoid sheath became thinner as colonies grew larger. Sinking rates averaged 189md-1, strongly suggesting that giant colonies could only persist in shallow, turbulent environments. No relationship between colony size and sinking rates was observed. DOC concentrations of intracolonial fluid averaged 5940?M, 25 times greater than ambient concentrations. Estimated diffusion coefficients of ions across the mucous envelope were ca. 1.0±0.3×10-7cm2s-1 for colonies with diameters of ca. 1.0cm. In total, the characteristics of the giant colonies suggest that the Vietnamese strain is substantially different from that found in temperate environments, and that it has a number of unusual features that influence its growth and development in coastal Vietnamese waters.

  1. Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Erica L; Gellene, Alyssa G; Howard, Meredith D A; Connell, Paige; Ragan, Matthew; Jones, Burton H; Runyan, Jennifer; Caron, David A

    2013-10-01

    Reports of toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) attributed to the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have been increasing in California during the last several decades. Whether this increase can be attributed to enhanced awareness and monitoring or to a dramatic upswing in the development of HAB events remains unresolved. Given these uncertainties, the ability to accurately and rapidly identify an emerging HAB event is of high importance. Monitoring of HAB species and other pertinent chemical/physical parameters at two piers in southern California, Newport and Redondo Beach, was used to investigate the development of a site-specific bloom definition for identifying emerging domoic acid (DA) events. Emphasis was given to abundances of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata size category of Pseudo-nitzschia due to the prevalence of this size class in the region. P. seriata bloom thresholds were established for each location based on deviations from their respective long-term mean abundances, allowing the identification of major and minor blooms. Sixty-five percent of blooms identified at Newport Beach coincided with measurable DA concentrations, while 36 % of blooms at Redondo Beach coincided with measurable DA. Bloom definitions allowed for increased specificity in multiple regression analysis of environmental forcing factors significant to the presence of DA and P. seriata. The strongest relationship identified was between P. seriata abundances 2 weeks following upwelling events at Newport Beach. PMID:23288675

  2. Development of coastal upwelling edge detection algorithms associated with harmful algal blooms off the Washington coast using sea surface temperature imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nathan R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Trainer, Vera L.

    2005-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is being used to identify and characterize upwelling conditions on the coast of Washington State, with an emphasis on detecting ocean features associated with harmful algal bloom events. Blooms of phytoplankton, including the domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, appear to be associated with a semi-permanent eddy bordering Washington and British Columbia that is observed in satellite imagery during extended upwelling events. Strong upwelling conditions may act as a barrier to movement of these blooms onshore. Using NOAA AVHRR temperature imagery, edge detection algorithms are being developed to define the strength, location and extent of the surface temperature expression of upwelling along the coast of Washington. The edge detection technique uses a simple kernel-based gradient method that compares temperatures of pixels at a user-specified distance. This allows identification of larger features with subtle edges. The resulting maximum-gradient map is then converted to a binary format with a user-specified temperature threshold. Skeletonization and edge-linking algorithms are then employed to develop final map products. The upwelling edge detection maps are being examined in relation to harmful algal bloom events that have occurred along the coast.

  3. Development of coastal upwelling edge detection algorithms associated with harmful algal blooms off the Washington coast using sea surface temperature imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nathan R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Trainer, Vera L.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is being used to identify and characterize upwelling conditions on the coast of Washington State, with an emphasis on detecting ocean features associated with harmful algal bloom events. Blooms of phytoplankton, including the domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, appear to be associated with a semi-permanent eddy bordering Washington and British Columbia that is observed in satellite imagery during extended upwelling events. Strong upwelling conditions may act as a barrier to movement of these blooms onshore. Using NOAA AVHRR temperature imagery, edge detection algorithms are being developed to define the strength, location and extent of the surface temperature expression of upwelling along the coast of Washington. The edge detection technique uses a simple kernel-based gradient method that compares temperatures of pixels at a user-specified distance. This allows identification of larger features with subtle edges. The resulting maximum-gradient map is then converted to a binary format with a user-specified temperature threshold. Skeletonization and edge-linking algorithms are then employed to develop final map products. The upwelling edge detection maps are being examined in relation to harmful algal bloom events that have occurred along the coast.

  4. Tracking the algal origin of the Ulva bloom in the Yellow Sea by a combination of molecular, morphological and physiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shao Jun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Ti Feng; Xu, Na; Zhang, Zhi Huai; Gao, Su Qin; Chopin, Thierry; Sun, Song

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, Qingdao (36 degrees 06'N, 120 degrees 25'E, PR China) experienced the world largest drifting macroalgal bloom composed of the filamentous macroalga Ulva prolifera. No convincing biologic evidence regarding the algal source is available so far. A series of field collections of both Ulva sp. and waters in various sites along Jiangsu coasts were conducted in March to May of 2009. Density of microscopic Ulva germlings in the waters sampled from different sites ranged from 7 to 3140 individuals L(-1), indicating the wide-spreading and long-term existence of the algae in the investigated region. Morphological and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS nrDNA and the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene comparisons of 26 algal samples revealed that the algae collected from land-based animal aquaculture ponds mostly resembled the dominating blooming alga in 2008. Mismatch of Porphyra farming period with the occurrence of the green tide bloom, as well as the negative identification results of the sampled green algae from the Porphyra rafts eliminated Porphyra rafts as the principal and original source of the dominating blooming alga. PMID:19896707

  5. Mercury uptake within an ice algal community during the spring bloom in first-year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Alexis; Wang, Feiyue; Pu?ko, Monika; Mundy, Christopher-John; Gosselin, Michel; Philippe, Benoît; Poulin, Michel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Stern, Gary A.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we examine mercury bioaccumulation by a first-year sea-ice (FYI) algal community in the western Canadian Arctic during the spring of 2008. Total mercury concentration in bottom sea-ice particulate ([PHg]T) ranged 0.004-0.022 µg/g dw and was limited by the amount of mercury available for uptake when the spring bloom commenced. Mercury in ice algae originated from a combination of brine and seawater as sources, while atmospheric mercury depletion events did not appear to significantly contribute as a source in a coupled manner. We show that the bottom sea-ice brine presents a chemically and biologically unique niche from which inorganic Hg makes its way into the food web. Once incorporated into algae, mercury can be transported spatially and trophically within the ecosystem by a range of processes including grazing, resuspension, remineralization, and sedimentation. Ice algae contribute 10-60% of the annual primary production in the Arctic and are thought to become even more productive and abundant under a mild climate change scenario. Replacement of multiyear ice with FYI in the Beaufort Sea alone could result in an additional influx of ˜48 kg/yr of particle bound Hg. Further studies are thus warranted to elucidate mechanisms by which mercury transformation processes and transfer into the Arctic marine food web are impacted by the interaction between sea ice, brine, and seawater.

  6. [Impacts of algal blooms accumulation on physiological ecology of water hyacinth].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-ting; Liu, Guo-feng; Han, Shi-qun; Zhou, Qing; Tang, Wan-ying

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green algae bloom will consume plenty of dissolved oxygen in water, which affects the growth of aquatic plants. The effects of water hyacinth growth and physiological response changes under 25 degrees C, 5 different concentrations of cyanobacteria gathered were studied and which would provide a theoretical basis to mitigate adverse impacts and improve water purification effect. The results showed that water quality indexes including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH dropped in algae density below 60 g x L(-1), with the increase of algae density. And the level of oxidation-reduction potential dropped to about 100 mV. The removal rates of TN, TP and COD were 58%-78%, 43%-68% and 59%-73%, leaf soluble protein, soluble sugar, MDA contents increased, respectively; and the MDA content became higher with the increase of algae density. It indicated that the water hyacinth could adapt to the adversity condition as algae density less than 60 g x L(-1). While algae density above 60 g x L(-1), water quality indexes significantly decreased, respectively and the water was in hypoxia or anoxia conditions. Plant leaves soluble sugar contents had a change trend of low-high-low. It indicated that the removal rates of TN, TP decreased with the increase of algae density and water hyacinth had irreversible stress. Plant root length, total length, fresh weight in different treatments, increased compared with the beginning of the experiment, the increase of root length, total length and fresh weight were 0.29-2.44 times, 0.41-0.76 times and 0.9-1.43 times. The increase of root length, total length decreased with the increase of algae density. According to the results, the cyanobacteria should avoid of excessive accumulation as using the floating plant to purify the water. PMID:25898654

  7. Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    “Super-blooms” of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine “harmful algal bloom” in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface. PMID:20844747

  8. MODIS and MERIS detection of dinoflagellates blooms using the RBD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, R.; Gilerson, A.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-09-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) can lead to severe economical and ecological impacts particularly in the coastal areas and can threaten human and marine health. About three-quarter of these toxic blooms are caused by dinoflagellates species which are well known to migrate vertically. During the day, they migrate up to the surface for photosynthesis, and consequently, their dense aggregations produce strong bio-optical signals that are detectable by space borne optical satellite sensors. In this study we use our recently developed low backscattering bloom detection technique, the Red Band Difference (RBD), to detect various dinoflagellates blooms using both MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data and present the results which confirm the potentials of the RBD technique. Here we present examples of bloom detection in waters off Gulf of Mexico, Monterey Bay, South Africa, and East China Sea.

  9. Remote sensing studies for the assessment of geohazards: Toxic algal blooms in the lower Great Lakes, and the land subsidence in the Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Richard H.

    Remote sensing techniques provide valuable tools for assessing a wide variety of environmental phenomena. They have been used for monitoring and assessment of various types of geologic and environmental hazards occurring on land, in the air, or in oceans. I present results from two studies, the first of which examines the spatial and temporal distribution of algal blooms in the Great Lakes; the second measures subsidence in the Nile Delta. In the first study, methodologies to investigate the extent and distribution (temporally and spatially) of algal blooms in Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are studied. Millions of people in the U.S and Canada rely on the Great Lakes for drinking water, food, work, and recreation. Toxic algal blooms present a hazard to the substantial number of communities that draw water from the Great Lakes. Visible and infra red MODIS satellite data are used to map the extent of algal blooms in these lakes. Existing algorithms to retrieve chlorophyll concentrations are successfully tested against in situ measurements from sampling cruises. Algorithms are developed to identify the potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms. The second study examines subsidence in the Nile Delta. The modern Nile Delta is the major agricultural production area for Egypt and was formed from sediments supplied by at least 10 distinct distributary channels throughout the Holocene. With an average elevation around a meter above sea level and with a predicted rise in sea level of 1.8--5.9 mm/year the subsidence of the northern 30 km of the delta is a topic of major concern to the Egyptian population and government. Ongoing subsidence rates in the northeastern Nile Delta were estimated using persistent scatterer radar interferometry techniques. The highest rates (˜8 mm/yr; twice average Holocene rates) correlate with the distribution of the youngest deposition, with older depositional centers subsiding at slower rates of 2--6 mm/yr. Results are interpreted to indicate that: (1) modern subsidence in the Delta is heavily influenced by the compaction of the most recent sediments, and (2) the highly threatened areas are at the terminus of the Damietta, where the most recent deposition has occurred.

  10. The upside-down river: Reservoirs, algal blooms, and tributaries affect temporal and spatial patterns in nitrogen and phosphorus in the Klamath River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Deas, Michael L.

    2014-11-01

    The Klamath River, located in Oregon/California of the Northwestern U.S., is highly impounded and also experiences large seasonal algal blooms and impaired water quality. We investigated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constituents for one year (2010-2011) across 193 km of the Klamath River at sites above and below reservoirs and major tributaries to determine the influence of these features on longitudinal and temporal trends in concentrations, loads, and N:P ratios. In general, the headwater lake (Upper Klamath Lake) and reservoirs appeared to be the dominant influence on water quality and nutrient dynamics in the upper river, whereas tributaries appeared to exert stronger influence in the lower river. Overall, high nutrients and poor water quality at upstream sites were ameliorated downstream, however the downstream reductions in N were much greater relative to P. Seasonality appeared to play a major role in the overall appearance and magnitude of longitudinal trends. The greatest upstream-downstream differences occurred during periods of time following large algal blooms in the upper portion of the river. Overall, the amount and composition of N appeared to be strongly driven by algal blooms and biogeochemical conditions such as low oxygen, high pH and warm temperatures in the upper portion of the river, whereas P was more strongly driven by seasonal hydrology. The spatiotemporal influence of reservoirs and tributaries on nutrient flux and nutrient ratios may have significant implications for aquatic communities and ecosystem health. Nutrient objectives should be considered when designing restoration, management, and monitoring objectives for projects involving habitat suitability for anadromous fish and potential dam removal.

  11. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of cyanotoxins in algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Paul B; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Duy, Sung Vo; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-15

    An analytical method based on on-line SPE-LC-HESI-MS/MS has been developed for the detection and quantification of eight selected cyanotoxins in algal bloom waters that include mycrocystins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin. The injection volume was 2 mL according to the expected concentration of cyanotoxins in matrix. The method provides an analysis time of 7 min per sample, acceptable recovery values (91-101%), good precision (RSD < 13%) and method limits of detection at the sub-microgram per liter levels (0.01-0.02 ?g L(-1)). A detailed discussion on optimization parameters that have an impact on the overall performance of the method are presented. In particular, method optimization permitted the chromatographic separation of anatoxin-a and phenylalanine, an isobaric interference with a similar chromatographic characteristics. All optimization and validation experiments for the on-line SPE method and chromatographic separation were performed in environmentally relevant algal bloom water matrices. The applicability of the method was tested on several algal bloom water samples from monitored lakes across the province of Québec (Québec, Canada) known to produce cyanotoxins. All of the targeted cyanotoxins were detected with the exception of cylindrospermopsin. In addition, it was found that total microcystin concentrations in several surface water samples exceeded the proposed guidelines established by the province of Québec in Canada of 1.5 ?g L(-1) as well as the World Health Organization of 1 ?g L(-1) for both free and cell-bound microcystin-LR equivalent. PMID:26494036

  12. The laboratory mouse in routine food safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Mouse bioassays have been a mainstay for detecting harmful concentrations of marine algal toxins in shellfish for over 70 years. Routine monitoring involves intraperitoneal injection of shellfish extracts into mice; shellfish contaminated with algal toxins are thus identified by mortality in exposed mice. With the advent of alternative test methods to detect and quantify specific algal toxins has come increasing criticism of enduring use of mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing. However, the complete replacement of shellfish safety mouse bioassays by chemical, antibody-based, and functional assays has been and will continue to be a gradual process for various reasons, including skills availability and instrument costs for chromatography-based toxin monitoring. Mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing do not comply with modern standards for laboratory animal welfare, specifically the requirement in published official methods for death as a test outcome. Mouse bioassays for algal biotoxins in shellfish, as well as fundamental algal toxin research endeavors using in vivo models, are amenable to revision and refinement from a humane endpoints perspective. Regulated hypothermia may be a useful and easily acquired nonlethal toxicological endpoint; objective determination of neuromuscular blockade may allow algal neurotoxin testing and research to enter the domain of humane endpoints evaluation. Relinquishing reliance on subjective test endpoints, including death, will likely also deliver collateral improvements in assay variability and sensitivity. PMID:24830147

  13. Reconstruction of Pyrodinium blooms in the tropical East Pacific (Mexico): are they related to ENSO?

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; de Vernal, Anne; Machain-Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2012-06-19

    Some microplanktonic species, mostly dinoflagellates, causing Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), produce toxins which may affect the environment and human health, thus causing important economic losses. The dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum is one of the main species causing harmful algal blooms along the tropical Pacific. Although it was first reported along the Mexican coast in the 1970s, here we report that a sedimentary record of Pyrodinium cysts from the Gulf of Tehuantepec in the tropical East Pacific (Mexico), which spans from the 1860s, showed the continuous occurrence of Pyrodinium cysts and that their presence has been declining in the last few decades. Although Pyrodinium HABs have been attributed to El Niño events in the tropical Indo-West Pacific, the record shows that most blooms in the tropical East Pacific appear in periods of low sea surface temperature and higher rainfall, as can be observed during rapid shifts from cold (La Niña) to warm (El Niño) conditions in that region. This mechanism offers new ways to better predict and facilitate early detection of Pyrodinium HABs worldwide. PMID:22577973

  14. Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg/L). Furthermore, the concentration of iron-binding ligands was found to have a positive correlation to presence of cyanobacteria concentration, indicating a potential relationship between Fe, siderophores, and cyanobacteria. This project works to improve the understanding of freshwater cyanobacteria growth dynamics by investigating the physiological and biochemical processes leading to cHABs. The importance of this project lies in the understanding of elementary nutrient requirements in all algae and how cyanobacteria are able to access low concentration pools and subsequently bloom over other algal species. Investigating the nutrient regimes that stimulate siderophore production and the subsequent production of potentially toxic cyanobacteria blooms is important for lake management and preservation, specifically in the eutrophic and hypereutrophic freshwater lakes of Alberta.

  15. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Paerl HW; Hall NS; Calandrino ES

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N(2) fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change.

  16. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Hall, Nathan S; Calandrino, Elizabeth S

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N(2) fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. PMID:21345482

  17. Bio-optical properties in relation to an algal bloom caused by iron enrichment in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Raphael M.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    In 1995 a massive bloom of phytoplankton composed primarily of diatoms was created by adding small quantities of iron to the surface waters of the equatorial Pacific. As part of this experiment, several bio-optical parameters were measured using drifter instruments and shipboard measurements. The iron-induced bloom resulted in dramatic changes in the bio-optical properties of the study site, potentially resulting in light limitation of the phytoplankton at the peak of the bloom. The results also provide evidence for a shift in photosynthetic energy partitioning by the phytoplankton assemblage upon initial exposure to iron. It is unclear, however, whether the physiological changes associated with the bloom were purely a result of the iron addition, or were also influenced by changes in species composition. We hypothesize that iron-induced changes in bio-optical properties of equatorial Pacific waters could have far-reaching effects on the global climate system.

  18. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  19. Copepod Trajectory Characteristics in Thin Layers of Toxic Algal Exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    Recently documented thin layers of toxic phytoplankton (``cryptic blooms'') are modeled in a custom flume system for copepod behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical layers ensuring a close match to in situ bloom conditions and allowing for quantification of threshold dissolved toxin levels that induce behavioral responses. Assays with the copepods Acartia tonsa (hop-sinker) and Temora longicornis (cruiser) in thin layers of toxic exudates from the common dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (cell equivalent ~ 1 - 10,000 cells/mL) examine the effects of dissolved toxic compounds and copepod species on swimming trajectory characteristics. Computation of parameters such as swimming speed and the fractal dimension of the two-dimensional trajectory (F2D) allows for statistical evaluation of copepod behavioral responses to dissolved toxic compounds associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Changes in copepod swimming behavior caused by toxic compounds can significantly influence predator, prey, and mate encounter rates by altering the fracticality (``diffuseness'' or ``volume-fillingness'') of a copepod's trajectory. As trophic mediators linking primary producers and higher trophic levels, copepods can significantly influence HAB dynamics and modulate large scale ecological effects through their behavioral interactions with toxic blooms.

  20. Applications of MODIS Fluorescence Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity in Coastal and Estuarine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Ryan, J. P.; Moreno-Madriñán, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals, and new aerosol models have led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean-color. This has opened the way for studying coastal ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and increases in local concentrations of phytoplankton, which could result in harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present improved and validated MODIS coastal observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to: (1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida; and (2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California, as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and imagery from Tampa Bay, we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large, optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay illustrates that the correlations between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a are influenced by water quality parameters of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand. Sites that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths greater than seven meters and were located over five kilometers from shore. Satellite FLH estimates show improving water quality from 2003-2007 with a slight decline up through 2011. Dinoflagellate blooms in Monterey Bay, California have recently increased in frequency and intensity. Nine years of MODIS FLH observations are used to describe the annual and seasonal variability of bloom activity within the Bay. Three classes of MODIS algorithms were correlated against in situ chlorophyll measurements. The FLH algorithm provided the most robust estimate of bloom activity. Elevated concentrations of phytoplankton were evident during the months of August-November, a period during which increased occurrences of dinoflagellate blooms have been observed in situ. Seasonal patterns of FLH show the on- and offshore movement of areas of high phytoplankton biomass between oceanographic seasons. Higher concentrations of phytoplankton are also evident in the vicinity of the land-based nutrient sources and outflows, and cyclonic bay-wide circulation transports these nutrients to a northern Bay bloom incubation region. Both of these case studies illustrate the utility of improved MODIS FLH observations in supporting management decisions in coastal and estuarine waters.

  1. Stable Isotope Probing of an Algal Bloom To Identify Uncultivated Members of the Rhodobacteraceae Associated with Low-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation?

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R.; Aitken, Michael D.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria associated with an algal bloom in Tampa Bay, FL, were investigated by stable isotope probing (SIP) with uniformly labeled [13C]naphthalene. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from naphthalene enrichments) were identified as uncharacterized members of the family Rhodobacteraceae. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of these uncultivated organisms were used to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled naphthalene and phenanthrene, both of which showed substantial increases in gene copy numbers during the experiments. As demonstrated by this work, the application of uniformly 13C-labeled PAHs in SIP experiments can successfully be used to identify novel PAH-degrading bacteria in marine waters. PMID:21926219

  2. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

    2011-01-17

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)-improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

  3. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique – taken from the published literature – and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 104 cells L?1) varied considerably (sensitivity—Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity—Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)—improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

  4. Innovative techniques for harmful algal toxin analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R H; Kirkpatrick, G J

    2001-01-01

    The global increase in frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has led to more frequent incidence of seafood-borne illnesses and adverse impacts on natural resources. In response, public health agencies worldwide have mobilized to initiate HAB monitoring programs. To meet this demand, innovative analytical techniques are being developed that provide rapid and reliable detection of the causative organisms and the toxins produced. Modifications to conventional chromatography and mass spectrometry have greatly improved sensitivity and selectivity of these methods toward naturally occurring phycotoxins. Bioassay techniques using live organisms are giving way to molecular and cellular methods that measure the toxicologically significant activity of the toxin molecules. Molecular probes are being applied to distinguish species-specific RNA and DNA sequences for rapid identification of HAB-causing organisms. The direction of this new technology is to develop rapid and reliable screening methods for phycotoxins and the causative organisms to provide protection for public health, aquaculture, and natural resources. New methods also are being developed for detecting minute amounts of toxin molecules in microenvironments, leading to understanding the toxicokinetics and toxicological functions of the toxins. PMID:11351396

  5. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense

    PubMed Central

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense. PMID:26594205

  6. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 ?g/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 ?g/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense. PMID:26594205

  7. Evaluation of internal loading and water level changes: implications for phosphorus, algal production, and nuisance blooms in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic manipulations have the potential to exacerbate or remediate eutrophication in productive reservoirs. Dam operations at Kabetogama Lake, Minnesota, were modified in 2000 to restore a more natural water regime and improve water quality. The US Geological Survey and National Park Service evaluated nutrient, algae, and nuisance bloom data in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels. Comparison of the results of this study to previous studies indicates that chlorophyll a concentrations have decreased, whereas total phosphorus (TP) concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000. Water and sediment quality data were collected at Voyageurs National Park during 2008–2009 to assess internal phosphorus loading and determine whether loading is a factor affecting TP concentrations and algal productivity. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for occasional stratification measured in certain areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, higher bottom water and sediment nutrient concentrations than in other parts of the lake, and phosphorus release rates estimated from sediment core incubations indicated that Lost Bay is one of several areas that may be contributing to internal loading. Internal loading of TP is a concern because increased TP may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria.

  8. Review: advances in electrochemical genosensors-based methods for monitoring blooms of toxic algae.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which have expanded worldwide in their occurrence and frequency, are a serious menace to aquatic ecosystems and humans. The development of rapid, accurate and cost-effective detection systems for toxic algal monitoring in aquatic environments is urgently required. Although many efforts have been devoted to develop reliable tools to monitor the entire spectrum of existing toxic algae, a portable semi-automated system that enables HAB monitoring at a low cost is still not available for general purchase. This work reviews the challenges and opportunities in translating the remarkable progress of electrochemical genosensors-based methods towards practical in situ HAB monitoring applications. It is specifically focused on reviewing the optimised methods for a detection system based on a sandwich hybridisation assay (SHA) performed over transducer platforms of different materials, geometries and dimensions and presenting the diverse advantages and disadvantages among them. Probe design and specificity and optimisation of the genosensor in terms of hybridisation conditions and electrochemical signal are discussed as well as their long-term stability and storage and semi-automation attempts. With continuous innovation and attention to key challenges, we expect semi-automatic devices containing DNA-based electrochemical biosensors to have an important impact upon monitoring of serious HAB events. PMID:23097073

  9. Continuous automated imaging-in-flow cytometry for detection and early warning of Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lisa; Henrichs, Darren W; Olson, Robert J; Sosik, Heidi M

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring programs for harmful algal blooms (HABs) typically rely on time-consuming manual methods for identification and enumeration of phytoplankton, which make it difficult to obtain results with sufficient temporal resolution for early warning. Continuous automated imaging-in-flow by the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) deployed at Port Aransas, TX has provided early warnings of six HAB events. Here we describe the progress in automating this early warning system for blooms of Karenia brevis. In 2009, manual inspection of IFCB images in mid-August 2009 provided early warning for a Karenia bloom that developed in mid-September. Images from 2009 were used to develop an automated classifier that was employed in 2011. Successful implementation of automated file downloading, processing and image classification allowed results to be available within 4 h after collection and to be sent to state agency representatives by email for early warning of HABs. No human illness (neurotoxic shellfish poisoning) has resulted from these events. In contrast to the common assumption that Karenia blooms are near monospecific, post-bloom analysis of the time series revealed that Karenia cells comprised at most 60-75 % of the total microplankton. PMID:23307076

  10. Use of fuzzy logic models for prediction of taste and odor compounds in algal bloom-affected inland water bodies.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Slawa; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Tedesco, Lenore; Soyeux, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    Mechanistic modeling of how algal species produce metabolites (e.g., taste and odor compounds geosmin and 2-methyl isoborneol (2-MIB)) as a biological response is currently not well understood. However, water managers and water utilities using these reservoirs often need methods for predicting metabolite production, so that appropriate water treatment procedures can be implemented. In this research, a heuristic approach using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was developed to determine the underlying nonlinear and uncertain quantitative relationship between observed cyanobacterial metabolites (2-MIB and geosmin), various algal species, and physical and chemical variables. The model is proposed to be used in conjunction with numerical water quality models that can predict spatial-temporal distribution of flows, velocities, water quality parameters, and algal functional groups. The coupling of the proposed metabolite model with the numerical water quality models would assist various utilities which use mechanistic water quality models to also be able to predict distribution of taste and odor metabolites, especially when monitoring of metabolites is limited. The proposed metabolite model was developed and tested for the Eagle Creek Reservoir in Indiana (USA) using observations over a 3-year period (2008-2010). Results show that the developed models performed well for geosmin (R (2)?=?0.83 for all training data and R (2)?=?0.78 for validation of all 10 data points in the validation dataset) and reasonably well for the 2-MIB (R (2)?=?0.82 for all training data and R (2)?=?0.70 for 7 out of 10 data points in the validation dataset). PMID:24242080

  11. Detection of Critical LUCC Indices and Sensitive Watershed Regions Related to Lake Algal Blooms: A Case Study of Taihu Lake

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Su, Zhihu; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China has suffered from severe eutrophication over the past 20 years which is partly due to significant land use/cover change (LUCC). There is an increasing need to detect the critical watershed region that significantly affects lake water degradation, which has great significance for environmental protection. However, previous studies have obtained conflicting results because of non–uniform lake indicators and inadequate time periods. To identify the sensitive LUCC indices and buffer distance regions, three lake divisions (Meiliang Lake, Zhushan Lake and Western Coastal region) and their watershed region within the Taihu Lake basin were chosen as study sites, the algal area was used as a uniform lake quality indicator and modeled with LUCC indices over the whole time series. Results showed that wetland (WL) and landscape index such as Shannon diversity index (SHDI) appeared to be sensitive LUCC indices when the buffer distance was less than 5 km, while agricultural land (AL) and landscape fragmentation (Ci) gradually became sensitive indices as buffer distances increased to more than 5 km. For the relationship between LUCC and lake algal area, LUCC of the WC region seems to have no significant effect on lake water quality. Conversely, LUCC within ML and ZS region influenced algal area of corresponding lake divisions greatly, while the most sensitive regions were found in 3 km to 5 km, rather than the whole catchment. These results will be beneficial for the further understanding of the relationship between LUCC and lake water quality, and will provide a practical basis for the identification of critical regions for lake. PMID:25642691

  12. Lysing bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa with microbial algicide: An efficient process that decreases the toxicity of algal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Algicidal microbes could effectively remove the harmful algae from the waters. In this study, we were concerned with the ecological influence of an algicide extracted from Streptomyces alboflavus RPS, which could completely lyse the Phaeocystis globosa cells within two days. In microcosms, 4 μg/mL of the microbial algicide could efficiently remove P. globosa cells without suppressing other aquatic organisms. Bioluminescent assays confirmed that the toxicity of microbial algicide at this concentration was negligible. Interestingly, the toxicity of P. globosa exudates was also significantly reduced after being treated with the algicide. Further experiments revealed that the microbial algicide could instantly increase the permeability of the plasma membrane and disturb the photosynthetic system, followed by the deformation of organelles, vacuolization and increasing oxidative stress. The pre-incubation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) verified that the rapid damages to the plasma membrane and photosynthetic system caused the algal death in the early phase, and the increasing oxidative stress killed the rest. The late accumulation and possible release of CAT also explained the decreasing toxicity of the algal culture. These results indicated that this microbial algicide has great potential in controlling the growth of P. globosa on site. PMID:26847810

  13. Lysing bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa with microbial algicide: An efficient process that decreases the toxicity of algal exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Algicidal microbes could effectively remove the harmful algae from the waters. In this study, we were concerned with the ecological influence of an algicide extracted from Streptomyces alboflavus RPS, which could completely lyse the Phaeocystis globosa cells within two days. In microcosms, 4 μg/mL of the microbial algicide could efficiently remove P. globosa cells without suppressing other aquatic organisms. Bioluminescent assays confirmed that the toxicity of microbial algicide at this concentration was negligible. Interestingly, the toxicity of P. globosa exudates was also significantly reduced after being treated with the algicide. Further experiments revealed that the microbial algicide could instantly increase the permeability of the plasma membrane and disturb the photosynthetic system, followed by the deformation of organelles, vacuolization and increasing oxidative stress. The pre-incubation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) verified that the rapid damages to the plasma membrane and photosynthetic system caused the algal death in the early phase, and the increasing oxidative stress killed the rest. The late accumulation and possible release of CAT also explained the decreasing toxicity of the algal culture. These results indicated that this microbial algicide has great potential in controlling the growth of P. globosa on site. PMID:26847810

  14. Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.; Davies, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Combined petographic and geochemical methods are used to investigate the microfabrics present in thin sections prepared from representative organic carbon-rich mudstones collected from three successions (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the Jet Rock Member of the Whitby Mudstone Formation, and the pebble shale and Hue Shale). This study was initiated to determine how organic carbon-rich materials were being delivered to the sediment-water interface, and what happened to them after deposition, prior to deep burial. Analyses of the fabrics present shows that they exhibit many common attributes. In particular they are all: (1) highly heterogeneous on the scale of a thin section, (2) organized into thin beds (< 10 mm thick) composed mainly of mineral mixtures of fine-grained siliciclastic detritus and carbonate materials, and (3) contain significant concentrations of organic carbon, much of which is organized into laminasets that contain abundant organomineralic aggregates and pellets. In addition, framboidal pyrite (range of sizes from < 20 urn to < 1 ??m) and abundant agglutinated foraminifers are present in some units. The individual beds are commonly sharp-based and overlain by thin, silt lags. The tops of many of the beds have been homogenized and some regions of the pelleted laminasets contain small horizontal burrows. The organomineralic aggregates present in these mudstones are interpreted to be ancient examples of marine snow. This marine snow likely formed in the water column, particularly during phytoplankton blooms, and was then transported rapidly to the seafloor. The existence of the thin beds with homogenized tops and an in-situ infauna indicates that between blooms there was sufficient oxygen and time for a mixed layer to develop as a result of sediment colonization by diminutive organisms using either aerobic or dysaerobic metabolic pathways. These textures suggest that the constituents of these mudstones were delivered neither as a continuous rain of sediment nor were the bottom waters persistently anoxic. In addition, the presence of thin lags and sharp-based beds suggests that the seafloor was being episodically reworked during deposition. These fabrics indicate that conditions in the water columns and at the seafloors while these rocks were being deposited were very dynamic, and episodic fluxes of high concentrations of organic carbon to the seafloor, during phytoplankton blooms, likely enhanced preservation of organic carbon. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  15. HAB's and Hurricanes in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, M. B.; Heil, C. A.; Murasko, S.; Dziemiela, K.; Faltin, E.; Garrett, M.; Truby, E.; Carlson, D.; English, D.

    2006-12-01

    The 2004 and 2005 hurricane season provided two unique opportunities to evaluate the effects of post-hurricane nutrient enrichment of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) and HAB initiation and maintenance. Multidisciplinary research cruises began approximately 10 days after both Hurricanes Charley and Wilma, the former occurred during a period without a HAB event and the latter occurred during a HAB event. In both cases, nutrient loading on the WFS was up to an order of magnitude greater than pre-hurricane, wet season conditions and much greater than dry season conditions. Nutrient bioassays taken at the mouths of bays and rivers during each cruise indicated that nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient in these locations, although P co-limitation was also implicated in some regions and light was the primary limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in about half the locations. Comparisons of limiting nutrients in similar bioassays within offshore and inshore blooms during non-hurricane conditions provide supporting evidence of spatial shifts in nutrient needs in Karenia brevis blooms. The passage of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita ameliorated a HAB related hypoxia/anoxia event on the WFS.

  16. The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Ashton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    The biological interactions and the physical and chemical properties of the littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift were studied for a 4-month period when a dense, toxic cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa was present in the main lake basin. The presence of a toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was confirmed through the use of ELISA and molecular markers that detect the presence of the mcyB and mcyD genes of the mcy gene cluster that synthesizes microcystin. An increase in Microcystis toxicity at sites dominated by the cyanobacterial scum was accompanied by an increase in total abundance of the macroinvertebrate families Hirudinae, Chironomidae, and Tubificidae. Sites located away from the cyanobacterial scum had a lower abundance but a higher diversity of macroinvertebrates. The water quality under the Microcystis scum was characterized by low pH values, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and lower total alkalinity values. The periphytic alga Ulothrix zonata was absent in areas dominated by the cyanobacterial scum, possibly as a result of overshadowing by the scum or direct toxic allelopathic effects on growth and photosynthesis. The diatom Diatoma vulgare dominated the benthic algal flora beneath the cyanobacterial scum. PMID:18802748

  17. Molecular effects of the cyanobacterial toxin cyanopeptolin (CP1020) occurring in algal blooms: global transcriptome analysis in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Zucchi, Sara; Kohler, Esther; Blom, Judith F; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Higher water temperatures due to climate change combined with eutrophication of inland waters promote cyanobacterial blooms. Some of the cyanobacteria produce toxins leading to drinking water contamination and fish poisoning on a global scale. Here, we focused on the molecular effects of the cyanobacterial oligopeptide cyanopeptolin CP1020, produced by Microcystis and Planktothrix strains, by means of whole-genome transcriptomics. Exposure of 72 hpf old zebrafish embryos for 96 h to 100 and 1,000 ?g/L CP1020 resulted in differential transcriptional alteration of 396 and 490 transcripts (fold change ? 2), respectively, of which 68 gene transcripts were common. These belong to genes related to various important biological and physiological pathways. Most clearly affected were pathways related to DNA damage recognition and repair, circadian rhythm and response to light. Validation by RT-qPCR showed dose-dependent transcriptional alterations of genes belonging to DNA damage and repair and regulation of circadian rhythm. This leads to the hypothesis that CP1020 acts on DNA and has neurotoxic activity. This transcriptome analysis leads to the identification of novel and unknown molecular effects of this cyanobacterial toxin, including neurotoxicity, which may have important consequences for humans consuming contaminated drinking water. PMID:24561424

  18. Drivers and effects of Karenia mikimotoi blooms in the western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Morvan K.; Tilstone, Gavin H.; Smyth, Timothy J.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Gloël, Johanna; Robinson, Carol; Kaiser, Jan; Suggett, David J.

    2015-09-01

    Naturally occurring red tides and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are of increasing importance in the coastal environment and can have dramatic effects on coastal benthic and epipelagic communities worldwide. Such blooms are often unpredictable, irregular or of short duration, and thus determining the underlying driving factors is problematic. The dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi is an HAB, commonly found in the western English Channel and thought to be responsible for occasional mass finfish and benthic mortalities. We analysed a 19-year coastal time series of phytoplankton biomass to examine the seasonality and interannual variability of K. mikimotoi in the western English Channel and determine both the primary environmental drivers of these blooms as well as the effects on phytoplankton productivity and oxygen conditions. We observed high variability in timing and magnitude of K. mikimotoi blooms, with abundances reaching >1000 cells mL-1 at 10 m depth, inducing up to a 12-fold increase in the phytoplankton carbon content of the water column. No long-term trends in the timing or magnitude of K. mikimotoi abundance were evident from the data. Key driving factors were identified as persistent summertime rainfall and the resultant input of low-salinity high-nutrient river water. The largest bloom in 2009 was associated with highest annual primary production and led to considerable oxygen depletion at depth, most likely as a result of enhanced biological breakdown of bloom material; however, this oxygen depletion may not affect zooplankton. Our data suggests that K. mikimotoi blooms are not only a key and consistent feature of western English Channel productivity, but importantly can potentially be predicted from knowledge of rainfall or river discharge.

  19. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harmful Algal Flora in the Tropical Estuarine Complex of Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    Pednekar, Suraksha M.; Prabhu Matondkar, S. G.; Kerkar, Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    Mandovi and Zuari estuarine complex is monsoon-influenced estuaries located along the central west coast of India. During the past few years, there has been an increase in nutrient loading specially during monsoonal runoff which is responsible for the growth of harmful algal flora. To understand occurrence and distribution of harmful algal blooms species, daily/alternate day samplings were carried out in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 periods, respectively, comprising of monsoon (June–November) and nonmonsoon (December–May). In Mandovi, total 54 HAB species with 49 in monsoon and 36 during nonmonsoon period were reported. In Zuari, total 46 HAB species with 38 in monsoon and 41 were reported during nonmonsoon period. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on log-transformed phytoplankton density detected seven well-defined groups revealing spatiotemporal variability. The density of the dominant harmful algal species was significantly positively correlated with nutrients, but negatively correlated with salinity. The results of the study indicate that monsoon plays an important role in occurrence and distribution of harmful algal species having direct correlation with salinity variations and nutrient loading. PMID:22629154

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution of harmful algal flora in the tropical estuarine complex of Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Pednekar, Suraksha M; Prabhu Matondkar, S G; Kerkar, Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    Mandovi and Zuari estuarine complex is monsoon-influenced estuaries located along the central west coast of India. During the past few years, there has been an increase in nutrient loading specially during monsoonal runoff which is responsible for the growth of harmful algal flora. To understand occurrence and distribution of harmful algal blooms species, daily/alternate day samplings were carried out in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 periods, respectively, comprising of monsoon (June-November) and nonmonsoon (December-May). In Mandovi, total 54 HAB species with 49 in monsoon and 36 during nonmonsoon period were reported. In Zuari, total 46 HAB species with 38 in monsoon and 41 were reported during nonmonsoon period. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on log-transformed phytoplankton density detected seven well-defined groups revealing spatiotemporal variability. The density of the dominant harmful algal species was significantly positively correlated with nutrients, but negatively correlated with salinity. The results of the study indicate that monsoon plays an important role in occurrence and distribution of harmful algal species having direct correlation with salinity variations and nutrient loading. PMID:22629154

  1. Progress in Understanding Algal Bloom-Mediated Fish Kills: The Role of Superoxide Radicals, Phycotoxins and Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Seger, Andreas; Mardones, Jorge I.; Nichols, Peter D.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the role of reactive oxygen species, phycotoxins and fatty acids in fish toxicity by harmful marine microalgae remains inconclusive. An in vitro fish gill (from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) assay was used to simultaneously assess the effect in superoxide dismutase, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities caused by seven species of ichthyotoxic microalgae (Chattonella marina, Fibrocapsa japonica, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Alexandrium catenella, Karlodinium veneficum, Prymnesium parvum). Quantification of superoxide production by these algae was also performed. The effect of purified phycotoxins and crude extracts was compared, and the effect of fatty acids is discussed. The raphidophyte Chattonella was the most ichthyotoxic (gill cell viability down to 35%) and also the major producer of superoxide radicals (14 pmol cell-1 hr-1) especially after cell lysis. The raphidophyte Heterosigma and dinoflagellate Alexandrium were the least toxic and had low superoxide production, except when A. catenella was lysed (5.6 pmol cell-1 hr-1). Catalase showed no changes in activity in all the treatments. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase exhibited significant activity increases of ≤23% and 51.2% TCC (total cellular content), respectively, after exposure to C. marina, but SOD showed insignificant changes with remaining algal species. A strong relationship between gill cell viability and superoxide production or superoxide dismutase was not observed. Purified brevetoxins PbTx-2 and -3 (from Karenia brevis, LC50 of 22.1 versus 35.2 μg mL-1) and karlotoxin KmTx-2 (from Karlodinium; LC50 = 380 ng mL-1) could almost entirely account for the fish killing activity by those two dinoflagellates. However, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) GTX1&4, C1&C2, and STX did not account for Alexandrium ichthyotoxicity. Only aqueous extracts of Alexandrium were cytotoxic (≤65% decrease of viability), whereas crude methanol and acetone extracts of Chattonella, Fibrocapsa, Heterosigma, Karlodinium and Prymnesium decreased cell viability down to 0%. These and our previous findings involving the role of fatty acids confirm that superoxide radicals are only partially involved in ichthyotoxicity and point to a highly variable contribution by other compounds such as lipid peroxidation products (e.g. aldehydes). PMID:26197230

  2. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar

    2014-05-01

    Short-range forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs and other waterbodies is an actual element of water treatment system. Particularly, Shershnevskoie reservoir - the source of drinking water for Chelyabinsk city (South Ural region of Russia) - is exposed to interannual, seasonal and short-range fluctuations of blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and other dominant species abundance, which lead to technological problems and economic costs and adversely affect the water treatment quality. Whereas the composition, intensity and the period of blooms affected not only by meteorological seasonal conditions but also by ecological specificity of waterbody, that's important to develop object-oriented forecasting, particularly, search for an optimal number of predictors for such forecasting. Thereby, firstly fuzzy logic and fuzzy artificial neural network patterns for blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) blooms prediction in nearby undrained Smolino lake were developed. These results subsequently served as the base to derive membership functions for Shernevskoie reservoir forecasting patterns. Time series with the total lenght about 138-159 days of dominant species seasonal abundance, water temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, mineralization, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were obtained through field observations held at Lake Smolino (Chelyabinsk) in the warm season of 2009 and 2011 with time resolution of 2-7 days. The cross-correlation analysis of the data revealed the potential predictors of M. aeruginosa abundance quasi-periodic oscillations: green alga Pediastrum duplex (P. duplex) abundance and mineralization for 2009, P. duplex abundance, water temperature and concentration of nitrates for 2011. According to the results of cross-correlation analysis one membership function "P. duplex abundance" and one rule linking M. aeruginosa and P. duplex abundances were set up for database of 2009. Analogically, for database of 2011 three rules, linking membership functions of temperature, P. duplex abundance, nitrate concentration and M. aeruginosa abundance were set up. Developed fuzzy logic rules were good to predict M. aeruginosa intense outbreaks. For ANN method of forecasting specially written program was used to train the fuzzy artificial neural network on number of input selected predictors' values and output predicted factor's values to set up the predictive rules and membership functions automatically. As a result, two models based on mineralization and P. duplex abundance were developed for 2009. For 2011 four patterns were developed, the best result was obtained for model based on temperature and P. duplex abundance. Developed methods of forecasting were applied to predict outbreaks of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and M. aeruginosa abundance in Shershnevskoie reservoir. For this purpose long-term data of chemical parameters, measured once in a month, data of dominant species abundance, measured fifth in a week and data of turbidity, water color, alkalinity, pH, obtained each day, were analyzed. Based on these empirical data significant factors were determined, membership functions were set up and preliminary models for Shershnevskoie reservoir were developed. As expected, these models differ significantly from developed for Smolino lake ones and should be tested on new data sets.

  3. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: the HAB Index

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978 – 2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions -eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index – a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs. PMID:24948849

  4. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs.

  5. Duelling 'CyanoHABs': unravelling the environmental drivers controlling dominance and succession among diazotrophic and non-N2 -fixing harmful cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

    2016-02-01

    Eutrophication often manifests itself by increased frequencies and magnitudes of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) in freshwater systems. It is generally assumed that nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria will dominate when nitrogen (N) is limiting and non-N2 fixers dominate when N is present in excess. However, this is rarely observed in temperate lakes, where N2 fixers often bloom when N is replete, and non-fixers (e.g. Microcystis) dominate when N concentrations are lowest. This review integrates observations from previous studies with insights into the environmental factors that select for CyanoHAB groups. This information may be used to predict how nutrient reduction strategies targeting N, phosphorus (P) or both N and P may alter cyanobacterial community composition. One underexplored concern is that as N inputs are reduced, CyanoHABs may switch from non-N2 fixing to diazotrophic taxa, with no net improvement in water quality. However, monitoring and experimental observations indicate that in eutrophic systems, minimizing both N and P loading will lead to the most significant reductions in total phytoplankton biomass without this shift occurring, because successional patterns appear to be strongly driven by physical factors, including temperature, irradiance and hydrology. Notably, water temperature is a primary driver of cyanobacterial community succession, with warming favouring non-diazotrophic taxa. PMID:26310611

  6. Concurrent exposure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to multiple algal toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Twiner, Michael J; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000-2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n?=?118) and 53% positive for DA (n?=?83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p?=?0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  7. Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  8. Resolving DOM fluorescence fractions during a Karenia brevis bloom patch on the Southwest Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Wilson G.; Kang, Yoonja; Zika, Rod G.

    2012-01-01

    Organic matter can be supplied naturally from land through rivers or produced in-situ in the marine environment. Current methods of examining natural bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) are not able to discriminate multiple sources of DOM. A diagnostic tool to identify DOM sources is critical to determine possible sources of organic nutrients that influence K. brevis harmful algal bloom (HAB) development. This study applied multi-wavelength fluorescence coupled with a supervised pattern recognition technique (e.g., parallel factorial analysis (PARAFAC) using samples collected from river, estuary and shelf waters where the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis off of Sanibel Island, Florida was observed. The PARAFAC model distinguished four different fractions of DOM components containing humic-like and protein-like components. The derived terrestrial humic-like material was indicative of land-based sources while the tryptophan-like component was likely produced from in-situ biological production. The study developed and tested the hypothesis that the direct relationship of the protein-like DOM fluorescence with K. brevis cell density indicated that the bloom patch was most likely supported by organic nutrients produced in-situ. The results demonstrated that multi-wavelength fluorescence analysis coupled with PARAFAC modeling technique simultaneously resolved DOM fluorescence fractions and their possible sources-information that are critical in explaining harmful algal bloom formation.

  9. Determination of cyanobacterial diversity during algal blooms in Daechung Reservoir, Korea, on the basis of cpcBA intergenic spacer region analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-Gun; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Ko, So-Ra; Choi, Gang-Guk; Bae, Jin-Woo; Park, Yong-Ha; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2006-05-01

    The detection and prevention of cyanobacterial blooms are important issues in water quality management. As such, the diversity and community dynamics of cyanobacteria during cyanobacterial bloom in the Daechung Reservoir, Korea, were studied by analyzing the intergenic spacer (IGS) region between phycocyanin subunit genes cpcB and cpcA (cpcBA IGS). To amplify the cpcBA IGS from environmental samples, new PCR primers that could cover a wider range of cyanobacteria than previously known primers were designed. In the samples taken around the bloom peak (2 September 2003), seven groups of cpcBA IGS sequences were detected, and none of the amplified cpcBA IGSs was closely related to the cpcBA IGS from chloroplasts. Apart from the Microcystis-, Aphanizomenon (Anabaena)-, Pseudanabaena-, and Planktothrix (Oscillatoria)-like groups, the three other groups of cpcBA IGS sequences were only distantly related to previously reported sequences (<85% similarity to their closest relatives). The most prominent changes during the bloom were the gradual decrease and eventual disappearance of the Aphanizomenon (Anabaena)-like group before the bloom peak and the gradual increase and sudden disappearance of Planktothrix (Oscillatoria)-like groups right after the bloom peak. The community succession profile obtained based on the cpcBA IGS analysis was also supported by a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. PMID:16672464

  10. Capillary electrophoresis finger print technique (CE-SSCP): an alternative tool for the monitoring activities of HAB species in Baja California Sur Costal.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Sepúlveda, Angélica; Hernandez-Saavedra, Norma Y; Medlin, Linda K; West, Nyree

    2013-10-01

    In Mexican waters, there is no a formal and well-established monitoring program of harmful algal blooms (HAB) events. Until now, most of the work has been focused on the characterization of organisms present in certain communities. Therefore, the development of new techniques for the rapid detection of HAB species is necessary. Capillary electrophoresis finger print technique (CE-SSCP) is a fingerprinting technique based on the identification of different conformers dependent of its base composition. This technique, coupled with capillary electrophoresis, has been used to compare and identify different conformers. The aim of this study was to determine if CE-SSCP analysis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments could be used for a rapid identification of toxic and harmful HAB species to improve monitoring activities along the coasts of Baja California Sur, Mexico.Three different highly variable regions of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes were chosen and their suitability for the discrimination of different dinoflagellate species was assessed by CE-SSCP.The CE-SSCP results obtained for the LSU D7 fragment has demonstrated that this technique with this gene region could be useful for the identification of the ten dinoflagellates species of different genera.We have shown that this method can be used to discriminate species and the next step will be to apply it to natural samples to achieve our goal of molecular monitoring for toxic algae in Mexican waters. This strategy will offer an option to improve an early warning system of HAB events for coastal BCS, allowing the possible implementation of mitigation strategies. A monitoring program of HAB species using molecular methods will permit the analysis of several samples in a short period of time, without the pressure of counting with a taxonomic expert in phytoplankton taxonomy. PMID:22744160

  11. Urban wastewater treatment by seven species of microalgae and an algal bloom: Biomass production, N and P removal kinetics and harvestability.

    PubMed

    Mennaa, Fatima Zahra; Arbib, Zouhayr; Perales, José Antonio

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluates the capacity of seven species and a Bloom of microalgae to grow in urban wastewater. Nutrient removal kinetics and biomass harvesting by means of centrifugation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation have been also tested. Results show that the best biomass productivities ranged from between 118 and 108 mgSS L(-1) d(-1) for the Bloom (Bl) and Scenedesmus obliquus (Sco). Regarding nutrient removal, microalgae were able to remove the total dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations by more than 80% and 87% respectively, depending on the species tested. The final total dissolved concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the culture media complies with the European Commission Directive 98/15/CE on urban wastewater treatment. Regarding harvesting, the results of coagulation-flocculation sedimentation using a 60 mg L(-1) dose of Ferric chloride were similar between species, exceeding the biomass removal efficiency by more than 90%. The results of centrifugation (time required to remove 90% of solids at 1000 rpm) were not similar between species, with the shortest time being 2.9 min for Sco, followed by the bloom (7.25 min). An overall analysis suggested that the natural bloom and Scenedesmus obliquus seem to be the best candidates to grow in pre-treated wastewater, according to their biomass production, nutrient removal capability and harvestability. PMID:26117372

  12. Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

  13. Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

  14. Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom.

    PubMed

    Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

    2014-09-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

  15. Hijacking of an autophagy-like process is critical for the life cycle of a DNA virus infecting oceanic algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Daniella; Shemi, Adva; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Sabanay, Helena; Wolf, Sharon G; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-01-01

    Marine photosynthetic microorganisms are the basis of marine food webs and are responsible for nearly 50% of the global primary production. Emiliania huxleyi forms massive oceanic blooms that are routinely terminated by large double-stranded DNA coccolithoviruses. The cellular mechanisms that govern the replication cycle of these giant viruses are largely unknown. We used diverse techniques, including fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cryoelectron tomography, immunolabeling and biochemical methodologies to investigate the role of autophagy in host–virus interactions. Hallmarks of autophagy are induced during the lytic phase of E. huxleyi viral infection, concomitant with up-regulation of autophagy-related genes (ATG genes). Pretreatment of the infected cells with an autophagy inhibitor causes a major reduction in the production of extracellular viral particles, without reducing viral DNA replication within the cell. The host-encoded Atg8 protein was detected within purified virions, demonstrating the pivotal role of the autophagy-like process in viral assembly and egress. We show that autophagy, which is classically considered as a defense mechanism, is essential for viral propagation and for facilitating a high burst size. This cellular mechanism may have a major impact on the fate of the viral-infected blooms, and therefore on the cycling of nutrients within the marine ecosystem. PMID:25195618

  16. Stimulus Response of Au-NPs@GMP-Tb Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Toward Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual-Mode Sensing of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Algal Blooms of a Freshwater Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Deng, Jingjing; Xue, Yumeng; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-19

    In this study, we demonstrate a colorimetric and fluorescent dual-mode method for alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) sensing in freshwater lake with stimuli-responsive gold nanoparticles@terbium-guanosine monophosphate (Au-NPs@GMP-Tb) core-shell nanoparticles. Initially, the core-shell nanoparticles were fabricated based on Au-NPs decorated with a fluorescent GMP-Tb shell. Upon being excited at 290 nm, the as-formed Au-NPs@GMP-Tb core-shell nanoparticles emit green fluorescence, and the decorated GMP-Tb shell causes the aggregation of Au-NPs. However, the addition of ALP destroys GMP-Tb shell, resulting in the release of Au-NPs from the shell into the solvent. As a consequence, the aggregated Au-NPs solubilizes with the changes in the UV-vis spectrum of the dispersion, and in the meantime, the fluorescence of GMP-Tb shell turns off, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual-mode sensing of APA. With the method developed here, we could monitor the dynamic change of APA during an algal bloom of a freshwater lake, both by the naked eye and further confirmed by fluorometric determination. This study not only offers a new method for on-site visible detection of APA but also provides a strategy for dual-mode sensing mechanisms by the rational design of the excellent optical properties of Au-NPs and the adaptive inclusion properties of the luminescent infinite coordination polymers. PMID:26677868

  17. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  18. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Erica L; Trussell, Shane; Eagleton, John; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetini?, Ivona; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton H; Caron, David A

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 ?g/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 ?g/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 ?g/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the ability of typical RO operations to effectively remove these toxins. PMID:23079130

  19. Investigating the impact of land use and the potential for harmful algal blooms in a tropical lagoon of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, Audrey; de Vernal, Anne; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina

    2015-12-01

    Palynological and geochemical analyses were carried out on a sediment core collected in the shallow Alvarado lagoon (Veracruz, Southwestern Gulf of Mexico) in order to evaluate the impact of the significant decline in the surrounding native coastal vegetation on phytoplankton assemblages. The sedimentary sequence encompasses the last millennium and provides information on pre-industrial phytoplankton assemblages. Results highlight a recent increase of freshwater-sourced organic matter relative to marine organic matter in line with reduced total concentrations of cyst-producing dinoflagellates. These changes appear to be synchronous to the extensive conversion of wetlands into agricultural areas, with consequences on the stability and water retention capacity of the soils bordering the lagoon system. The data also show that Polysphaeridium zoharyi, a cyst produced by the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, is present in high abundance in the dinoflagellate population of the lagoon. Consequently, the modern cyst bank of P. bahamense in sediment has the potential to initiate harmful blooms since surface sediments are prone to resuspension events related to strong seasonal winds and human activities.

  20. Effects of modified clay flocculation on major nutrients and diatom aggregation during Skeletonema costatum blooms in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangyuan; Song, Xiuxian; Yu, Zhiming; Cao, Xihua; Yuan, Yongquan

    2015-07-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) can elicit several negative effects on aquatic environment (such as depleting the oxygen, blocking the sunlight, destroying the habitats of organisms) and life health (including poisoning/killing marine mammals, birds and human). Among the various control strategies for HABs (physical manipulation needs lots of manpower and expensive equipment, chemicals treatment has some toxic byproduct and high residual, microbial agents only has limited in laboratory research), the coagulation-flocculation of HAB species by modified clay (MC) has been proven to be an effective, low-cost and environmentally friendly method that has been widely applied in the field, particularly in eastern Asia. In order to examine the long-term effects of MC treatment, this study investigated the alternations in seawater of Skeletonema costatum, a high biomass dominant HAB species along the Chinese coast, by comparing the degradation of S. costatum detritus (A1) with the application of MC treatment (A2) and MC treatment in sediment condition (A3). The low dosage of 0.25 g/L MC could efficiently remove 4×108 cells/L of S. costatum cells within 3.5 h (approximately 97% removal). In addition, the results showed that both inorganic and organic nutrients were effectively reduced from seawater by MC particles. Compared to the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in A1 seawater, 44% of TN and 93% of TP in A2 seawater, as well as 72% of TN and 93% of TP in A3 seawater were removed during the one-month incubation period. Simultaneously, 64% of DISi in A2 and 44% of DISi in A3 significantly decreased ( P<0.001). This study demonstrated that MC treatment was able to significantly increase the downward flux of nutrients and delay the release velocity of inorganic nutrient from MC-algae matrix into the overlying seawater, particularly within sediment environment.

  1. Relationship between land-use in the agro-forestry system of les Landes, nitrogen loading to and risk of macro-algal blooming in the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, R.; Leibreich, J.; Vernier, F.; Delmas, F.; Beuffe, H.; Maison, Ph.; Chossat, J.-C.; Laplace-Treyture, C.; Laplana, R.; Clavé, V.; Torre, M.; Auby, I.; Trut, G.; Maurer, D.; Capdeville, P.

    2005-02-01

    Nitrogen loading to the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France) was evaluated by studying land-use and nitrogen output in its 3001 km 2 catchment. At present, the catchment is dominated by forestry (79%), while intensive agriculture occupies 9% of the surface. The N-output of two hydrological subunits, i.e. the Tagon subunit dominated by pine forestry and the Arriou II subunit comprising both forestry and intensive agriculture, were monitored for a seven year period (1996-2002). From these observations it was calculated that forestry contributes on average 1.6 kg total N ha -1 yr -1, which is dominated by organic nitrogen (DON + PON are 70% of N). On an areal basis, intensive agriculture contributes 26 times more than forestry, i.e. 41.6 kg total N ha -1 yr -1, which is mainly in the form of nitrate (65% of N). These data were upscaled to the catchment and the upscaling was validated by comparison to gauged nitrogen throughputs for the catchment of the Leyre river that is the major tributary to the system. Taking into account the other known N sources and the interannual variability in the catchment it was estimated that nitrogen loading to the lagoon was on average 90 kg ha -1 yr -1 (range from 54 to 126 kg ha -1 yr -1). The sandy soils of the catchment have a clear potential for denitrification, but anoxic conditions (waterlogged) and input of organic matter to fuel this process are required. Currently, agricultural practices and spatial planning do not make use of this potential. Nitrogen loading in the Bassin d'Arcachon is reflected by 10-40 ?M nitrate concentrations in winter, which became depleted during spring as a result of uptake by vegetation. Short-term uptake experiments showed that the macroalga Monostroma obscurum is well adapted to temperatures between 10 to 20 °C and competitive with respect to the seagrass Zostera noltii when the nitrate concentrations are above 10 ?M. Spring conditions with high nitrate and high insolation are therefore favourable for M. obscurum and this species presents a high risk for algal blooming. In contrast, the macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata well adapted to summertime temperatures around 25 °C, forms occasionally blooms in the lagoon. This phenomenon is limited due to the low DIN concentrations in summer.

  2. Factors determining the dynamics of toxic blooms of Alexandrium minutum during a 10-year study along the shallow southwestern Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdenadher, Moufida; Hamza, Asma; Fekih, Wafa; Hannachi, Imen; Zouari Bellaaj, Amel; Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine; Aleya, Lotfi

    2012-06-01

    Many blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum have been recorded since 1990 in the Gulf of Gabes (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). To understand the determining factors of bloom formation, we studied the distribution of A. minutum in relation to environmental factors in samples taken at shallow sandy (<1 m) beach stations and a lagoon between 1997 and 2006. This was accompanied by laboratory experiments to identify A. minutum. The species forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in stations subjected to anthropogenic eutrophication and in confined lagoons, living under conditions of varying salinity which gives it a unique opportunity to broaden its physiological tolerance and increase its colonisation potential. Increases in phosphorus appear to be more important than nitrogen or temperature in the control of A. minutum. The stations sampled all along the coast present specific hydrographic properties (shallowness, turbulence) suggesting that factors other than temperature and nutrients influence Alexandrium distribution, the exception being Boughrara Lagoon where the species developed in accordance with published data. Our findings and their interpretations indicate that the mechanism of the sudden A. minutum blooms along the nearshore of the Gulf of Gabes was complex and differed from that of true coastal ecosystems.

  3. A Quantitative Assessment of the Role of the Parasite Amoebophrya in the Termination of Alexandrium fundyense Blooms within a Small Coastal Embayment

    PubMed Central

    Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Amoebophrya infect free-living dinoflagellates, some of which can cause harmful algal blooms (HABs). High prevalence of Amoebophrya spp. has been linked to the decline of some HABs in marine systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Amoebophrya spp. on the dynamics of dinoflagellate blooms in Salt Pond (MA, USA), particularly the harmful species Alexandrium fundyense. The abundance of Amoebophrya life stages was estimated 3–7 days per week through the full duration of an annual A. fundyense bloom using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with tyramide signal amplification (FISH- TSA). More than 20 potential hosts were recorded including Dinophysis spp., Protoperidinium spp. and Gonyaulax spp., but the only dinoflagellate cells infected by Amoebophrya spp. during the sampling period were A. fundyense. Maximum A. fundyense concentration co-occurred with an increase of infected hosts, followed by a massive release of Amoebophrya dinospores in the water column. On average, Amoebophrya spp. infected and killed ?30% of the A. fundyense population per day in the end phase of the bloom. The decline of the host A. fundyense population coincided with a dramatic life-cycle transition from vegetative division to sexual fusion. This transition occurred after maximum infected host concentrations and before peak infection percentages were observed, suggesting that most A. fundyense escaped parasite infection through sexual fusion. The results of this work highlight the importance of high frequency sampling of both parasite and host populations to accurately assess the impact of parasites on natural plankton assemblages. PMID:24324668

  4. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jester, R.; Lefebvre, K.; Langlois, G.; Vigilant, V.; Baugh, K.; Silver, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    In California, the toxic algal species of primary concern are the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and members of the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, both producers of potent neurotoxins that are capable of sickening and killing marine life and humans. During the summer of 2004 in Monterey Bay, we observed a change in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community-the typically diatom-dominated community shifted to a red tide, dinoflagellate-dominated community. Here we use a 6-year time series (2000-2006) to show how the abundance of the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Bay up to that point, Pseudo-nitzschia, significantly declined during the dinoflagellate-dominated interval, while two genera of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium and Dinophysis, became the predominant toxin producers. This change represents a shift from a genus of toxin producers that typically dominates the community during a toxic bloom, to HAB taxa that are generally only minor components of the community in a toxic event. This change in the local HAB species was also reflected in the toxins present in higher trophic levels. Despite the small contribution of A. catenella to the overall phytoplankton community, the increase in the presence of this species in Monterey Bay was associated with an increase in the presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in sentinel shellfish and clupeoid fish. This report provides the first evidence that PSP toxins are present in California's pelagic food web, as PSP toxins were detected in both northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Another interesting observation from our data is the co-occurrence of DA and PSP toxins in both planktivorous fish and sentinel shellfish. We also provide evidence, based on the statewide biotoxin monitoring program, that this increase in the frequency and abundance of PSP events related to A. catenella occurred not just in Monterey Bay, but also in other coastal regions of California. Our results demonstrate that changes in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community influences the nature of the algal toxins that move through local food webs and also emphasizes the importance of monitoring for the full suite of toxic algae, rather than just one genus or species. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Toxic and harmful marine phytoplankton and microalgae (HABs) in Mexican Coasts.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerril, David U; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba; Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Barón-Campis, Sofia A; Ceballos-Corona, Gerardo; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Meave Del Castillo, María E; Juárez-Ruíz, Norma; Merino-Virgilio, Fanny; Morales-Blake, Alejandro; Ochoa, José L; Orellana-Cepeda, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Camarena, Casimiro; Rodríguez-Salvador, Raciel

    2007-08-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are becoming an increasing problem to human health and environment (including effects on natural and cultured resources, tourism and ecosystems) all over the world. In Mexico a number of human fatalities and important economic losses have occurred in the last 30 years because of these events. There are about 70 species of planktonic and non-planktonic microalgae considered harmful in Mexican coasts. The most important toxin-producing species are the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, in the Mexican Pacific, and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico, and consequently the poisonings documented in Mexico are Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). Although there is evidence that Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) and Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) also occur in Mexico, these problems are reported less frequently. The type of phytoplankton and epiphytic microalgae, their toxins and harmful effects as well as current methodology used to study these phenomena are presented in this paper. As an experienced group of workers, we include descriptions of monitoring and mitigation programs, our proposals for collaborative projects and perspectives on future research. PMID:17680474

  6. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  7. Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Valerie J

    2008-01-01

    The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to environmental stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These environmental conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global warming on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing environmental patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications. PMID:18461772

  8. Role of toxin and nutrient for the occurrence and termination of plankton bloom--results drawn from field observations and a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Chatterjee, Samrat; Chattopadhyay, J

    2007-01-01

    The termination of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and coexistence of phytoplankton-zooplankton populations are of great importance to human health, ecosystem, environment, tourism and fisheries. In this paper we propose a three-component model consisting of dissolved limiting nutrients (N) supplied at constant rate and partially recycled after the death of plankton by bacterial decomposition, phytoplankton (P) and zooplankton (Z), where the growth of zooplankton species reduce due to toxic chemicals released by phytoplankton species. Our analysis leads to different thresholds which are expressible in terms of model parameters and determine the existence and stability of various states of the system. We observe that phytoplankton-zooplankton persist if the maximal zooplankton ingestion rate exceeds a lower threshold value. It is shown that the coexistence equilibrium loses its stability when the dilution rate of the nutrient concentration passes through a critical value and Hopf bifurcation occurs that induces oscillations of the population. Our results indicate that the occurrence of bloom increases when the nutrient concentration is very high, and in that case toxin produced by the phytoplankton plays a very crucial role towards the termination of the planktonic bloom. PMID:17194523

  9. Source Water Quality Monitoring Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are increasingly impacting aquatic systems, reducing provided ecological services and requiring expensive engineered solutions. HABs, particularly those dominated by cyanobacteria (cyanoHABs) are a public health, ecologic, and economic concern. Charac...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A FIBER OPTIC ARRAY SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND ENUMERATION OF POTENTIALLY TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become a serious threat to freshwater and marine waters worldwide, impacting humans, animals, and aquatic ecosystems. In freshwater, many cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABs) produce neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermatotoxic, or other bioactive compo...

  11. A PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF MICROCYSTINS FROM CONSUMPTION OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanotoxins can cause adverse human and ecological health effects. Large quantities of cyanotoxins can be released into water bodies during or immediately following freshwater cyanobacteria blooms, also known as harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs exhibit complicated temporal and...

  12. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  13. Localization and Tracking of Submerged Phytoplankton Bloom Patches by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, M. A.; Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Observing plankton in their drifting frame of reference permits effective studies of marine ecology from the perspective of microscopic life itself. By minimizing variation caused simply by advection, observations in a plankton-tracking frame of reference focus measurement capabilities on the processes that influence the life history of populations. Further, the patchy nature of plankton populations motivates use of sensor data in real-time to resolve patch boundaries and adapt observing resources accordingly. We have developed capabilities for population-centric plankton observation and sampling by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Our focus has been on phytoplankton populations, both because of their ecological significance - as the core of the oceanic food web and yet potentially harmful under certain bloom conditions, as well as the accessibility of their signal to simple optical sensing. During the first field deployment of these capabilities in 2010, we tracked a phytoplankton patch containing toxigenic diatoms and found that their toxicity correlated with exposure to resuspended sediments. However, this first deployment was labor intensive as the AUV drove in a pre-programmed pattern centered around a patch-marking drifter; it required a boat deployment of the patch-marking drifter and required full-time operators to periodically estimate of the position of the patch with respect to the drifter and adjust the AUV path accordingly. In subsequent field experiments during 2011 and 2012, the Tethys-class long-range AUVs ran fully autonomous patch tracking algorithms which detected phytoplankton patches and continually updated estimates of each patch center by driving adaptive patterns through the patch. Iterations of the algorithm were generated to overcome the challenges of tracking advecting and evolving patches while minimizing human involvement in vehicle control. Such fully autonomous monitoring will be necessary to perform long-term in-situ observation of the full growth and decay cycle of bloom patches. Doing so will enhance our understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of bloom patches and the observable conditions that lead to bloom formation, ultimately improving our ability to predict the evolution of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and provide warnings for the fishing and tourism industries.

  14. Using hyperspectral imagery to monitor algal persence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.M.; Monk, J.; Yan, Gu; Brignal, W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how an inexpensive and easily deployable imaging spectrometer can be used to monitor and identify algal blooms at short notice, thus making practical the addition of airborne data to the usual in-situ measurements. Two examples are described, one in the Irish Sea and the other in a reservoir system in the London area.

  15. SinterHab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousek, Tomáš; Eriksson, Katarina; Doule, Ondřej

    2012-05-01

    This project describes a design study for a core module on a Lunar South Pole outpost, constructed by 3D printing technology with the use of in-situ resources and equipped with a bio-regenerative life support system. The module would be a hybrid of deployable (CLASS II) and in-situ built (CLASS III) structures. It would combine deployable membrane structures and pre-integrated rigid elements with a sintered regolith shell for enhanced radiation and micrometeorite shielding. The closed loop ecological system would support a sustainable presence on the Moon with particular focus on research activities. The core module accommodates from four to eight people, and provides laboratories as a test bed for development of new lunar technologies directly in the environment where they will be used. SinterHab also includes an experimental garden for development of new bio-regenerative life support system elements. The project explores these various concepts from an architectural point-of-view particularly, as they constitute the building, construction and interior elements. The construction method for SinterHab is based on 3D printing by sintering of the lunar regolith. Sinterator robotics 3D printing technology proposed by NASA JPL enables construction of future generations of large lunar settlements with little imported material and the use of solar energy. The regolith is processed, placed and sintered by the Sinterator robotics system which combines the NASA ATHLETE and the Chariot remotely controlled rovers. Microwave sintering creates a rigid structure in the form of walls, vaults and other architectural elements. The interior is coated with a layer of inflatable membranes inspired by the TransHab project. The life-support system is mainly bio-regenerative and several parts of the system are intrinsically multifunctional and serve more than one purpose. The plants for food production are also an efficient part of atmosphere revitalization and water treatment. Moreover, the plants will be used as a "winter garden" for psychological and recreational purposes. The water in the revitalization system has a multifunctional use, as radiation shielding in the safe-haven habitat core. The garden module creates an artificial outdoor environment mitigating the notion of confinement on the lunar surface. Fiber optics systems and plasma lamps are used for transmission of natural and artificial light into the interior.

  16. Mitigating harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a human- and climatically-impacted world.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W

    2014-01-01

    Bloom-forming harmful cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) are harmful from environmental, ecological and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, creating low oxygen conditions (hypoxia, anoxia), and by producing cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence, global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. CyanoHABs are regulated by synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen:N and phosphorus:P) supplies, light, temperature, vertical stratification, water residence times, and biotic interactions. In most instances, nutrient control strategies should focus on reducing both N and P inputs. Strategies based on physical, chemical (nutrient) and biological manipulations can be effective in reducing CyanoHABs; however, these strategies are largely confined to relatively small systems, and some are prone to ecological and environmental drawbacks, including enhancing release of cyanotoxins, disruption of planktonic and benthic communities and fisheries habitat. All strategies should consider and be adaptive to climatic variability and change in order to be effective for long-term control of CyanoHABs. Rising temperatures and greater hydrologic variability will increase growth rates and alter critical nutrient thresholds for CyanoHAB development; thus, nutrient reductions for bloom control may need to be more aggressively pursued in response to climatic changes globally. PMID:25517134

  17. Mitigating Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Human- and Climatically-Impacted World

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Bloom-forming harmful cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) are harmful from environmental, ecological and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, creating low oxygen conditions (hypoxia, anoxia), and by producing cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence, global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. CyanoHABs are regulated by synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen:N and phosphorus:P) supplies, light, temperature, vertical stratification, water residence times, and biotic interactions. In most instances, nutrient control strategies should focus on reducing both N and P inputs. Strategies based on physical, chemical (nutrient) and biological manipulations can be effective in reducing CyanoHABs; however, these strategies are largely confined to relatively small systems, and some are prone to ecological and environmental drawbacks, including enhancing release of cyanotoxins, disruption of planktonic and benthic communities and fisheries habitat. All strategies should consider and be adaptive to climatic variability and change in order to be effective for long-term control of CyanoHABs. Rising temperatures and greater hydrologic variability will increase growth rates and alter critical nutrient thresholds for CyanoHAB development; thus, nutrient reductions for bloom control may need to be more aggressively pursued in response to climatic changes globally. PMID:25517134

  18. BIOMARKER LIPIDS IN RED TIDE (GYMNODINIUM BREVE) BLOOMS ALONG THE NORTHWEST FLORIDA COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to characterize phytoplankton communities and algal blooms using lipids as biomarkers requires knowledge of their distribution and taxonomic significance. Such an approach would have application, for example, in distinguishing and tracking certain dinoflagellates suc...

  19. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  20. An overview of historical harmful algae blooms outbreaks in the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-09-15

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs), often composed of oceanic plants called phytoplankton, are potentially harmful to the marine life, water quality, human health, and desalination plants, a chief source of potable water in the Arabian Gulf. The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the frequency of HAB outbreaks in the Arabian Seas. This increase is mainly caused by the unprecedented economic growth in the region. The increased human activities in the region have added more stress to the marine environment and contributed to the changes observed in the properties of the marine ecosystem: high temperature and salinity, high evaporation rates, limited freshwater inflow, shallow nature, pollution. However, very few studies that cover the HAB outbreaks, causes, impacts and biological characteristics over the region have been published. This work presents a comprehensive overview of historical HAB outbreaks recorded in the region, and investigate their causes and impact, and seasonal variability. PMID:25038981

  1. [Synergistic effects by P and N pollution to fluctuation behavior/bloom of algae along the Three-Gorges valley].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-An; Zhan, Min; Luo, Yan-Feng; Guo, Sheng-Wen

    2006-08-01

    Absorption rate coefficient of algae omega(i) to nutrients such as N and P could be used for describing algal increases/decreases velocity in water areas in theory. omega(i) raise might correspond to algal quickly growth and to ccelerate absorption of N and P while omega(i) decrease might correspond to algal decompose and release of N and P. According to locale measuring data along the Three-Gorges valley and algal dynamics model of nutritious absorption we have obtained some interest 3-dimension figures in which omega(i) will varies up and down obviously with N and P concentration in special bound to show a synergistic effects of N and P that might reveal an inner behavior of algal bloom/decompose. The research results explain in reason: (1) algal blooms do will happen in one special P/N range in a certain water system; (2) when omega(1) and omega(2) ascend rapidly and simultaneously in positive direction at same time algae would bloom, and when omega(1) and omega(2) descend sharply and simultaneously in negative direction at same time algae would decompose; (3) The velocity of algal bloom is not only same approximately as one of algal decompose, but also its variety has evidently periodic fluctuation. All of these could reveal effectively mechanism of nutritious absorption/release as algal bloom/decompose. PMID:17111610

  2. Are cyanobacterial blooms trophic dead ends?

    PubMed

    Perga, Marie-Elodie; Domaizon, Isabelle; Guillard, Jean; Hamelet, Valérie; Anneville, Orlane

    2013-06-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms induce significant costs that are expected to increase in the near future. Cyanobacterial resistance to zooplankton grazing is one factor thought to promote bloom events. Yet, numerous studies on zooplankton ability to graze upon cyanobacteria have been producing contradictory results and such a puzzle might arise from the lack of direct observations in situ. Our objective was to track, using fatty acid (FA) and fatty acid stable isotope analyses (FA-SIA), the fate of cyanobacterial organic matter in the food web of a lake subjected to summer blooms of Planktothrix rubescens. A metalimnetic bloom of P. rubescens occurred in Lake Bourget (France) during the study period (May-November 2009). The bloom was especially rich in ?-linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3), but none of the considered zooplankton taxa exhibited spiking content in this particular FA. FA-SIA revealed, however, that over a quarter of 18:3(n-3) in small zooplankton (<500 ?m) was provided by P. rubescens while large cladocerans (>500 ?m) did not benefit from it. P. rubescens 18:3(n-3) could be tracked up to perch (Perca fluviatilis) young of the year (YOY) to which it contributed to ~15 % of total 18:3(n-3). Although transferred with a much lower efficiency than micro-algal organic matter, the P. rubescens bloom supported a significant share of the pelagic secondary production and did not constitute, sensu stricto, a 'trophic dead end'. The cyanobacterial bloom also provided perch YOY with components of high nutritional values at a season when these are critical for their recruitment. This cyanobacterial bloom might thus be regarded as a significant dietary bonus for juvenile fish. PMID:23129401

  3. Substrate-controlled succession of marine bacterioplankton populations induced by a phytoplankton bloom.

    PubMed

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Becher, Dörte; Klockow, Christine; Gardebrecht, Antje; Bennke, Christin M; Kassabgy, Mariette; Huang, Sixing; Mann, Alexander J; Waldmann, Jost; Weber, Marc; Klindworth, Anna; Otto, Andreas; Lange, Jana; Bernhardt, Jörg; Reinsch, Christine; Hecker, Michael; Peplies, Jörg; Bockelmann, Frank D; Callies, Ulrich; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wichels, Antje; Wiltshire, Karen H; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Schweder, Thomas; Amann, Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Phytoplankton blooms characterize temperate ocean margin zones in spring. We investigated the bacterioplankton response to a diatom bloom in the North Sea and observed a dynamic succession of populations at genus-level resolution. Taxonomically distinct expressions of carbohydrate-active enzymes (transporters; in particular, TonB-dependent transporters) and phosphate acquisition strategies were found, indicating that distinct populations of Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria are specialized for successive decomposition of algal-derived organic matter. Our results suggest that algal substrate availability provided a series of ecological niches in which specialized populations could bloom. This reveals how planktonic species, despite their seemingly homogeneous habitat, can evade extinction by direct competition. PMID:22556258

  4. Using LANDSAT to expand the historical record of phytoplankton blooms in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, J. C.; Michalak, A. M.; Stumpf, R. P.; Bridgeman, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater harmful algal blooms are occurring with increasing frequency worldwide, intensifying the need for deeper understanding of the processes driving bloom formation. Such understanding is a prerequisite for developing management strategies for limiting bloom occurrence. Unfortunately, however, data for developing robust predictive models of bloom formation are lacking. Even in the well-studied Lake Erie, where diatom and cyanobacteria blooms have occurred for several decades in the Western Basin, previous in-situ and remote-sensing data collection efforts have been hampered by spatial and temporal sampling limitations, resulting in a sparse historical record. Leveraging available data to expand the historical record of algal blooms would thus make it possible to better evaluate hypotheses about factors influencing bloom formation. In this work, remotely-sensed observations of phytoplankton obtained using LANDSAT imagery are presented for 1984-2011. Several phytoplankton detection algorithms based on LANDSAT 5 imagery are evaluated during the period also covered by MERIS (2002-2011), which offers a relatively detailed assessment of bloom occurrence over the last decade. The best algorithm is then applied to historical LANDSAT data, and results are used to obtain new information about historical conditions and assess implications for developing improved models of bloom formation. Estimates of historical bloom occurrence and bloom seasonality shed new light on the widely-held view that phosphorus controls and invasive mussels resulted in substantial bloom reductions in the early 1990s. The new estimated records are not consistent with limited in-situ phytoplankton measurements from that period, and provide additional information on bloom occurrence during years with little to no supporting literature. This work demonstrates the potential to unearth new insights about historical phytoplankton blooms in Lake Erie, as well as in freshwater lakes broadly, and is a step forward in supporting efforts to prepare for, and ultimately prevent, future blooms of harmful algae.

  5. Convergent blooms of Karenia brevis along the Texas coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, Robert D.; Campbell, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    A numerical model of wind-driven surface flow in the Gulf of Mexico is used to examine physical controls on harmful algal bloom formation along the Texas coast. Karenia brevis, which blooms frequently in the Gulf of Mexico, has a relatively slow growth rate (doubling times of 2-3 days). Increases in K. brevis concentration cannot be explained simply in terms of growth. We hypothesize that the primary mechanism responsible for bloom formation in the western Gulf of Mexico is convergence due to downwelling at the coast. Convergence along the Texas coast caused by seasonal downwelling winds can concentrate the plankton up to 1000 times. This is surprising because the modeled cells do not grow; the simulated increase in concentration is due to physical processes alone. The numerical model qualitatively reproduces both the timing and magnitude of bloom initiation along the coast, but does not predict the details of the migration of the bloom along the coast after it has formed, or the destruction of the bloom. The result of this simulation is significant because it implies that K. brevis blooms may be caused primarily by physical processes and that cell division is not an important factor in bloom formation.

  6. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  7. Algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented. PMID:23605290

  8. Characterization of blooming algae and bloom-associated changes in the water quality parameters of traditional pokkali cum prawn fields along the South West coast of India.

    PubMed

    Am, Ajin; Silvester, Reshma; Alexander, Deborah; M, Nashad; Abdulla, Mohamed Hatha

    2016-03-01

    In tropical shrimp farms, especially in traditional pokkali shrimp ponds, poor water quality management can lead to serious threats like heavy algal blooms and frequent disease outbreaks. An investigation regarding the frequent disease outbreaks in selected pokkali shrimp pond adjoining the Cochin backwaters has been conducted. Water quality parameters were analyzed during the study period. Results indicate a considerable fluctuation in the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the study in the shrimp farm where the algal bloom was observed. Poor water exchange along with nutrient loading from adjacent housing areas resulted in heavy algal bloom in the pond which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon. It also led to considerably high alkaline pH. High levels of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) were recorded in the sampling sites. Heavy algal bloom was observed throughout the study period in the selected pond especially in the summer. Anabaenopsis elenkinii and Merismopedia elagans which were the dominant species from the culture pond caused the bloom. Characterization and percentage distribution of bacteria present in the water and those associated with the algal blooms were carried out. The algae were found to support greater diversity of bacteria when compared to water. Pathogenic species like Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were encountered in the study. Experimental challenge studies using Artemia as a model showed that the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly pathogenic. Hence, this study reveals how algal growth supports opportunistic pathogens in great diverse in a shrimp pond and causes frequent disease outbreaks under favourable conditions. PMID:26850711

  9. A chemical approach for the mitigation of Prymnesium parvum blooms.

    PubMed

    Umphres, George D; Roelke, Daniel L; Netherland, Michael D

    2012-12-01

    Known as Golden Algae in popular media, the harmful algal bloom causing organism Prymnesium parvum secretes increased amounts of toxic chemicals called prymnesins when stressed, resulting in major fish kills in Texas. Although many options exist for mitigation of blooms, a feasible protocol for control of blooms on large-scale impoundments has yet to be identified. Chemical control of P. parvum using six different enzyme inhibiting aquatic herbicides was explored in laboratory experiments. Of the six chemicals screened, one (flumioxazin) was selected for further study due to a significant decrease in P. parvum cell numbers with increasing chemical concentration. It was applied to natural plankton communities during in-situ experiments (Lake Granbury, Texas). The first experiment was conducted during a period of P. parvum bloom initiation (March) and the second experiment conducted during a post bloom period (April). Experiments were carried out in 20 L polycarbonate carboys covered in 30% shade cloth to simulate natural light, temperature and turbulence conditions. Through cell counts via light-microscopy, the chemical flumioxazin was found to cause significant decreases in P. parvum, but no significant differences in zooplankton abundance during the period of bloom initiation. However, significant decreases in adult copepods were observed during the post bloom period, with no significant decreases in P. parvum most likely due to decreased light penetration and inhibition of the photosensitive mode of action. PMID:22960102

  10. Cyanobacterial bloom management through integrated monitoring and forecasting in large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu (China).

    PubMed

    Qin, Boqiang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Guangwei; Zhang, Yunlin; Wu, Tingfeng; Gao, Guang

    2015-04-28

    The large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu in China has long suffered from eutrophication and toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Despite considerable efforts to divert effluents from the watershed, the cyanobacterial blooms still reoccur and persist throughout summer. To mitigate cyanobacterial bloom pollution risk, a large scale integrated monitoring and forecasting system was developed, and a series of emergency response measures were instigated based on early warning. This system has been in place for 2009-2012. With this integrated monitoring system, it was found that the detectable maximum and average cyanobacterial bloom area were similar to that before drinking water crisis, indicating that poor eutrophic status and cyanobacterial bloom had persisted without significant alleviation. It also revealed that cyanobacterial bloom would occur after the intense storm, which may be associated with the increase in buoyance of cyanobacterial colonies. Although the cyanobacterial blooms had persisted during the monitoring period, there had been a reduction in frequency and intensity of the cyanobacterial bloom induced black water agglomerates (a phenomenon of algal bloom death decay to release a large amount black dissolved organic matter), and there have been no further drinking water crises. This monitoring and response strategy can reduce the cyanobacterial bloom pollution risk, but cannot reduce eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms, problems which will take decades to resolve. PMID:25679801

  11. Enhancement of algal growth and productivity by grazing zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Porter, K G

    1976-06-25

    Colonies of the common planktonic green alga, Sphaerocystis schroeteri, are only partially disrupted and assimilated by Daphnia magna, a natural predator. The Daphnia break up the outer protective gelatinous sheath that surrounds Sphaerocystis colonies, but most of the algal cells emerge from Daphnia guts intact and in viable condition. During gut passage, these viable cells take up nutrients, such as phosphorus, both from algal remains and from Daphnia metabolites. This nutrient supply stimulates algal carbon fixation and cell division. Enhanced algal growth, observed after gut passage, can compensate for the minor losses to the population caused by grazing. Nutrients regenerated by grazers may produce the summer bloom of gelatinous green algae during the seasonal succession of lake phytoplankton. PMID:17739838

  12. HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS AS INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are approximately 40 species of microalgae inhabiting coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico that produce or potentially can produce biotoxins that negatively impact aquatic ecosystems, human health, and local economics. While nutrient enrichment and reduced water quality may...

  13. PREDICTIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS. (R827085)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Lidar monitoring of dinoflagellate algal bloom on the Swedish coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbini, Roberto; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Palucci, Antonio; Ribezzo, Sergio

    1997-05-01

    The ENEA group has participated to the second ICES/IOC workshop on in situ growth rates of dinoflagellates, held at the Kristineberg Marine Research Station. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission of natural communities and cultures has been monitored in vivo to obtain information on the algae species, characterized by different pigments contents, and on their photosynthetic activity, which is related to the growth rate and biomass production. A laser fluorometer and a lidar system, used for local and remote LIF excitation of phytoplankton, have been operated during the marine campaign, both exciting the sea water in the UV. In particular, the lidar fluorosensor has been equipped with a laser transmitter specifically designed to operate differentially in the pump-and-probe mode, which allows to directly measure in vivo the chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. Experiments were conducted on two mesocosms containing the natural community with addition of nutrients. Chemical methods have been used for calibration of the two laser apparata. Results of the campaign are presented, together with the lidar data collected from the sea surface in crossing two nearby fjords along a selected sea transect.

  15. Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

    2014-09-01

    Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services. PMID:24890042

  16. Diatom aggregation and dimethylsulfide production in phytoplankton blooms

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are crucial links in many of the earth's biogeochemical cycles. Blooms take up atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis, and sequester it on the ocean floor by sinking. Aggregation of single cells into [open quote]marine snow[close quote] particles speeds up the sinking of algal cells. Laboratory studies investigating the process of aggregation show that some species have a higher probability of aggregating than others, and that there exist several mechanisms for causing aggregation. Field studies confirm that some species are more likely to be found in aggregates than in the surrounding seawater. High latitude Premnesiophyte blooms are found to produce large amounts of dimethylsulflde (DMS), believed to be an important chemical in global thermoregulation. DMS is found to vary diurnally, possibly due to photooxidation by ultraviolet light. This possibility links the effects of DMS on cloud formation with the effects of increased ultraviolet light penetrating the earths ozone layer.

  17. Inhibition of freshwater algal species by co-culture with two fungi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong; Du, Jingjing; Fang, Hao; Zhao, Guiying; Tian, Xingjun

    2013-05-01

    Microorganisms have attracted worldwide attention as possible agents for the inhibition of water blooms. Algae can usually be inhibited and degraded directly by fungi. In this study, the effects of Trichaptum abietinum 1302BG and Lopharia spadicea on different freshwater algal species, namely, Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella vulgaris, Glenodinium sp., Navicula sp., Cryptomonas ovata, and Euglena gracilis, were detected. After 24h, there was a significant inhibitory effect in all algal cultures with T. abietinum 1302BG, except E. gracilis, and all algal cultures with L. spadicea, except Navicula sp. and E. gracilis. The dried masses of two fungi increased while majority of the algal cells disappeared after 72 h of co-incubation with M. aeruginosa, C. vulgaris, Glenodinium sp., and C. ovata. Thus, the two fungi might inhibit the growth of different freshwater algal species and utilize the algal cells for their growth. PMID:23498282

  18. A niche model to predict Microcystis bloom decline in Chaohu Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicong; Li, Zhongjie; Li, Dunhai

    2012-07-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur frequently in lakes due to eutrophication. Although a number of models have been proposed to forecast algal blooms, a good and applicable method is still lacking. This study explored a simple and effective mathematical-ecological model to evaluate the growth status and predict the population dynamics of Microcystis blooms. In this study, phytoplankton were collected and identified from 8 sampling sites in Chaohu Lake every month from July to October, 2010. The niche breadth and niche overlap of common species were calculated using standard equations, and the potential relative growth rates of Microcystis were calculated as a weighted-value of niche overlap. In July, the potential relative growth rate was 2.79 (a.u., arbitrary units) but then rapidly declined in the following months to -3.99 a.u. in September. A significant correlation ( R =0.998, P <0.01) was found in the model between the net-increase in biomass of Microcystis in the field and the predicted values calculated by the niche model, we concluded that the niche model is suitable for forecasting the dynamics of Microcystis blooms. Redundancy analysis indicated that decreases in water temperature, dissolved oxygen and total dissolved phosphorus might be major factors underlying bloom decline. Based on the theory of community succession being caused by resource competition, the growth and decline of blooms can be predicted from a community structure. This may provide a basis for early warning and control of algal blooms.

  19. Variation of phytoplankton community before an induced cyanobacterial (Arthrospira platensis) bloom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Huang, Yingying; He, Shengbing; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xinze; Kong, Hainan

    2009-01-01

    A cyanobacterial (Arthrospira platensis) bloom was induced in situ by nutrient manipulation in an enclosure. The succession of the phytoplankton community and the water chemistry variations before the appearance of bloom, as well as their relationship, were investigated. The cell pigment variations were studied simultaneously. The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between water chemistry and green algal or cyanobacterial composition, indicating that water chemistry variations were not suitable to be used as indicators for cyanobacterial-bloom early-warning. However, the diversity index of the phytoplankton community decreased sharply before the bloom appeared. Therefore, the dynamics of phytoplankton community was put forward to be an indicator for cyanobacterial-bloom early-warning. In addition, the cell pigment variations represented the changes of community structure, which should be useful for studying the dynamics of phytoplankton community. PMID:20131591

  20. Combined effect of predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal suppression.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Ma, Sumin

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the combined effects of four typical predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal control in a microcosm system. It would determine the effects of diverse species and biological restoration on the growth of harmful water-bloom microalgae in great lakes polluted by excess nutrients. It was found that the mixtures of each zooplankton and the floating plant Nymphoides peltatum had stronger inhibitory effects on harmful water-bloom microalgae than the individual species in clean or eutrophic water bodies. In addition, a community of four zooplankton types had a synergistic effect on algal inhibition. Algal suppression by the zooplankton community was enhanced significantly when the macrophyte was co-cultured in the microcosm. Furthermore, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more susceptible than Microcystis aeruginosa when exposed to grazing by zooplankton and the allelopathic potential of the macrophyte. Algal inhibition was also weaker in eutrophic conditions compared with the control. These findings indicate that diverse species may enhance algal inhibition. Therefore, it is necessary to restore biological diversity and rebuild an ecologically balanced food chain or web to facilitate the control of harmful algal blooms in eutrophic lakes. PMID:25409583

  1. FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Gulf of Mexico, recurring algal blooms, caused by Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve), have significant adverse health and economic impacts. K. brevis is one member of a small group of dinoflagellates, related morphologically and by DNA-based phylogenetic ...

  2. Response of copepod grazing and reproduction to different taxa of spring bloom phytoplankton in the Southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Ning, Juan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Bo; Sun, Song

    2013-12-01

    The responses of copepod grazing and reproduction to the spring phytoplankton bloom were studied in the temperate shelf water of the Southern Yellow Sea in March-April, 2009. Two different algal blooms were found during the cruises. A diatom-dominated bloom at Station Z11, and a dinoflagellate-dominated bloom at Station Z4. The gut pigment contents indicated that different sized copepods exhibited different responses to different-species phytoplankton blooms. Large copepods (LC: body size larger than 1000 μm) and medium copepods (MC: body size ranging from 500 to 1000 μm), grazed actively on diatom blooms, but inactively on dinoflagellate blooms, although the chlorophyll-a concentrations of dinoflagellate blooms were twice as high as than those of the diatom blooms. For small copepods (SC: body size smaller than 500 μm), however, there was no significant difference in gut pigment contents between the two different algal blooms. Among the three size groups, LCs were the major grazers on the diatom bloom, while SCs were major grazers on the dinoflagellate bloom. Grazing impacts of copepod assemblages on phytoplankton blooms were low, only being equivalent to 1% day-1, or less, of the chlorophyll-a standing stock. The egg production rates of a large copepod, Calanus sinicus, were on average, 11.3 egg ind.-1 day-1, which was among the higher levels recorded in the study area, especially at the two stations where phytoplankton was blooming (21.8 and 14.9 egg ind.-1 day-1 at Stations Z11 and Z4, respectively). However, C. sinicus could only obtain sufficient food to support this high reproduction from the diatom bloom, but could not if relying only on the apparently unpalatable dinoflagellate bloom. Our analysis of copepod grazing and reproduction suggests that, although the spring blooms do enhance the reproduction of copepods, the taxa changed during spring blooms from large diatoms to small dinoflagellates would change the pathway of primary production. This would restructure secondary-producers (e.g. copepods) community structure, and have important ramifications through various marine trophic levels in the Southern Yellow Sea.

  3. Possible importance of algal toxins in the Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifel, K.M.; McCoy, M.P.; Rocke, T.E.; Tiffany, M.A.; Hurlbert, S.H.; Faulkner, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In response to wildlife mortality including unexplained eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off events in 1992 and 1994 and other mortality events including large fish kills, a survey was conducted for the presence of algal toxins in the Salton Sea. Goals of this survey were to determine if and when algal toxins are present in the Salton Sea and to describe the phytoplankton composition during those times. A total of 29 samples was collected for toxicity analysis from both nearshore and midlake sites visited biweekly from January to December 1999. Dinoflagellates and diatoms dominated most samples, but some were dominated by a prymnesiophyte (Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis) or a raphidophyte (Chattonella marina). Several types of blooms were observed and sampled. The dinoflagellate Gyrodinium uncatenum formed an extensive, dense (up to 310 000 cells ml-1) and long-lasting bloom during the winter in 1999. A coccolithophorid, Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis, occurred at high densities in surface films and nearshore areas during the spring and summer of 1999. These surface films also contained high densities of one or two other species (an unidentified scrippsielloid, Heterocapsa niei, Chattonella marina). Localized blooms were also observed in the Salton Sea. An unknown small dinoflagellate reached high densities (110 000 cells ml-1) inside Varner Harbor, and an unidentified species of Gymnodinium formed a dense (270 000 cells ml-1) band along part of the southern shoreline during the summer. Three species known to produce toxins in other systems were found. Protoceratium reticulatum (=Gonyaulax grindleyi) and Chattonella marina were found in several samples taken during summer months, and Prorocentrum minimum was found in low densities in several samples. Extracts of most samples, including those containing known toxic species, showed a low level (<10% mortality across all concentrations) of activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay and were not considered toxic. All sample extracts tested in the mouse bioassay showed no activity. One sample extract taken from the bloom of the small dinoflagellate was highly active (100% mortality across all concentrations) in the brine shrimp lethality assay, but the active material could not be isolated. While dense algal blooms are common at the Salton Sea, no evidence gathered in this study suggests that algal toxins are present within phytoplankton cells; however, toxins actively excreted by cells may have been missed. Blooms of phytoplankton likely contribute to wildlife mortality at the Salton Sea. Possible mechanisms including intoxication due to ingestion of feathers in grebes and waterlogging caused by changes in surface tension are discussed.

  4. Interactions between macro-algal mats and invertebrates in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelli, D.

    Blooms of opportunistic green macro-algae are a common feature of coastal areas and their effects on mudflat invertebrates can be dramatic. On the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, we have carried out a number of manipulative field experiments designed to evaluate the effects on invertebrates of different species of macro-algae with contrasting ecologies, and the effects of invertebrates on the development of the blooms. Macro-algal mats were found to have dramatic nega- tive effects on the density of the amphipod Corophium volutator, with higher algal biomasses having greater impact. The mechanism for this interaction seems to be interference by the algal filaments with the feeding behaviour of the amphipod. In contrast, the polychaete Capitella spp. increases in abundance under macro-algal mats due to enrichment of the sediment with organic material. These two interactions are seen at all scales, in areas of less than 1 m2 to the scale of the entire estuary, irrespective of the species composition of the macro- algal mats. Bioturbation by Corophium and grazing by the snail Hydrobia ulvae had little effect on macro-algal biomass, but there were less algae when the polychaete Nereis diversicolor was present. The most significant interaction in this system is the pronounced negative impact of algal mats on the abundance of Corophium, probably the most important invertebrate species in the diets of the estuary's shorebirds, fish and epibenthic crustaceans.

  5. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  6. Predicting potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Clarissa R.; Sapiano, Mathew R. P.; Prasad, M. Bala Krishna; Long, Wen; Tango, Peter J.; Brown, Christopher W.; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2010-11-01

    Harmful algal blooms are now recognized as a significant threat to the Chesapeake Bay as they can severely compromise the economic viability of important recreational and commercial fisheries in the largest estuary of the United States. This study describes the development of empirical models for the potentially domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species complex present in the Bay, developed from a 22-year time series of cell abundance and concurrent measurements of hydrographic and chemical properties. Using a logistic Generalized Linear Model (GLM) approach, model parameters and performance were compared over a range of Pseudo-nitzschia bloom thresholds relevant to toxin production by different species. Small-threshold blooms (?10 cells mL -1) are explained by time of year, location, and variability in surface values of phosphate, temperature, nitrate plus nitrite, and freshwater discharge. Medium- (100 cells mL -1) to large- threshold (1000 cells mL -1) blooms are further explained by salinity, silicic acid, dissolved organic carbon, and light attenuation (Secchi) depth. These predictors are similar to other models for Pseudo-nitzschia blooms on the west coast, suggesting commonalities across ecosystems. Hindcasts of bloom probabilities at a 19% bloom prediction point yield a Heidke Skill Score of ~53%, a Probability of Detection ˜ 75%, a False Alarm Ratio of ˜ 52%, and a Probability of False Detection ˜9%. The implication of possible future changes in Baywide nutrient stoichiometry on Pseudo-nitzschia blooms is discussed.

  7. Algal defense, grazers, and their interactions in aquatic trophic cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Anurag A.

    1998-08-01

    Freshwater phytoplankton exhibit a range of levels of resistance to grazing by zooplankton. Defense theory developed for algal-grazer interactions predicts that there should be a trade-off between resistance and growth. To test this aspect of the theory, the growth rates of several putatively resistant and edible algal species that are present in systems where aquatic trophic cascades are known to occur and where algal resistance is assumed to be minimal were compared. After demonstrating that there is an inverse relationship between resistance to grazing and growth rate, I reviewed the evidence concerning the role of resistant algae in aquatic trophic cascades. Both defense theory and aquatic trophic cascade theory suggest that resistant algae should be favored in an environment with heavy grazing, while edible algae should be favored in the absence of grazing. However, by definition, four- and two-level trophic cascades are characterized by runaway consumption resulting in near elimination of the primary producers. Data from the well-studied cascading freshwater systems seem to contradict some of the predictions of trophic cascade and defense theory; relatively resistant algae can bloom in the absence of heavy grazing and relatively edible algae can bloom after grazer pressure is increased. Based on these observations, I hypothesized that size-specific grazing by zooplankton may partially explain blooms of resistant algae in the absence of grazing and blooms of edible algae in the presence of heavy grazing. In spite of the complex interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton, the strong top-down signal, which is the signature of the aquatic trophic cascade, often persists.

  8. Photolysis of iron–siderophore chelates promotes bacterial–algal mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shady A.; Green, David H.; Hart, Mark C.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Sunda, William G.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Marine microalgae support world fisheries production and influence climate through various mechanisms. They are also responsible for harmful blooms that adversely impact coastal ecosystems and economies. Optimal growth and survival of many bloom-forming microalgae, including climatically important dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, requires the close association of specific bacterial species, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. Here, we report that several clades of Marinobacter ubiquitously found in close association with dinoflagellates and coccolithophores produce an unusual lower-affinity dicitrate siderophore, vibrioferrin (VF). Fe-VF chelates undergo photolysis at rates that are 10–20 times higher than siderophores produced by free-living marine bacteria, and unlike the latter, the VF photoproduct has no measurable affinity for iron. While both an algal-associated bacterium and a representative dinoflagellate partner, Scrippsiella trochoidea, used iron from Fe-VF chelates in the dark, in situ photolysis of the chelates in the presence of attenuated sunlight increased bacterial iron uptake by 70% and algal uptake by >20-fold. These results suggest that the bacteria promote algal assimilation of iron by facilitating photochemical redox cycling of this critical nutrient. Also, binary culture experiments and genomic evidence suggest that the algal cells release organic molecules that are used by the bacteria for growth. Such mutualistic sharing of iron and fixed carbon has important implications toward our understanding of the close beneficial interactions between marine bacteria and phytoplankton, and the effect of these interactions on algal blooms and climate. PMID:19805106

  9. Photolysis of iron-siderophore chelates promotes bacterial-algal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shady A; Green, David H; Hart, Mark C; Küpper, Frithjof C; Sunda, William G; Carrano, Carl J

    2009-10-01

    Marine microalgae support world fisheries production and influence climate through various mechanisms. They are also responsible for harmful blooms that adversely impact coastal ecosystems and economies. Optimal growth and survival of many bloom-forming microalgae, including climatically important dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, requires the close association of specific bacterial species, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. Here, we report that several clades of Marinobacter ubiquitously found in close association with dinoflagellates and coccolithophores produce an unusual lower-affinity dicitrate siderophore, vibrioferrin (VF). Fe-VF chelates undergo photolysis at rates that are 10-20 times higher than siderophores produced by free-living marine bacteria, and unlike the latter, the VF photoproduct has no measurable affinity for iron. While both an algal-associated bacterium and a representative dinoflagellate partner, Scrippsiella trochoidea, used iron from Fe-VF chelates in the dark, in situ photolysis of the chelates in the presence of attenuated sunlight increased bacterial iron uptake by 70% and algal uptake by >20-fold. These results suggest that the bacteria promote algal assimilation of iron by facilitating photochemical redox cycling of this critical nutrient. Also, binary culture experiments and genomic evidence suggest that the algal cells release organic molecules that are used by the bacteria for growth. Such mutualistic sharing of iron and fixed carbon has important implications toward our understanding of the close beneficial interactions between marine bacteria and phytoplankton, and the effect of these interactions on algal blooms and climate. PMID:19805106

  10. Algal conditions in the Caloosahatchee River (1975-79), Lake Okeechobee to Franklin Lock, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; La Rose, Henry R.

    1982-01-01

    Maximum numbers of suspended algae occurred in late spring and early summer, in each of the years 1975-79, in the Caloosahatchee River. Numbers exceeded 100,000 cells per milliliter at all stations sometime during the study. Concentrations decreased during late summer and autumn and were low during winter, except in January 1979 when numbers at most sites exceeded 100,000 cells per milliliter. The January 1979 bloom coincided with large discharges from Lake Okeechobee. During previous winters, discharges and algal numbers were lower. During other seasons, algal blooms occurred most frequently under low-flow or stagnant conditions. The upstream site at Moore Haven, which had the least discharge and was most stagnant, had consistently higher algal concentrations than downstream sites. Blue-green algae were dominant in the river during the summer at the upstream site throughout the year. The percentage of blue-green algae decreased downstream. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen were inversely correlated with concentrations of algae and decreased to near zero during algal blooms. The low concentrations of these forms of inorganic nitrogen relative to other major nutrients probably favor blue-green algae and limit growth of other algae. Contributions by the basin tributaries to the nutritive condition of the river were small because concentrations of nutrients, algal growth potential, and algae in the tributaries were generally less than those in the river. (USGS)

  11. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  12. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  13. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachamallu, M.; Zhou, N.; Anderson, C.

    2013-12-01

    Meera Rachamallu, Nancy Zhou, and Clarissa Anderson1 1 Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse? Since the early to mid 1990's, the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) has been the site of intensive time-series water column and sediment trap sampling. Chlorophyll concentrations have increased significantly over the past several years, consistent with observations of more intense diatom blooms during the spring and summer and fewer, large dinoflagellate blooms beginning in 2001. Sediment trap fluxes confirm these changes with evidence of an abrupt shift upwards in bloom frequency and abundance of the neurotoxin (domoic acid) producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia beginning in 2000. We hypothesize that these shifts are associated with decreases in the concentration of important nutrients, particularly silicic acid, that feed the phytoplankton and can help select which species bloom. Silicate and phosphate limitation have also been shown in the laboratory to stimulate domoic acid production. Our summer study of surface phytoplankton populations in the SBC showed that since surface sampling began in 2009, the biggest bloom occurred in October 2010 coinciding with a strong La Niña period. Shellfish toxin levels were also high during that period, and models that incorporate low silicic acid as a factor for toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms predicted these large blooms in fall of 2010. We show that more recent harmful algal blooms have been small in comparison to 2010, indicating that the La Niña anomaly may have been responsible. In other words, intense upwelling in the fall of 2010 combined with lower-than-normal ratios of silicic acid to nitrate may be the root cause for the large and toxic diatom bloom.

  14. Spatial refuges and associational defenses promote harmful blooms of the alga Caulerpa sertularioides onto coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Fong, Peggy; Kennison, Rachel; Smith, Jayson

    2010-12-01

    Extreme population fluctuations, or outbreaks, are driven by interacting processes that are often more complex than isolated changes in consumer or resource control. Blooms of the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides in the eastern tropical Pacific overgrew and killed reef-building corals, with blooms onto reefs corresponding to cool La Niña phases of inter-decadal fluctuations of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We quantified factors responsible for the maintenance of C. sertularioides patches in off-reef areas, namely an associational mutualism with an epiphytic cyanobacteria (Lyngbya majuscula), coupled with spatial refuges at the scales of individual thalli and habitat. Maintenance of near reef algal populations with a strong response to nutrient addition showed that these populations were primed to bloom onto reefs in response to enhanced nutrient delivery, such as those potentially associated with La Niña conditions. However, our experiments demonstrated that no single factor related to consumer or resource control was likely to stimulate bloom formation in isolation. Rather, we propose a novel model of reef bloom formation where off-reef blooms are sustained by processes reducing consumer control, and then bloom onto reefs through an interaction between increased allochthonous nutrient input and an uncoupling of consumer control by an association with epiphytic cyanobacteria. PMID:20593199

  15. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  16. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  17. An event-driven phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan observed by satellite.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B. M.; Stroud, J. R.; McCormick, M. J.; Fahnenstiel, G. L.; Stein, M. L.; Welty, L. J.; Leshkevich, G. A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Great Lakes Research Lab.

    2002-04-15

    Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) images from June 1998 show a surprising early summer phytoplankton bloom in southern Lake Michigan that accounted for approximately 25% of the lake's annual gross offshore algal primary production. By combining the satellite imagery with in situ measurements of water temperature and wind velocity we show that the bloom was triggered by a brief wind event that was sufficient to cause substantial vertical mixing even though the lake was already stratified. We conclude that episodic events can have significant effects on the biological state of large lakes and should be included in biogeochemical process models.

  18. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  19. 6. View to north along dirt lane. Log shed (HABS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View to north along dirt lane. Log shed (HABS No. VA-1290-N) at left, log dogtrot tenant house (HABS No. VA-1290-Q) in distance at end of lane. - Edgewood Farm, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  20. 5. General view looking northwest, showing tobacco barn (HABS No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view looking northwest, showing tobacco barn (HABS No. VA-1290-L) and center chimney tenant house (HABS No. VA-1290-K). - Edgewood Farm, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  1. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-06-17

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes currently undergoing analysis, JGI continues its commitment to driving forward basic and applied algal science. Among these ongoing projects are the pan-genome of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the interrelationships between the 4 genomes in the nucleomorph-containing Bigelowiella natans and Guillardia theta, and the search for symbiosis genes of lichens.

  2. Study of a bloom of the oil-rich alga Botryococcus braunii in the Darwin River Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, L.V.; Hillen, L.W.

    1980-01-01

    A bloom of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii Kutzing appeared in the Darwin River Reservoir in 1976. At the time of algal sampling, the bloom was estimated at 1500 ton and possibly double this mass at a maximum cell concentration. The alga is characterized by a high liquid hydrocarbon content, sufficient to cause flotation of the algal colonies. This report is an examination of the waters of the reservoir and of the characteristics of the alga. Observations are included on the formation of a material known as Coorongite, a rubbery complex produced by the drying of colony aggregates at the shoreline. Earlier reports of blooms of B. braunii are reviewed in relation to this study. 42 references.

  3. Cyanobacterial Cells and Toxins:Evaluating Source Water Trends and Propagation through Lake Erie Treatment Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), and their associated toxins, in fresh water lakes and reservoirs are drawing the attention of utilities and state regulators nation-wide. Recognizing the potential health and economic consequences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in partnersh...

  4. Cyanobacteria Toxin and Cell Propagation through Lake Erie Treatment Facilities - proceedings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), and their associated toxins, in fresh water lakes and reservoirs are drawing the attention of utilities and state regulators nation-wide. Recognizing the potential health and economic consequences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in partnersh...

  5. DETOXIFICATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXIN - CONTAMINATED WATER USING TIO2 PHOTOCATALYTIC FILMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmfal algal blooms (CyanoHABs) often produce undesirable color, odor and taste and more importantly, potent toxins that can cause chronic, acute and acute letha poisonings to wild and domestic animals and humans

  6. Evaluation of cyanobacteria cell count detection derived from MERIS imagery across the eastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inland waters across the United States (US) are at potential risk for increased outbreaks of toxic cyanobacteria (Cyano) harmful algal bloom (HAB) events resulting from elevated water temperatures and extreme hydrologic events attributable to climate change and increased nutrient...

  7. Environmental influences on the seasonal distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest of the USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the environment can be influenced by numerous factors. We assessed the correlation of total (tl+) and potentially virulent (tdh+) V. parahaemolyticus in water with three harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera (Pseudo-nitzschia, Alexandrium and ...

  8. A Collection of Algal Genomes from the JGI

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Algae, defined as photosynthetic eukaryotes other than plants, constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity. Acquisition of the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis through endosymbiotic events has been a principal driver of eukaryotic evolution, and today algae continue to underpin aquatic food chains as primary producers. Algae play profound roles in the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE?s Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A collection of algal projects ongoing at JGI contributes to each of these areas and illustrates analyses employed in their genome exploration.

  9. Algal functional annotation tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations tomore » interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion. CONCLUSIONS: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool aims to provide an integrated data-mining environment for algal genomics by combining data from multiple annotation databases into a centralized tool. This site is designed to expedite the process of functional annotation and the interpretation of gene lists, such as those derived from high-throughput RNA-seq experiments. The tool is publicly available at http://pathways.mcdb.ucla.edu.« less

  10. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion. CONCLUSIONS: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool aims to provide an integrated data-mining environment for algal genomics by combining data from multiple annotation databases into a centralized tool. This site is designed to expedite the process of functional annotation and the interpretation of gene lists, such as those derived from high-throughput RNA-seq experiments. The tool is publicly available at http://pathways.mcdb.ucla.edu.

  11. [Mechanisms of algal inhibition by rice straw extract].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Wei-zhong; Rui, Ke-jian; Li, Yan-bo

    2008-12-01

    An indoor experiment was conducted to investigate the inhibition effects and mechanisms of rice straw extracts to the harmful bloom-forming algae, Microcystis aeruginosa. It was found that there were algae inhibitory chemicals in rice straw. The inhabitation ratio of rice straw extract to Microcystis was 69.3% when stored at a low temperature of - 4 degrees C for 4 days with a concentration of 2.5 g/L. The algal inhibition depends on both chemicals and biological responses from decomposed rice straw extracts. Their relative contributions to the algal inhibition depended on decomposition pathway and time. Algal inhibitory chemicals played more important roles in anaerobic decomposed rice straw extracts than aerobic decomposed ones in the algal-inhibition process. For anaerobically decomposed straw extracts, if stored for 15 and 30 days with the concentration of 1.5 g/L, the inhabitation ratio of rice straw to Microcystis was 83% and 46% respectively. However, for aerobically decomposed straw extracts, the biologic mechanism was more important. The inhibition effects of biologic mechanism increased with the decomposition time. For aerobically decomposed straw extracts, if stored for 15 and 30 days with the concentration of 1.5 g/L, the inhabitation ratio of rice straw to Microcystis was 81% and 93% respectively. PMID:19256371

  12. Rising CO2 levels will intensify phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Finke, Jan F; Visser, Petra M; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic waters. PMID:25119996

  13. Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Verspagen, Jolanda M. H.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Finke, Jan F.; Visser, Petra M.; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic waters. PMID:25119996

  14. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the coastal waters along the East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preethi Latha, T.; Rao, K. H.; Amminedu, E.; Nagamani, P. V.; Choudhury, S. B.; Lakshmi, E.; Sridhar, P. N.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Dhadwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Bay of Bengal (BOB) is a semi enclosed tropical basin located in the north eastern part of the Indian Ocean with high influence of fresh water discharge from major rivers and rainfall. Bay of Bengal (BOB) is highly influenced by monsoons and represents a natural laboratory to study the effect of fresh water fluxes on the marine ecosystem. Bay of Bengal (BOB) is very low in productivity often with the observations of Phytoplankton Blooms. Phytoplankton blooms are one of the prominent features of biological variability in the coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers with rapid production and accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in the ocean. These blooms usually respond to changing physical forcings originating in the coastal ocean like tides, currents and river runoff and to the atmospheric forcing like wind. These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodic events, recurrent seasonal phenomena, or rare events associated with exceptional climatic or hydrologic conditions. Bloom events and their variability on spatial & temporal scales monitoring through field measurements is difficult. Based on this key hypothesis an effort is made to understand the seasonal and spatial variability of Phytoplankton Blooms along the East Coast of India. In this paper we present the bloom dynamics in their context to the chlorophyll concentration along with species composition and abundance in estuarine and near shore coastal waters of Godavari basin using Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). The initial results revealed that the quasi permanent phytoplankton blooms initiates in the month of mid- February and evolves for a period of two months and then slowly starts decaying by the mid of May month. The results also stand as a base for the study of influence of Phytoplankton Blooms on the carbon flux estimations and bio-geo-chemical processes in the Bay of Bengal.

  15. Sterilization effect of 254 nm UV-C irradiation against Cynaobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) produced by several cyanobacterial species is a significant threat to many aquatic ecosystems around the world. Recently frequent occurrence of serious algal bloom in Lake Taihu, Lake Dianchi, and Lake Chaohu has become a serious concern in China. Although various methods a...

  16. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and therefore did not die from completion of the spawning process.

  17. Algal control and enhanced removal in drinking waters in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Dars, Farida M S E; Abdel Rahman, M A M; Salem, Olfat M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed A

    2015-12-01

    Algal blooms at the major water treatment plants in Egypt have been reported since 2006. While previous studies focused on algal types and their correlation with disinfection by-products, correlation between raw water quality and algal blooms were not explored. Therefore, a survey of Nile water quality parameters at a major water intake in the Greater Cairo Urban Region was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the conventional chloride/alum treatment compared with combined Cl/permanganate pre-oxidation with Al and Fe coagulants during the outbreak period. Addition of permanganate (0.5 mg/L) significantly reduced the chlorine demand from 5.5 to 2.7 mg/L. The applied alum coagulant dose was slightly reduced while residual Al was reduced by 27% and the algal count by 50% in the final treated waters. Applying ferric chloride and ferric sulfate as coagulants to waters treated with the combined pre-oxidation procedure effectively reduced algal count by 60% and better the total organic carbon reduction and residual aluminum in the treated water. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between water quality parameters and occurrence of algae and to explain the impact of coagulants on the final water quality. PMID:26608768

  18. Development of an inexpensive optical fiber based harmful algae bloom sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Eoin; Lyons, William; Sheridan, Cormac; Lewis, Elfed

    2007-05-01

    Research into the development of an Early Warning Harmful Algae Bloom (HAB) Sensing System for use in Underwater Monitoring Applications is presented. The sensor proposed by the authors utilises the complex ties between ocean colour, absorption and scattering, along with algae pigmentation. The objective is to develop a robust inexpensive sensor for use in an early warning system for the detection and possible identification of Harmful Algae Blooms. The sensing mechanism utilised in this system is based on a combination of absorption and reflection spectroscopy and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) signal processing. Spectroscopy is concerned with the production, measurement, and interpretation of electromagnetic spectra arising from either emission or absorption of radiant energy by various substances (or HABs in this application). Preliminary results are presented from the interrogation of chlorophyll, yeast and saline solutions, as well as levels of absorption obtained utilising two dyes Blue (brilliant Blue (E133) and Carmoisine (E122) mix) and Red (Ponceau (E124) and Sunset yellow (E110) mix).

  19. [Advance in study on the effects of iron on algal growth and spectral recognition].

    PubMed

    Chi, Guang-Yu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi; Zheng, Tai-Hui

    2009-12-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient of phytoplankton. Iron plays an important role in many biological processes such as nitrogen assimilation, N2 fixation, photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport, and porphyrin biosynthesis. Therefore, the regulation effects of iron should be considered besides nitrogen and phosphorus during the treatment of eutrophication lakes process. Remote sensing technology has been recognized as an effective measure in monitoring eutrophicated water bodies which could be used to timely monitor the distribution and growth status of algal on a large scale. The iron concentration fluctuation may have an important influence on the metabolic activity of the algal cells, and the spectral reflectivity could reflect the physiological characteristics of algal. The relationship between land features and their spectral characteristics is important for the interpretation of remote sensing images. Studies of algal spectral propertises under different iron-supply would be meaningful for determining the bloom and developing the remote sensing warning system of lake eutrophication. In the present paper, the effects of iron on the growth of algal and the advances in studies of algal spectrum are summarized based on the iron hypothesis. Furthermore, the application of spectral properties of algal under different iron-supply in early-warning mechanism of lake eutrophication is prospected. PMID:20210166

  20. Effects of electron acceptors on soluble reactive phosphorus in the overlying water during algal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Niu, Yuan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenwen; Kardol, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous phosphorus (P) release from sediments is an important factor to cause eutrophication and, hence, algal bloom in lakes in China. Algal decomposition depletes dissolved oxygen (DO) and causes anaerobic conditions and therefore increases P release from sediments. As sediment P release is dependent on the iron (Fe) cycle, electron acceptors (e.g., NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Mn(4+)) can be utilized to suppress the reduction of Fe(3+) under anaerobic conditions and, as such, have the potential to impair the release of sediment P. Here, we used a laboratory experiment to test the effects of FeCl3, MnO2, and KNO3 on soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration and related chemical variables in the overlying water column during algal decomposition at different algal densities. Results showed that algal decomposition significantly depleted DO and thereby increased sediment Fe-bound P release. Compared with the control, addition of FeCl3 significantly decreased water SRP concentration through inhibiting sediment P release. Compared with FeCl3, addition of MnO2 has less potential to suppress sediment P release during algal decomposition. Algal decomposition has the potential for NO3 (-) removal from aquatic ecosystem through denitrification and by that alleviates the suppressing role of NO3 (-) on sediment P release. Our results indicated that FeCl3 and MnO2 could be efficient in reducing sediment P release during algal decomposition, with the strongest effect found for FeCl3; large amounts of NO3 (-) were removed from the aquatic ecosystem through denitrification during algal decomposition. Moreover, the amounts of NO3 (-) removal increased with increasing algal density. PMID:26263882

  1. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Cyanobactrial Blooms in Caspian Sea Using MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Masoud

    In the southern part of Caspian Sea, two monstreous Cyanobactrial algal bloom were occurred in Aug-Sep 2005 and Aug 2010. Two ship transects were planed in Aug 2010 and physic-chemical parameters were measured along these transects by Iranian Fisheries Research and Training Organization (IFRTO). Concurrent MODIS data were collected from NASA Direct Active Archive Center (DAAC). Satellite data analysis showed that field chlorophyll have very good correlation with MODIS Chl-a, NDVI and FAI. FAI has the best correlation with field chlorophyll. MODIS NDVI, FAI and FLH vs MODIS Chl-a showed classified patches for non-bloomed off-shore and coastal waters, and bloomed regions. Also, nLw in blue-green-red spectrum over bloomed regions have specific shape and could be identified from non-bloomed regions. Howerev, two algorithms based on MODIS FAI, NDVI, FLH and Chl-a as: Chl-a > 4 mg m-3, FLH < 0.005 wm-2μm-1sr-1, -0.80 were defined and satellite images were classified based on these algorithms. The results showed that classification algorithms for off-shore waters are accurately show the bloom regions but are not valid for coastal waters because of high concentrations of suspended matters which reflect in NDVI images.

  2. Using a Multi-Component Indicator Toward Reducing Phytoplankton Bloom Occurrences in the Swan River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiana, Ria; Antenucci, Jason P.; Imberger, Jorg

    2012-08-01

    The Swan River estuary is an icon of the city of Perth, Western Australia, running through the city centre and dividing the northern from the southern part of the city. However, frequent phytoplankton blooms have been observed in the estuary as a result of eutrophication. The Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF), a composite index able to indicate for sustainable health of the estuary, was applied, taking into account the hydrology and highly seasonal nature of the estuary to inform the management of the estuary, towards the aim of reducing bloom occurrences. The study period was from the beginning of intensive monitoring in 1995 to mid-2009. The results emphasize the importance of physical controls on the ecology of the estuary. No significant trend in the estuary's low functionality was found, indicating that despite extensive restoration efforts, the frequency of algal bloom occurrences has remained relatively stationary and other mitigating factors have maintained an annual average ISF value at around 70 % functionality. We identified that the low flow season consistently performs the worst, with (high) temperature found as the most dominant variable for phytoplankton growth and bloom. Thus in managing the estuary, vigilance is required during periods of high temperature and low flow. Focusing on the risk of phytoplankton bloom, a nutrient reduction program that is in place is a long term solution due to high concentrations in the estuary. Other management measures need to be considered and adopted to effectively reduce the occurrences of future phytoplankton blooms.

  3. Using a multi-component indicator toward reducing phytoplankton bloom occurrences in the Swan River estuary.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ria; Antenucci, Jason P; Imberger, Jorg

    2012-08-01

    The Swan River estuary is an icon of the city of Perth, Western Australia, running through the city centre and dividing the northern from the southern part of the city. However, frequent phytoplankton blooms have been observed in the estuary as a result of eutrophication. The Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF), a composite index able to indicate for sustainable health of the estuary, was applied, taking into account the hydrology and highly seasonal nature of the estuary to inform the management of the estuary, towards the aim of reducing bloom occurrences. The study period was from the beginning of intensive monitoring in 1995 to mid-2009. The results emphasize the importance of physical controls on the ecology of the estuary. No significant trend in the estuary's low functionality was found, indicating that despite extensive restoration efforts, the frequency of algal bloom occurrences has remained relatively stationary and other mitigating factors have maintained an annual average ISF value at around 70 % functionality. We identified that the low flow season consistently performs the worst, with (high) temperature found as the most dominant variable for phytoplankton growth and bloom. Thus in managing the estuary, vigilance is required during periods of high temperature and low flow. Focusing on the risk of phytoplankton bloom, a nutrient reduction program that is in place is a long term solution due to high concentrations in the estuary. Other management measures need to be considered and adopted to effectively reduce the occurrences of future phytoplankton blooms. PMID:22669343

  4. Assessment of microcystis bloom toxicity associated with wildlife mortality in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Masango, Mxolisi G; Myburgh, Jan G; Labuschagne, Leonie; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Naicker, Dharmarai

    2010-01-01

    Based on previous necropsy results, Microcystis blooms in constructed water impoundments in the Kruger National Park (KNP) have been identified as a cause of wildlife mortality. In response to wildlife mortality during 2007, water samples, containing algal bloom material, were collected during February 2007 and July 2007 from four dams (Nhlanganzwani, Mpanamana, Makhohlola, and Sunset) in the southeastern part of the KNP as part of the follow-up investigation. The toxicity of the Microcystis blooms was determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), protein phosphatase inhibition (PPI) assay, mouse bioassay, and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) primary hepatocytes. Both the ELISA and PPI assays indicated that the water sample collected during February 2007 from the Nhlanganzwani Dam, and samples collected from the Nhlanganzwani and Sunset dams in June 2007, were toxic. These dams, exhibiting the toxic Microcystis blooms, were also associated with the wildlife mortality. Mice injected intraperitoneally with water samples from Nhlanganzwani Dam (February 2007) induced hepatotoxicity and mortality within 1 hr. Primary hepatocytes from the sharptooth catfish exposed to samples from these dams gave similar results. This laboratory investigation and results strongly incriminate the toxic Microcystis blooms as the cause of the wildlife mortality. Eutrophication and bloom formation appear to have been the consequence of the high numbers of hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius) in specific dams. PMID:20090022

  5. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  6. Quantification of phytoplankton bloom dynamics by citizen scientists in urban and peri-urban environments.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Eva Pintado; Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Lee, Fred Wang Fat; Loiselle, Steven; Ho, Kin Chung; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are severely threatened by urban development and agricultural intensification. Increased occurrence of algal blooms is a main issue, and the identification of local dynamics and drivers is hampered by a lack of field data. In this study, data from 13 cities (250 water bodies) were used to examine the capacity of trained community members to assess elevated phytoplankton densities in urban and peri-urban freshwater ecosystems. Coincident nutrient concentrations and land use observations were used to examine possible drivers of algal blooms. Measurements made by participants showed a good relationship to standard laboratory measurements of phytoplankton density, in particular in pond and lake ecosystems. Links between high phytoplankton density and nutrients (mainly phosphate) were observed. Microscale observations of pollution sources and catchment scale estimates of land cover both influenced the occurrence of algal blooms. The acquisition of environmental data by committed and trained community members represents a major opportunity to support agency monitoring programmes and to complement field campaigns in the study of catchment dynamics. PMID:26471276

  7. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Population dynamics of phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria, and viruses during the spring bloom in the western subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koji; Kuwata, Akira; Yoshie, Naoki; Shibata, Akira; Kawanobe, Kyoko; Saito, Hiroaki

    2011-05-01

    We characterized the community composition of phytoplankton in the western subarctic Pacific from the pre-bloom to the decline phase of the spring bloom with special reference to decreases in the silicic acid concentration in surface waters as an index for diatom bloom development. Furthermore, responses of heterotrophic bacteria and viruses to the spring bloom were also concomitantly investigated. Under pre-bloom conditions when nutrients were abundant but the surface mixed layer depth was relatively deep, chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations were consistently low and green algae (chlorophytes and prasinophytes), cryptophytes, and diatoms were predominant in the phytoplankton assemblages as estimated by algal pigment signatures. Together with the shallowing of the mixed layer depth and the decrease in silicic acid concentration, diatoms bloomed remarkably in the Oyashio region, though the magnitude of the bloom in the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition (hereafter Transition) region was relatively small. A total of 77 diatom species were identified, with the bloom-forming diatoms mainly consisting of Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, and Fragilariopsis species. It has become evident that the carotenoid fucoxanthin can serve as a strong indicator of the diatom carbon biomass during the spring diatom bloom. Differences in the species richness of diatoms among stations generally enabled us to separate the Oyashio bloom stations from the Transition and the Oyashio pre-bloom stations. Relatively high values of the Shannon-Wiener index for the diatom species were also maintained during the Oyashio bloom, indicating that a wide variety of species then shared dominance. In the decline phase of the Oyashio bloom when surface nutrient concentrations decreased, senescent diatom cells increased, as inferred from the levels of chlorophyllide a. Although the cell density of heterotrophic bacteria changed little with the development of the diatom bloom, viral abundance increased toward the end of the bloom, suggesting an increased likelihood of mortality among organisms including diatoms resulting from viral infection. This is the first report on the microbial trophodynamics, including viruses, during the spring diatom bloom in the western subarctic Pacific.

  9. Toxicity to mice and sheep of a bloom of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena circinalis.

    PubMed

    Runnegar, M T; Jackson, A R; Falconer, I R

    1988-01-01

    A bloom of Anabaena circinalis shown to be lethal to mice (i.p. LD50 17.0 +/- 0.6 mg/kg) was tested for lethal potency when given orally to mice and intraruminally and intraperitoneally to sheep. The lethal oral dose in mice was at least 170 times the parenteral dose. The bloom was lethal when given i.p. to sheep but lethality was not observed when given intraruminally in doses up to 1710 mg/kg, equivalent to drinking 8.5 litres of thick algal bloom, a volume far in excess of that likely to be consumed naturally. In vivo testing of lethal potency by i.p. inoculation of mice is therefore an unreliable method for judging potential oral toxicity in livestock of blooms of Anabaena. PMID:3140424

  10. Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1996-01-01

    Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such studies. We present here our results on detection of algal accessory pigments using AVIRIS data.

  11. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (?10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (?30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ?60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

  12. 75 FR 37745 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... attachment), has been closed to the harvest of surfclams and ocean quahogs since 1990 due to red tide blooms..., that can form blooms commonly referred to as red tides, or harmful algal blooms (HABs), and can produce... Closed Area as requested by the FDA, NMFS also recognizes that red-tide events can vary...

  13. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  14. Decadal-scale changes of dinoflagellates and diatoms in the anomalous baltic sea spring bloom.

    PubMed

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995-2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  15. The Costs of Respiratory Illnesses Arising from Florida Gulf Coast Karenia brevis Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E.; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M.; Ullmann, Steven G.; Backer, Lorraine C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. Objectives We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. Methods We developed a statistical exposure–response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. Results We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Conclusions Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation. PMID:19672403

  16. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. PMID:25681577

  17. 1. Photocopy of HABS inventory photograph. WEST (FORNT) AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of HABS inventory photograph. WEST (FORNT) AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM SOUTHWEST. Photograph taken in January 1958 - General William Hart House, 350 Main Street, Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, CT

  18. 32. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. Lamb, Architect July 15, 1926 LONGITUDINAL SECTION, LOOKING NORTH - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 39. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. Lamb, Architect January 6, 1928 SECTION OF MOULDING AROUND PENETRATION ON SOUNDING BOARD - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 33. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. Lamb, Architect July 15, 1926 TRANSVERSE SECTIONS, LOOKING EAST AND WEST - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. 34. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. Lamb, Architect July 15, 1926 ELEVATIONS AND CEILING PLAN OF OUTER LOBBY AND VESTIBULE - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 36. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. Lamb, Architect July 22, 1927 INTERIOR DETAILS OF AUDITORIUM - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 37. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas w. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas w. Lamb, Architect October 27, 1927 PROSCENIUM BOX TREATMENT - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. HALS SUMMER HISTORIAN JULIA SIENKEWICZ (RIGHT) AND HABS STAFF HISTORIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HALS SUMMER HISTORIAN JULIA SIENKEWICZ (RIGHT) AND HABS STAFF HISTORIAN LISA PFUELLER DAVIDSON POSING BY THE MAIN GATE. - Congressional Cemetery, 1801 E Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 35. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of blueprint (original in HABS files) Thomas W. Lamb, Architect July 15, 1926 GRAND FOYER INTERIOR DETAILS - B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, 539 Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. OSU Team Assembles X-Hab Loft - Duration: 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time lapse video shows the Oklahoma State University team in the process of assembling and inflating the loft they've built for the first X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge. OSU is one of thr...

  7. Dimethyl sulphide biogeochemistry within a coccolithophore bloom (DISCO): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkill, Peter H.; Archer, Stephen D.; Robinson, Carol; Nightingale, Philip D.; Groom, Stephen B.; Tarran, Glen A.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    This paper presents an overview of dimethyl sulphide biogeochemistry within a coccolithophore bloom (DISCO), an integrated, multidisciplinary Lagrangian process study of the routes, rates and controls on the biogeochemical cycling of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) within a growing bloom of the coccolithophorid alga, Emiliania huxleyi. The Lagrangian study took place between 16 and 26 June 1999 in the northern North Sea. It was preceded by an 8-d survey of ˜52,000 km 2 of the region to locate an E. huxleyi bloom suitable for study. Although not originally planned, the survey was carried out because heavy cloud cover precluded use of remote sensing to locate a suitable bloom. E. huxleyi blooms, typically common in the region during mid-summer, were unusually sparse in the study area. The bloom chosen for the process study was initially centred ˜58°56'N 02°52'E, and a 40-km 2 patch of water was labelled for study with ˜30 g sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6) on 16 June. The original patch was reinfused with further SF 6 on 24 June. During the process study, the SF 6-labelled patch moved in a south-easterly direction and the study ended when the patch subducted underneath less dense Norwegian coastal water. The process study comprised analyses of the time-varying biological, optical and physical properties of the patch as well as studies of DMS, dimethylsulphonioproprionate (DMSP), dimethylsulphoxide, nutrients, halocarbons, methylamines, carbon monoxide, dissolved organic carbon, and total dissolved nitrogen. The role of viruses, bacteria, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton, together with the dynamics of primary, new and bacterial production, plankton respiration, microzooplankton grazing, and sedimentation, were studied in relation to the biogeochemical cycling of DMS. Although the coccolithophore bloom water exhibited high optical backscatter, the algal community present was highly heterogeneous. Flagellates other than E. huxleyi were found to dominate the phytoplankton. A budget of the DMSP pools suggested that E. huxleyi accounted for only 13% of the stocks of particulate DMSP, showing that in this " E. huxleyi bloom", taxa other than E. huxleyi were important sources of DMSP. In this young bloom, particulate and dissolved DMSP and DMS concentrations averaged 1360, 155 and 60 ?M m -2, respectively, in the surface mixed layer. Surface-water particulate DMSP concentrations increased during the study at a net rate of 13% d -1, as did concentrations of phytoplankton including E. huxleyi, confirming that the bloom was developing. Nutrient conditions were low in the mixed layer throughout the study, maintained by a strong pycnocline across which nitrate upflux was estimated to be ˜2 nM dm -3 d -1. Primary production was fuelled by regenerated nutrients, although nitrification rates in surface waters were found to be significant. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for 91% of the particulate DMSP degradation and was considered to be a major control on the DMSP concentration. Vigorous microzooplankton grazing together with rapid uptake of dissolved DMSP by bacteria suggest that microzooplankton were the main route for the production of dissolved DMSP. The bacterial community was dominated by one taxon, an ? proteobacteria related to Roseobacter that satisfied its entire sulphur demand by metabolising dissolved DMSP. Bacteriogenic DMS production amounted to 2 nM d -1 and was considered the main route for DMS production. In vitro DMSPlyase activity was very high, but there was little evidence for high in situ activity. Over the study period, DMS flux to the atmosphere was estimated to be 7 ?M m -2 d -1, equivalent to ˜1% of the DMSP sulphur produced in the surface mixed layer. A budget for DMS cycling in the upper mixed layer is presented based on the analytical and experimental measurements made in the DISCO study.

  8. Estimation of algal and suspended sediment loads (singly and combined) using hyperspectral sensors and integrated mesocosm experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F.; Schiebe, F.R.; Starks, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Most remote sensing algorithms for materials in water are based on studies on natural waters with complex and variable optical properties, or of small indoor microcosm containers. We used sunlit, cylindrical, black mesocosm tanks (80m{sup 3}, 3 m depth) and a hyperspectral radiometer to examine reflectances of algal blooms and suspended kaolin white clay. In three integrated experiments, algae and clay levels were carefully manipulated: (1) Algal bloom water in one tank was pumped to a second which began with clear water, and clear make-up water was pumped to the first to obtain a well graded series (Chl. a = 0 - 62 {mu}g/L). (2) White, kaolin clay was added stepwise to clear water, resulting in an organic seston range of 0 - 40 mg/L. (3) Algal bloom water from a single source was divided between two tanks to establish Chi. a loads of 31 and 57 {mu}g/L. Then, identical additions of clay were made to both tanks to achieve a range of 0 - 72 mg/L inorganic matter while conserving the algal loads. The first experiment revealed a strong interplay between algal scattering and absorption. Pigment absorbance dominated below 510 nm, while increasing cell scattering in regions of low pigment activity caused green and NIR peaks to form near 560 and 700 nm. In spite of strong chlorophyll absorbance near 675 nm, this region had small reflectance increases with increased algae. In the second experiment, white clay had high albedo. At seston levels above 40 mg/L, green reflectance exceeded 50% and NIR reflectance at 800 nm exceeded 9%. In the third experiment, algal pigments strongly attenuated clay reflectance in a dose dependent manner, even at green wavelengths. Clay particles greatly amplified but also preserved algal reflectance patterns. Our findings affirm the importance of high spectral resolution at diagnostic wavelengths in turbid Case 2 coastal and inland waters.

  9. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

  10. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    PubMed Central

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

  11. Remote sensing of ALGAL pigments to determine coastal phytoplankton dynamics in Florida Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.L.; Ambrosia, V.G.

    1997-06-01

    An important component of remote sensing of marine and coastal environments is the detection of phytoplankton to estimate biological activity. Traditionally the focus has been on detection of chlorophyll a, a photosynthetic pigment common to all algal groups. Recent advances in remote sensing instrumentation, in particular the development of hyperspectral imaging sensors, allow detection of additional algal pigments that include taxonomically significant photosynthetic and photoprotective accessory pigments. We are working with the hyperspectral imaging sensor AVIRIS (the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) to characterize phytoplankton blooms in Florida Bay. Our data analysis focuses on intersection of image data (and image-derived spectral data) with our in-house library of algal pigment signatures.

  12. Dynamics of a Prorocentrum minimum bloom along the northern coast of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, Aída; Escobedo-Urías, Diana Cecilia; Ulloa-Pérez, Ana Elsi; Aguirre, Raul

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the relative importance of mesoscale physical events, such as upwellings and physical and chemical variables during an algae bloom of Prorocentrum minimum, 25 sampling sites were established offshore of the Navachiste Lagoon Complex on the east side of the Gulf of California. Samples were analyzed for phytoplankton concentration, water chemistry, and temperature during November 1999, January, March, April, May, and August 2000. Satellite imagery of sea surface temperature (SST) for April 2000 was processed to obtain a synoptic view of the area during the extraordinary bloom of P. minimum in the open waters of the Gulf of California. The bloom was associated with change of oceanographic conditions from moderate winds to calm period, temperature increase and high nitrate (NO 3--N) and ammonia (NH 4+-N) content in the offshore waters. Depletion of these nutrients during the bloom suggests that this species uses both types of nitrogen substrates. Cysts in the northernmost sampling stations in January and March indicate that upwelling water, rich in nitrates, also carried a seed stock population of P. minimum. SST patterns in the satellite imagery suggest wind-forcing as the responsible mechanisms triggering the algal bloom offshore of the Navachiste Lagoon Complex.

  13. [Effects of thermal stratification on spring blooms in Xiangxi Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Liu, De-Fu; Xiao, Shang-Bin; Kong, Song; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Fang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-09-01

    Frequent spring blooms have been observed in tributary bays of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) since its initial filling. In order to identify the primary factor controlling spring blooms, a field monitoring plan was carried out in Xiangxi Bay, the largest tributary of TGR head area in spring 2010. The environmental factors such as water temperature, Secchi depth, underwater illumination and nutrients were monitored. The results showed that the sudden decrease of mixing depth resulting from the development of thermal stratification was the direct and primary contributor to the onset of spring blooms (Pearson correlation coefficient of the ratio of euphotic depth to mixing depth (Z(eu)/Z(mix)) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is 0.934, P < 0.01). The significant response of spring blooms to thermal stratification indicates that Critical Depth model can be applied to tributary bays of TGR, which will provide important references for the investigators and managers who are working on the prediction and control of algal blooms in the bays. PMID:23243857

  14. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  15. Mining Metatranscriptomic Data of a Cyanobacterial Bloom for Patterns of Secondary Metabolism Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, K.; Wang, J.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The secondary metabolism of bacterial cells produces small molecules that can have both medicinal properties and toxigenic effects. This study focuses on mining metatranscriptomes from a tropical eutrophic water reservoir in Singapore experiencing a cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom dominated by Microcystis, to identify the types of secondary metabolites genes being expressed and by what taxa. A phylogenomic approach as implemented in the online tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS) was used. NaPDoS was recently developed to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, respectively, to provide insight into potential types of pathway products. Water samples from the reservoir were collected six times over a day/night cycle. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and next-generation Illumina DNA sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 base pairs post-quality control reads per sample. Evidence for expression of PKS and NRPS type genes based on identification of a ketosynthase and condensation domains are present in all time points. KS domains fall into to two main phylogenetic groups, type I and type II, within the type II group of domains are domains for fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), which is considered a part of primary metabolism. Type I KS domains are part of the classic PKS natural product biosynthetic genes that make things such as antibiotics and other toxins such as microcystin. 2849 KS domains were detected in the combined reservoir samples, of these 1141 were likely from fatty acid biosynthesis and 1708 were related to secondary metabolism type KS domains. The most abundant KS domains (485) besides the fab genes are closely related to a KS domain that is not currently experimentally linked to a known secondary metabolite but the domain is found in four Microcystis genomes along with two other species of cyanobacteria. The three KS domains from the microcystin pathway make up 238 of the KS domains. The third most abundant KS domain is related to a protein annotated as a heterocyst glycolipid protein from the Microcystis aeruginosa genome sequence, as Microcystis is not known to produce heterocysts the gene is likely a part of an undescribed type of glycolipid biosynthetic pathway. In relation to NRPS pathways there were 899 reads classified as condensation domains. The most abundant one is closely related to the C domains from an uncharacterized NRPS pathway. The next most abundant domains are from microcystin (178), aeruginosin (84) and micropeptin (47) all are NRPS pathways from Microcystis. Although it is unsurprising that most of the KS and C domains are from Microcystis it is clear that there are still uncharacterized secondary metabolites produced by this well studied bacterial genus. Unexpectedly, there are more KS domains related to secondary metabolism then fabs. This study provides unique insight into the production of secondary metabolites in a natural setting and supports that these have an important ecological function because of the significant transcription levels at all time points. A clear understanding of the ecological function of secondary metabolites will undoubtedly be crucial to future efforts to control cyanoHABs.

  16. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm?3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts ? blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms ? cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e.g., cumulative shellfish toxicity, duration of detectable toxicity in shellfish, and bloom termination date). These data suggest that it may be possible to use cyst abundance to empirically forecast the geographic extent of the forthcoming bloom and, conversely, to use other metrics from bloom and toxicity events to forecast the size of the subsequent cyst population as the inoculum for the next year's bloom. This is an important step towards understanding the excystment/encystment cycle in A. fundyense bloom dynamics while also augmenting our predictive capability for this HAB-forming species in the GOM. PMID:25018592

  17. Concentration and dispersal of a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom in Penn Cove, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Trainer, V L; Adams, N G; Bill, B D; Anulacion, B F; Wekell, J C

    1998-01-01

    A bloom of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, several species of which are associated with the production of the potent excitotoxin domoic acid, was observed in a Puget Sound, Washington embayment in July and August of 1997. Penn Cove, which receives nutrients from the nearby Skagit River and abundant sunshine during summer months due to its location in the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, is the home of a commercial mussel farm which supplies shellfish to many coastal areas of the USA. Levels of domoic acid in mussels increased to 3 ppm on 6 and 10 July, corresponding to the observation of a brown algal bloom in Penn Cove. Four species of Pseudo-nitzschia (P. pungens, P. multiseries, P. australis, and P. pseudodelicatissima) were present in our samples from the cove, corresponding to levels of domoic acid in seawater ranging from 0.1-0.8 mirog l(-1) as measured by a receptor binding assay. The highest Pseudo-nitzschia concentration during the time of our sampling was 13 million cells per liter on 28 July. The bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia occurred after a period of strong discharge from the Skagit River and rain accompanied by elevated south and southeasterly winds. Stratification of the cove, providing optimal bloom conditions, was facilitated by weak winds, sunshine, and a freshwater lens at the mouth of the cove. The position of the Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was influenced by buoyancy fronts caused by exchange of water within the cove with that of Saratoga Passage. The decay of this bloom in Penn Cove was accompanied by decreasing nitrate levels at all measured depths. These and future observations aid in the development of a model for prediction of toxic bloom events in the shallow embayments of Puget Sound. PMID:10223627

  18. BIOTOXIN-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: AN EMERGING RISK FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing incidence of human illness associated with exposure to biotoxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic environments, and fungi and bacteria on land, may indicate an emerging human-health risk. HABs are reported to be increasing worldwide in frequency, duratio...

  19. Associations between marine phytoplankton and symptoms of illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    While phytoplankton generally have crucial roles in marine ecosystems, a small subset can release toxins and produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs can be a threat to human health as symptoms from exposure range from neurological impairment to gastrointestinal (GI), dermal, a...

  20. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  1. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (