Student Difficulties in Mathematizing Word Problems in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul
2016-01-01
To investigate student difficulties in solving word problems in algebra, we carried out a teaching experiment involving 51 Indonesian students (12/13 year-old) who used a digital mathematics environment. The findings were backed up by an interview study, in which eighteen students (13/14 year-old) were involved. The perspective of mathematization,…
Inhibiting Interference from Prior Knowledge: Arithmetic Intrusions in Algebra Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khng, Kiat Hui; Lee, Kerry
2009-01-01
In Singapore, 6-12 year-old students are taught to solve algebra word problems with a mix of arithmetic and pre-algebraic strategies; 13-17 year-olds are typically encouraged to replace these strategies with letter-symbolic algebra. We examined whether algebra problem-solving proficiency amongst beginning learners of letter-symbolic algebra is…
Paving a Way to Algebraic Word Problems Using a Nonalgebraic Route
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amit, Miriam; Klass-Tsirulnikov, Bella
2005-01-01
A three-stage model for algebraic word problem solving is developed in which students' understanding of the intrinsic logical structure of word problems is strengthened by connecting real-life problems and formal mathematics. (Contains 3 figure.)
Working Memory and Literacy as Predictors of Performance on Algebraic Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kerry; Ng, Swee-Fong; Ng, Ee-Lynn; Lim, Zee-Ying
2004-01-01
Previous studies on individual differences in mathematical abilities have shown that working memory contributes to early arithmetic performance. In this study, we extended the investigation to algebraic word problem solving. A total of 151 10-year-olds were administered algebraic word problems and measures of working memory, intelligence quotient…
Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S
2014-08-01
According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2(nd)- grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty. PMID:25309044
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Schumacher, Robin Finelli; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI) on second graders' word-problem-solving skills and their ability to represent the structure of word problems using algebraic equations. Teachers (n = 18) were randomly assigned to conventional word-problem instruction or SBI word-problem instruction, which…
Does Calculation or Word-Problem Instruction Provide A Stronger Route to Pre-Algebraic Knowledge?
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Marrin, Sarah; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Changas, Paul C.
2014-01-01
The focus of this study was connections among 3 aspects of mathematical cognition at 2nd grade: calculations, word problems, and pre-algebraic knowledge. We extended the literature, which is dominated by correlational work, by examining whether intervention conducted on calculations or word problems contributes to improved performance in the other domain and whether intervention in either or both domains contributes to pre-algebraic knowledge. Participants were 1102 children in 127 2nd-grade classrooms in 25 schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: calculation intervention, word-problem intervention, and business-as-usual control. Intervention, which lasted 17 weeks, was designed to provide research-based linkages between arithmetic calculations or arithmetic word problems (depending on condition) to pre-algebraic knowledge. Multilevel modeling suggested calculation intervention improved calculation but not word-problem outcomes; word-problem intervention enhanced word-problem but not calculation outcomes; and word-problem intervention provided a stronger route than calculation intervention to pre-algebraic knowledge. PMID:25541565
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usman, Ahmed Ibrahim
2015-01-01
Knowledge and understanding of mathematical operations serves as a pre-reequisite for the successful translation of algebraic word problems. This study explored pre-service teachers' ability to recognize mathematical operations as well as use of those capabilities in constructing algebraic expressions, equations, and their solutions. The outcome…
Slower Algebra Students Meet Faster Tools: Solving Algebra Word Problems with Graphing Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yerushalmy, Michal
2006-01-01
The article discusses the ways that less successful mathematics students used graphing software with capabilities similar to a basic graphing calculator to solve algebra problems in context. The study is based on interviewing students who learned algebra for 3 years in an environment where software tools were always present. We found differences…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
2012-01-01
Holyoak and Koh (1987) and Holyoak (1984) propose four critical tasks for analogical transfer to occur in problem solving. A study was conducted to test this hypothesis by comparing a multiple components (MC) approach against worked examples (WE) in helping students to solve algebra word problems in chemistry classes. The MC approach incorporated…
The Model Method: Singapore Children's Tool for Representing and Solving Algebraic Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Swee Fong; Lee, Kerry
2009-01-01
Solving arithmetic and algebraic word problems is a key component of the Singapore elementary mathematics curriculum. One heuristic taught, the model method, involves drawing a diagram to represent key information in the problem. We describe the model method and a three-phase theoretical framework supporting its use. We conducted 2 studies to…
Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith
2015-01-01
This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shoecraft, Paul Joseph
Three instructional approaches on translating selected types of algebra word problems were investigated: direct translations, high imagery with materials, and high imagery with drawings. Participating were 366 seventh grade and 336 ninth grade students. Treatment effects by grade used multivariate analysis of covariance for student scores and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
2013-01-01
Text editing directs students' attention to the problem structure as they classify whether the texts of word problems contain sufficient, missing or irrelevant information for working out a solution. Equation worked examples emphasize the formation of a coherent problem structure to generate a solution. Its focus is on the construction of three…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rubio, Guillermo; del Valle, Rafael
2004-01-01
The study proves that a didactical model based in a method to solve word problems of increasing complexity which uses a numerical approach was essential to develop the analytical ability and the competent use of the algebraic language with students from three different performance levels in elementary algebra. It is shown that before using the…
Thinking and Writing Mathematically: "Achilles and the Tortoise" as an Algebraic Word Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Joseph G. R.
2001-01-01
Introduces Hogben's adaptation of Zeno's paradox, "Achilles and the Tortoise", as a thinking and writing exercise. Emphasizes engaging students' imagination with creative, thought-provoking problems and involving students in evaluating their word problem-solving strategies. Describes the paradox, logical solutions, and students' mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bull, Elizabeth Kay
The goal of this study was to find a way to quantify three criteria of representational quality, described by Greeno, so that it would be possible to examine statistically the relationship between representational quality and other variables related to problem solution. The sample consisted of 18 college students, 84 percent of whom had…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chazan, Daniel; Sela, Hagit; Herbst, Patricio
2012-01-01
We illustrate a method, which is modeled on "breaching experiments," for studying tacit norms that govern classroom interaction around particular mathematical content. Specifically, this study explores norms that govern teachers' expectations for the doing of word problems in school algebra. Teacher study groups discussed representations of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
2014-01-01
According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 second-grade students, we administered: (1) measures of calculations and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Puig, Luis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel
2015-01-01
The term intensive scaffolding refers to any set of conceptual scaffolding strategies that always allow the user to find the solution to a problem. Despite the many benefits of scaffolding, some negative effects have also been reported. These are mainly related to the possibility that a student solves the problems without actually engaging in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Jan
2009-01-01
In recent years, the learning of algebra by all students has become a significant national priority (Moses & Cobb, 2001; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000). Algebra is considered to be a foundational topic in mathematics (Usiskin, 1988) and some have argued that an understanding of algebra is fundamental to success in today's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly
1991-01-01
Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)
Constructing a Coherent Problem Model to Facilitate Algebra Problem Solving in a Chemistry Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Phan, Huy P.
2015-01-01
An experiment using a sample of 11th graders compared text editing and worked examples approaches in learning to solve dilution and molarity algebra word problems in a chemistry context. Text editing requires students to assess the structure of a word problem by specifying whether the problem text contains sufficient, missing, or irrelevant…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cassidy, Jack
1991-01-01
Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)
Embedding Number-Combinations Practice within Word-Problem Tutoring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas
2010-01-01
Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnau, David; Arevalillo-Herraez, Miguel; Puig, Luis; Gonzalez-Calero, Jose Antonio
2013-01-01
Designers of interactive learning environments with a focus on word problem solving usually have to compromise between the amount of resolution paths that a user is allowed to follow and the quality of the feedback provided. We have built an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that is able to both track the user's actions and provide adequate…
Embedding Number-Combinations Practice Within Word-Problem Tutoring.
Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas
2010-09-01
Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also learn counting strategies for answering number combinations that they cannot retrieve from memory. Results from randomized-control trials indicated that embedding the counting strategies for number combinations produces superior word-problem and number-combination outcomes for students with MLD beyond tutoring programs that focus exclusively on number combinations or word problems. PMID:22661880
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merriweather, Michelle; Tharp, Marcia L.
1999-01-01
Focuses on changes in attitude toward mathematics and calculator use and changes in how general mathematics students naturalistically solve algebraic problems. Uses a survey to determine whether a student is rule-based. Concludes that the rule-based students used an equation to solve the algebraic word problem whereas the non-rule-based students…
Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Kai-Ju
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…
Word maps and Waring type problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Michael; Shalev, Aner
2009-04-01
Waring's classical problem deals with expressing every natural number as a sum of g(k) k th powers. Recently there has been considerable interest in similar questions for nonabelian groups and simple groups in particular. Here the k th power word is replaced by an arbitrary group word w ne 1 , and the goal is to express group elements as short products of values of w . We give a best possible and somewhat surprising solution for this Waring type problem for various finite simple groups, showing that a product of length two suffices to express all elements. We also show that the set of values of w is very large, improving various results obtained so far. Along the way we also obtain new results of independent interest on character values and class squares in symmetric groups. Our methods involve algebraic geometry, representation theory, probabilistic arguments, as well as results from analytic number theory, including three primes theorems (approximating Goldbach's Conjecture).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VanSciver, James H.
2009-01-01
Every assessment is a literacy test. It matters not whether the content is science, social studies, or mathematics; if students are not able to make sense of the words, their ability to decipher the meaning of the assessment questions is suspect. Comprehending the language of a task becomes even more important as educators strive to move the…
Numerical linear algebra for reconstruction inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nachaoui, Abdeljalil
2004-01-01
Our goal in this paper is to discuss various issues we have encountered in trying to find and implement efficient solvers for a boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation of an iterative method for solving a reconstruction problem. We survey some methods from numerical linear algebra, which are relevant for the solution of this class of inverse problems. We motivate the use of our constructing algorithm, discuss its implementation and mention the use of preconditioned Krylov methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hernandez, Andrea C.
2013-01-01
This dissertation analyzes differences found in Spanish-speaking middle school and high school students in algebra-based problem solving. It identifies the accuracy differences between word problems presented in English, Spanish and numerically based problems. The study also explores accuracy differences between each subgroup of Spanish-speaking…
Word Problems: Where Test Bias Creeps In.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chipman, Susan F.
The problem of sex bias in mathematics word problems is discussed, with references to the appropriate literature. Word problems are assessed via cognitive science analysis of word problem solving. It has been suggested that five basic semantic relations are adequate to classify nearly all story problems, namely, change, combine, compare, vary, and…
Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leamnson, Robert N.
1996-01-01
Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)
Rees algebras, Monomial Subrings and Linear Optimization Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupont, Luis A.
2010-06-01
In this thesis we are interested in studying algebraic properties of monomial algebras, that can be linked to combinatorial structures, such as graphs and clutters, and to optimization problems. A goal here is to establish bridges between commutative algebra, combinatorics and optimization. We study the normality and the Gorenstein property-as well as the canonical module and the a-invariant-of Rees algebras and subrings arising from linear optimization problems. In particular, we study algebraic properties of edge ideals and algebras associated to uniform clutters with the max-flow min-cut property or the packing property. We also study algebraic properties of symbolic Rees algebras of edge ideals of graphs, edge ideals of clique clutters of comparability graphs, and Stanley-Reisner rings.
Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babuska, I.
1972-01-01
Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kerry; Khng, Kiat Hui; Ng, Swee Fong; Ng Lan Kong, Jeremy
2013-01-01
In Singapore, primary school students are taught to use bar diagrams to represent known and unknown values in algebraic word problems. However, little is known about students' understanding of these graphical representations. We investigated whether students use and think of the bar diagrams in a concrete or a more abstract fashion. We also…
Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modica, Erasmo
2010-01-01
This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…
Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a dynamic assessment (DA) of algebraic learning in predicting third graders' development of mathematics word-problem difficulty. In the fall, 122 third-grade students were assessed on a test of math word-problem skill and DA of algebraic learning. In the spring, they were assessed on word-problem performance. Logistic regression was conducted to contrast two models. One relied exclusively on the fall test of math word-problem skill to predict word-problem difficulty on the spring outcome (less than the 25th percentile). The second model relied on a combination of the fall test of math word-problem skill and the fall DA to predict the same outcome. Holding sensitivity at 87.5%, the universal screener alone resulted in a high proportion of false positives, which was practically reduced when DA was included in the prediction model. Findings are discussed in terms of a two-stage process for screening students within a responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. PMID:21685352
Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Windsor, Will
2010-01-01
Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…
Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N; Craddock, Caitlin F; Hamlett, Carol L
2008-11-01
Dynamic assessment (DA) involves helping students learn a task and indexing responsiveness to that instruction as a measure of learning potential. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a DA of algebraic learning in predicting 3(rd) graders' development of mathematics problem solving. In the fall, 122 3(rd)-grade students were assessed on language, nonverbal reasoning, attentive behavior, calculations, word-problem skill, and DA. On the basis of random assignment, students received 16 weeks of validated instruction on word problems or received 16 weeks of conventional instruction on word problems. Then, students were assessed on word-problem measures proximal and distal to instruction. Structural equation measurement models showed that DA measured a distinct dimension of pretreatment ability and that proximal and distal word-problem measures were needed to account for outcome. Structural equation modeling showed that instruction (conventional vs. validated) was sufficient to account for math word-problem outcome proximal to instruction; by contrast, language, pretreatment math skill, and DA were needed to forecast learning on word-problem outcomes more distal to instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of responsiveness-to-intervention models for preventing and identifying learning disabilities. PMID:19884957
Clifford algebra approach to the coincidence problem for planar lattices.
Rodríguez, M A; Aragón, J L; Verde-Star, L
2005-03-01
The problem of coincidences of planar lattices is analyzed using Clifford algebra. It is shown that an arbitrary coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of coincidence reflections and this allows planar coincidence lattices to be characterized algebraically. The cases of square, rectangular and rhombic lattices are worked out in detail. One of the aims of this work is to show the potential usefulness of Clifford algebra in crystallography. The power of Clifford algebra for expressing geometric ideas is exploited here and the procedure presented can be generalized to higher dimensions. PMID:15724067
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, Robert F.
2005-01-01
For students to develop an understanding of functions, they must have opportunities to solve problems that require them to transfer between algebraic, numeric, and graphic representations (transfer problems). Research has confirmed student difficulties with certain types of transfer problems and has suggested instructional factors as a possible…
Word Frequency, Function Words and the Second Gavagai Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hochmann, Jean-Remy
2013-01-01
The classic gavagai problem exemplifies the difficulty to identify the referent of a novel word uttered in a foreign language. Here, we consider the reverse problem: identifying the referential part of a label. Assuming "gavagai" indicates a rabbit in a foreign language, it may very well mean ""a" rabbit" or ""that" rabbit". How can a learner know…
Elementary Level Mathematics: Word Problems. Second Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mosrur, Ridwanul
2011-01-01
Word Problems those are also named as "Story Problems" which are well known to the students around the world. In this book there are 26 chapters which encompass diversified problems of four basic mathematical rules--addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. These problems may help students to practice more and more as well as may help…
Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina
2009-01-01
Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Changas, Paul C.
2014-01-01
The focus of the present study was enhancing word-problem and calculation achievement in ways that support pre-algebraic thinking among 2nd-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty. Intervention relied on a multi-tier support system (i.e., responsiveness-to-intervention or RTI) in which at-risk students participate in general classroom instruction and receive supplementary small-group tutoring. Participants were 265 students in 110 classrooms in 25 schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: calculation RTI, word-problem RTI, and business-as-usual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Multilevel modeling indicated that calculation RTI improved calculation but not word-problem outcomes; word-problem RTI enhanced proximal word-problem outcomes as well as performance on some calculation outcomes; and word-problem RTI provided a stronger route than calculation RTI to pre-algebraic knowledge. PMID:26097244
Inverse Modelling Problems in Linear Algebra Undergraduate Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez-Luaces, Victor E.
2013-01-01
This paper will offer an analysis from a theoretical point of view of mathematical modelling, applications and inverse problems of both causation and specification types. Inverse modelling problems give the opportunity to establish connections between theory and practice and to show this fact, a simple linear algebra example in two different…
Generating Multiple Answers for a Word Problem with Insufficient Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinda, Shigehiro
2012-01-01
In mathematics learning, word problems always include sufficient information; however, in everyday situations, people sometimes encounter problems with insufficient information. Previous studies suggest that people cannot successfully handle word problems with insufficient information because they believe a word problem has only one answer and…
Algebraic solution for phase unwrapping problems in multiwavelength interferometry.
Falaggis, Konstantinos; Towers, David P; Towers, Catherine E
2014-06-10
Recent advances in multiwavelength interferometry techniques [Appl. Opt.52, 5758 (2013)] give new insights to phase unwrapping problems and allow the fringe order information contained in the measured phase to be extracted with low computational effort. This work introduces an algebraic solution to the phase unwrapping problem that allows the direct calculation of the unknown integer fringe order. The procedure resembles beat-wavelength approaches, but provides greater flexibility in choosing the measurement wavelengths, a larger measurement range, and a higher robustness against noise, due to the ability to correct for errors during the calculation. PMID:24921139
Algebraic multigrid methods applied to problems in computational structural mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccormick, Steve; Ruge, John
1989-01-01
The development of algebraic multigrid (AMG) methods and their application to certain problems in structural mechanics are described with emphasis on two- and three-dimensional linear elasticity equations and the 'jacket problems' (three-dimensional beam structures). Various possible extensions of AMG are also described. The basic idea of AMG is to develop the discretization sequence based on the target matrix and not the differential equation. Therefore, the matrix is analyzed for certain dependencies that permit the proper construction of coarser matrices and attendant transfer operators. In this manner, AMG appears to be adaptable to structural analysis applications.
Top Element Problem and Macneille Completions of Generalized Effect Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
RieČanová, Z.; Kalina, M.
2014-10-01
Effect algebras (EAs), introduced by D. J. Foulis and M. K. Bennett, as common generalizations of Boolean algebras, orthomodular lattices and MV-algebras, are nondistributive algebraic structures including unsharp elements. Their unbounded versions, called generalized effect algebras, are posets which may have or may have not an EA-MacNeille completion, or cannot be embedded into any complete effect algebra. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a generalized effect algebra to have an EA-MacNeille completion. Some examples are provided.
Fuchs, Lynn S; Powell, Sarah R; Seethaler, Pamela M; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Zumeta, Rebecca O
2009-08-01
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. PMID:19865600
The spatial isomorphism problem for close separable nuclear C*-algebras
Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart A.; Winter, Wilhelm
2010-01-01
The Kadison–Kastler problem asks whether close C*-algebras on a Hilbert space must be spatially isomorphic. We establish this when one of the algebras is separable and nuclear. We also apply our methods to the study of near inclusions of C*-algebras. PMID:20080723
Primary School Students' Strategies in Early Algebra Problem Solving Supported by an Online Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Kolovou, Angeliki; Robitzsch, Alexander
2013-01-01
In this study we investigated the role of a dynamic online game on students' early algebra problem solving. In total 253 students from grades 4, 5, and 6 (10-12 years old) used the game at home to solve a sequence of early algebra problems consisting of contextual problems addressing covarying quantities. Special software monitored the…
Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.
2011-01-01
Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…
A Schematic-Theoretic View of Problem Solving and Development of Algebraic Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Diana F.; Johanning, Debra I.
2004-01-01
This study explored the problem-solving schemas developed by 7th-grade pre-algebra students as they participated in a teaching experiment that was designed to help students develop effective schemas for solving algebraic problem situations involving contexts of (1) growth and change and (2) size and shape. This article describes the qualities and…
Reframing the Discussion on Word Problems: A Political Economy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harouni, Houman
2015-01-01
Many studies have attempted to describe the significant place of word problems at the intersection of mathematics, education and real world activity. In this essay the author suggests that the discussion of word problems needs to be reframed within a historical and dialectical conception of "mathematics," "the real world" and…
Modelling Reality in Mathematics Classrooms: The Case of Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greer, Brian
1997-01-01
Word problems as used within the culture of mathematics education often promote a suspension of sense making by the students. In the papers in this issue, an alternative conceptualization of word problems is proposed that calls for mathematical modelling that takes real world knowledge into account. (SLD)
Solving Word Problems: A Case of Modelling? Commentary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gravemeijer, Koeno
1997-01-01
It is argued that students who appear to ignore common sense and real-world knowledge in their approach to mathematics word problems in school are often behaving sensibly given the situation. The improvement of mathematics word problems for teaching will require changes in teacher beliefs and the use of modelling as an activity of organizing. (SLD)
Bilingual College Writers' Collaborative Writing of Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Esquinca, Alberto
2011-01-01
Numerous researchers have studied bilingual students' performance on word problems given that reading and writing these requires that they draw on linguistic and mathematical knowledge (Barwell, 2009a, 2009b). Some researchers have studied how bilinguals write word problems in the second language, but few have considered how bilinguals use their…
Reading Coaching for Math Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Sharon A.; Maloy, Robert W.; Anderson, Gordon
2009-01-01
"Math is language, too," Phyllis and David Whitin (2000) remind everyone in their informative book about reading and writing in the mathematics classroom. This means that students in elementary school math classes are learning two distinct, yet related languages--one of numbers, the other of words. These languages of numbers and words are combined…
Problem Solving Concretely with the Word "Like"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yee, Sean
2013-01-01
While the average teenager's conversation may seem inundated with the word "like", in the mathematics classroom, teenagers use it with purpose. Linguists study the word "like" to understand and categorize comparative statements. By overlapping linguistics and mathematics education within the frame of cognitive science, this study found that high…
Persistent and Pernicious Errors in Algebraic Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Booth, Julie L.; Barbieri, Christina; Eyer, Francie; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana
2014-01-01
Students hold many misconceptions as they transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking, and these misconceptions can hinder their performance and learning in the subject. To identify the errors in Algebra I which are most persistent and pernicious in terms of predicting student difficulty on standardized test items, the present study assessed…
Solving Our Algebra Problem: Getting All Students through Algebra I to Improve Graduation Rates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schachter, Ron
2013-01-01
graduation as well as admission to most colleges. But taking algebra also can turn into a pathway for failure, from which some students never recover. In 2010, a national U.S. Department of Education study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinds, Lillian R.
Seventy Cleveland, Ohio, inner city adult illiterates, 33 from an experimental group and 37 from a contrast group, were studied to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of Words in Color or the Morphologico-Algebraic approach to teaching reading. Results indicated that the reading achievement gain of functionally illiterate adults taught by…
The Hochschild cohomology problem for von Neumann algebras
Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.
1998-01-01
In 1967, when Kadison and Ringrose began the development of continuous cohomology theory for operator algebras, they conjectured that the cohomology groups Hn(M, M), n ≥ 1, for a von Neumann algebra M, should all be zero. This conjecture, which has important structural implications for von Neumann algebras, has been solved affirmatively in the type I, II∞, and III cases, leaving open only the type II1 case. In this paper, we describe a positive solution when M is type II1 and has a Cartan subalgebra and a separable predual. PMID:9520373
The hochschild cohomology problem for von neumann algebras.
Sinclair, A M; Smith, R R
1998-03-31
In 1967, when Kadison and Ringrose began the development of continuous cohomology theory for operator algebras, they conjectured that the cohomology groups Hn(M, M), n >/= 1, for a von Neumann algebra M, should all be zero. This conjecture, which has important structural implications for von Neumann algebras, has been solved affirmatively in the type I, IIinfinity, and III cases, leaving open only the type II1 case. In this paper, we describe a positive solution when M is type II1 and has a Cartan subalgebra and a separable predual. PMID:9520373
Children's Difficulties with Two-Step Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quintero, Ana Helvia
This study focused on analyzing children's difficulties with two-step mathematical word problems. Seventy-one fifth-grade children in Puerto Rico were individually observed solving five problems. Two of these were two-step problems; the remaining three were one-step problems with the same mathematical structures as the components of the two-step…
Effects of Numerical Surface Form in Arithmetic Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David; San Romualdo, Sara; Verschaffel, Lieven
2015-01-01
Adults' simple arithmetic performance is more efficient when operands are presented in Arabic digit (3 + 5) than in number word (three + five) formats. An explanation provided is that visual familiarity with digits is higher respect to number words. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In…
Solving Word Problems: Middle School Students and Extraneous Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muth, K. Denise
1986-01-01
Reviews research which indicates that students performed better on problems when extraneous information was absent than when extraneous information was present. However, recommends that teachers embed word problems with realistic contexts, that is, contexts that contain extraneous bits of information to help students transfer their problem-solving…
Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…
Language Repair Strategies in Bilingual Tutoring of Mathematics Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Meskill, Carla; Judson, Darlene; Gregory, Karen; Rogers, Patterson; Imperial, Christopher J.; Casler-Failing, Shelli
2015-01-01
This study explores the "language repair strategies" (aimed at repairing communication problems) of two bilingual speakers during mathematics word problem tutoring sessions. Bilingual repair was shown to gradually shift from a linguistic to an epistemic focus during problem solving (i.e., communication became more conceptually focused…
An Evaluation of Interventions to Facilitate Algebra Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayfield, Kristin H.; Glenn, Irene M.
2008-01-01
Three participants were trained on 6 target algebra skills and subsequently received a series of 5 instructional interventions (cumulative practice, tiered feedback, feedback plus solution sequence instruction, review practice, and transfer training) in a multiple baseline across skills design. The effects of the interventions on the performance…
Excel Spreadsheets for Algebra: Improving Mental Modeling for Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engerman, Jason; Rusek, Matthew; Clariana, Roy
2014-01-01
This experiment investigates the effectiveness of Excel spreadsheets in a high school algebra class. Students in the experiment group convincingly outperformed the control group on a post lesson assessment. The student responses, teacher observations involving Excel spreadsheet revealed that it operated as a mindtool, which formed the users'…
Student Strategy Choices on a Constructed Response Algebra Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, Dan; Reys, Robert; Chavez, Oscar; McNaught, Melissa D.; Grouws, Douglas A.
2011-01-01
A central goal of secondary mathematics is for students to learn to use powerful algebraic strategies appropriately. Research has demonstrated student difficulties in the transition to using such strategies. We examined strategies used by several thousand 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students in five different school systems over three consecutive…
Cognitive Load and Modelling of an Algebra Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chinnappan, Mohan
2010-01-01
In the present study, I examine a modelling strategy as employed by a teacher in the context of an algebra lesson. The actions of this teacher suggest that a modelling approach will have a greater impact on enriching student learning if we do not lose sight of the need to manage associated cognitive loads that could either aid or hinder the…
Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Nickey Owen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…
Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru
1993-01-01
As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.
The Poincaré problem, algebraic integrability and dicritical divisors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galindo, C.; Monserrat, F.
We solve the Poincaré problem for plane foliations with only one dicritical divisor. Moreover, in this case, we give a simple algorithm that decides whether a foliation has a rational first integral and computes it in the affirmative case. We also provide an algorithm to compute a rational first integral of prefixed genus g≠1 of any type of plane foliation F. When the number of dicritical divisors dic(F) is larger than 2, this algorithm depends on suitable families of invariant curves. When dic(F)=2, it proves that the degree of the rational first integral can be bounded only in terms of g, the degree of F and the local analytic type of the dicritical singularities of F. The degree d of a general integral invariant curve is less than or equal to 4. Therefore, the Poincaré problem is solved in this case. There exists a valueλ∈Z>0such thatPF:=|λΔF|is a pencil and the rational mapP2⋯→P1that it defines is a rational first integral ofF. Moreover λ is the minimum of the set{α∈Z>0|dim|αΔF|⩾1}. The above clause (b) supports a very simple algorithm, our forthcoming Algorithm 2, which decides about the existence of a rational first integral of F (and computes it in the positive case) whenever dic(F)=1. Other alternative algorithms are treated in Section 4. Our remaining main results are: Assume thatFhas a rational first integral of genus g. Then, there exists a bound on the degree of the first integral depending only on the degree ofF, the genus g and the local analytic type of the dicritical singularities ofF. There exists an algorithm to decide whetherFhas a rational first integral of genus g (and to compute it, in the affirmative case) whose inputs are: g, a homogeneous 1-form definingFand the minimal resolution of the dicritical singularities ofF. Assume thatFhas a rational first integral of genus g. Then there exists a bound on the degree of the first integral which depends on the degree ofF, the genus g, the local analytic type of the
Solving Word Problems in the Primary Grades: Addition and Subtraction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feinberg, Miriam M.
The purpose of this manual is to present a series of lessons on solving word problems, each focusing on a specific concept. The solving of story problems should be incorporated into the daily mathematics lesson so that children can maintain and increase their skills. The lessons are sequenced according to their complexity. Lessons one through…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Mary Margaret; Joffrion, Heather
2006-01-01
Using symbolic algebra to represent and solve linear equations is one of the expectations within the "Algebra" content standard for the 6-8-grade band in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000). Students' understanding of these concepts, even before a formal algebra course,…
Building Word Problems: What Does It Take?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barlow, Angela T.
2010-01-01
"The World Is Flat" (Friedman 2005) describes the globalization that advances in technology have imposed on the world economy in recent decades. For the U.S. to maintain its stature in the world, future citizens must be prepared to problem solve and apply their skills to new situations. These future citizens are sitting in elementary school…
Overcoming the "Walls" Surrounding Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ponce, Gregorio A.; Garrison, Leslie
2004-01-01
Efforts are made to help students do better on mathematics problems without taking time from other class activities. An illustration of Mrs. Segura, a third-grade teacher at Sunflower Elementary School, is presented whose seventy percent students did not pass the fourth chapter test in mathematics.
The role of fantasy contexts in word problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiest, Lynda
2001-09-01
This paper reports on the efficacy of different contexts for word problems given to Grade Four and Grade Six students. In particular, the use of fantasy contexts were examined and compared with both adult and children/s real-world contexts. The study found that students expressed an interest in the fantasy contexts, and solved problems using these contexts as well as or better than real-world problems.
Teaching Algebra without Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalman, Richard S.
2008-01-01
Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…
Martin, Shirley A; Bassok, Miriam
2005-04-01
Mathematical solutions to textbook word problems are correlated with semantic relations between the objects described in the problem texts. In particular, division problems usually involve functionally related objects (e.g., tulips-vases) and rarely involve categorically related objects (e.g., tulips-daisies). We examined whether middle school, high school, and college students use object relations when they solve division word problems (WP) or perform the less familiar task of representing verbal statements with algebraic equations (EQ). Both tasks involved multiplicative comparison statements with either categorically or functionally related objects (e.g., "four times as many cupcakes [commuters] as brownies [automobiles]"). Object relations affected the frequency of correct solutions in the WP task but not in the EQ task. In the latter task, object relations did affect the structure of nonalgebraic equation errors. We argue that students use object relations as "semantic cues" when they engage in the sense-making activity of mathematical modeling. PMID:16156182
Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.
2015-01-01
While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…
Promoting Problem Solving across Geometry and Algebra by Using Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erbas, A. Kursat; Ledford, Sara D.; Orrill, Chandra Hawley; Polly, Drew
2005-01-01
Technology is a powerful tool in assisting students in problem solving by allowing for multiple representations. The vignette offered in this article provides insight into ways to solve open-ended problems using multiple technologies.
Automatic activation of addition facts in arithmetic word problems.
Orrantia, Josetxu; Rodriguez, Laura; Vicente, Santiago
2010-02-01
Studies of mental arithmetic have shown that adults solve simple arithmetic problems by retrieving an answer automatically from a network of stored associations. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In this article, we examine whether retrieval is also automatic in the context of more complex arithmetic tasks, such as arithmetic word problems. To test this hypothesis, we used a priming procedure with a target-naming task, in which the primes were the numbers included in two sentences containing the numerical information of an arithmetic word problem (e.g., 3 and 2 in "Joe had 3 marbles. Then Tom gave him 2 marbles"), and the targets were either congruent (e.g., 5) or incongruent (e.g., 8) with the prime. A neutral prime was also used replacing the numbers of the problem by capital letters (e.g., X and Y). Manipulating the relationship between the prime and the target and the duration of time that separates these two events, the overall results revealed shorter times in naming the congruent target than in a neutral condition and longer times in naming the incongruent target, even though mental arithmetic was completely irrelevant to the task. These results support the notion that automaticity of arithmetic-fact retrieval is not limited to simple addition, but it is also possible in other tasks, such as arithmetic word problems, which demand more cognitive resources than single-digit addition. PMID:19440930
An efficient algorithm for the contig ordering problem under algebraic rearrangement distance.
Lu, Chin Lung
2015-11-01
Assembling a genome from short reads currently obtained by next-generation sequencing techniques often results in a collection of contigs, whose relative position and orientation along the genome being sequenced are unknown. Given two sets of contigs, the contig ordering problem is to order and orient the contigs in each set such that the genome rearrangement distance between the resulting sets of ordered and oriented contigs is minimized. In this article, we utilize the permutation groups in algebra to propose a near-linear time algorithm for solving the contig ordering problem under algebraic rearrangement distance, where the algebraic rearrangement distance between two sets of ordered and oriented contigs is the minimum weight of applicable rearrangement operations required to transform one set into the other. PMID:26247343
Boonen, Anton J. H.; de Koning, Björn B.; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno
2016-01-01
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012
Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno
2016-01-01
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012
How Students "Unpack" the Structure of a Word Problem: Graphic Representations and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edens, Kellah; Potter, Ellen
2008-01-01
This research investigated how fourth and fifth grade students spontaneously "unpacked" a word problem when generating a graphic representation to aid in problem solution. Relationships among the type of graphic representation produced, spatial visualization, drawing ability, gender, and problem solving also were examined and described.…
Muehlhoff, Rainer
2011-02-15
Existence and uniqueness of advanced and retarded fundamental solutions (Green's functions) and of global solutions to the Cauchy problem is proved for a general class of first order linear differential operators on vector bundles over globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds. This is a core ingredient to CAR-/CCR-algebraic constructions of quantum field theories on curved spacetimes, particularly for higher spin field equations.
Alternative Representations for Algebraic Problem Solving: When Are Graphs Better than Equations?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mielicki, Marta K.; Wiley, Jennifer
2016-01-01
Successful algebraic problem solving entails adaptability of solution methods using different representations. Prior research has suggested that students are more likely to prefer symbolic solution methods (equations) over graphical ones, even when graphical methods should be more efficient. However, this research has not tested how representation…
A Comparison of Two Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies: Facilitate Algebra-Readiness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping; Zhang, Dake; Park, Joo Young; Tom, Kinsey; Whipple, Amanda; Si, Luo
2011-01-01
The authors compared a conceptual model-based problem-solving (COMPS) approach with a general heuristic instructional approach for teaching multiplication-division word-problem solving to elementary students with learning problems (LP). The results indicate that only the COMPS group significantly improved, from pretests to posttests, their…
Henson, V E
2003-02-06
The purpose of this research project was to investigate, design, and implement new algebraic multigrid (AMG) algorithms to enable the effective use of AMG in large-scale multiphysics simulation codes. These problems are extremely large; storage requirements and excessive run-time make direct solvers infeasible. The problems are highly ill-conditioned, so that existing iterative solvers either fail or converge very slowly. While existing AMG algorithms have been shown to be robust and stable for a large class of problems, there are certain problems of great interest to the Laboratory for which no effective algorithm existed prior to this research.
How Can One Learn Mathematical Word Problems in a Second Language? A Cognitive Load Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moussa-Inaty, Jase; Causapin, Mark; Groombridge, Timothy
2015-01-01
Language may ordinarily account for difficulties in solving word problems and this is particularly true if mathematical word problems are taught in a language other than one's native language. Research into cognitive load may offer a clear theoretical framework when investigating word problems because memory, specifically working memory, plays a…
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study’s hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of the 2nd grade, children (n = 206; on average, 7 years, 6 months) were assessed on general language comprehension, working memory, nonlinguistic reasoning, processing speed (a control variable), and foundational skill (arithmetic for WPs; word reading for text comprehension). In spring, they were assessed on WP-specific language comprehension, WPs, and text comprehension. Path analytic mediation analysis indicated that effects of general language comprehension on text comprehension were entirely direct, whereas effects of general language comprehension on WPs were partially mediated by WP-specific language. By contrast, effects of working memory and reasoning operated in parallel ways for both outcomes. PMID:25866461
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forsten, Char
2004-01-01
Children need to combine reading, thinking, and computational skills to solve math word problems. The author provides some strategies that principals can share with their teachers to help students become proficient and advanced problem-solvers. They include creating a conducive classroom environment, providing daily mental math activities, making…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duan, Xiaofang; Depaepe, Fien; Verschaffel, Lieven
2011-01-01
Word problems play a crucial role in mathematics education. However, the authenticity of word problems is quite controversial. In terms of the necessity of realistic considerations to be taken into account in the solution process, word problems have been classified into two categories: standard word problems (S-items) and problematic word problems…
Algebraic Approach to the Minimum-Cost Multi-Impulse Orbit-Transfer Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avendaño, M.; Martín-Molina, V.; Martín-Morales, J.; Ortigas-Galindo, J.
2016-08-01
We present a purely algebraic formulation (i.e. polynomial equations only) of the minimum-cost multi-impulse orbit transfer problem without time constraints, while keeping all the variables with a precise physical meaning. We apply general algebraic techniques to solve these equations (resultants, Gr\\"obner bases, etc.) in several situations of practical interest of different degrees of generality. For instance, we provide a proof of the optimality of the Hohmann transfer for the minimum fuel 2-impulse circular to circular orbit transfer problem, and we provide a general formula for the optimal 2-impulse in-plane transfer between two rotated elliptical orbits under a mild symmetry assumption on the two points where the impulses are applied (which we conjecture that can be removed).
Word Problems: The Effects of Learner Generated Drawings on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keesy, Melissa A.
2011-01-01
Middle school students struggle to solve mathematical word problems and mathematics teachers require researched based strategies to use when instructing students. Drawing a picture or representation is a strategy that students frequently use, and the purpose of this study was to examine the effects that learner-generated drawing has on a student's…
The Impossibility of "Real-Life" Word Problems (According to Bakhtin, Lacan, Zizek and Baudrillard)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerofsky, Susan
2010-01-01
In recent years a great deal of work on mathematical word problems has focused on efforts to bring more of "real life" into the problems themselves and students' uptake of these problems. Following on from earlier studies of the word problem as a pedagogical and literary genre, the author argues that we cannot unproblematically assume an ability…
Individualized Math Problems in Algebra. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic, and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems presented in this package concern ratios used in food…
Algebraic analysis of the phase-calibration problem in the self-calibration procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lannes, A.; Prieur, J.-L.
2011-10-01
This paper presents an analysis of the phase-calibration problem encountered in astronomy when mapping incoherent sources with aperture-synthesis devices. More precisely, this analysis concerns the phase-calibration operation involved in the self-calibration procedures of phase-closure imaging. The paper revisits and completes a previous analysis presented by Lannes in the Journal of the Optical Society of America A in 2005. It also benefits from some recent developments made for solving similar problems encountered in global navigation satellite systems. In radio-astronomy, the related optimization problems have been stated and solved hitherto at the phasor level. We present here an analysis conducted at the phase level, from which we derive a method for diagnosing and solving the difficulties of the phasor approach. In the most general case, the techniques to be implemented appeal to the algebraic graph theory and the algebraic number theory. The minima of the objective functionals to be minimized are identified by raising phase-closure integer ambiguities. We also show that in some configurations, to benefit from all the available information, closure phases of order greater than three are to be introduced. In summary, this study leads to a better understanding of the difficulties related to the very principle of phase-closure imaging. To circumvent these difficulties, we propose a strategy both simple and robust.
Student-Controlled Metacognitive Training for Solving Word Problems in Primary School Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
2009-01-01
Solving word problems plays an important role in primary school mathematics education. However, many students have difficulty solving such tasks. In order to improve students' metacognitive and problem-solving skills, a computer program was developed consisting of word problems and metacognitive hints. The experimental group of Grade 5 (n = 23)…
Bae, Young Seh; Chiang, Hsu-Min; Hickson, Linda
2015-07-01
This study examined the difference between children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with typical development (TD) in mathematical word problem solving ability and the factors associated with these children's word problem-solving ability. A total of 20 children with ASD and 20 children with TD participated in this study. Independent sample t tests and Spearman's rho correlations were used for data analysis. This study found: (a) Children with TD had higher word problem solving ability than did children with ASD; (b) Sentence comprehension, math vocabulary, computation, and everyday mathematical knowledge were associated with word problem solving ability of children with ASD and children with TD; and PMID:25682079
Voila: A visual object-oriented iterative linear algebra problem solving environment
Edwards, H.C.; Hayes, L.J.
1994-12-31
Application of iterative methods to solve a large linear system of equations currently involves writing a program which calls iterative method subprograms from a large software package. These subprograms have complex interfaces which are difficult to use and even more difficult to program. A problem solving environment specifically tailored to the development and application of iterative methods is needed. This need will be fulfilled by Voila, a problem solving environment which provides a visual programming interface to object-oriented iterative linear algebra kernels. Voila will provide several quantum improvements over current iterative method problem solving environments. First, programming and applying iterative methods is considerably simplified through Voila`s visual programming interface. Second, iterative method algorithm implementations are independent of any particular sparse matrix data structure through Voila`s object-oriented kernels. Third, the compile-link-debug process is eliminated as Voila operates as an interpreter.
Algebraic Multigrid by Smoothed Aggregation for Second and Fourth Order Elliptic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanek, Petr; Mandel, Jan; Brezina, Marian
1996-01-01
Multigrid methods are very efficient iterative solvers for system of algebraic equations arising from finite element and finite difference discretization of elliptic boundary value problems. The main principle of multigrid methods is to complement the local exchange of information in point-wise iterative methods by a global one utilizing several related systems, called coarse levels, with a smaller number of variables. The coarse levels are often obtained as a hierarchy of discretizations with different characteristic meshsizes, but this requires that the discretization is controlled by the iterative method. To solve linear systems produced by existing finite element software, one needs to create an artificial hierarchy of coarse problems. The principal issue is then to obtain computational complexity and approximation properties similar to those for nested meshes, using only information in the matrix of the system and as little extra information as possible. Such algebraic multigrid method that uses the system matrix only was developed by Ruge. The prolongations were based on the matrix of the system by partial solution from given values at selected coarse points. The coarse grid points were selected so that each point would be interpolated to via so-called strong connections. Our approach is based on smoothed aggregation introduced recently by Vanek. First the set of nodes is decomposed into small mutually disjoint subsets. A tentative piecewise constant interpolation (in the discrete sense) is then defined on those subsets as piecewise constant for second order problems, and piecewise linear for fourth order problems. The prolongation operator is then obtained by smoothing the output of the tentative prolongation and coarse level operators are defined variationally.
Profiles of Algebraic Competence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.
2008-01-01
The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…
Text Integration and Mathematical Connections: A Computer Model of Arithmetic Word Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeBlanc, Mark D.; Weber-Russell, Sylvia
1996-01-01
A growing body of empirical and theoretical work indicates that young children (grades K-3) have difficulties solving word problems because of deficient language and text comprehension strategies. Describes a computer simulation designed to model working memory demands in "bottom-up" comprehension of arithmetic word problems, offering a…
Using Number Lines to Solve Math Word Problems: A Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonsalves, Nicola; Krawec, Jennifer
2014-01-01
Students with learning disabilities (LD) consistently struggle with word problem solving in mathematics classes. This difficulty has made curricular, state, and national tests particularly stressful, as word problem solving has become a predominant feature of such student performance assessments. Research suggests that students with LD perform…
The Motivation of Secondary School Students in Mathematical Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose-Domingo
2014-01-01
Introduction: Motivation is an important factor in the learning of mathematics. Within this area of education, word problem solving is central in most mathematics curricula of Secondary School. The objective of this research is to detect the differences in motivation in terms of the strategies used to solve word problems. Method: It analyzed the…
Duality of Mathematical Thinking When Making Sense of Simple Word Problems: Theoretical Essay
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polotskaia, Elena; Savard, Annie; Freiman, Viktor
2015-01-01
This essay proposes a reflection on the learning difficulties and teaching approaches associated with arithmetic word problem solving. We question the development of word problem solving skills in the early grades of elementary school. We are trying to revive the discussion because first, the knowledge in question--reversibility of arithmetic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bae, Young Seh; Chiang, Hsu-Min; Hickson, Linda
2015-01-01
This study examined the difference between children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with typical development (TD) in mathematical word problem solving ability and the factors associated with these children's word problem-solving ability. A total of 20 children with ASD and 20 children with TD participated in this study.…
Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Teaching Word Problems to Primary-Level Struggling Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pfannenstiel, Kathleen Hughes; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Porterfield, Jennifer A.
2015-01-01
Students with mathematics difficulties and learning disabilities (LD) typically struggle with solving word problems. These students often lack knowledge about efficient, cognitive strategies to utilize when solving word problems. Cognitive strategy instruction has been shown to be effective in teaching struggling students how to solve word…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bae, Young Seh
2013-01-01
Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…
Tense and Aspect in Word Problems about Motion: Diagram, Gesture, and the Felt Experience of Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Freitas, Elizabeth; Zolkower, Betina
2015-01-01
Word problems about motion contain various conjugated verb forms. As students and teachers grapple with such word problems, they jointly operationalize diagrams, gestures, and language. Drawing on findings from a 3-year research project examining the social semiotics of classroom interaction, we show how teachers and students use gesture and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.
2015-01-01
A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beitzel, Brian D.; Staley, Richard K.; DuBois, Nelson F.
2011-01-01
Previous research has cast doubt on the efficacy of utilizing external representations as an aid to solving word problems. The present study replicates previous findings that concrete representations hinder college students' ability to solve probability word problems, and extends those findings to apply to a multimedia instructional context. Our…
Does Calculation or Word-Problem Instruction Provide a Stronger Route to Prealgebraic Knowledge?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Marrin, Sarah; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Changas, Paul C.
2014-01-01
The focus of this study was connections among 3 aspects of mathematical cognition at 2nd grade: calculations, word problems, and prealgebraic knowledge. We extended the literature, which is dominated by correlational work, by examining whether intervention conducted on calculations or word problems contributes to improved performance in the other…
A Comparative Analysis of Word Problems in Selected United States and Russian First Grade Textbooks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grishchenko, Svetlana
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore word problems as a subject matter in mathematics textbook curricula. The motivation for the study derived from the following evidence: (a) American students find some word problems are more difficult than others (Garcia, Jimenez, & Hess, 2006; Riley & Green, 1988; Stern, 2001), and (b) one of the possible…
Helping Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Solve Mathematics Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alter, Peter
2012-01-01
The author presents a strategy for helping students with emotional and behavioral disorders become more proficient at solving math word problems. Math word problems require students to go beyond simple computation in mathematics (e.g., adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) and use higher level reasoning that includes recognizing relevant…
From Bar Diagrams to Letter-Symbolic Algebra: A Technology-Enabled Bridging
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Looi, C. -K.; Lim, K. -S.
2009-01-01
In the Singapore primary school Mathematics curriculum, students are taught the model method that uses bar diagrams to visualize the problem structure in a given word problem. When these students progress to secondary school, they learn the algebraic way of solving word problems. Studies (e.g. Ng et al.) have shown that poor bridging of students…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leukhin, Anatolii N.
2005-08-01
The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups.
Algebraic methods for the identification problem with short arcs of observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronchi, G. F.
The identification problem of short arcs of asteroid observations is related with the determination of the orbits of the observed asteroids. Recently this problem has been faced with algebraic methods using the first integrals of Kepler's problem. These methods allow us to solve the problem in an efficient way, keeping under control also alternative solutions, that may occur. However, the huge and continuously increasing amount of data produced by the new asteroid surveys suggests us to search for new algorithms, with shorter computation times. In this communication I'll review the known methods \\cite{p1}, \\cite{p2}, that lead to polynomial equations of degree 48 and 20 respectively. Then I'll present a new algorithm \\cite{p3}, that we are currently studying, allowing to deal with this problem with a polynomial of degree 9, thus decreasing the computation times in a significant way. Finally, I'll show some examples of computation of asteroid orbits using these methods.
The algebra of dual -1 Hahn polynomials and the Clebsch-Gordan problem of sl-1(2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei
2013-02-01
The algebra H of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials is derived and shown to arise in the Clebsch-Gordan problem of sl-1(2). The dual -1 Hahn polynomials are the bispectral polynomials of a discrete argument obtained from the q → -1 limit of the dual q-Hahn polynomials. The Hopf algebra sl-1(2) has four generators including an involution, it is also a q → -1 limit of the quantum algebra slq(2) and furthermore, the dynamical algebra of the parabose oscillator. The algebra H, a two-parameter generalization of {u}(2) with an involution as additional generator, is first derived from the recurrence relation of the -1 Hahn polynomials. It is then shown that H can be realized in terms of the generators of two added sl-1(2) algebras, so that the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of sl-1(2) are dual -1 Hahn polynomials. An irreducible representation of H involving five-diagonal matrices and connected to the difference equation of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials is constructed.
The algebra of dual -1 Hahn polynomials and the Clebsch-Gordan problem of sl{sub -1}(2)
Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei
2013-02-15
The algebra H of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials is derived and shown to arise in the Clebsch-Gordan problem of sl{sub -1}(2). The dual -1 Hahn polynomials are the bispectral polynomials of a discrete argument obtained from the q{yields}-1 limit of the dual q-Hahn polynomials. The Hopf algebra sl{sub -1}(2) has four generators including an involution, it is also a q{yields}-1 limit of the quantum algebra sl{sub q}(2) and furthermore, the dynamical algebra of the parabose oscillator. The algebra H, a two-parameter generalization of u(2) with an involution as additional generator, is first derived from the recurrence relation of the -1 Hahn polynomials. It is then shown that H can be realized in terms of the generators of two added sl{sub -1}(2) algebras, so that the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of sl{sub -1}(2) are dual -1 Hahn polynomials. An irreducible representation of H involving five-diagonal matrices and connected to the difference equation of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials is constructed.
A new mathematical evaluation of smoking problem based of algebraic statistical method.
Mohammed, Maysaa J; Rakhimov, Isamiddin S; Shitan, Mahendran; Ibrahim, Rabha W; Mohammed, Nadia F
2016-01-01
Smoking problem is considered as one of the hot topics for many years. In spite of overpowering facts about the dangers, smoking is still a bad habit widely spread and socially accepted. Many people start smoking during their gymnasium period. The discovery of the dangers of smoking gave a warning sign of danger for individuals. There are different statistical methods used to analyze the dangers of smoking. In this study, we apply an algebraic statistical method to analyze and classify real data using Markov basis for the independent model on the contingency table. Results show that the Markov basis based classification is able to distinguish different date elements. Moreover, we check our proposed method via information theory by utilizing the Shannon formula to illustrate which one of these alternative tables is the best in term of independent. PMID:26858555
Compound Words: A Problem in Post-Coordinate Retrieval Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Kevin P.
1971-01-01
Compound words cause some difficulty in post-coordinate indexing systems: if too many are fractured, or the wrong categories are selected for fracturing noise will be produced at unacceptable levels on retrieval. (Author/MM)
Coulomb problem in an angular-momentum basis: An algebraic formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lange, O. L.; Raab, R. E.
1988-03-01
We show that a representation-independent, spectrum-generating algebra for the Coulomb problem in an angular momentum basis can be obtained by quantizing two complex, time-dependent, classical vectors, Dc=Fc+iGc and D*c. The approach is based on an analogy with a treatment of the isotropic harmonic oscillator [A. J. Bracken and H. I. Leemon, J. Math. Phys. 21, 2170 (1980)], and on work in which classical constants of the motion were quantized to yield shift operators for angular momentum in the Coulomb problem [O. L. de Lange and R. E. Raab, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1650 (1986)]. By construction Fc and Gc are orthogonal to the orbital angular momentum L, their moduli have equal, constant magnitude, and they rotate about L. In this construction we use Ac (the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector) and Ac×L^ as basis vectors. Fc and Gc contain an undetermined phase factor exp(iδ). Dc and D*c are quantized by requiring that the resulting operators should be shift operators for energy and angular momentum in the bound-state kets ||nlm>. This determines the operators Δ+/- corresponding to the classical phase factors exp(+/-iδ). In the coordinate and momentum representations of wave mechanics respectively, Δ+/- are the dilatation operators for coordinate-space and momentum-space wave functions. The shift operators can be factorized to yield 20 abstract operators. Apart from their dependence on Δ+/- and constants of the motion, ten of these are linear in p, eight are linear in r, and two are quadratic in r. Apart from Δ+/-, these operators can be linearized by replacing constants of the motion with their eigenvalues: In the coordinate and momentum representations of wave mechanics they are first-order differential operators. The shift operators are part of a Hermitian basis for a spectrum-generating algebra which is shown to be SO(2,1)⊕SO(3,2).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lubin, Amélie; Vidal, Julie; Lanoë, Céline; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire
2013-01-01
Solving simple arithmetic word problems is a major ability that children must acquire throughout the primary-grade mathematics curriculum. However, this skill is often challenging for them. For instance, "unknown referent problems" are more difficult to solve than "unknown compare problems." In unknown compare problems, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.
This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Lu Pien
2015-01-01
In this study, ways in which 9-year old students from one Singapore school solved 1-step and 2-step word problems based on the three semantic structures were examined. The students' work and diagrams provided insights into the range of errors in word problem solving for 1- step and 2-step word problems. In particular, the errors provided some…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu
2012-01-01
Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lukas, George; And Others
In order to provide high school students with general problem-solving skills, two LOGO computer-assisted instruction units were developed--one on the methods and strategies for solution and a second on the relation between formal and informal representations of problems. In both cases specific problem contexts were used to give definition and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Booth, Julie L.; Lange, Karin E.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Newton, Kristie J.
2013-01-01
In a series of two in vivo experiments, we examine whether correct and incorrect examples with prompts for self-explanation can be effective for improving students' conceptual understanding and procedural skill in Algebra when combined with guided practice. In Experiment 1, students working with the Algebra I Cognitive Tutor were randomly assigned…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Booth, Julie L.; Lange, Karin E.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Newton, Kristie J.
2013-01-01
In a series of two "in vivo" experiments, we examine whether correct and incorrect examples with prompts for self-explanation can be effective for improving students' conceptual understanding and procedural skill in Algebra when combined with guided practice. In Experiment 1, students working with the Algebra I Cognitive Tutor were randomly…
The Efficacy of Using Diagrams When Solving Probability Word Problems in College
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beitzel, Brian D.; Staley, Richard K.
2015-01-01
Previous experiments have shown a deleterious effect of visual representations on college students' ability to solve total- and joint-probability word problems. The present experiments used conditional-probability problems, known to be more difficult than total- and joint-probability problems. The diagram group was instructed in how to use…
Working Memory Components as Predictors of Children's Mathematical Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Xinhua; Swanson, H. Lee; Marcoulides, George A.
2011-01-01
This study determined the working memory (WM) components (executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) that best predicted mathematical word problem-solving accuracy of elementary school children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (N = 310). A battery of tests was administered to assess problem-solving accuracy, problem-solving processes, WM,…
Word Problem Solving Tasks in Textbooks and Their Relation to Student Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping
2007-01-01
The author examined the potential influence of learning opportunities provided in 1 U.S. and 1 Chinese mathematics textbook series on students' problem-solving performance. Also, the author studied learning opportunities provided in the textbooks by analyzing word problem distribution across various problem types, as well as the potential…
Acceleration of multiple solution of a boundary value problem involving a linear algebraic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazizov, Talgat R.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.; Surovtsev, Roman S.
2016-06-01
Multiple solution of a boundary value problem that involves a linear algebraic system is considered. New approach to acceleration of the solution is proposed. The approach uses the structure of the linear system matrix. Particularly, location of entries in the right columns and low rows of the matrix, which undergo variation due to the computing in the range of parameters, is used to apply block LU decomposition. Application of the approach is considered on the example of multiple computing of the capacitance matrix by method of moments used in numerical electromagnetics. Expressions for analytic estimation of the acceleration are presented. Results of the numerical experiments for solution of 100 linear systems with matrix orders of 1000, 2000, 3000 and different relations of variated and constant entries of the matrix show that block LU decomposition can be effective for multiple solution of linear systems. The speed up compared to pointwise LU factorization increases (up to 15) for larger number and order of considered systems with lower number of variated entries.
Geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for fluid dynamics problems on unstructured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.
2016-02-01
Issues concerning the implementation and practical application of geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for solving systems of difference equations generated by the finite volume discretization of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids are studied. The construction of prolongation and interpolation operators, as well as grid levels of various resolutions, is discussed. The results of the application of geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for the simulation of inviscid and viscous compressible fluid flows over an airfoil are compared. Numerical results show that geometric methods ensure faster convergence and weakly depend on the method parameters, while the efficiency of algebraic methods considerably depends on the input parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kercood, Suneeta; Zentall, Sydney S.; Vinh, Megan; Tom-Wright, Kinsey
2012-01-01
The purpose of this theoretically-based study was to examine the effects of yellow-highlighting "relevant" words and units within math word problems. Initial differences were documented between 10 girls at-risk for ADHD and 10 comparisons on the performance of group and individual assessments of math computations and word problems, as had…
A Strategy for Improving US Middle School Student Mathematics Word Problem Solving Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Valerie L.
2004-01-01
U.S. middle school students have difficulty understanding and solving mathematics word problems. Their mathematics performance on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) is far below their international peers, and minority students are less likely than high socioeconomic status (SES) White/Asian students to be exposed to higher-level mathematics concepts. Research literature also indicates that when students use both In-School and Out-of-School knowledge and experiences to create authentic mathematics word problems, student achievement improves. This researcher developed a Strategy for improving mathematics problem solving performance and a Professional Development Model (PDM) to effectively implement the Strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauer, Joan
2000-01-01
Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)
Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.
2012-01-01
There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gunbas, Nilgun
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story on sixth grade students' mathematics word problem solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer, and then compared to a paper-based story and to a condition that presented the problems as typical, isolated words problems. One hundred…
Process Inquiry: Analysis of Oral Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics of Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trance, Naci John C.
2013-01-01
This paper presents another effort in determining the difficulty of engineering students in terms of solving word problems. Students were presented with word problems in algebra. Then, they were asked to solve the word problems orally; that is, before they presented their written solutions, they were required to explain how they understood the…
Every Word Problem Has a Solution--The Social Rationality of Mathematical Modelling in Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reusser, Kurt; Stebler, Rita
1997-01-01
Two experiments involving 67 elementary school and 439 high school students show that students present solutions to many unsolvable problems without showing realistic reactions. Results are discussed with respect to the quality of word problems in teaching mathematics, the culture of teaching and learning, and the issue of social rationality in…
Solving Word Problems about Time: The Effects of Speed and Space Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Senechal, Monique
This study investigated how preadolescents and adolescents solve problems involving three temporal dimensions. Specifically examined was the question of whether speed and space information would influence the time judgments of 90 subjects 9, 12, and 15 years of age who solved 16 word problems describing the displacements of two cars. The problems…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Fletcher, Jack M.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive correlates of RD-grade skill in arithmetic, algorithmic computation, and arithmetic word problems. Third graders (N = 312) were measured on language, nonverbal problem solving, concept formation, processing speed, long-term memory, working memory, phonological decoding, and sight word…
Students' Mathematics Word Problem-Solving Achievement in a Computer-Based Story
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gunbas, N.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story, which was designed in anchored instruction framework, on sixth-grade students' mathematics word problem-solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer as computer story, and then compared with the paper-based version of the same…
Scaffold Seeking: A Reverse Design of Scaffolding in Computer-Supported Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Yang, Euphony F. Y.; Liao, Calvin C. Y.; Chang, Ben; Huang, Yana C. Y.; Chan, Tak-Wai
2015-01-01
Although well-designed scaffolding may assist students to accomplish learning tasks, its insufficient capability to dynamically assess students' abilities and to adaptively support them may result in the problem of overscaffolding. Our previous project has also shown that students using scaffolds to solve mathematical word problems for a long time…
A Comparison of Updating Processes in Children Good or Poor in Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca
2005-01-01
This study examines the updating ability of poor or good problem solvers. Seventy-eight fourth-graders, 43 good and 35 poor arithmetic word problem-solvers, performed the Updating Test used in Palladino et al. [Palladino, P., Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., and Pazzaglia F. (2002). Working memory and updating processes in reading comprehension. Memory…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kingsdorf, Sheri; Krawec, Jennifer
2014-01-01
Solving word problems is a common area of struggle for students with learning disabilities (LD). In order for instruction to be effective, we first need to have a clear understanding of the specific errors exhibited by students with LD during problem solving. Error analysis has proven to be an effective tool in other areas of math but has had…
Application of Graph Theory in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nabiyev, Vasif V.; Çakiroglu, Ünal; Karal, Hasan; Erümit, Ali K.; Çebi, Ayça
2016-01-01
This study is aimed to construct a model to transform word "motion problems" in to an algorithmic form in order to be processed by an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). First; categorizing the characteristics of motion problems, second; suggesting a model for the categories were carried out. In order to solve all categories of the…
Learning To Solve Word Problems in a Middle School Vision Class.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krebs, Cathryn S.
2001-01-01
A resource vision teacher describes activities to develop skills in solving mathematical word problems by three seventh graders with severe visual impairments. Students kept portfolios of problems they actually experienced in their daily lives. Success was achieved through providing an optimal environment, active involvement, self-assessment, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy; Orosco, Michael
2013-01-01
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: general-heuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visual-schematic presentation…
Language, arithmetic word problems, and deaf students: Linguistic strategies used to solve tasks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zevenbergen, Robyn; Hyde, Merv; Power, Des
2001-12-01
There has been limited examination of the intersection between language and arithmetic in the performance of deaf students, although some previous research has shown that deaf and hearing-impaired1 students are delayed in both their language acquisition and arithmetic performance. This paper examines the performance of deaf and hearing-impaired students in South-East Queensland, Australia, in solving arithmetic word problems. It was found that the subjects' solutions of word problems confirmed trends for hearing students, but that their performance was delayed in comparison. The results confirm other studies where deaf and hearing-impaired students are delayed in their language acquisition and this impacts on their capacity to successfully undertake the resolution of word problems.
Tense and aspect in word problems about motion: diagram, gesture, and the felt experience of time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Freitas, Elizabeth; Zolkower, Betina
2015-09-01
Word problems about motion contain various conjugated verb forms. As students and teachers grapple with such word problems, they jointly operationalize diagrams, gestures, and language. Drawing on findings from a 3-year research project examining the social semiotics of classroom interaction, we show how teachers and students use gesture and diagram to make sense of complex verb forms in such word problems. We focus on the grammatical category of "aspect" for how it broadens the concept of verb tense. Aspect conveys duration and completion or frequency of an event. The aspect of a verb defines its temporal flow (or lack thereof) and the location of a vantage point for making sense of this durational process.
Working memory components as predictors of children's mathematical word problem solving.
Zheng, Xinhua; Swanson, H Lee; Marcoulides, George A
2011-12-01
This study determined the working memory (WM) components (executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) that best predicted mathematical word problem-solving accuracy of elementary school children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (N=310). A battery of tests was administered to assess problem-solving accuracy, problem-solving processes, WM, reading, and math calculation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that (a) all three WM components significantly predicted problem-solving accuracy, (b) reading skills and calculation proficiency mediated the predictive effects of the central executive system and the phonological loop on solution accuracy, and (c) academic mediators failed to moderate the relationship between the visual-spatial sketchpad and solution accuracy. The results support the notion that all components of WM play a major role in predicting problem-solving accuracy, but basic skills acquired in specific academic domains (reading and math) can compensate for some of the influence of WM on children's mathematical word problem solving. PMID:21782198
A Working Memory Model Applied to Mathematical Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alamolhodaei, Hassan
2009-01-01
The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence/independence), working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students' mathematics problem solving. A sample of 161 school girls (13-14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin's cognitive style (Group Embedded…
A Kind Word for Bullshit: The Problem of Academic Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eubanks, Philip; Schaeffer, John D.
2008-01-01
The phrase "academic bullshit" presents compositionists with a special dilemma. Because compositionists study, teach, and produce academic writing, they are open to the accusation that they both tolerate and perpetuate academic bullshit. We argue that confronting this problem must begin with a careful definition of "bullshit" and "academic…
Improving Student Achievement in Solving Mathematical Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roti, Joan; Trahey, Carol; Zerafa, Susan
This report describes a program for improving students' comprehension of the language of mathematical problems. The targeted population consists of 5th and 6th grade multi-age students and multi-age learners with special needs at a middle school located outside a major city in a Midwestern community. Evidence for the existence of this problem…
Strategies Used by Second-Year Algebra Students to Solve Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Senk, Sharon L.; Thompson, Denisse R.
2006-01-01
This Brief Report describes a secondary analysis of the solutions written by 306 second-year algebra students to four constructed-response items representative of content at this level. The type of solution (symbolic, graphical, or numerical) used most frequently varied by item. Curriculum effects were observed. Students studying from the second…
Algebra and Problem-Solving in Down Syndrome: A Study with 15 Teenagers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Elisabetta Monari; Pellegrini, Katia
2010-01-01
There is a common opinion that mathematics is difficult for persons with Down syndrome, because of a weakness in numeracy and in abstract thinking. Since 1996, some single case studies have suggested that new opportunities in mathematics are possible for these students: some of them learned algebra and also learned to use equations in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Wing-Kwong; Hsu, Sheng-Cheng; Wu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Lian
2007-01-01
Computer-assisted instruction systems have been broadly applied to help students solve math word problem. The majority of such systems, which are based on an instructor-initiating instruction strategy, provide pre-designed problems for the learners. When learners are asked to solve a word problem, the system will instruct the learners what to do.…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iachello, Franco
1995-01-01
An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.
Zhuk, Sergiy
2013-10-15
In this paper we present Kalman duality principle for a class of linear Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAE) with arbitrary index and time-varying coefficients. We apply it to an ill-posed minimax control problem with DAE constraint and derive a corresponding dual control problem. It turns out that the dual problem is ill-posed as well and so classical optimality conditions are not applicable in the general case. We construct a minimizing sequence u-circumflex{sub {epsilon}} for the dual problem applying Tikhonov method. Finally we represent u-circumflex{sub {epsilon}} in the feedback form using Riccati equation on a subspace which corresponds to the differential part of the DAE.
Dynamic Visual Computer Design for Factors and Multiples Word Problem Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsieh, Chejen; Lin, Shouhua
2008-01-01
This study employs the Excel function to design dynamic visual activities for factors and multiples word problem learning. A teaching experiment was carried out eight times in 4 weeks on three fifth grade students. The result showed that after using multiple-linked representations activities, students made greater progress in understanding target…
Do Curriculum-Based Measures Predict Performance on Word-Problem-Solving Measures?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sisco-Taylor, Dennis; Fung, Wenson; Swanson, H. Lee
2015-01-01
This study examined whether curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math word-problem contributed unique variance in predictions of performance on high-stakes tests, beyond the contribution of calculation and reading skills. CBMs were administered to a representative sample of 142 third-grade students at three time points. Results indicate that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca
2015-01-01
Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in…
Secondary School Students' Construction and Use of Mathematical Models in Solving Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Llinares, Salvador; Roig, Ana Isabel
2008-01-01
This study focussed on how secondary school students construct and use mathematical models as conceptual tools when solving word problems. The participants were 511 secondary-school students who were in the final year of compulsory education (15-16 years old). Four levels of the development of constructing and using mathematical models were…
An Analysis of Word Problems in School Mathematics Texts: Operation of Addition and Subtraction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singh, Parmjit
2006-01-01
This paper discusses the types of word problems represented in Malaysia's primary one, primary two and primary three mathematics texts based on Van De Walle's model (1998) in the operations of addition and subtraction. A test was constructed to measure students' success based on this model. The data from this study indicates that the Malaysian…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, Virginia
No longer just a user of commercial software, the 21st century teacher is a designer of interactive software based on theories of learning. This software, a comprehensive study of straightline equations, enhances conceptual understanding, sketching, graphic interpretive and word problem solving skills as well as making connections to real-life and…
Word-Problem-Solving Strategy for Minority Students at Risk for Math Difficulties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kong, Jennifer E.; Orosco, Michael J.
2016-01-01
Minority students at risk for math difficulties (MD) struggle with word problems for various reasons beyond procedural or calculation challenges. As a result, these students require support in reading and language development in addition to math. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a math comprehension strategy based on a…
Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne
2013-01-01
This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Catherine M.; Orosco, Michael J.
2015-01-01
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on word problem solving accuracy in children with (n = 100) and without (n = 92) math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grades 2 and 3 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: verbal-only strategies (e.g., underlining…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
2016-01-01
This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…
Predicting Development of Mathematical Word Problem Solving across the Intermediate Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.
2012-01-01
This study addressed predictors of the development of word problem solving (WPS) across the intermediate grades. At beginning of 3rd grade, 4 cohorts of students (N = 261) were measured on computation, language, nonverbal reasoning skills, and attentive behavior and were assessed 4 times from beginning of 3rd through end of 5th grade on 2 measures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of dynamic assessment (DA; degree of scaffolding required to learn unfamiliar mathematics content) for predicting 1st-grade calculations (CAs) and word problems (WPs) development, while controlling for the role of traditional assessments. Among 184 1st graders, predictors (DA, Quantity…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levingston, Heather B.; Neef, Nancy A.; Cihon, Traci M.
2009-01-01
We examined the effects of teaching overt precurrent behaviors on the current operant of solving multiplication and division word problems. Two students were taught four precurrent behaviors (identification of label, operation, larger numbers, and smaller numbers) in a different order, in the context of a multiple baseline design. After meeting…
Word Problem-Solving Instruction in Inclusive Third-Grade Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Cynthia C.; Jitendra, Asha K.
2009-01-01
The authors examined the effectiveness of strategy instruction taught by general educators in mixed-ability classrooms. Specifically, the authors compared the mathematical word problem-solving performance and computational skills of students who received schema-based instruction (SBI) with students who received general strategy instruction (GSI).…
Semantic Similarity Graphs of Mathematics Word Problems: Can Terminology Detection Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
John, Rogers Jeffrey Leo; Passonneau, Rebecca J.; McTavish, Thomas S.
2015-01-01
Curricula often lack metadata to characterize the relatedness of concepts. To investigate automatic methods for generating relatedness metadata for a mathematics curriculum, we first address the task of identifying which terms in the vocabulary from mathematics word problems are associated with the curriculum. High chance-adjusted interannotator…
Reciprocal Teaching as a Comprehension Strategy for Understanding Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Garderen, Delinda
2004-01-01
Ms. Johnson was concerned about the inconsistent performance of several of her students in solving mathematical word problems. A number of her students were one to two grade levels below their grade placement in reading, spoke English as a second language, and had identified reading disabilities. On mathematics assignments that required minimal…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Xinhua; Flynn, Lindsay J.; Swanson, H. Lee
2013-01-01
This article provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature on word problem solving intervention studies for children with math disabilities (MD). Seven group and eight single-subject design studies met inclusion criteria. Mean effect sizes ("ES"s) for solution accuracy for group design studies were 0.95 (SE = 0.19) for children…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brawand, Anne Eichorn
2013-01-01
Schema-based instruction (SBI) was used to examine the solving of proportional reasoning word problems for middle school students with high-incidence disabilities (HID). Seventh- and eighth-grade students with HID participated in the study. Students were randomly assigned to one of three groups. A multiple-baseline-across-groups design was…
The Effects of Dynamic Strategic Math on English Language Learners' Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orosco, Michael J.; Swanson, H. Lee; O'Connor, Rollanda; Lussier, Cathy
2013-01-01
English language learners (ELLs) struggle with solving word problems for a number of reasons beyond math procedures or calculation challenges. As a result, ELLs may not only need math support but also reading and linguistic support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a math comprehension strategy called Dynamic Strategic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jitendra, Asha K.; Lein, Amy E.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.
2013-01-01
This study explored the extent to which domain-specific knowledge predicted proportional word problem-solving performance. We tested 411 seventh-grade students on conceptual and procedural fraction knowledge, conceptual and procedural proportion knowledge, and proportional word problem solving. Multiple regression analyses indicated that all four…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixon, Juli K.; Andreasen, Janet B.; Avila, Cheryl L.; Bawatneh, Zyad; Deichert, Deana L.; Howse, Tashana D.; Turner, Mercedes Sotillo
2014-01-01
A goal of this study was to examine elementary preservice teachers' (PSTs) ability to contextualize and decontextualize fraction subtraction by asking them to write word problems to represent fraction subtraction expressions and to choose prewritten word problems to support given fraction subtraction expressions. Three themes emerged from the…
The Algebra of Lexical Semantics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornai, András
The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.
Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras
Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.
2014-01-01
A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197
A Clifford Algebra Approach to the Classical Problem of a Charge in a Magnetic Monopole Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Jayme
2013-05-01
The motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetic monopole is described by means of a Lagrangian model written in terms of the Clifford algebra of the physical space. The equations of motion are written in terms of a radial equation (involving r=| r|, where r( t) is the charge trajectory) and a rotor equation (written in terms of an unitary operator spinor R). The solution corresponding to the charge trajectory in the field of a magnetic monopole is given in parametric form. The model can be generalized in order to describe the motion of a charge in the field of a magnetic monopole and other additional central forces, and as an example, we discuss the classical ones involving linear and inverse square interactions.
Word problems: a review of linguistic and numerical factors contributing to their difficulty
Daroczy, Gabriella; Wolska, Magdalena; Meurers, Walt Detmar; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
2015-01-01
Word problems (WPs) belong to the most difficult and complex problem types that pupils encounter during their elementary-level mathematical development. In the classroom setting, they are often viewed as merely arithmetic tasks; however, recent research shows that a number of linguistic verbal components not directly related to arithmetic contribute greatly to their difficulty. In this review, we will distinguish three components of WP difficulty: (i) the linguistic complexity of the problem text itself, (ii) the numerical complexity of the arithmetic problem, and (iii) the relation between the linguistic and numerical complexity of a problem. We will discuss the impact of each of these factors on WP difficulty and motivate the need for a high degree of control in stimuli design for experiments that manipulate WP difficulty for a given age group. PMID:25883575
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nobre, Sandra; Amado, Nelia; Carreira, Susana
2012-01-01
In this article we report and discuss a contextual problem solving task that was proposed to a class of 8th grade (13-14-year-old) students. These students had been developing a reasonable experience in the use of the spreadsheet to model relations within contextual problems and chose to use this tool to solve the mentioned problem, engaging in…
Facilitating Case Reuse during Problem Solving in Algebra-Based Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mateycik, Frances Ann
2010-01-01
This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual…
Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
2012-01-01
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.
2015-01-01
This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…
Exploring Algebraic Patterns through Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Austin, Richard A.; Thompson, Denisse R.
1997-01-01
Presents methods for using literature to develop algebraic thinking in an environment that connects algebra to various situations. Activities are based on the book "Anno's Magic Seeds" with additional resources listed. Students express a constant function, exponential function, and a recursive function in their own words as well as writing about…
Facilitating case reuse during problem solving in algebra-based physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mateycik, Frances Ann
This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual clinical interviews were conducted and quantitative examination data were collected to assess students' conceptual understanding, knowledge organization, and problem solving performance on a variety of problem tasks. The study began with a short one-time treatment of two independent, research-based strategies chosen to facilitate case reuse. Exploration of students' perceptions and use of the strategies lead investigators to select one of the two strategies to be implemented over a full semester of focus group interviews. The strategy chosen was structure mapping. Structure maps are defined as visual representations of quantities and their associations. They were created by experts to model the appropriate mental organization of knowledge elements for a given physical concept. Students were asked to use these maps as they were comfortable while problem solving. Data obtained from this phase of our study (Phase I) offered no evidence of improved problem solving schema. The 11 contact hour study was barely sufficient time for students to become comfortable using the maps. A set of simpler strategies were selected for their more explicit facilitation of analogical reasoning, and were used together during two more semester long focus group treatments (Phase II and Phase III of this study). These strategies included the use of a step-by-step process aimed at reducing cognitive load associated with mathematical procedure, direct reflection of principles involved in a given set of problems, and the direct comparison of problem pairs designed to be void of surface similarities (similar objects or object orientations) and sharing
Graphic and algebraic solutions of the discordant lead-uranium age problem
Stieff, L.R.; Stern, T.W.
1961-01-01
for the contaminating common Pb206 and Pb207. The linear relationships noted in this graphical procedure have been extended to plots of the mole ratios of total Pb206 U238 ( tN206 N238) vs. total Pb207 U235 ( tN207 N235). This modification permits the calculation of concordant ages for unaltered samples using only the Pb207 Pb206 ratio of the contaminating common lead. If isotopic data are available for two samples of the same age, x and y, from the same or related deposits or outcrops, graphs of the normalized difference ratios [ ( N206 N204)x - ( N206 N204)y ( N238 N204)x -( N238 N204)y] vs. [ ( N207 N204)x - ( N207 N204)y ( N235 N204)x -( N235 N204)y] can give concordant ages corrected for unknown amounts of a common lead with an unknown Pb207/ Pb206 ratio. (If thorium is absent the difference ratios may be normalized with the more abundant index isotope, Pb208.) Similar plots of tho normalized, difference ratios for three genetically related samples (x - y) and(x - z), will give concordant ages corrected, in addition, for either one unknown period of past alteration or initial contamination by an older generation of radiogenic lead of unknown Pb207/Pb206 ratio. Practical numerical solutions for many of tho concordant age calculations are not currently available. However, the algebraic equivalents of these new graphical methods give equations which may be programmed for computing machines. For geologically probable parameters the equations of higher order have two positive real roots that rapidly converge on the exact concordant ages corrected for original radiogenic lead and for loss or gain of lead or uranium. Modifications of these general age equations expanded only to the second degree have been derived for use with desk calculators. These graphical and algebraic methods clearly suggest both the type and minimum number of samples necessary for adequate mathematical analysis of discordant lead isotope age data. This mathematical treatment also makes it clear t
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2008-01-01
A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…
Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca
2015-01-01
Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in elementary education were formed: children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD), children with reading learning disabilities (RLD), and children with comorbid arithmetic and reading learning disabilities (ARLD). Mediation analysis confirmed that SA was a mediator variable for both groups of children with reading disabilities when solving AWPs, but not for children in the ALD group. All groups performed below the control group in the problem solving task. When SA was controlled for, semantic structure and position of the unknown set were variables that affected both groups with ALD. Specifically, children with ALD only were more affected by the place of the unknown set. PMID:24509567
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Banmali
Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined the effects of diagramming on students' abilities to solve word problems that only involved basic arithmetic operations. Other studies have investigated how instructional models that used technology influenced students' problem solving achievements. Still other studies have used schema-based instruction involving students with learning disabilities. No study has evaluated regular high school students' achievements in solving standard math word problems using a diagramming technique without technological aid. This study evaluated students' achievement in solving math word problems using a diagramming technique. Using a quasi-experimental experimental pretest-posttest research design, quantitative data were collected from 172 grade 11 Hispanic English language learners (ELLS) and African American learners whose first language is English (EFLLs) in 18 classes at an inner city high school in Northern New Jersey. There were 88 control and 84 experimental students. The pretest and posttest of each participating student and samples of the experimental students' class assignments provided the qualitative data for the study. The data from this study exhibited that the diagramming method of solving math word problems significantly improved student achievement in the experimental group (p<.01) compared to the control group. The study demonstrated that urban, high school, ELLs benefited from instruction that placed emphasis on the mathematical vocabulary and symbols used in word problems and that both ELLs and EFLLs improved their problem solving success
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koldan, Jelena; Puzyrev, Vladimir; de la Puente, Josep; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Cela, José María
2014-06-01
We present an elaborate preconditioning scheme for Krylov subspace methods which has been developed to improve the performance and reduce the execution time of parallel node-based finite-element (FE) solvers for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) numerical modelling in exploration geophysics. This new preconditioner is based on algebraic multigrid (AMG) that uses different basic relaxation methods, such as Jacobi, symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) and Gauss-Seidel, as smoothers and the wave front algorithm to create groups, which are used for a coarse-level generation. We have implemented and tested this new preconditioner within our parallel nodal FE solver for 3-D forward problems in EM induction geophysics. We have performed series of experiments for several models with different conductivity structures and characteristics to test the performance of our AMG preconditioning technique when combined with biconjugate gradient stabilized method. The results have shown that, the more challenging the problem is in terms of conductivity contrasts, ratio between the sizes of grid elements and/or frequency, the more benefit is obtained by using this preconditioner. Compared to other preconditioning schemes, such as diagonal, SSOR and truncated approximate inverse, the AMG preconditioner greatly improves the convergence of the iterative solver for all tested models. Also, when it comes to cases in which other preconditioners succeed to converge to a desired precision, AMG is able to considerably reduce the total execution time of the forward-problem code-up to an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the tests have confirmed that our AMG scheme ensures grid-independent rate of convergence, as well as improvement in convergence regardless of how big local mesh refinements are. In addition, AMG is designed to be a black-box preconditioner, which makes it easy to use and combine with different iterative methods. Finally, it has proved to be very practical and efficient in the
Algebraic rings of integers and some 2D lattice problems in physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanxian, Chen; Zhaodou, Chen; Shaojun, Liu; Yanan, Shen; Xijin, Ge
1996-09-01
This paper develops the Möbius inversion formula for the Gaussian integers and Eisenstein's integers, and gives two applications. The first application is to the two-dimensional arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT), which is suitable for parallel processing. The second application is to two-dimensional inverse lattice problems, and is illustrated with the recovery of interatomic potentials from the cohesive energy for monolayer graphite. The paper demonstrates the potential application in the physical science of integral domains other than the standard integers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reusser, Kurt; And Others
The main concern of this paper is on the psychological processes of how students understand and solve mathematical word problems, and on how this knowledge can be applied to computer-based tutoring. It is argued that only a better understanding of the psychological requirements for understanding and solving those problems will lead to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennis, Minyi Shih; Knight, Jacqueline; Jerman, Olga
2016-01-01
This article describes how to teach fraction and percentage word problems using a model-drawing strategy. This cognitive strategy places emphasis on explicitly teaching students how to draw a schematic diagram to represent the qualitative relations described in the problem, and how to formulate the solution based on the schematic diagram. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patkin, Dorit; Gazit, Avikam
2011-01-01
This article aims to present the findings of a research which investigated the effect of a difference in word formulation and mathematical characteristics of story problems on their successful solution by preservice mathematics teachers (students) and practising mathematics teachers. The findings show that in the case of a problem with a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manalo, Emmanuel; Uesaka, Yuri
2006-01-01
It is generally considered that diagram use aids efficacy of math word problem solving. While understanding diagrams is considered important in both New Zealand and Japanese secondary schools, there is an additional emphasis in New Zealand schools for students to appreciate their use as tools for problem solving and communication. This study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Kock, Willem D.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
2014-01-01
Teachers in primary education experience difficulties in teaching word problem solving in their mathematics classes. However, during controlled experiments with a metacognitive computer programme, students' problem-solving skills improved. Also without the supervision of researchers, metacognitive computer programmes can be beneficial in a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi
2014-01-01
This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Dake; Xin, Yan Ping
2012-01-01
Following a meta-analysis study conducted by Y. P. Xin and A. Jitendra (1999), the authors carried out a follow-up meta-analysis of word problem-solving interventions published from 1996 to 2009 for students with learning problems in mathematics. The authors examined the influence of education reforms as moderator variables on intervention…
SO(4) algebraic approach to the three-body bound state problem in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrašinović, V.; Salom, Igor
2014-08-01
We use the permutation symmetric hyperspherical three-body variables to cast the non-relativistic three-body Schrödinger equation in two dimensions into a set of (possibly decoupled) differential equations that define an eigenvalue problem for the hyper-radial wave function depending on an SO(4) hyper-angular matrix element. We express this hyper-angular matrix element in terms of SO(3) group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and use the latter's properties to derive selection rules for potentials with different dynamical/permutation symmetries. Three-body potentials acting on three identical particles may have different dynamical symmetries, in order of increasing symmetry, as follows: (1) S3 ⊗ OL(2), the permutation times rotational symmetry, that holds in sums of pairwise potentials, (2) O(2) ⊗ OL(2), the so-called "kinematic rotations" or "democracy symmetry" times rotational symmetry, that holds in area-dependent potentials, and (3) O(4) dynamical hyper-angular symmetry, that holds in hyper-radial three-body potentials. We show how the different residual dynamical symmetries of the non-relativistic three-body Hamiltonian lead to different degeneracies of certain states within O(4) multiplets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Sylvine; Bednarz, Nadine
1997-01-01
Discusses the difficulties observed in the transition from teaching arithmetic to teaching algebra. Future teachers (n=164) were questioned regarding to what extent they were able to shift back and forth between teaching methods within the context of problem solving. Interviews were conducted individually and in a dyad format. (AIM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathai, Pramod P.
the uncertainty in the parameters of the differential equations. There is a clear need to design better experiments for IEF without the current overhead of expensive chemicals and labor. We show how with a simpler modeling of the underlying chemistry, we can still achieve the accuracy that has been achieved in existing literature for modeling small ranges of pH (hydrogen ion concentration) in IEF, but with far less computational time. We investigate a further reduction of time by modeling the IEF problem using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique and show why POD may not be sufficient due to the underlying constraints. The final problem that we address in this thesis addresses a certain class of dynamics with high stiffness - in particular, differential algebraic equations. With the help of simple examples, we show how the traditional POD procedure will fail to model certain high stiffness problems due to a particular behavior of the vector field which we will denote as twist. We further show how a novel augmentation to the traditional POD algorithm can model-reduce problems with twist in a computationally cheap manner without any additional data requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connes, Alain; Kreimer, Dirk
This paper gives a complete selfcontained proof of our result announced in [6] showing that renormalization in quantum field theory is a special instance of a general mathematical procedure of extraction of finite values based on the Riemann-Hilbert problem. We shall first show that for any quantum field theory, the combinatorics of Feynman graphs gives rise to a Hopf algebra which is commutative as an algebra. It is the dual Hopf algebra of the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra whose basis is labelled by the one particle irreducible Feynman graphs. The Lie bracket of two such graphs is computed from insertions of one graph in the other and vice versa. The corresponding Lie group G is the group of characters of . We shall then show that, using dimensional regularization, the bare (unrenormalized) theory gives rise to a loop
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guerriero, Tara Stringer
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine how selected linguistic components (including consistency of relational terms and extraneous information) impact performance at each stage of mathematical word problem solving (comprehension, equation construction, and computation accuracy) among students with different levels of computation achievement. …
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Awofala, Adeneye O. A.
2014-01-01
This study investigated the effect of a personalised print-based instruction versus a non-personalised print-based instruction on the attitudes toward mathematics word problems of 350 senior secondary school year one Nigerian students within the blueprint of a quantitative research of pre-treatment-intervention-post-treatment non-equivalent…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rispens, Judith; Parigger, Esther
2010-01-01
Recently, English studies have shown a relationship between non-word repetition (NWR) and the presence of reading problems (RP). Children with specific language impairment (SLI) but without RP performed similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers, whereas children with SLI and RP performed significantly worse on an NWR task. The current…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Simon
2015-01-01
In learning mathematics through English, one of the major challenges facing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners is understanding the language used to present word problems in mathematics texts. Without comprehending such language, learners are not able to carry out the targeted calculations no matter how familiar they are with the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dewolf, Tinne; Van Dooren, Wim; Hermens, Frouke; Verschaffel, Lieven
2015-01-01
During the last two decades various researchers confronted upper elementary and lower secondary school pupils with word problems that were problematic from a realistic modelling point of view (so-called P-items), and found that pupils in general did not use their everyday knowledge to solve such P-items. Several attempts were undertaken to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reikeras, Elin K. L.
2009-01-01
Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Long, Jessica; Namkung, Jessica; Malone, Amelia S.; Wang, Amber; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Siegler, Robert S.; Changas, Paul
2016-01-01
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention. At-risk fourth graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned to the school's business-as-usual program, or one of two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Long, Jessica; Namkung, Jessica; Malone, Amelia S.; Wang, Amber; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Siegler, Robert S.; Changas, Paul
2016-01-01
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention delivered as part of the larger program. At-risk 4th graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned at the individual…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Changas, Paul C.
2015-01-01
The focus of the present study was enhancing word problem and calculation achievement in ways that support prealgebraic thinking among second-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty. Intervention relied on a multitier support system (i.e., responsiveness to intervention, or RTI) in which at-risk students participate in general classroom…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, H. Lee
2014-01-01
Cognitive strategies are important tools for children with math difficulties (MD) in learning to solve word problems. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, children with MD but with relatively higher WMC are more likely to benefit from strategy training, whereas children with lower WMC may…
Learning Algebra from Worked Examples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.
2014-01-01
For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.
2013-01-01
The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Csikos, Csaba; Szitanyi, Judit; Kelemen, Rita
2012-01-01
The present study aims to investigate the effects of a design experiment developed for third-grade students in the field of mathematics word problems. The main focus of the program was developing students' knowledge about word problem solving strategies with an emphasis on the role of visual representations in mathematical modeling. The experiment…
Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beck, Isabel L.; McKeown, Margaret G.; Kucan, Linda
This book provides a research-based framework and practical strategies for vocabulary development with children from the earliest grades through high school. It emphasizes instruction that offers rich information about words and their uses and enhances students' language comprehension and production. The book guides teachers in selecting words for…
Investigation of a New Intervention for Children with Word-Finding Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Best, Wendy
2005-01-01
Background: Around one-quarter of children attending language support services have difficulty in retrieving words. Therapy studies with such children have shown that both semantic and phonological techniques can improve word finding. A new approach to intervention is described using a computerized aid that converts letters into sound cues. Aims:…
One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.
2011-01-01
Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…
One language, two number-word systems and many problems: numerical cognition in the Czech language.
Pixner, S; Zuber, J; Heřmanová, V; Kaufmann, L; Nuerk, H-C; Moeller, K
2011-01-01
Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within the same language: for instance, "25" can be either coded in non-inverted order "dvadsetpät" [twenty-five] or in inverted order "pätadvadset" [five-and-twenty]. To investigate the influence of the number-word system on basic numerical processing within one culture, 7-year-old Czech-speaking children had to perform a transcoding task (i.e., writing Arabic numbers to dictation) in both number-word systems. The observed error pattern clearly indicated that the structure of the number-word system determined transcoding performance reliably: In the inverted number-word system about half of all errors were inversion-related. In contrast, hardly any inversion-related errors occurred in the non-inverted number-word system. We conclude that the development of numerical cognition does not only depend on cultural or educational differences, but is indeed related to the structure and transparency of a given number-word system. PMID:21763104
Modeling the Contribution of Phonotactic Cues to the Problem of Word Segmentation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanchard, Daniel; Heinz, Jeffrey; Golinkoff, Roberta
2010-01-01
How do infants find the words in the speech stream? Computational models help us understand this feat by revealing the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies that infants might use. Here, we outline a computational model of word segmentation that aims both to incorporate cues proposed by language acquisition researchers and to…
Using PROC GLIMMIX to Analyze the Animal Watch, a Web-Based Tutoring System for Algebra Readiness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barbu, Otilia C.
2012-01-01
In this study, I investigated how proficiently seventh-grade students enrolled in two Southwestern schools solve algebra word problems. I analyzed various factors that could affect this proficiency and explored the differences between English Learners (ELs) and native English Primary students (EPs). I collected the data as part of the Animal Watch…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nara, T.; Koiwa, K.; Takagi, S.; Oyama, D.; Uehara, G.
2014-05-01
This paper presents an algebraic reconstruction method for dipole-quadrupole sources using magnetoencephalography data. Compared to the conventional methods with the equivalent current dipoles source model, our method can more accurately reconstruct two close, oppositely directed sources. Numerical simulations show that two sources on both sides of the longitudinal fissure of cerebrum are stably estimated. The method is verified using a quadrupolar source phantom, which is composed of two isosceles-triangle-coils with parallel bases.
2013-05-06
AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy
Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Sean
2009-01-01
As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…
Some functional metrics in algebraic and combinatorial coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choen, G.
1980-06-01
Three approaches to coding problems can be systematically distinguished: probabilistic (essentially existential), algebraic, and combinatorial. This last approach searches for optimal configurations and relegates to the second order, the problems of complexity related to decoding. Enumeration, graphs, designs, and the extreme theory of groups are used. The optimization of a functional metric was used with the combinatorial approach in order to define the space considered and the distance. The codes then become particular groups of the metric space, which is defined by parameters such as length, number of words, and capacity for correction. Some of these parameters are imposed.
Algebra from Chips and Chopsticks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yun, Jeong Oak; Flores, Alfinio
2012-01-01
Students can use geometric representations of numbers as a way to explore algebraic ideas. With the help of these representations, students can think about the relations among the numbers, express them using their own words, and represent them with letters. The activities discussed here can stimulate students to try to find various ways of solving…
The Algebra of Complex Numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LePage, Wilbur R.
This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ormond, Christine
2012-01-01
Primary teachers play a key role in their students' future mathematical success in the early secondary years. While the word "algebra" may make some primary teachers feel uncomfortable or worried, the basic arithmetic ideas underlying algebra are vitally important for older primary students as they are increasingly required to use "algebraic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glick, David
1995-01-01
Presents a technique that helps students concentrate more on the science and less on the mechanics of algebra while dealing with introductory physics formulas. Allows the teacher to do complex problems at a lower level and not be too concerned about the mathematical abilities of the students. (JRH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott
2007-01-01
Much of the difficulty that students encounter in the transition from arithmetic to algebra stems from their early learning and understanding of arithmetic. Too often, students learn about the whole number system and the operations that govern that system as a set of procedures to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.…